Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

.

16 2012

2z
z
z 2 z
,
=
=
2
x
x x xy
y x

00
00
zxy
zyx

, .

, ,
, ,

000
000
00 0
00 0
uxxy
= (uxx
)y = uxy
= uyxx
.
x


f (x, y )
. d 2 z
z = f (x, y )
d 2 z = d(dz) = d(zx0 dx + zy0 dy )
00
00
00
00
= (zxx
dx + zxy
dy )dx + (zyx
dx + zyy
dy )dx

( dx dy
).
,
dx dy :
00
00
00
d 2 z = zxx
dx 2 + 2zxy
dx dy + zyy
dy 2 .

.
.


, .
.
. f (x, y )

(x0 , y0 ).
f (x0 , y0 ) = df (x0 , y0 ) +

1
1 2
d f (x0 , y0 ) + d 3 f (x0 + x, y0 + y ),
2!
3!

f (x0 , y0 ) = f (x, y ) f (x0 , y0 ), x = x x0 , y = y y0 ,


0 < < 1.

M0 (x0 , y0 )
f (x, y ).

M0 f (x, y ),

f (x, y ) > f (x0 , y0 ). f (x, y ) f (x0 , y0 )
.
.
, z = (x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 + 5
(2, 1).



f (x, y ) (x0 , y0 ),
fx0 (x0 , y0 ) = 0 fy0 (x0 , y0 ) = 0.
df (x0 , y0 ) = 0
grad f (x0 , y0 ) = 0. ,
, . ,

.

f (x, y )
(x0 , y0 ), d 2 f (x0 , y0 ) 0.



f (x, y ) (x0 , y0 ) ,
, d 2 f (x0 , y0 ) > 0 |dx| + |dy | =
6 0.
d 2 f (x0 , y0 ) < 0, (x0 , y0 ) .
z = x 2 y 4 , d 2 f (x0 , y0 ) 0
.
d 2 f = Adx 2 + 2Bdx dy + Cdy 2 ,
00
00
00
A = fxx
, B = fxy
, C = fyy
,
:
AC B 2 > 0 A > 0, f
AC B 2 > 0 A < 0, f
AC B 2 < 0, f

n
n u = f (x1 , . . . , xn )
M0 (x10 , . . . , xn0 )
. n
fx01 (x10 , . . . , xn0 ) = = fx0n (x10 , . . . , xn0 ) = 0.
du =

n
P
i=1

fx0i dxi , d 2 u =

n
P
j=1

du,
dxj x
j


d 2u =

n X
n
X

fx00i xj dxi dxj > 0.

i=1 j=1

. f (x, y ),
L .
( ) f (x, y ) L.
( ).
L g(x, y ) = 0,
f (x, y ) g(x, y ).
. f (x, y ) = x 2 + y 2 xy = 1.

,
,
.

, M0 , .

,
,

.