Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 139

.

.. .
.. ..
. .. 1909 .

.., 2003-2006 .

1.1 . . . . . . . .

1.2 . . . . . . .

1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

2 1-

19

2.1 1- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.3 . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.3.2

, . . . . . . . . . .

26

2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

2.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4.2

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31
33

2.4.3


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

2.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

2.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

2.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

2.8.2

(, ) = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

2.8.3

(, ) = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

2.8.4

(, , ) = 0 . . . . . . . . .

73

2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

82

3.1 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .

82

3.2 . . . .

86

3.3 . . . .

97

3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4 .

102

4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . 104
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5 .

116

5.1 . . . . 119
5.1.1

1: (, () ) = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

5.1.2

2: ( , (1) ) = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

5.1.3

3: ( () , (2) ) = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.1.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

5.2 , . . 130
5.3 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
5.4.1

, 132

5.4.2

, , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


, .. , 1909 2- , .
, .
. ..
.
.. , 26 . 2012 .


- .
,
, . :
1 , 2 , 3 , . . .

1 , 2 , 3 , . . . .
, ,
)
(
2 1
2 1

1
=0
,...
,
,
,...
1 , . . . , 1 , . . . ,
1
21 1 2

; page:2

. = 1,
, , > 1,
.
, ( = 1)
( = 1);
:
(
)
2 3
, ,
,
,
, . . . = 0;
2 3
, - .
5

, , .
: . , , ,
, ,

= ()

() +

,
().
-, , , ,
. page:3

, ,
, , . ,

.
, ,
, , . , , .

1


1.1

- :
(, , , , , . . . () ) = 0,

(1.1)

, , , . . . () .
, , .
.
, , ,
, ,
, , , , , . . . () , ,
page:4

, . .
.

+ 2 = 0,
7

3eq1

. 1-
:

+ + 2 = 0

; 1-
, :
(1 ) + 2 = 0.
,
1- , . , . ; , :
( )2 cos . + 2 . = 0.
,
.

1.2

, , . ,
. , = (),
(, ) = 0,
page:5

. . ,
= ()
,
. 8

.
, .
(J. Bernulli) (16911692), . , - ,
, .
(Lagrange, 1774), , ,
(Poincare).


= ().

= () + .

. 1, 2, 4, . . . 2, . . . . ,

.
, 1 , 2 , . . . :
(, , 1 , 2 , . . . ) = 0.

(1.2)

5eq1

, , (1.2), :

(, , 1 , 2 , . . . ) = 0

+ = 0

2 + 2 2 + 2 2 + = 0
2

2

...

1
1 1
(1)

=0

1 +
2 + +

+ 1 + + () = 0

(1.3)

page:6

, , , , . . . () 1 , 2 , . . . ,
+1.
1 , 2 , . . . , :
(, , , , , . . . () ) = 0,

(1.4)

6eq2

(1.5)

6eq3

.
(1.2) ,
= (, 1 , 2 , . . . ),

(1.4), , ,
, ,
= (, 1 , 2 , . . . )
(1.4). , .
(1.5) (1.4),
(1.2) .
, . , , . ,
.
, , 17 , 17- -
18 . . 1
log() = log() ,
log() =

()

=
= log().

> 1 ;
, .
() = () ,
1, -
1

, 9 1728, Bibl. Math. (3) 4 (1903), p. 352

10

. . 2 ,
. 1739-1740
3 ,
, ,
, .


(, ) = 0
,
; ,
= ()
,
page:7

.
1.2.1 (, 17364 ).
= +

1- ; ,
= + 2 ,
. , = ,
+ 2 = + 2
. ,
= + 2 ,
.
2
3

Teylor B. Meth. increm. Londres, 1715, p. 9-14


. , 15 1739 19 1740; Bibl. Math. (3) 6 (1905),

p. 38.47
4
Clairaut A.C. Mem. Ac. Paris, 1736.
. [Meth. increm. Londres, 1715, p. 9-14].
5
, .
(, , ) = 2 = 0

11

, , = 0,
= + 1 . ,
=

2
4

2
2 2
= , = +
2
4
2
4
. , . ,
, ,
2- ; , .
, :
. . . [ , ], , , , , , ,
, , ,
6 .

1.3

page:8

, (1.2) , , - . : (1.3),
(1.3)
{

2 = 0
= 0

,
2

= 0,
. , , = + 2
2

= + .
6
Euler L. Opera omnima, series I, v. 22, p. 230; . -2.

12

(, , 1 , 2 , . . . ) = 0

+ = 0
2
2
2 2
+
2
+

+
= 0
2
2

...

1 + 1 1 + + (1) = 0
1
1 2

(1.6)

1 , 2 , . . . , , , . . . () (1.3); (1.4).
, 1 , 2 , . . .
,
(1.6). (1.6),
( 1)- ; ( 1),
( 2), . . . (1.3), ( 1)-, ( 2)- .. .
, (1.2) (
); , - ,
1 , 2 , . . . (1.6).
- ,
; , (1.2)
(1.4),
(1.3).
1.3.1. 2- ,
.
11 2 + 212 + 22 2 + 213 + 223 + 33 = 0

(1.7)

5 , . ,
= +

2 + 2 + ,
13

8eq4

, , , , ,
, . :
=

+
;
2 + 2 +

( + )2
2
=

3 =
3
2 + 2 + (2 + 2 + ) 2
(2 + 2 + ) 2

32 :
2

2 + 2 +
2

( 2 ) 3

3 , :
3 23

=0
3
,
3

40 45 (4) + 9 (5) = 0

(1.8)

9eq5

5- ; (1.7) .7
, = 0,
2 23

=0
2
, , :
2

5 3 (4) = 0

(1.9)

9eq6

4- . ,
(1.9) (1.8).
1.3.2.
= 1 +2
7

(1.10)

(. . ).

14

10eq7

2 .
,
= 1 +2 ,

(1.11)

10eq8

= 1 +2 .

(1.12)

10eq9

, 1 2
(1.10)-(1.11) (1.12),
, , 1 2 (1.10)(1.11): (1.10) (1.11) ,

= 1,

(1.13)

1- , 2- ,
. , 1 2 (1.10) . ,
:
= 1 2 ,

1 2 = ,

=
,
(1.13) = .
:
1.3.3.
2 = 2 + 2
, ,
- .
= + + ,
15

10eq10

page:11
2

+ = + 2 + .

.
. ,
( ) = ( + )

( ) = +
1- ,

= ,

1- . 2. , .
:
2

2
=0
2

= 1 ,

= 1 ,

1 = +

2 + ,

2 =

2 +

,
= 1 ,

= 2

,
= 1 ,

= 2

, =
, ,
1 2 .
16

1.4

:
(, , , , . . . () ) = 0
page:12


(, , 1 , 2 , . . . ) = 0,
, -
= 0
( 1)- :
(1)

= 0 , = 0 , . . . (1) = 0

, (, , 1 , 2 , . . . ) = 0
, :
= 0,


+
= 0,

2
+ = 0,
2

(1.6) 0 , ,

(1)

= 0 , = 0 , . . . (1) = 0

, 1 , 2 , . . . , . ,
. ,
:
(1)

= 0 : = 0 , = 0 , . . . (1) = 0
1.4.1.
=

= 1 + 2
17

, , :
= 1 2 ,
page:13

= 1 + 2 ,

= . ,
= 1 + 2
. = 0 = 2, = 0.
; = 0, = 2, = 0,
0 = 1 2 .

2 = 1 + 2 ,

1 = 1 2 = 1

= + .

18

2

1-
2.1

1-

1- ,
:
(, , ) = 0

(2.1)

13eq1



(, , ) = 0

(2.2)


. ,
, (2.1)
,
,
page:14

.
,

(, , ) = 0
19

13eq2

.
.
(, ).

. , .
, 1- .
:

+ = 0,
(2.3)

14eq3

.
,

= = (, ).
(2.4)

(2.1), -

14eq3

, ;
,
(2.1) .

2.2

(2.3) ,
+ = 0,

(2.5)

. ,

; ,
,
= ,

=;
20

14eq3


+ = 0.

(2.6)

15eq5


. ,

+
0

= ,

(2.7)

, 0 , 0 . (2.7) . , ,
(2.6).
.1 (aequatio separato )
.
(1691-1692).

2.2.1.

+
=0
1 2
1 2

.
:

+
1 2

1 2

arcsin() + arcsin() =
1

1675 .
=

2 = const.

.: Der Briefwechsel von G.W. Leibniz mit Mathematikern, 1, Berlin, 1899, p. 161.

21

15eq6

(2.6)
1 1 + 2 2 = 0,

= 1 1 = 2 2 .
, 2 2 ,

2
1
+ = 0
2
1
.
.
2.2.2.
1

3 + 2 2 = 0
2 3 , :
1

1
+ = 0
2

1
1
2 +
= ;

+ ln() = .
2.2.3. ,
:

+
= 0;

= ;

ln() + ln() = .
22

(2.8)

16A

. ,

+ = 0

() = 0
,
= .

(2.9)

(2.8) (2.9) . : = 1 = ( ).
(2.8) (2.9) = 1 ln() = , = . ,
ln() + ln() = ln(),

= ,

, ,
ln() = ln() + ln()
.
:
,
, , ,
. , ,
,
. , , ,
,
, ,
. (. . . ) .2
2

. . . 1, 405.

23

17B

2.3

,
2.3.1


( )

=
,
(2.10)

17eq1

.
. (1691-1692).

, ( ) 3 , :
+

(2.11)

17eq2

. , ,
:

= 1
page:18

( )

= 2

( )

(2.12)

(2.11) ,
( )
( )
1
+ 2
= 0,

( )

1
= =

= ;

= ;

=+
= (),

= ()

1 , . . . , ,

(1 , . . . , ) = (1 , . . . ).

24

17eq3

()

=
;
=
.

()

; , :

=
= ln() + ln().
()

; ,
( )

()
=
.
= () =

,
( )
=
.

, .
,
() .
, , .
2.3.1.
(2 2 ) + = 0

= = .

= +

2 (1 2 ) + 2 ( + ) = 0;
2 ,
= 0;

25

+ = 0

2ln() + 2 =

2 = .
.
, :
2

2 ( ) = ,
.
2.3.2

:
(
)
+ +

=
,

+ +

(2.13)

. , , , , , . ,

= = 0,
, ; ,

+
+
=
+
+

, ,
, .

. :
= + ,

= + ,
26

19eq4

,
.
. ,
= ,

= ,

= .

,
:

=
=

+ + ( + + )
+ + ( + + )


+ + + +
, , .

+ + = 0 + + = 0

(2.14)

,
.
, . , . ,
(2.14) . , ,

=
,

0, . .

= 0,

= ;

27

20eq5

, :
= , =
:
(
)

+ +
=
,

( + ) +

+ = ,

(
)
(
)

+ +
+
=
=
.

( + ) +
+
,
.
,
=
:

1
=
=

+
+

= (),

(
() = +

+
+

=
()

=+
()

28

)
.

.
, ,

, . ,
= 0

:
+ = 0

= + + ,

= + + ,


( + + ) + ( + + ) = 0.
.
2.3.2.
(2 + 1) + ( 2 1) = 0.

= + ,

= + ,

= ;

= ,

[2 + + (2 + 1)] + [ 2 + ( 2 1)] = 0
2 + 1 = 0,
= 53 ,

2 1 = 0,

= 15

= ,

(2 + 1) + ( 2)( + ) = 0

(2 + 1) + ( 2) = 0.
:
( 2)
+
;

2 + 1

1
ln() + ln(2 + 1) 2arctg() = .
2
29

,
:
1
3
( + )2 + ( )2 =
5
5

)
(
3
5
4arctg
1
+ 5

2.3.3.
(2 + 3 + 2) + (4 + 6 + 3) = 0

2 + 3 = ,

( + 2) + (2 + 3) 2
=0
3
3(+2)

= 2 2+3
(2+3)
=

2+3

2 + 3ln() = + ,
:
4 + 6 + 3ln(2 + 3) = + ,

2.4

+ 2 + ln(2 + 3) =

,
.

= + ,

(2.15)

,
0

+ 1 + 2 = 0,

0 , 1 , 2 . . , 2 = 0;
.
:
30

24eq1

) . . ,
= ( ),

= (),

= ( ) .

; ,
1

=
( )
, ,

= + ,

.
b) . ,
= + ,
. :

+ + = ( + ) +

2.4.1

= .

, :

= , ln = + ln ,

.
31

2.4.1.

= , = =

, -


1 = 1 ()
, :
= 1 .
,

(2.16)

26eq3

(2.17)

26eq4


= ,

1 =

(2.16) (2.17),

= ,
1

= , = 1 .

. .

= ;

1 ,
1
= 1

1- 1 , ,

=0

32

12 ,


=0
1
, ,
,
= 1
2.4.2

.
:

= + ,

= 0. ,
, = 0.

, , .
.
, ,
:

+
= + ,

= +


[
]

=
+
33

(2.18)

27eq5

. ,
.
:
,


=
,

+ ,

, (2.18)
. .

:
= () + ()

(2.19)

. , (2.19) .
, (2.19)

= () + ()

,
()

() =

34

28eq6

2.4.3

, 1 2 . , , ,
. ,
= 1 + ;
(2.15), :
1
+
= 1 + + ,

.
1 = 2 1 ,
,
= 2

= (2 1)
,
= 1 + (2 1 ).
, .
,
1
=
2 1

35

(2.20)

29eq7

(2.20)
. - 3 ,

3 1
=
2 1
.
[, , ]
1 (2.15),
= 1 + ,

= ,

, , (2.15) .
2.4.2.

= + .

= ,

(. )
=
,

= ,

= 1,

=+

, ,
= 2 + .
= 0 = 1,
1 = 2 ,

2 = 2 + .
36

,
(2.20):
2
= .

2.5

= + ,

. .
1695, . 4 .
.
.
,

= 1 +

1 =
,

= (1 ) ,

:
+ =

1
1

.
2.5.1.

= + 2 2 ;

= 2.
1 = ,
4

Acta Eroditorum, 1697

37

2 :

= + 2

.

,
=

, :
1

= 2 ;

4
3
= ; = +

3
= + ,
4

2.6

1
4 +
3

4
.
4 4

Riccati

= 2 + + ,
(2.21)

, , . 5 ,
, . 6 ,
+ 2 + = 0
, , (2.21).
(2.21) .
, , ,
:
5
6

Jacopo di Rccati, Acta eruditirum, 1723, p. 502-504


, 1725, p. 473-475

38

32eq1

1) . ,
,
= ( )
:

1

=
=

( )

2 + + =

1
;
( )

= ( ) 2 + ( ) + ( )

2) - . , -
+
,
(2.22)
=
+
, . . . , .
-:
=

+
.

( )(
+ + ) ( + )(
+ + )

( + )2

( )
+ 0 2 + 1 + 2

( + )2
0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , . -

,
( + )2 , ,

= 2 + + ,

, , . ,
.
39

32eq2

.
1) ,
- , 1. . ,
= ()
- (2.22). ,
()

+ () = 2 () 2 + () + ,

2
= () + ( ) + .

2

().
() = 1,

1
.. () = .

() ,
2 1.
2) , .
= + ()
:

+ () = 2 + (2 + ) + 2 + + ;

()

= 2 + (2 + ) + 2 + + ().

.
,
2 () + = 0.
40


() =

.
2

,
= + () =

,
2

, .
. ,
,

= 2 +

.7

+ 2 = ,

, ; .
:
, , ,
. 1 ,
:
= 1 +
, ,
1
+
= 2 + (2 1 + ) + 12 + 1 + ;

. ,
=

(, ),
( )2

2 +

)2
= ()

= ()
,
.

41


1
= 12 + 1 + ,

= 2 + (2 1 + );

0 . ,
: = 1
1
= 1 + .

, ,
.
.
= () + (),
,
= 1 +

1 () + 1 () + 1
1
=
() + ()
() + ()

:
=

1 () + 2 ()
3 () + 4 ()

(2.23)


- .
: - .8 - , ,
8

: = (, ) -


= (, )
, ,
. [Painleve P. Lecon sur la theorie analytique des
equations differentielles. Paris, 1897. = vres. T. 1. Paris, 1971]

42

35eq3

- :
=

1 () + 2 ()
,
3 () + 4 ()

(2.24)

(2.24) ,
:
(3 + 4 )(1

+ 1 + 2 ) (1 + 2 )(3 + 3 + 4 ) = 0

, :
(1 4 2 3 )

+ 0 2 + 1 + 2 = 0,

0 , 1 , 2 .
.
2 ;

1
= 1 + ,

1
.
1
2 , :
=

1 =

1
2 1

,
,
. , , .
1 , 2 , 3 ,
.9 , :
1 =
9

1
2 1

2 =

1
3 1

. 1875 [Weyr Eduard, Abh.

Der b
ohm. Gesellsch. d. Wissensch. (6), 8 (1875), p. 30] (. )

43

36eq4

, , . , ,
:

1
= .
2 1
, 1 2 , 1 , 2 , 3 , :

1
1
1 2 1
1
1
3 1 2 1

, :
(2 )(3 1 )(2 1 )
= .
( 1 )(2 1 )(2 3 )
,
2 3 2
:
=
1 3 1

1 3 1
:
=
(2.25)
2 3 2
, , -

37eq5

1 , 2 , , 3 . , 1 , 2 , 3
, (2.25). - , . : .
, = 4 :
3 1 4 1
:
= Const.
3 2 4 2
.
2.6.1

:
+ 2 = ,
44

(2.26)

37eq6

. ,
.
1) = 0,
+ 2 = ;

= 2 ,
= .

= + ;
2
arctg .
2) = 2.
, ,
, .
,
:
2

+
=
.
2
2
2
2 , :
+ 2 = ,
,
1 2 . ,
1 =

2 =

. 1 = 2 ,
.
, ,
=
+ ,
45

. ,
:

+ 2 2 + ( + 2)
= 2 .

(2.27)

39eq7

, ,
+ 2 = 0.
, , ; :

= 2

1
1

2 = , = , =

+ 2 = 0

,
- . :

2
=
,

ln = 2 ln +

, , = 0,
=

1
.
2

:
=
+ =

1
1

+
.
2

, (2.27), :

2
= +2 .
(2.28)
2

, ,
+

, , , .
:
= 1 ;
46

39eq8

= +2 12
2

, .
1

, 12 .
+2 :
1
+2

+ 12 = (+4)

, +2 :
1 = +3 ,

= 1+3

:
( + 3)

1
+4
+ 12 = 1 +3 .
1

+ 3:
+4
1

+3
2
.
+
=

1 + 3 1 + 3 1

.
1 =

,
+3

1 =

+3

+4
.
+3
, 1 =

, 1 , .
; 1 2:
1 + 2 =

+2
,
+3


1
+3
=
,
1 + 2 + 2

1
1
=1+
.
1 + 2
+2
47

(1 + 2)1 ( + 2)1 1. ,

; :
1
1
=1+
1 + 2
+2
1
1
=1+
2 + 2
1 + 2
...
1
1
=1+
+ 2
1 + 2
, :
1
1
=+
+ 2
+2

(2.29)

.
, - . , .
,
. , ,
= 2. ,
. (2.29), ,
. , 2 ,
= 2, .
, .
; , , = 0.
, :
1
1
1 2
= =
;
+2 2
2

+2=

4
.
2 1

48

2
2
=
1 2
2 1

41eq9

, ,
,
= 0. ,
,
= 0. , = 1, = 4,

; = 2 = 83 , = 3
= 12
5 ..

.
.
, . , , , , , ,
(2.29) , ; :
1
1
1
1
=+
,
=
,
(2.30)
+2
+ 2
+ 2 + 2
,

42eq10

. , , = 0.
:
4
2 + 1
, , , ,
=

4
(2.31)
2 1

=

. , , ,
, , ,
.
49

42eq11

( ..). ,
,
. = 2
, ,
. , , , ,

(Liouville, Joseph) 1841 .10

2.7

,
+ = 0

= (, ),

(2.32)

, ,
(, ) =
,
(, ) (
, (, )
). (, ) = .
,
(, ) = , (, ) (0 , 0 ) = ()
10

, ,

.. .

50

43eq1

(, ) = (0 , 0 ). , = ()
(2.32),

(, ())

0=
=
+
(, )


=()
, , = 0 , = 0 ,
, , . 0, ,
(, ) =

+
(, ) = 0.

(2.33)

, (, ) ,
= () (2.32)


(, ())
=
+
(, )
=0


=()
(2.32)
(, ()) = = () (, ) =

(, ())
()
0=
=
+
=0

=()
(, ()) =
(2.32). , (, ) = (2.32).
, ,

, =
,

, ,
=

(2.33)

=0

(, ) = .
2.7.1. :
+ = 0;

=
51

, =
,

20_02_05

, =
() = 0.

,
= ,

, . ,
:

(2.34)

,
=
=

, , ,
(2.34).11 , (2.34) , (2.32)
.
(2.34) . ,
,
(2.34) .
( , )
+ = 0
11


(,
)

+
(0 , 0 )

, (0 , 0 ) (, ).
(0 , 0 ), .
,
=

[Mem Ac. Paris, (1740) 1742].

52

44eq2

,
,
= 0 . ,
, (2.34),

=
.
(2.35)

20_02_05

. .
. , . . . . (1691- 1692). ,
.
(1842),
. .
, ,

(, ) = ,

(2.36)

. = (, )
(2.36),

+
= 0,

(, (, )), , , (, ).
,
53

45eq3

, :

= .

(, ), , . ,

= ,

= .

,
,

+
= 0,

, . , ,
.
2.7.2.
= 0
(2.34) , :

= 1,

= 1

, . = 2 ;
( )

=
2

, ;

= .

54

, (, ) = (2.32),
((, )) = ()
,
(, ) = . , , (, ) = ,
+ = .
1 = (), ()
. , :
1 = ()
() (), ,
(),

() =

().

, 1 .
, :
1 ( + ) = ()( + ) = () = ();
, 1 .
2.7.3. ,
= 0;
, = 2 .

( )

=
2

1 ,
(
= ), , ;
1 =

1
1
=
.
2

55

1 . ,
:

= (ln ln ).

, (, ) = (, ) =
(2.32), (, ) = ((, )),

( + ) = ,

(2.37)

48eq4

1 ( + ) = .

(2.38)

48eq5

(2.32). ,
:
1
1
=

1
=
1

+ .

,

1
1
=
,
1

1
1
=

1



= 0.

, ,
,
= ().
, = (),
= ()
56

, (2.38) (2.37), :
1
= ()

, .
: , . = 2 1 = ()1 ; ,

= .

- (2.35),

=
,

+
=
+
,

, ,

)
.

(2.39)

49eqI

, , . , :
ln
ln

)
.

(2.40)

ln ,
(2.40) , . ,
, ,
.
.
57

50eqI

,
. , . (1691- 1692)
= 0
1 /2
( /) = 0,

= .

, :

=
+

ln = ln + .
( ),
, ,
(2.32) . , , ,
. , . ,
(2.40),
, .
, , , - ,

= ().

ln
= 0;


ln ()
=
= ()

()
58

-a. (2.40), :

= ()
(2.41)


, , ,
(2.41) . ,

ln
; ln = (),
() =

()

-. (2.41), ,
. :

=
+ ().

,
}
{

+ ()
=

,
(2.32).
, 1, , . = 1,

= ()

= () + ().
,
. , . , ,

+ () + () = 0,

59

51eq6

, ,

+ + = 0.

()

. -

.
- .
2.7.4.

+ + 22 = 0.

1 ,

=

= ln .

= . , :
+ ( + 23 ) = 0.
, ,
. . ,
= + (),
() . () ,
.
,
+ () = + 23 .
() . , . ,
4
+
= .
2
60

, ,
.
.
= 1,

:
( )

=
;

. ,
( )

+ = 0.

. , (2.40):
( ) ln
1 ( )
ln

=
.

ln . ,
,

( )

. ,
ln = ln + ln .
( )
ln ,
( )
ln =
.

ln , (2.40):
( )
( ) ( ) 1

1 ( )

=
.

2- 3-
( ) {
( )
( )}

+
=
.

61

( )

( )
=

( )

. , . ,

= ,

()
() =
+ ()
. ,

, , .
= 1, ,
,
() = ln = ln + ()
( ,
- ).
=
,
=

1
.
+ ()

1
1
1
( ) =
( ) .

+
+

. 1.
, = 1. ,
. , , , 1 ;
[ ].
,
1 =

+
62

( )

1
(2.42)
+
.
1 =

2.7.5.
(2 + 2 ) = 0.
2- .

1
(2

2 )

1
.
3

, 3
. :
2 + 2

= 0.
3
2
. 2- ,

2
+ ().
22
();

, 1- ,
2
2 + 2

+ () =
3
3
() = 1 .
() = ln .
,
2
2 + ln = .
2
63

55eqB

2.8

, .
,

) = 0.
(2.43)

(2.43) ,
(, ,

56eq1

= (, ).

, (2.43) , - ,
+ 1 1 + 2 2 + + = 0,

(2.44)

56eq2

1 , 2 , . . . , ; ,
.12
(2.44),

= (, ) ( = 1, 2, . . . , ).


(, , ) = 0

(2.45)

56eq3

(2.46)

56eq4

, , , (2.44); , , ,
(2.45) .
12

, -

, . ., .,
.. .

64

2.8.1


(2.44). (2.44)
,
, , .
, . ,

=0
(2.47)

, 2

57eq5

, :

)( +
) = 0,
(

. ,
2 ( + 2 ) + 2 = 0

(2.48)

57eq6

(2.49)

57eq7

,
( )( 2 ) = 0

= = 2

(2.44) , (2.45)

(2.45) .
(2.47) (2.45)

= +
=
,

65

(2.50)

57eq8

, . , (2.46) ,
,
(, , ) = 0

(2.51)

58eq9

(2.44) , (
, 5) (2.46). , (2.50)

= + ,
: ,

= + 2 + 2 ,
, ,

( 2 ) = 4 2

(2.52)

58eq10

(2.47), (2.52), ,
(2.50).
, (2.44) , (2.45) , . , (2.49), (2.48),

2
1
=
+ =
(2.53)
2

.

58eq11

(2.44)
, , .
:
1 (, , ) = 0, 2 (, , ) = 0, . . . , (, , ) = 0.
66

(2.54)

59eq12

(2.44) , (2.54):
1 (, , )2 (, , ) . . . (, , ) = 0.

(2.55)

59eq13

, (2.54) , (2.44). (2.48), (2.53),


(

2
1
)(
)=0
2

, :
2
2
+ =0
( ) [1 + ( )( + )] +
2
2
2

(2.56)

59eq14

(2.57)

59eq1-2

2.8.1. .
4 ( + ) 2 + = 0

( 2 )( 2 ) = 0

2 = 2 = .

. ,

= = .
(2.57) .
=

2
= 3/2 +
3

2 =+
67

. (2.57) , :
4
( )2 = 3
9
,
4 = ( + )2
.
4
[( )2 3 ][4 ( + )2 ] = 0.
9
(2.43) (2.45), ,
,
1) (, ) = 0 2) (, ) = 0.
2.8.2

(, ) = 0

.
(, ) = 0

(2.58)

60eqI

, .
, .
:
= ( );
, ,
= , :
= ()

68

(2.59)

60eq15

,
, , . , . , . .

= =

= ,


= (),
,

= ().

()
=

()
+ .

(2.60)

,
. , ,
(, , ) = 0
. ,
(2.59)-(2.60) .13 , ,
.

=
()
13

, , ,

. , , ,
(, , ) = 0

()
+ ,

= ()

, = ( ).
,

()
=
=

()
= ( ).

69

61eq16

, ,
= .
(2.58), ,

(, ) = 0
, ,
,
= ()

= (),

(2.61)

61eq17

, , .
.

,
=

= ,

= (),

()
=
()



()
+
=
()

(2.62)

61eq18

= (), , .


()
=
+ , = ().
()

(2.63)

2.8.2. 1)
= 2

.
= ,

= ,

= 2 ,
2

= (2 + ),

2 + 2
=
,

= (2 + 2 );
70

61eq17

:
= 2 + + ,

= 2 .

2)
2 ( 1) = (2 )2
; . ,
2 = ;
:
2 ( 1) = 2 2 = 2 + 1

1 2
,
=

2 1

= = 2
= 2 ;

+1

1
+ ,

1
.

,
=

1
.

.
. ,
, , ,:
(, ) = 0

= (),

= ()

, = 0 ,
, , ,
71

, ,
. Maple
, ;
, .
2.8.3

(, ) = 0

,
(, ) = 0.

(2.64)

.
, ,
, .
,
. = = ,
. ,
= ().

= (),

= = () (),

() () + .

= (), .
. ,

= () (),


, .
2.8.3. :
= + cos ,

= ,

= + cos ,
72

= ;

60eqII

2
+ cos sin + .
2

= (1 sin ),

.
2.8.4

(, , ) = 0

, (2.43) . ,
, . , .
(, , ) = 0,
:
= (, ).

(2.65)

63eqIII

,
= ,

= (, ).

,
=

, ,

, , .
, , . ,
= (, ),
73

(2.66)

64eqIV

= ,
= (, )
:
1=


+
.

, ,

=
= ,

:
1=

, . , . , ,
(, , ) = 0,
= (, ) ,
.
, . ,
, , .
.
,
, , , , :
(, , ) = 0.
74

, , , ( ).14

= (, ),

= (, ).

= (, ),

( , .) ,
,
. , ,
=

+
,

+
.

(, ) =

+
+

,
]
[


+
= (, )
+
.



( , ,

).

:
(, , ) = 0.
:
= (, ),

= (, ),

.
14

75

. ,
.
( ) + ( ) + ( ) = 0
.

2.9

,
. 15 .

= ( ) + ( ).

(2.67)

= , ,
. ,
= () + [ () + ()]

, . . , .
, .

, -

:
[ ()]
15

= () + ()

. 1694, . -

[ , (1727) 1729]. , . ,
, ,
( ) = [Mem Ac. Paris, (1734) 1736].

76

66eq1

()
()
=
+

()
()
, , . , , . ,
(, , ) = 0.

= () + ()
,
(, , ) = 0
(
, , ).
2.9.1. . ,

= 2 + 3
, ,
= 2 + 3 ;
, :
= 2(2 + 32 )

+ 2 + 32 = 0.

,
2
+ + 3 = 0.

77

3 2

.
2 4

= 2 + , . ,
.
.

, ( ) = . . ,
= + ( )
.
, = + (). , :
= + [ + ()]

, ,


[ + ()]

= 0.

,
. , . -,

= 0,

-,
+ () = 0

(2.68)

= .
. ,

= + ()
.
= + ().
78

68eq3

. :
, , ,
.
.
, . , .
, (2.68),
= + ()
. ,
. , . , ; :
= () + [()],
() , (2.68).
,
. ,
, . , ,
2- ( 1- ),
, . ,
, -, , - ( ()
). , ,
.
, .
. , :
= + ();

0 = + ().

,
, 79

. , , 2-
. , , ,
,
.
2.9.2. :
= +

1
;
2


= +

1
.
2

,
= +

1
2

0=

1
2 2

. 2-
1-, :

= +
2

2 2
=
2
2

2 2 = 2. .

.
, , . ,
= + ()
. ,
.
,
= + () 0 = + ()
80

. . ,
, .
,
. , , .
, , , .
1-
.
, , 1- . . ,
,
1- .

81

3


3.1

( )

= 1 (, , , . . . , ),

= (, , , . . . , ),
2

...................


= (, , , . . . , ),

(3.1)

71eq1

, , , . . . ,
. = 0 ,

= 0 , = 0 , . . . , = 0 .

(3.2)

, , , . . . , ,
(3.1) = 0 . ,
, , , . . . , , , .
82

71eqA

.
1 , 19
:
. . .
= (, )
, . . . ,
, , (, ),
, , - , (, ).
= (, )
, , , . , = , = , (, )
, + . ,
+ = ,

= + (, ),

( , ) +. , -
,
, , ,
. ,
, , .2
( ), . 1835 3
1

Lacrois S. F. Traite du calcul differentiel et du calcul integral. 2 ed., 2, Paris, 1814, p.295, 325-9
. . . 2, -.-., 1868.
3
Cauchy A.L. uvres. II ser. T. 11, Paris 1913, p. 399.
2

83

(3.1),
. ,
. 0 ,
- 0 0 + .
, , . . . , .
:
() 0 0 +
() 0 0 +
...
() 0 0 +
, , , , . . . , . .
, , 1 , 2 , . . . , (+1) , , . . . , .
. ,
, , . . . , (.. , , . . . , ,
),

...,

,
.. , , . . . , ,

< ,

< ,

...,

<

, ,
- -
, , . . . , ,
(, , , . . . , ) (, , , . . . , );
84

, , , . . . , , ,

+ ( )
+ + ( )
,
( )
=
=
=

(3.3)

73eq2

, , . . . , , , . . . , .

| (, , , . . . , ) (, , , . . . , )|
(3.3). ,
,

| (, , , . . . , ) (, , , . . . , )|

(3.4)

73eq3

< | | + | | + + | |.
, (3.4), . ,
(3.4), . (3.4) .
, : , , . . . , , :
| (, , , . . . , ) (, , , . . . , )|
< | | + | | + + | |.

(3.5)

, .
4 .
4

Lipschitz R. Lehrbuch der Analysis 2. Bonn, 1880, p. 504; Bull. Sc. Math. (1) 10 (1876), p. 149; Ann.

Mat. Pura Appl. (2) 2 (1868-9), p. 288.

85

73eq3

[]:
0 0 + ,

,
,..., ,

, , . . . , , ,

(3.1) = 0
0 , 0 , . . . , 0 . , ,
| (, , , . . . , )| <
.

3.2

5 .
. , , . . . ,
0 , 0 , . . . , 0 . .
1 , 1 , . . . , 1 .

= 1 (, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 ),

1 = (, , , . . . , ),
2
0 0
0

(3.6)

...................

1
= (, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 ),
-. 1 , 1 , . . . , 1
= 0 1 = 0 , 1 = 0 , . . . , 1 = 0 .
5

Picard E. J. Math. Pure Appl. (4) 6 (1890), p. 145; (4) 9 (1893), p. 217; Traite dAnalyse. T. 2. Paris,

1926, p. 368.

86

74eq4

. ,

1 0 =

1 (, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 ),
0

= 0 .

1 0 =

2 (, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 )
0

.. , 1 (), 1 (), . . . , 1 (). . ,


2 , 2 , . . . , 2 . -a,
0 , 0 , . . . , 0 = 0
:

= 1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ),
= 2 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ),

...................

2
= (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ),

(3.7)

-, ,
2 , 2 , . . . , 2 :

2 0 =

1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 )
0

.. , 2 (), 2 (), . . . , 2 (),


(3.2).
. 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 .

87

75eq5

, , . . . , . :

= 1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ),

= (,
2
1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ),

...................


= (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ),

(3.8)

(3.2), , , . . . ,

0 =

1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 )
0

..
. ,
- 0 0 + , , . . . ,
. -, ,
,

lim () = (),

lim () = ()

.., , , . . . , ,
(3.1) (3.2).
, .
, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 ;

1 0 =

1 (, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 )
0

.. , 1 |1 |,
,
|1 () 0 | < | 0 | < ,
88

75eq6

0 .
|1 () 0 | < | 0 | <
.. ,
,

, ,..., ,

, . . .

, ,
|1 () 0 | < ,

|1 () 0 | < , . . . |1 () 0 | < .

, , 1 , 1 , . . . , 1
.
, 2 , 2 , . . . , 2 .

2 0 =

1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 )
0

.. ,
1 , 1 , . . . , 1 , ,
,
|2 () 0 | < ,

|2 () 0 | < , . . . |2 () 0 | < .

, , ,
,
|2 () 0 | < ,

|2 () 0 | < , . . . |2 () 0 | < .

2 , 2 , . . . , 2 .
, , 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 , ,
, , , . . . , . ,
| () 0 | < ,

| () 0 | < , . . . | () 0 | < .
89


| () 0 | < ,

| () 0 | < , . . . | () 0 | < .

. , , ,
, - 0 0 +
.6
, . ,
. ,

|1 0 | < | 0 |

|1 0 | < | 0 |
.. . 2 1 .
2 0 1 0 ,
, ,
, ,

2 1 =

{1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ) 1 (, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 )} .
0

2 1 . . 1
6

,
|1 () 0 | < ,

|1 () 0 | < , . . . |1 () 0 | < .

, = = = = , , ,
,

(
)
1
( + + + )
ln 1 +
,
+ + +
0

0 |1 (, 0 , 0 , . . . )|, . . . .
E. C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, 118 (1894),
0 0 + [Lindelof
p. 454; . Picard E. Traite dAnalyse. T. 2. Paris, 1926, p. 372.]

90

, , , . . . , .
. ,
. ,
, :

|2 1 | < {|1 0 | + |1 0 | + + |1 0 |} .

, |1 0 |, |1 0 |, . . .
| 0 |, ,
| 0 |.
,
= + + + ,
.

|2 1 | < | 0 | ;

:
| 0 |2
|2 1 | <
.
12
|2 1 |;
|2 1 |, . . . , |2 1 |,
| 0 |2
| 0 |2
, |2 1 | <
.
|2 1 | <
12
12
3 2 .

3 2 =

{1 (, 2 , 2 , . . . , 2 1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 )} .
0

91

|3 2 |, , ,

|3 2 | < {|2 1 | + |2 1 | + + |2 1 |} .

,
2

0|
|2 1 |, |2 1 |, . . . |
12 ;

3
2

|
0
2 | 0 |
2

|3 2 | <
=
.
1

2
1

|2 1 | . ,

| 0 |3
| 0 |3
, |3 2 | < 2
...
123
123
. ,
|3 2 | < 2

. , :
| 0 |
| 0 |
, | 1 | < 1
...
!
!
, . ,
| 1 | < 1

1
0 |1
2 | 0 |
, |1 2 | <
...
( 1)!
( 1)!

2 |

|1 2 | <

1 = {1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ) 1 (, 2 , 2 , . . . , 2 )} .
0

| 1 | < {|1 2 | + |1 2 | + + |1 2 |} ;

92

|1 2 | ,

| 0 |
|

|
0
|3 2 | < 1
= 1
.
(

1)!
!

,
1 |

| 1 | <

0 |
1 | 0 |
, | 1 | <
...
!
!

.

0 + (1 0 ) + (2 1 ) + + ( 1 ) + . . .

(3.9)

80eq7

. ( + 1)
,
= 0 + (1 0 ) + (2 1 ) + + ( 1 ) = .
, . ,
(3.9). ,
lim = ;

, , ,

lim = ().


lim = ().

, , .

| 0 |

| 0 |2
2 | 0 |
1 | 0 |
+
+
+ +
+ ...
12
123
!
(3.10)

93

80eq8

, |0 | .
, (3.10)
|0 | 1

(3.10), ,
.
. .
,
,
, (3.9),

|0 | + |1 0 | + |2 1 | + + | 1 | + . . . ,
(3.9) . ,
,
(3.10), . , . ,

lim = ().

. ,
, ,
. [ , ]
, ,

. . : 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 , , 2 , 2 , . . . , 2 ,
.. ,
94

,
lim = (),

() .. , (3.2) (3.1). , , = 0
(0 ) = 0 , . . .
,
lim (0 ) = 0 , lim (0 ) = 0 , . . .

,
. , :

= 1 (, 1 , . . . , 1 ),
= 2 (, 1 , . . . , 1 ), . . .

,
. ,
. , , . ,
, ,
, .

0 =

1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 )
0

. 1 , 1 , . . . , 1
, , . . . , , ,
95

, ,
| () 1 ()| < , |() 1 ()| < , . . .
| () ()| < , |() ()| < , . . . ,
. , :

( ) + ( 0 ) = [1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ) 1 (, , , . . . , )]+
0

1 (, , , . . . , ).
0


. , (
)

[1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ) 1 (, , , . . . , )] <

< [| | + | | + . . . ] .

, , . . . , , , ,
| 0 |. , , , ,
=

[1 (, 1 , 1 , . . . , 1 ) 1 (, , , . . . , )] = 0

lim

=
0

, , ,

0 = 1 (, , , . . . , ).
0

96

,
= 1 (, , , . . . ),
, , , . . .
. ,
. , , , , . . . ,
(3.1).

3.3

, ,
, (3.2), .
, , . . . , ( ,
). ,

(), (), . . . ()

(3.11)

84eqI

(3.12)

84eqII


(), (), . . . (),

= 0 (3.11) (3.12) ,
-a .
- 0 0 + . ,
- (. . 1).
, -.
| () ()|, |() ()|, . . . | () ()|.
97

(3.13)

84eqIII


-. , ( ) ; = 0 .

. 1-, 2- ..
1 , 2 , . . . . , [ ].
, , 1 , 2 , . . . , < . (3.13)
;
, (3.11) (3.12) . ,
:
( )
= 1 (, , , . . . ) 1 (, , , . . . , ),

( )
= 2 (, , , . . . ) 2 (, , , . . . , )

.. , . 0 , ,
= 0 , , . . . , , . . . ,

[1 (, , , . . . ) 1 (, , , . . . , )].
0

| | . , | () ()|
, ,
:

| () ()| < [| | + | | + . . . | |]

98

, : , 0 0 + , , . . .
(
). = 0 , , . . . , , ,
.
| |, | |, . . .
, ;
, , ,
, + + . . . ,

| () ()| < | 0 |.
. ,
| () ()|, |() ()|, . . . | () ()|

| 0 | < ,
, . . ,
1/2,
1
.
2
,

1
;
2
(3.13) 12 . ,

0 + 0 +
1
1
1
| () ()| < , |() ()| < , . . . | () ()| < .
2
2
2
99

,
0 + 0 + . ,
(3.13) . = 0, ,
. , , 0 +
0 + .
? ,
. , ,
.
,
(3.11) (3.12) .
: , 0 + 0
, .
, , (3.2) , [
].

3.4

. , , , .
0 + 0 + . 0 + = 0
, 0 + 0 + ,
. ,
; .7
7

. (1842) -

100

3.5

= 1,

= (, ).

,
(, ), ,
(, ) ,
0 0 + 0 0 + ,
| (, )| < . ,

0 0 + (

) , = 0
0 . 0 ;
. ,
= (, 0 ),
0 .
. /*, , . , ,
= (, ),
, ,
, ,
= 0 = 0 ,
0 = (0 , ),
0 .*/

101

4
.
, ,
.

= (, )

(4.1)


= ()
. - 0
0 = (0 ).
(4.1), = 0 0 ,
0 , 0 (, )
(, ). ,
= ()
, , ,
,
. 0 0 (, )
, 0
102

88eq1

= () .
,
= ()
, , , = () (, ) . , ,
(, ) 1

, -

= () , ,
, , = ()

. -

, - 0 0 = (0 ) (, )
= ()
.
4.0.1. 1.
=

+ 1.

=
.

2
, ,
(, ) =

+ 1,

.
= .

()
= 1,
; , .
1

, (, ) -

, , , [Peano R.].

103

, , .
=+

( + )2
.
4

= ,
, .

4.1


(, , ) = 0.

(4.2)

90eq2

, , ,
:
= (, ),

( = 1, 2, . . . )

(4.3)

0 , 0 , , ,
,
(4.3). (4.2), (, , )

. ,
= ()
(4.2) . (4.2) (, ) , ,

. ,


+
= 0.

104

90eq3

, - 0
0 = (0 ) = (0 )

= 0,

= () ,
= (, )
. , = () ,
= (), = ()

(, , )
= 0.

(4.4)

91eq4


(, , ) = 0,
, , = () (4.2) (4.4). ,
, , (4.2) .
(4.2) (4.4)
(, ) = 0,

(4.5)

= ()
. , (4.5) . , , (4.5)
(4.2), , (4.5),
. , , , (4.5)
105

91eq5

.
, . (4.5) (4.2);
, . ,
, , .
, ,
(4.2) (4.4) . ,
(4.2) ,
= ();

+
+ = 0,

, (4.4),


+
= 0.

(4.6)

,
(4.2), (4.4) (4.6). (4.2)
(4.2), (4.4) (4.6), ,
, , , , , .
, , ; , (4.2), (4.4)
(4.6) ,
. ,
, .
, (4.2), (4.4)
(4.6) ,
, , , (4.2). ,
106

92eq6

(4.2), (4.4) (4.6) []


= ().

= (),

(4.2) ,

+
() + () = 0.

(4.4),


+
() = 0,

(4.6),


+
() = 0,

() = (), =

, : , ,
, (, ).

, , . (4.2), (4.4) (4.6) , , .
, , ,

, =

:
1) (4.2) (4.4) ; (4.5)
, , ,
(4.2).

107

2) (4.2), (4.4) (4.6); ,


, , , .
= ()
, , ,
-
.
4.1.1. 2.
2 (1 + 2 ) 2 = 0.
,
2 2 = 0.
,
2 2 = 0 = .
, = 0, , , = ,
, , ,
( )2 + 2 = 2 ,
= .
, , , ,
,
. , .
4.1.2. 3.
0 + 1 + 2 = 0,
108

0 , 1 , 2 . ,
0 = 0,
;
, .

4.2

- = () (4.2). ,
, = (), = ()
. ,
(, (), ()) = 0.
,

+
() + () = 0.

(4.7)

(4.4),
= (), = ()
, ,
, , = ,
= (), = ().
(4.7) , (4.4),
(4.6), , ,
= , = (), = ()
.
109

95eq7

, (4.2) ;
, , .
, ,
, . , ,
, ,
, , .
.

(, , ) = 0

(4.8)

96eq8

(4.2). (4.8)
, . , (4.8)
(, , )
= 0.

(4.9)


, , ,
, (4.8). , ,
(4.2), , ,
, .
, , ,
(4.8), , . , ,
(4.8) (4.9) ,
; .
110

96eq9

. (4.8) :
= (, ).

(4.10)

97eq10

, , , (4.1),
(, )
= (, (, )).

(4.11)

97eq11

, , , . ,
= (, ).

(4.12)

97eq12

(4.13)

97eq13

(4.14)

97eq14

(4.1) :
(, ) (, )
+
= (, (, ))

, ,
(, )
= 0.

= 0,
(, )
= 0.
(4.15)

= Const , ,

98eq15

(4.10). , , (4.12) (4.15).


, , (4.10)
(, )
= 0.

(4.16)

, , , , ,
. , , (4.10) , (4.16),
.
111

98eq16

(4.8),

, (4.8) ,
;
(, )
+
= 0,


(4.16)
(, , )
= 0.
(4.17)

, (4.8) (4.9),
. ,
.
, , -, :
(4.1), , , , (4.8) , , .
, , < >
: < >
(4.2);
(4.8).
[ , ]
, , , .
4.2.1. 4.
( )2 = ( )2 ,

8
4
= 2 3.
9
27
,
2( ) = 3( )2 .
112

98eq9


= 0, = 0,

4
8
= , = ,
9
27

= 0 =

4
27


= , = 1
.

4
, = 1
27
. ,
=

4
27

, ,
.
. , = . ,
= 0
2 = 3 ;
,
= , = . = ,
, ,
. = 4/27, ,
(. . 2).
113

4.2.2. 5.
9 2 = 4

3 = ( )2 ,
, (, 0) (. . 3). ,
2( ) = 0;
,
=0
. , , [ ] . = 0, = 0, ; , .
4.2.3. 6.
3 4 + 3 2 = 0

= ( )2 ,
,
.
, = 0
= 0 (. . 4).
,
0 = ( )2 2( ),

( )( 3) = 0.
114


= 0,

3 = 0.


= 0,

4 3
.
27
,
=

4
= 0 = 2 .
9
, ,
. ,
= 0, ,
. = 0 ,
, , ,
, ( = 0);

4 3

27
, .
=

115

5

.
-
(, , , , . . . , () ) = 0,

(5.1)

108eq1

, , . . . , () . ,
- 1- . , 1 , 2 , . . . , 1
{
1
(, , 1 , 2 , . . . , 1 ,
) = 0,
(5.2)
2
1

,
=

,
.
.
.
,
=

.
1
2
1

, . (5.2) :
1 =

2 =

= ,

1
2
2
3
= 2 = , 3 =
= 3 =

1
= 1 = (1)

, ,

1

= = () .

(5.2) :
(, , , , . . . , () ) = 0,
116

108eq2-3

(5.1).
(5.2)
,
, , . . . , : - (5.1) ,
:
(1)

= 0 = 0 , = 0 , . . . , (1) = 0
(1)

0 , 0 , . . . , 0

( 1)

. , , (5.2), .

(, , 1 , 2 , . . . , 1 ,

)=0

1
,

, ,

(5.1) - () :
() = (, , , . . . , (1) ).

(5.3)

109eq4

, (5.3) , , , , . . . , (1) , (1)

0 , 0 , 0 , . . . , 0

, (5.1) (5.3) () ,
(5.1)
() = (, , , . . . , (1) ),

( = 1, 2, 3, . . . ),

(5.4) , ,
()

(1)

0 = (0 , 0 , 0 , . . . , 0
.
117

(5.4)

110eq5

(1)

, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0

( -

0 ) , ,
(1)

= (, 0 , 0 , . . . , 0

, , ,
, , , ,
. , -
(, 1 , 2 , . . . , ) = 0

(5.5)

110eq6

(5.1), , , = 0
(1)

= 0 , = 0 , . . . , (1) = 0
(1)

0 , 0 , . . . , 0

. (5.5) ( 1)

0 ,

(0 , 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , ) = 0,


+
0 = 0,
= , =

0

=0 , =0

+
=0 , =0


= , =
0
0

(1)

= 0,

, ,
1 , 2 , . . . , . , (5.5), .
(5.5) ( < ) + 1 1 , 2 , . . . , ,

(, , . . . , () , +1 , . . . , ) = 0,

(5.6)

- ( ) +1 , . . . , . (5.6)
(5.1) - .
118

111eq7

(5.1) 1

(, , . . . , (1) , 1 ) = 0,

(5.7)

111eq8

,
( 1)- ,
1 (, , . . . , (2) , 1 , 2 ) = 0,

(5.8)

.., , ,
(, 1 , 2 , . . . , ) = 0
(5.1).

5.1

5.1.1

1: (, () ) = 0



= ().

,
1
=
1

() + 1 .
0

; ,

2
=
2

() +
0

119

1
+ 2
1

111eq9

, ,

...

() +

1
2
1 +
2 + + .
( 1)!
( 2)!

,
- . , - . ,

...

()
0

, ,
. , , = 0 ;
, , , . . . , (1) = 0 ,
0 . ,
, -, , , -,
:
= 0 = 0, = 0, = 0, . . . , (1) = 0.

1
=
( 1)!

()( )1 .

1
=

( 1)!

()( )
0

1
=

( 2)!

]
1
(
+
()( ) 1)
( 1)!
=

()( )2

120


2
1
=
2
( 3)!

()( )3

; ,
1
1
=
1
( 3)!

()


= ().

, ; , = 0
= 0, = 0,

(1) = 0.

,
1
=
( 1)!

()( )1 +

1
1 + + .
( 1)!


(, () ) = 0

(5.9)

,
. , ,
() :
= (),

() = ();

(5.9).
.
.
(1) = () = () (),

121

1 =

() ().

113eq1

. ,
( 2)-

(2)
(1)

=
= [ () ()] ()
.. , , ,
,
= (),

= (, 1 , . . . , );

, . , , .
5.1.2

2: ( , (1) ) = 0

:
( , (1) ) = 0,

(5.10)

115eq3

. ,

() = (),

(1) = (),

(5.11)

,
, ( 1)- , (5.10) () . .
. :
(1) = () ,

() = (),

()
;
=
()
122

115eq4

()
,
()

. (
2)- :

(2)

(1)

()
.
= ()
()

(2)

()
()
;
()

, - - ,
( 1)-
(1) = ()
. , , , , . , .
, . .
5.1.3

3: ( () , (2) ) = 0

,
:
( () , (2) ) = 0,

(5.12)

116eq5

, ,

() = (),

(2) = ().

(5.13)

.
, :
(1) = () ,

(2) = (1) .
123

116eq6

,
. , :
(1)
()
= (1) ,
(2)

(1) (1) = () (2) .


() (2) = () ().
(1) .
(1) (1) = () ()
, . , :

1 ( (1) )2

= () (),
2

(1)


= 2 () ()

.
( 1)- , .

(1) = ()

(1)
;
=
()
(1) ,
() ()

.
=

2 () () ()
,

()

=
,

2 () ()
124

.
. () , (1) (2) , (3) ..;
:

(3)

(2)

() ()
.
=

2 () ()

(3)

() ()

.

2 () ()

, () ,
(3) = (2)
(1) . , , , . , . ,
, ,
.
5.1.4


( , ) = 0,

( , ) = 0,

( , ) = 0.

(5.14)

118eqI-I

. ,
.

.

( , ) = 0.

125

(5.15)

118eqI


= ,

, = 0;

, 1- . ,
)
(

, , = 0.
(, , ) = 0

, . 1- .

( , ) = 0.

= ,

(5.16)

118eqII

, = 0;

, 1- (

. ,
(, , ) = 0, =

, .
, , :
( , ) = 0.

(5.17)

1- .
: ,

126

118eqIII

;
1- .

= ,

=
= ;


)
(

, = 0.

1- , , -, ,

,
. , ,

, ,
1 2
= .
2

)
= 0.

1- .
)
( ( )
2
1
, , = 0.
(, , ) = 0
2
, .
, (5.17) , . ,
= (),
, : :
= () = ().
127

; :

1 2
( ) = (), = 2 ().
2

= 2 (),

=
.
2 ()


.
2 ()

.
, , , 2- ,
.
( () , (2) ) = 0

( , ) = 0,
(2) = . ,
(, , 1 , 2 ) = 0,
1- ,
2 .
5.1.1.

= +

. = ,
= + , = ( + 1), = = ( + );

= ( + ) = + 2 + 1 .
2
128


= =

)
1
+ 2 + 1 ( + 1).
2

, :
=

2 2 1 2
1

+ (1 1) + 3 + 1 + 2 .
2
4
2
6

, . ,
1 2 .1
5.1.2.
= 2 ,
. ,
2 = 2 2
, :
2 = 2 2 ,

( )2 = 2 2 2 .

22 2

22 2

+ =

.
22 2

:
= ch
1

, -

= + .

129


= .

= arcch(/).

= sh ,

+ =

ch(( + )) = ch =


(+ ) + (+ )
=
+

= + ,
=

2
2
2
.

5.2

- ,
,
( () , (1) , (2) , . . . , , ) = 0.

(5.18)

.
= ,
( 1
)
2

,
,
, , = 0.
1 2
( 1)- . ,

(, , 1 , . . . , 1 ) = 0
. :
(
)

, , 1 , . . . , 1 = 0.

, , .
130

122eq1

- ,

( () , (1) , (2) , . . . , () , ) = 0.

(5.19)

123eq2

, () = ,
(
)
1

,
,
, , = 0.
1
.
,
- :
(, , 1 , . . . , ) = 0,
( ) . ,
.
() , + =
.

5.3

, , :
( () , (1) , (2) , . . . , , ) = 0.

(5.20)

= , ,
( )2
2

2
=
=
= , =
=
= 2 +
,...

, , - :
(
)
2
1

() = , , 2 , . . . 1 ,

131

123eq3


( 1
)

,
, . . . , , = 0.
1 2

(1)- . ,

(, , 1 , . . . , 1 ) = 0.
,
.

( , , ) = 0.
.
= ,

, ,

)
= 0.

,
(, , 1 ) = 0,
= . .
2 .

5.4
5.4.1

,
(, , , . . . , () ) = 0,
132

, . .,
( )2 = 0
, , .
, .
=

= /.

)
2 + ,

3 + 3 +

; , exp
. , ,

()

1 [],

1 [] , ( 1)- . ,
(
)

(+1)

=
1 [] + 1 [] = [],

, .
.
exp ,
,

exp

(, 1, , 2 + , . . . , 1 []) = 0.

,
(, , , . . . , (1) ) = 0.

. , ,
. .
133

5.4.1.
( )2 = 0.
:
=

)
2 + ,

,
2 + 2 = 0.

= 2 ( 1)

= ( 1),
2

1 ( 1)2 1
+
+
= 0.

2
2

2
=
,
1 ( 1)2

= exp

2
.
1 ( 1)2

1 = 2 ,

1 = ,

2
=
1 ( 1)2

1 +
2
=
ln
+ 2 ,
2 2

1 +
+
= exp ln
+ 2 =
,

.
134

( =

1 ).

: ,
-
= (), = (),
.
, ,
.. ,
,
, , , . . . :
(, , , , . . . ) = (, , , , . . . ) = 0
, = (),
= (),
.
5.4.2

, ,

, . ,

= ;


(, , , , . . . ) = 0

(, , , , 2 , . . . , ) = 0.
.,
2 + + 2 = 0,
,
2 2 + + 22 = 0.
135

.
, , , , 2 , . . . , . ,
.
, , , , . ,
: .., ,
, , ,
. , -.
, ,

, .
=

, : , .
, ,
. , .
, :
= ,

= ,

= , = ( + ), 2 = ( 2 + 2 + 2 ), . . .
. , , .
, . , ,
, .
136

, :
5.4.2.
2 + + 2 = 0.

= ,

= ,

= , = ( + ), 2 = ( 2 + 2 + 2 )

2
2

= + , = 2 = ( +
+
)
=

2
:

( + + ) + ( + ) + 2 = 0.
:
+ + + 2 + 3 = 0.
2- , .
, .

= , =
= ,

+ + + 2 + 3 = 0.

1- .

= ,

= ,

), . . .

, 1- , -,
= (1) ( +

( 1)- ..,
, .2
2

, (1 , . . . ) 1 , . . . 1 , . . . , ,

137


(1 1 , . . . ) = (1 , . . . , ).

138

Оценить