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Modifiable Factors

DIET
Increase consumption of cholesterol/fatty foods

Non-Modifiable Factors

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (BOOK-BASED)
Elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood Fats adhere to the walls of blood vessels Continuous adherence of fats makes the blood vessels narrow

Degeneration of the body

Age (65-74 y/o)

Gender (Men)

LIFESTYLE Increase consumption of drugs (cocaine, amphetamine) Vasospasm

Race (AfricanAmericans)

Family History (Stroke or TIA)

Vasoconstriction Viscous blood Smoking Increase Blood Pressure Genetics (Diabetes Mellitus)

Weakened walls of blood vessels

Weakness in the arterial wall Development of cerebral aneurysm

Tangles of arteries and veins and absence of capillary beds

Dilation of arteries and veins

Congenital Disorders (Arteriovenous malformations)

Dilation of walls of cerebral arteries

Rupturing of blood vessels

Vasospasm of tissues and blood vessels

Blood leaks into the ventricles

Obstruction in the blood circulation

Formation of blood clots

Decreased blood perfusion to the brain

Obstruction of passageway for CSF

Increase blood pressure to the brain

Accumulation of clots in the brain tissues

Decrease oxygen supply and glucose to the brain

Increase Intracranial Pressure

Cerebral Ischemia Confusion Dizziness Headache

Nuchal Rigidity

Irritation of the meninges

Cerebral Edema Further impairment in oxygenation and decreasing brain function Impaired brain hemisphere functioning

Loss of consciousness

Compression of the brain contents Compression of the brainstem Compression of the Cerebral Cortex

Compression of the basal ganglia

Comatose

Vomiting

Cranial Nerves: Visual Disturbances Weakness of ocular muscles Weakness in tongue

Aphasia, Dysarthia

Cerebral Death Seizures Hemiparesis

Cerebral Death

Loss of neural feedback mechanisms

Cessation of physiologic functions Cardiovascular System Pulmonary System GIT GUT


Loss of lung muscle function

Loss of cardiac muscle function

Relaxation of the heart

Failure of accessory muscles for breathing

Relaxation of intestines and sphincters

Loss of bladder control

Bradychardia

Hypotension

Apnea

Loss of bowel control

Decreased Cardiac Output

Cardiopulmonary Arrest

Systemic Failure