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Vishnu sahasranama

The Vishnu sahasranama is a list of 1,000 names (sahasranama) of Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the personal supreme God forVaishnavas (followers of Vishnu). It is also one of the most sacred and commonly chanted stotras in Hinduism. The Vishnu sahasranama as found in the Mahabharata is the most popular version of the 1000 names of Vishnu. Each name eulogizes one of His countless great attributes. The Vishnu sahasranama has been the subject of numerous commentaries. Adi Shankaracharya wrote a definitive commentary on the sahasranama in the 8th century, which is the oldest and has been particularly influential for many schools of Hinduism even today.Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya wrote a commentary in the 12th century, detailing the names of Vishnu from a Vishishtadvaita perspective. Madhvacharya also wrote a commentary on Vishnu sahasranama, disclosing that each name in the sahasranama has a minimum of 100 meaning. Upon being challenged by the audience during his time, Sri Madhvacharaya not only gives 100 meanings for each of the Vishnu sahasranama but also expands on each of the meanings making it a multi-fold complexity and displays an outspoken quality to hold and explain the real and deep hidden meaning of sahasranama.

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g to the epic Mahabharata, the names were handed down to Yudhisthira by the arrior Bhishma who was on his death bed (of arrows) in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Yudhisthira hma the following questions:

iverse Who is the one refuge for all? Who is the greatest Lord in the world? By glorifying whom can h the Auspiciousness (peace and prosperity)? By worshipping whom can a man reach auspiciousness nd prosperity)?What is, in thy opinion, the Greatest Dharma of all Dharmas? By chanting of whose n creatures go beyond the bonds of samsra?
Bhisma answers by stating that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the Vishnu sahasranama' which are the thousand names of the all-pervading Supreme Being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, the supreme light, the essence of the universe and who is Brahman. All matter animate and inanimate reside in him and he in turn resides within all matter. Etymology In Sanskrit, sahasra means "a thousand" and nama means "name". The compound is of the Bahuvrihi type and may be translated as "having a thousand names". Interpretations There are Sahasranama for many forms of God (Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesha, Shakti, and others). The Vishnu Sahasranama is popular among common Hindus, and a major part of prayer for devout Vaishnavas, or followers of Vishnu. While Vaishanvas venerate other deities, they believe that the universe, including the other divinities such as Shiva and Devi, is ultimately a manifestation of the Supreme Lord Vishnu. Followers of Shaivism similarly give prominence to Shiva. Interestingly, despite the existence of other sahasranamas of other forms of God, referring a sahasranama as "The Sahasranama," generally refers to the Vishnu Sahasranama alone, thereby indicating its wide popularity. Smarta interpretations

In fact, the Shri Rudram, one of the most sacred prayers for Hindus and Shaivites in particular, describe Vishnu as an aspect of Shiva in the fifth anuvaka. Likewise, two of the names in Vishnu sahasranama that refer to Shiva are "Shiva" (names #27 and #600 in Adi Sankara's commentary) itself, "Shambhu" (name #38), "Eesanah" (name #64), and "Rudra" (name #114). Most notably, Adi Shankara, according to one interpretation, has not interpreted these to mean that the deity Shiva and the deity Vishnu are the same. Specifically, he asserts that the deity Vishnu is Brahman itself (not just an aspect of Brahmam). Again, he notes that "only Hari (Vishnu) is eulogized by names such asShiva", a position consistent with interpretations of the Srivaishnavite commentator Parasara Bhattar. Parasara Bhattar had interpreted Shiva to mean a quality of Vishnu, such as "One who bestows auspiciousness." However, this interpretation of the name Shiva has been challenged by Swami Tapasyananda's translation of Sankara's commentary on the Vishnu sahasranama. He translates the 27th name, Shiva to mean:" One who is not affected by the three Gunas of Prakrti, Sattva,Rajas,and Tamas; The Kaivalaya Upanishad says, "He is both Brahma and Shiva." In the light of this statement of non-difference between Shiva and Vishnu, it is Vishnu Himself that is exalted by the praise and worship of Shiva." Based on this commonly held Advaitan point of view which has been adopted by Smartas, Vishnu and Shiva are viewed as the one and the same God, being different aspects of preservation and destruction respectively. As many Sanskrit words have multiple meanings it is possible that both Vishnu and Shiva share names in this instance. For example, the name Shiva itself means "auspicious" which could also apply to Vishnu. The deity of Harihara in particular is worshipped by Shaivites as a combination of both personalities. Vaishnava interpretations However, the Vaishnava commentator, Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya has interpreted the names "Shiva" and "Rudra" in Vishnu sahasranama to mean qualities or attributes of Vishnu, and not to indicate that Vishnu and Shiva are one and the same God. Vaishnavas worship Vishnu in his four-armed form, carrying conch, disc, flower and mace in his hands, believing that to be the Supreme form. However, Smarthas do not subscribe to this aspect or personification of God, as Smarthas say that God is pure and thus devoid of form. Additionally, they believe that God is not limited by time nor limited by shape and color. Vaishnava traditions are of the opinion that Vishnu is both unlimited and yet still capable of having specific forms, as to give arguments to the contrary (to say that God is incapable of having a form) is to limit the unlimitable and all-powerful Supreme. In the Sri Vaishnava tradition, the Bhagavad-gita and the Vishnu Sahasranama are considered the two eyes of spiritual revelation. In other Vaishnava traditions too, the Vishnu Sahasranama is considered an important text. Within Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Vallabha sampradaya, Nimbarka sampradaya and among Ramanandis, the chanting of the names of Krishna and Rama to be superior to that of Vishnu. Based on another verse in the Padma Purana which says that the benefit of chanting the one thousand names of Vishnu can be derived from chanting one name of Rama, and a verse in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana equating the benefit of chanting three names of Rama with one name of Krishna. However, it is important to realize that those verses in those puranas are not to be interpreted literally, as many believe that there is no difference between Vishnu and Krishna. This theological difference can be expressed as follows: Many Vaishnava groups recognize Krishna as an Avatar of Vishnu, while others, instead, consider Him to be svayam bhagavan, or the original form of the Lord. Yet these verses can be interpreted as it is more important to have pure bhakti or devotion than merely repeating the many names of God without emotion. Indeed, Shri Krishna Himself said, "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.

Interpretations alluding to the power of God in controlling karma Many names in the Vishnu Sahasranama, the thousand names of Vishnu allude to the power of God in controlling karma. For example, the 135th name of Vishnu, Dharmadhyaksha, in Sankara's interpretation means, "One who directly sees the merits (Dharma) and demerits (Adharma), of beings by bestowing their due rewards on them." Merits of Recitation Believers in the recitation of the Sahasranama claim that it brings unwavering calm of mind, complete freedom from stress and brings eternal knowledge. A translation of the concluding verses (Phalasruti) of Vishnu sahasranama, state the following: "Nothing evil or inauspicious will befall a man here or hereafter who daily hears or repeats these names.. Whichever devoted man, getting up early in the morning and purifying himself, repeats this hymn devoted to Vasudeva, with a mind that is concentrated on Him, that man attains to great fame, leadership among his peers, wealth that is secure and the supreme good unsurpassed by anything. He will be free from all fears and be endowed with great courage and energy and he will be free from diseases. Beauty of form, strength of body and mind, and virtuous character will be natural to him.... One who reads this hymn every day with devotion and attention attains to peace of mind, patience, prosperity, mental stability, memory and reputation.... Whoever desires advancement and happiness should repeat this devotional hymn on Vishnu composed by Vyasa....Never will defeat attend on a man who adores the Lotus-Eyed One (Kamala Nayana), who is the Master of all the worlds, who is birthless, and out of whom the worlds have originated and into whom they dissolve." In orthodox Hindu tradition, a devotee should daily chant the Upanishads, Gita, Rudram, Purusha Sukta and Vishnu sahasranama. If one cannot do all this on any day, it is believed that chanting Visnu sahasranama alone is sufficient. Vishnu sahasranama can be chanted at any time, irrespective of gender. Varahi Tantra says that in the age of Kali yuga, most stotras are cursed by Parashurama and hence are ineffective. While listing the ones which are free from this curse and hence suitable during Kali Yuga, it is said, "Gita of the Bhishma Parva, Vishnu Sahasranama of Mahabharata and Chandika Saptashati' (Devi Mahatmyam) are free from all Doshas and grant fruits immediately in Kali Yuga." It is customary to commence the Vishnu sahasranama with a devotional prayer to Vishnu. Quotes about Vishnu Sahasranama Vishnu sahasranama is the essence of the Mahabharata; Great sages such as Narada, the Alvars, and composers including Saint Tyagaraja have made repeated references to the "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in their devotional works; The person who strung together the thousand names as part of the Mahabharata and preserved it for the world was none other than Sage Veda Vyasa, the foremost knower of the Vedas, who is considered an Avatar of Vishnu; Bhishma considered chanting of the Vishnu sahasranama the best and easiest of all dharmas, or the means to attain relief from all bondage;

It is widely accepted that the chanting this Stotram gives relief from all sorrows and leads to happiness and peace of mind; Vishnu sahasranama is in conformity with the teachings of the Gita." Adi Sankaracharya, the Advaita enlightened master, in verse 27 of his hymn, Bhaja Govindam, said that the Gita and Vishnu sahasranama should be chanted and the form of the Lord of Lakshmi, Vishnu should always be meditated on. He also said that the Sahasranama bestowed all noble virtues on those who chanted it. Parasara Bhattar, a follower of Ramanujacharya had said that Vishnu sahasranama absolves people of all sins and has no equal. Madhvacharya, the Dvaita philosopher, said that the Sahasranama was the essence of the Mahabharata which in turn was the essence of the Shastras and that each word of the Sahasranama had 100 meanings. Lord Shiva addressed his wife, Parvati: sri rama rama rameti rame rame manorame sahasranama tat tulyam rama nama varanane "O Varanana (lovely-faced woman), I chant the holy name of Rama, Rama, Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Ramachandra is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Vishnu." Brahmanda Purana said: sahasra-namnam punyanam, trir-avrttya tu yat phalam ekavrttya tu krsnasya, namaikam tat prayacchati "The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Vishnu (Vishnu sahasra nama stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krishna." Shri Krishna Himself said: yommAm nama sahasrena stotum icchati pandava sohamekena shlokena stuta eva na samshaya "Arjuna, One may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it. From the oldest scriptural text in Hinduism, the Rig Veda; it states: "O ye who wish to gain realization of the Supreme Truth, utter the name of "Vishnu" at least once in the steadfast faith that it will lead you to such realization."

Benefits of chanting Vishnu Sahasranama The following lines are from the Mahabharata and are quoted portions from the text. Believers believe that regular chanting of the hymn can accrue benefits. On avoiding evil, success in battles, and gaining affluence, pleasure, happiness and offspring: vedantago brahmanasyat kshatriyo vijayeebhavet vaishyo dhanasamrudhyasyat shudra sukhamavapniyat Bhisma said, "Even thus have I recited to thee, without any exception, the thousand excellent names of the high-souled Kesava whose glory should always be sung. Anyone who hears the names every day or who recites them every day, never meets with any evil either here or hereafter. If a Brahmana does this he succeeds in mastering the Vedanta; if a Kshatriya does it, he is always successful in battles. A Vaisya, by doing it, becomes possessed of affluence, while a Sudra earns great happiness." If one becomes desirous of earning the merit of righteousness, one succeeds in earning it (by hearing or reciting these names). If it is wealth that one desires, one succeeds in earning wealth (by acting in this way). So also the man who wishes for enjoyments of the senses succeeds in enjoying all kinds of pleasures, and the man desirous of offspring acquires offspring (by pursuing this course of conduct)." On acquiring fame, prosperity, prowess, energy, strength, beauty, removing fear, avoiding calamity, and being cured of disease: "That man who with devotion and perseverance and heart wholly turned towards him, recites these thousand names of Vasudeva every day, after having purified himself, succeeds in acquiring great fame, a position of eminence among his kinsmen, enduring prosperity, and lastly, that which is of the highest benefit to him (viz., emancipation Moksha itself). Such a man never meets with fear at any time, and acquires great prowess and energy. Disease never afflicts him; splendour of complexion, strength, beauty, and accomplishments become his. The sick become hale, the afflicted become freed from their afflictions; the frightened become freed from fear, and he that is plunged in calamity becomes freed from calamity. " The man who hymns the praises of that foremost of Beings by reciting His thousand names with devotion succeeds in quickly crossing all difficulties. That mortal who takes refuge in Vasudeva and who becomes devoted to Him, becomes freed of all sins and attains to eternal Brahman. They who are devoted to Vasudeva have never to encounter any evil. They become freed from the fear of birth, death, decrepitude, and disease." On acquiring righteousness and intelligence, and avoiding the sins of evil: "That man who with devotion and faith recites this hymn (consisting of the thousand names of Vasudeva) succeeds in acquiring felicity of soul, forgiveness of disposition, Prosperity, intelligence, memory, and fame. Neither wrath, nor jealousy, nor cupidity, nor evil understanding ever appears in those men of righteousness who are devoted to that foremost of beings. The firmament with the sun, moon and stars, the welkin, the points of the compass, the earth and the ocean, are all held and supported by the prowess of the high-souled Vasudeva. The whole mobile and immobile universe with the deities, Asuras, and Gandharvas, Yakshas, Uragas and Rakshasas, is under the sway of Krishna."

On the origins of the soul, the source of righteous behavior, and the basis of all knowledge and existence: "The senses, mind, understanding, life, energy, strength and memory, it has been said, have Vasudeva for their soul. Indeed, this body that is called Kshetra, and the intelligent soul within, that is called the knower of Kshetra, also have Vasudeva for their soul. Conduct (consisting of practices) is said to be the foremost of all topics treated of in the scriptures. Righteousness has conduct for its basis. The unfading Vasudeva is said to be the Lord of righteousness. The Rishis, the Pitris, the deities, the great (primal) elements, the metals, indeed, the entire mobile and immobile universe, has sprung from Narayana. Yoga, the Sankhya Philosophy, knowledge, all mechanical arts, the Vedas, the diverse scriptures, and all learning, have sprung from Janardana. Vishnu is the one great element or substance which has spread itself out into multifarious forms. Covering the three worlds, He the soul of all things, enjoys them all. " His glory knows no diminution, and He it is that is the Enjoyer of the universe (as its Supreme Lord). This hymn in praise of the illustrious Vishnu composed by Vyasa, should be recited by that person who wishes to acquire happiness and that which is the highest benefit (viz., emancipation). Those persons that worship and adore the Lord of the universe, that deity who is inborn and possessed of blazing effulgence, who is the origin or cause of the universe, who knows no deterioration, and who is endued with eyes that are as large and beautiful as the petals of the lotus, have never to meet with any discomfiture."

Introduction It is interesting to contemplate on the circumstances under which Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram came into existence. Yudhishthira, the eldest of the five Pandavas, was mentally depleted because of the war with the Kauravas and the misery of death and suffering that was created by the war in which he had been a major player. Bhishma, his dear grandfather, was lying on his deathbed. With his passing away, his irreplaceable wisdom, based on the experiences of his long life of virtue, righteousness and devotion, was about to be lost to the world. Sage Vyasa and Sri Krishna advised Yudhishthira, who himself was an epitome of righteousness and virtue, to seek the advice of Bhishma on any and all aspects of life on which he had any doubts. Yudhishthira did as advised, and a series of dialogs ensued between the two, witnessed by Lord Krishna Himself, and by other great sages including Vedavyasa. In one of these sessions, Yudhishthira sought Bhishma's advice on the easiest and best means by which mankind can attain lasting happiness, peace of mind, and relief from all bondage and sorrows. This was the setting in which Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram was imparted, with the welfare of future generations also in mind, by Bhishma to Yudhishthira, as part of the advice given by Bhishma in response to the above question. The Composition The following sloka in the prolog to Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram identifies some important aspects pertaining to the composition of the stotram: vishnor nama sahasrasya vedavyaso mahamunih | chandonustup tatha devo bhagavan devaki sutah ||

Sri Vedavyasa is the rishi of Sri Vishnu's one thousand names, i.e., the sage who strung together the thousand names as they were revealed by Bhishma to Yudhishthira. Anushtup (eight syllables per quarter) is its meter. Lord Krishna, the son of Devaki, is the Lord being worshiped. There are over forty commentaries on Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram. Sri Adi Sankara's commentary is the earliest of them. Sri Parasara Bhatta, a disciple of a disciple of Sri Ramanuja, has written a detailed commentary. Sri Satyasandha Yatiswara from the Dvaita school is another prominant commentator. Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram, along with the Bhagavad Gita, is an integral part of the epic Mahabharata composed by Sage Vedavyasa (Vyasa is also the one who organized the vedas into the classifications as we know them today). Of all the commentaries written by Sri Sankara for our religious scriptures (the Bhagavad Gita, the Brahma Sutras, etc.), that on Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram was the very first one. Sri Sankara emphasizes the importance of reciting the Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram in his Bhaja Govindam (geyam gita nama sahasram...). Six reasons are generally identified for the greatness of the Stotram. These are: 1. It is the essence of the Mahabharata. 2. Sages such as Narada, the Alwars, and composers including Saint Tyagaraja have made repeated references to the "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in their devotional works. 3. The person who strung together the thousand names as part of the Mahabharata and preserved it for the world was none other than Sage Vedavyasa, the foremost knower of the vedas, and considered an incarnation of Vishnu (vyasaya vishnu rupaya vyasa rupaya vishnave namo...). 4. It is the considered opinion of Bhishma that it is the best and easiest of all dharmas, or the means to attain relief from all bondage. 5. It is widely accepted that the chanting of this Stotram gives relief from all sorrows and leads to happiness and peace of mind. 6. It is in conformity with the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, Narayaneeya, etc. The above reasons given to illustrate the importance of Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram become all the more obvious when we recount the personalities involved in the events that resulted in the stotram. It was no ordinary person's advice that was sought. No ordinary person was seeking the advice, and at no ordinary person's urging was the advice being sought. Bhishma was the son of the Mother Ganga and a person sanctified by his unswerving devotion to Lord Krishna, and one who had controlled and conquered all his senses. Yudhishthira was the son of Dharma, and himself a practitioner of justice, righteousness, truth, honesty and integrity. Vyasa was the knower of all vedas. Lord Krishna was a witness to the whole event involving the advice and revelation of the easiest and best means to achieve happiness and peace of mind, given by Bhishma to Yudhishthira. As we know, the advice is in the form of Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram. No other justification is needed to recognize the greatness of the education that is imparted to the human race through the medium of Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram by Vyasa and Bhishma. The Organization Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram as printed for chanting purposes consists of three sections: A prolog, which gives the background on why the Stotram was imparted to the great and just Yudhishthira by Bhishma. The thousand names of Vishnu, organized in a poetic format in 107 stanzas, in the anushtup chandas, (a meter with eight syllables in a quarter), with two quarters per line, and two lines per stanza. The phala sruti, or a recounting of the benefits that can accrue by chanting the Stotram. The above is the typical organization of many stotrams, for example, the Lakshmi Ashtottara Satanama Stotram with which many of us are familiar.

The Prolog In the introductory part of the Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram, Yudhishthira asks Bhishma six questions, related to how mankind can attain happiness. These are contained in two stanzas starting with "kim ekam daivatam loke" in the Stotram. These questions are: Who is the One (Supreme) Deity? What is the highest goal of life? By praising which Deity's auspicious qualities will human beings attain prosperity in this world as well as bliss in the next? By meditating on which Deity will human beings attain prosperity in this world as well as bliss in the next? By reciting which mantra will man be released from the bondage of the cycle of birth and death? Of the three means referred to above (i.e., recitation, praise or archana, and meditation), which is the best means for attaining the grace of the Supreme Deity based on your vast experience and knowledge? Bhishma's response to the above questions follows in the next ten stanzas. In his considered opinion, a person tides over all the sorrows in this world by reciting with undiluted devotion the Thousand Names of the Eternal Person, worshiping Him always with devotion, meditating upon Him, glorifying Him, saluting Him by prostrating before Him, and adoring Him (dhyayan, stuvan, namasyamsca, yajamanas tameva ca). Bhishma adds that of all the dharmas, the dharma or practice involving service done to the Lotus-eyed Lord Krishna, without any desire for benefit, through worship (archana) and hymnal praise (stava), is the best dharma. Note that praising is easy, involving only speech, and does not involve any material sacrifice or bodily exertion. It is open to all, and does not need help from, or dependence on, others. Other kinds of worship might require money or other resources to perform the worship, or the need to impose on other people for their involvement (e.g., a priest to give instructions on the method of worship etc.). For the purpose of chanting the name of God, there is also no constraint on the asrama (i.e., brahmacharya, grihasta, etc.) to which a person belongs, unlike, for example, the constraints that the vedas place in performing the ceremonial rites with sacrificial fire. There is also no requirement regarding time, place, status of purity, etc., for the chanting of the stotram. The key element of the act of chanting as a means to attain the Lord's grace is the sincerity and purity of mind, and there is no other constraint or consideration. In summary, Yudhishthira asks Bhishma: "Given my despair and sorrowful state of mind, I want to expend the least effort and get the most benefit out of it, viz. relief from my despair. Please tell me the means for this." And Bhishma's response is "Chant the thousand names of Lord Krishna WITH DEVOTION. This does not require any effort other than the willingness to chant. This is the best way to get relief from all miseries, sorrows, and sins". The Thousand Names The word sahasra in the title of the Stotram means "one thousand". The main body of Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram consists of 107 stanzas which contain the thousand names of Sri Maha Vishnu. Every one of the Thousand Names in Vishnu Sahasranamam is full of significance in that it refers to one particular quality, guna, characteristic or attribute of Paramatma. (yani namani gaunani, where the emphasis is that each name is indicative of a guna of Vishnu). One could legitimately ask the question: Why were these 1000 names chosen? Does the Parama Purusha get absolutely defined by these thousand names? The obvious answer is that God is Infinite and

Indescribable, and can only be experienced, but cannot be translated into words and communicated from one to another. The vedas conclude that God is neither accessible to words nor to mind (yato vacho nivartante aprapya manasa saha - Taittiriya Upanishad). In Isavasya Upanishad, it is said that you cannot reach (understand) the Paramatma with the human mind (reasoning) alone even if you spend all your life. This holds true even though mind can travel (think) faster than anything known to us, including the speed of light (anejadekam manaso javiyo.... ). Given this Infinite nature of the Paramatma who is not governed or constrained by any of the physical laws as we know them, the choice of a thousand names of Vishnu by Bhishma should be recognized as a representation of some of the better-known qualities of Sriman Narayana that are repeatedly described in our great epics, vedas, puranas, etc., and sung by the devout sages repeatedly. As was indicated earlier, the thousand names are strung together in a poetic form by Sri Vedavyasa. While identifying the thousand names of Narayana from this poetic composition describing the qualities of the Infinite Paramatma, the different revered acharyas have come up with slightly differing sets of thousand names. This is partly because of the ability of these great acharyas to be able to enjoy the indescribable Parama Purusha in their own ways, based on the unique philosophies which they have propounded. Of the thousand names, some are repeated: For example, in Sri Parasara Bhattar's choice of the thousand names, two names occur four times, 12 names occur three times, and 82 names occur twice. When a name occurs more than once, the revered commentators have interpreted the meaning of the name differently in each instance depending on the context in which the name occurs. They have also quoted extensive evidence from ancient scriptures in support of their interpretation. The commentators have emphasized that the recurrence is not the result of a dosha (deficiency of being repetitive) in the composition The Benefits As was pointed out earlier, traditionally our prayers end with a phala sruti - a section on the benefits of reciting the prayer. The Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram is no exception. The necessity of cleansing our body regularly to maintain our physical hygiene and good health is recognized by every one. But perhaps because we do not "see" our mind the same way as we see our body (i.e., as an externally visible entity), the necessity of keeping our minds clean is not as clearly recognized. However, those who do not "cleanse" their mind on a regular basis become "mentally" sick over a period of time, just as they become physically sick if they do not cleanse their body on a regular basis. Prayers are a means to mental cleansing when they are chanted with sincerity and devotion. This aspect of the usefulness of prayers in everyone's life is common to all prayers. The importance of Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram is that the deity being worshipped is none other than Vasudeva (sri maha vishnuh paramatma sriman narayano devata; saktir devaki nandanah; itidam kirtaniyasya kesavasya mahatmanah namnam sahasram divyanam aseshena prakirtitam; sahasram vasudevasya namnam etat prakirtayet, etc.). Sri Vyasa points out that it is by the power and command of Vasudeva that the sun, the moon, the stars, the world, and the oceans are controlled (sa chandrarka nakshatra kham diso bhur mahodadhih vasudevasya viryena vidhrtani mahatmanah). The whole universe of the Gods, Asuras, Gandharvas, etc., is under the sway of Lord Krishna (sasurasura gandharvam ....). In Bhishma's expert judgment, chanting Vasudeva's name with devotion and sincerity will ensure relief from sorrows and bondage. This in a nutshell is the phala sruti or the benefit of chanting Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam.

Some have held the view that the phala sruti need not be, or even should not be chanted, because they somehow feel that it smacks of selfish desires. This is not consistent with the age-old practices of our ancestors. It is true that the phala sruti says that anything that is desired can be obtained if the prayer is sincere and offered with devotion. However, it is up to those who seek benefits through prayers that they should seek things that elevate them in life rather than lower them. An example of the latter type is the case of the evil king Ravana, who had prayed and obtained enormous powers through his prayers to Lord Siva. In the end, he lost all he had including himself by the misuse of his powers. The phala sruti in Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram was not just an add-on by someone trying to popularize the Stotram, but is an integral part of the Mahabharata text. Both Sri Sankara and Sri Parasara Bhatta have written commentaries to the phala sruti slokas. Thus, what is stated in the phala sruti has its authority from those who are worthy of great respect from us, and who have found it fit to comment and elaborate on the advice and information given to us through the phala sruti. Perhaps the most important of the benefits attained by one who chants the Stotram with devotion and sincerity is the cleansing of one's mind from all evil thoughts, and this is a very important and desirable benefit since this is the first step towards achieving pure happiness and absolute bliss. Firmness of mind, good memory, happiness of the self (inner happiness), and freedom from anger, jealousy, and greed, are some of the benefits that accrue to one who recites the stotram with devotion and eagerness. The key is the sincerity of purpose and devotion. The person who chants or recites is not the only one who benefits. Those who for whatever reason are unable to chant, benefit by just hearing the chanting (ya idam srunuyan nityam ....). Importance of Chanting Some might say that they do not understand the meaning of the Sanskrit words in the stotram and therefore do not feel comfortable chanting it. Sri Chandrasekhara Saraswathi Swami has given us his guidance on this issue in one of his discourses. He advises us that learning the chanting of prayers even without knowing the meaning is a worthwhile act, and can be compared to finding a box of treasure without the key. As long as we have the box, we can open it whenever we get the key of knowledge later, but the treasure will be already there. Some could feel that they do not know the correct pronunciation, and so do not want to chant incorrectly. H. J. Achar, in his book "Sri Vishnu Sahasranama - A Study", H.J. Achar, Sharada Press, Mangalore, 1972, has given the analogy of a mother to whom a child goes and asks for an orange. The child does not know how to pronounce the word "orange", and so asks for "ange". The mother does not turn away the child and does not refuse to give the child the orange just because the child does not know how to pronounce the word. It is the spirit or bhava that matters, and so as long as one chants the name of God with sincerity, considerations such as not knowing the meaning, not knowing the pronunciation, etc., do not matter, and God who is the Mother of all of us will confer His blessings on us. The Final Word Sage Vedavyasa concludes the Stotram with the assertion - twice stated - that there is no way a devotee of Vishnu can meet with any dishonor or disgrace of any kind (na te yanti parabhavam - ne te yanti parabhavam om nama iti). If this is not worth striving for, with as little investment as the mere chanting of the thousand names of Vishnu with sincerity, then nothing else is worth striving for. Those interested in more information may refer to the following works. "Sri Vishnu Sahasranama with the Bhashya of Sri Parasara Bhattar, with Translation in English", A. Srinivasa Raghavan, Sri Visishtadvaita Pracharini Sabha, Madras, 1983.

"Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram", Keelathur Srinivasachariar, The Little Flower Co., Madras, Reprinted 1981. "Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram", C. V. Radhakrishna Sastri, C. Venkatarama Sastri Trust, 1986. In the previous write-up, I had presented the view that it is beneficial to chant Sri Vishnu Sahasra NAma Stotram even if we do not know the meaning, even if we do not know the correct pronunciation, etc. In the current and subsequent articles, I am going to attempt to present the meanings of the Names occurring in Sri Vishnu Sahasra NAmam. One can legitimately ask the question: Why spend our time to learn the meanings, when the benefit of chanting is obtained anyway even without knowing the meanings? In fact, one of our devotees had sent me mail privately earlier, referring to the sloka that occurs in the phala sruti portion: sri rAma rAma rAmeti rame rAme manorame sahasra nAma tat tulyam rAma nAma varAnane (As stated by Lord Siva to PArvati - if you just chant the name "rAma", it is equivalent to chanting the 1000 names of Sri MahA Vishnu"). Sri Bhattar very nicely gives the explanation on why it is desirable to delve into an analysis of the meanings behind the Names: "Names pronounced merely and without knowledge of their meanings is beneficial (upakAriNAmapi), but revelation through etymological interpretation quickly affords DELIGHT TO MIND AND PURITY TO HEART (mana: prAsanatvam pAvanatvam ca). Sri Bhattar also refers to the chapters in MahAbhArata relating to the significance in knowing the meanings of the Names in addition to just chanting without knowing the meanings: nAma karmArtavit prApnuyAm purushottamam (Udyoga Parva 59) While I am not proficient in Sanskrit, I certainly derive great mental delight in trying to understand the meanings behind the Names; and in trying to understand the grammatical interpretation behind these Names. The reason for the latter is that it helps one to delve deeper mentally into the guNas of Sri Vishnu and enjoy His qualities even more. In his Bhagavad guNa darpana, Sri Bhattar proceeds to explain the names of MahA Vishnu in accordance with rules of grammar, etymology, and interpretation by the great Sages, with special reference to their significance, context, and propriety. Etymology according to the English dictionaries is the analysis of a word, based on its origin and development, including how the words are formed from their simple roots. Sri Bhattar also indicates in his introduction that even though the same name may occur more than once, its interpretation is different depending on the context in which it occurs, and there is no redundance or repetition in Sri Vishnu SahasranAmam based on the interpretation. In his commentary on Sri Vishnu Sahasra Namam, Sri Bhattar has beautifully traced a thread of connectivity in the sequence of the 1000 names as they occur in the stotram. He has identified an organization and structure in the composition that refers to the guNas of the Lord in the five manifestations in which He has revealed Himself to us, as described in the PancharAtra Agamas. These manifestations are: para, vyuha, vibhava, archa, and antaryAmi. Thus, for instance, Sri Bhattar has noted that the first 122 names in the stotram describe the qualities of the Lord in his para vAsudeva form. The next set of names describe the vyuha forms etc. Thus the names as they occur in the stotram are not just a random collection of names, but have a beautiful thread of organization and structure to them. Sri Bhattar has identified 44 such manifestations of Bhagavan in his exposition. Sri Srinivasachariar, in his editorial introduction to Sri Vishnu

Sahasra Namam published by LIFCO, (1967), describes this beautifully as an arrangement of the petals of a rose 44 layers deep, or a step of stairs with 44 steps leading to the enjoyment of the Supreme. I will not go into the enumeration of these 44 forms at this stage. but will identify these as we go along. The enumeration and the corresponding slokas can be found in the LIFCO publication. A brief introduction to the five types of manifestations of the Lord, to which Sri Bhattar refers in his exposition of the significance of the 1000 names of the Lord, is given below. The para can be viewed as the full and undifferentiated manifestation of the Lord in His complete and resplendent glory in which He has chosen to be unlimited by anything. He does not assume this form as a result of another object, and in this form He is endowed with the fullness of the six qualities - jnAna, bala, aisvarya, vIrya, sakti, teja). In this form, He is the shAdguNya paripUrNa, mahArNava, ni:sima - complete in all respects in the Six qualities, the Great Ocean of all that is perfect, unlimited by anything. Sri Bhattar refers to the sAtvata samhita in explaining the para-vyuha, and vibhava forms. "shAdguNya vigraham devam bhAsvajjvalana tejasam sarvatah pANi pAdam tat iti upakramya param etat samAkhyAtam ekam sarvAsrayam vibhum". "In the para form, the Lord has the body endowed with all six qualities; He shines with intense brilliance and luminosity, and has hands and feet all around. This form is unique, is the support of all, and is all-pervasive". In the vyuha manifestation, the Lord assumes different forms which are rich in some of the Six qualities, with different functions which emphasize these qualities. The vyuha forms can be viewed as the differentiated forms which arise from the para form. The vyuha forms are also referred to as Emanations by the translator of the Bhagavad GuNa darpana, Sri A. Srinivasa Raghavan. In particular, the following vyuha forms are identified: pradyumna - aisvarya and vIrya - function of srshti or creation aniruddha - sakti and tejas - function of sthiti or protection and preservation samkarshaNa - jnAna and bala - function of samhAra or destruction The sAtvata samhita describes the vyuha forms as follows: etat pUrvam trayam ca anyat jnAnAdyaih bheditam guNai: | viddhi etat vyuha samgjnam vai nissreyasa phala pradam || "From this para form emerge three other forms (SamkarshaNa, pradyumna, aniruddha), which are distinguished by the possession of knowledge and other qualities allotted to each one of them, and which bestow these benefits to the devotees". The vibhava is that group of manifestations which are taken by BhagavAn in the form of god, man, animal, etc. (sura, nara, tiryagAdi). Vibhava is of two kinds: mukhya and anuvrtti, also referred to as vibhava and vibhava antara. Vibhava occurs in one of four forms: 1. Some like matsya and kurma are direct manifestations 2. In some incarnations, the Lord enters into the bodies of distinguished sages such as Sri VyAsa.

3. In others, He invests His sakti for some period of time in others. The example of Puranjaya is given here, and we will dwell into the details when we look at the explanation behind the nAma puranjaya later on. 4. There are others in which He manifests Himself in idols as for instance in the arcAvatAra. It seems to me that Sri Bhattar, in his vyAkhyAna, has grouped the arcA form as a subgroup of the vibhava form. I request the bhAgavatas in this group to shed more light on whether I have misunderstood this explanation. Sri Bhattar distinguishes the vibhava form from the Lord's creations such as the four-faced Brahma, who are not manifestations of Bhagavan, but are the creations of Bhagavan. Sri Bhattar refers to the following from the Paushkara samhita to give us an understanding of the difference: jnAnopadeshTA bhagavAn kapilAkshastu adhokshaja: | vidyAmurti: caturvaktro brahmA vai loka pUjita: || tadamsa bhUto vai yasya visva vyanjana lakshaNa: || "The red-eyed BhagavAn, Adhokshaja, is the teacher of all knowledge. The four-faced BrahmA who is the embodiment of learning and who is worshiped by all worlds, is but a tiny amsa (part) of Bhagavan. He is the subordinate of BhagavAn, and he only propounds the knowledge he got from Bhagavan to all in the world". These are distinguished as the prAdurbhAva and prAdurbhAvAntara forms. Here the prAdurbhAva is the adhokshaja form, and the prAdurbhAvAntara is Brahma. It is pointed out that the creations of the Lord such as Brahma, agni, etc., are to be understood at a different level than the manifestations of the Lord in His para, vyuha, and vibhava forms. This is the basis for why those who have been initiated in the worship of acyuta are to worship only Acyuta and not the other gods (prAdurbhAvAnAm ArAdhyatvam .prAdurbhAvAntarANAm ArAdhana nishedhasca). With the above brief introduction, I will attempt to summarize the meanings behind the Names in Sri Vishnu SahasranAmam. The main source I will be using is the Bhagavad guNa darpaNa by Sri Bhattar. I will be using Sri Sankara's commentary as a secondary reference. As I am starting this attempt at learning, I am finding out that just by reading books, and without the aid of an AcArya, it is impossible to gain knowledge. However, this is all what I can do at this stage. My request to all of you is to freely comment on and correct what I am saying because I know that it is full of errors and misinterpretations. With that request which goes without my repeating it for future write-ups as well, I present what I understand for the first of the 1000 names. Sri Bhattar interprets the first 122 nAmas in the stotram as describing the para form of the Lord. Recall that the para form is the all-perfect, undiminuted, absolute, manifestation of the Lord. The description of this form includes all the nAmas starting from visvam and including varArohah in slokam 13. Sri Bhattar views this segment of the stotram as Bhishma's response to YudhisThira's first two questions: kim ekam daivatam loke and kim vApyekam parAyaNam who is the one deity to be worshipped, and what is the supreme goal of attainment. The web-site of SV Temple, Pittsburg, USA contains both Audio and Complete text of Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam and Sri Venkatesa Suprbhatam. The URL of their Stotras site is: http://www.svtemple.org/stotra/stotras.htm

Slokam 1 -

1: visvam 2: VishNu: 3: vashatkAra: 4: bhUta-bhavya-bhavatprabhu: 5: bhUta-krt 6: bhUta-bhrt 7: bhAvah 8: bhUtAtma 9: bhUta-bhAvanah

Nama 1: vishvam a) Universe or Cause of Universe b) One who is full in all respects. Om visvaya namah. The nama is derived from the root vis - to enter. Visvam means "Universe". They say Bhagavan is visvam because He enters all the worlds. Sri Bhattar interprets the term "Worlds" or "Universe" here to denote entirety. He points out that it is quite fitting that the first name of vishnu in Sri vishnu sahasranamam suggests hzis immense glory, the fullness to the brim of His essential nature, form, qualities, etc., which are all natural, unexcelled, auspicious and superior. Sri v.v. ramanujan adds that this completeness is in respect of His rupam, svarupam, gunam, and everything else. He quotes nammazhvar uvaryara uyar nalam udaiyavan. It is to explain this aspect of the fullness of bhagavan in every aspect that the remaining 999 nama-s follow the nama visvam, thus emphasizing the deep meaning embedded into

this first nama as denoting bhagavan's fullness in all respects. Sri Samkara views that bhgavan who is Brahman or the Supreme Person created vivvam and is therefore, called visvam. Brahman is the karta or the Creator here (the Cause), and visvam is the creation or the effect. Because the Cause who is Brahman is being called by the nama visvam which is the effect, this is used by advaitins as an argument to say that effects are nothing different from the Cause, and everything is Brahman. In other words, the argument is advanced that Brahma who is the creation of vishnu, can be praised as an appropriate form of vishnu. Sri Bhattar points out that the two terms, brahman and visvam, should not be taken as referring to their being identical. visvam or Universe is just a mode or extension of bhagavan, as are the other 999 nama-s. Sri v.n. vedanta desikan in his commentary on tiruvaimozhi, observes: "To regard Brahman and World identical is samanadhikaranya to which Azhvar does not subscribe. The world is the prakara or vibhuti of the Lord. He is the cause, sustainer, controller, and the soul of all things and beings". . Sri satyadevo vasishtha interprets the nama visvam or "Universe" as indicating that everything in this Universe came from Him, and also everything in this Universe goes back into Him. So in both senses, He is "visvam". Sri Bhattar points out that it still is a nama of vishnu, representing his guna of absolute fullness and power. Consistent with this, the nama to worship is "visvaya namah" as adopted by the visishtadvaita school. The different anubhava-s of the nama visvam can be summarized as: The nama indicates His Fullness in all respects; the succeeding 999 nama-s all elaborate on this first nama the Fullness of Him in all resepcts. Nothing in the Universe exists without Him, and everything in this Universe ultimately finds refuge in Him, and in this sense also He is visvam or "Universe". 2. VishNu: a) One who permeates everything, is inside every sentient and non-sentient being. b) One who surrounds everything. Om vishNave namah. This nAma occurs again as nAma-s 259 and 663. This nAma can be derived from the root vish - vyAptau - to pervade, or vis - praveSane - to enter. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is - sva vibhUti bhUtam cit acit Atmakam sarvam viSati iti vishNuh. The idea is that keSava exists everywhere and permeates everything that is His Wealth; He is unlimited by space, time, and substance (SrI Samkara); He pervades the whole universe internally and externally. SrI BhaTTar gives the following references in support. viveSa bhUtAni carAcarANi - He entered all beings, movable and immovable tat srshtvA | tadevAnuprAvisat - Having created it, He entered into the same. "vyApya sarvAn imAn lokAn sthitah sarvatra kesava: | tatasca vishNu nAmAsi viserdhAto: pravesanAt || "KeSava exists everywhere having pervaded all these worlds.

Therefore His name is VishNu since the root viS denotes entry i.e., pervasion". Under nAma 259, SrI BhaTTar explains vyApti (pervasion) further, and explains the relation between bhagavAn and the jIva-s as of the nature of the relation between fire and smoke. When there is smoke, there is fire, but the reverse is not always true (as in the case of a red hot iron rod). Thus, bhagavan and the jIva-s are related in the sense that without bhagavAn the jIva-s do not exist. The supreme Person and the jIva-s are never identical, but there is inseparable connection between bhagavAn and the rest. He is greater by virtue of the diverse kinds of help He renders to all who are of a lower order. SrI BhaTTar refers us to the gItA - na tadasti vinA yat syAt mayA bhUtam carAcaram (10.39) - "There is no object, moving or non-moving, which can exist without Me". Another anubhavam of this guNa of vyApti is that it is not just the fact that He is in everything and in inseparably bound to everything, but it is one of His showering everything with His infinite Mercy (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). His sauSIlyam is to be enjoyed here. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj derives the meaning from the root vishu - secane - to sprinkle, to pour out; veshati (si'ncati) bhakta tarUn ASIrvArIbhih iti vishNuh. nammAzhvAr declares: "tiDaviSumberivaLi nIr nilamivaimiSai paDar poruL muzhuvadumAi avai avai torum uDan miSai uyir enak karandu e'ngum paranduLan" (tiruvAimozhi 1.1.7) The Lord created the five elements, and from them He created all others. Indeed He became all others. He pervades everything in and out. He is the Soul for the body of everything and every being. The term "He enters all the worlds" should be understood as "He enters everything in all the worlds". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives another view of the reason why bhagavAn has pervaded everything. It is for the purpose of ensuring that everything is in its designated and assigned place, and things don't come into collision with each other, for example, the different planets and constellations etc. He quotes from the taittirIya AraNyaka, wherein first the question is asked - keneme vidhRte ubhe - "Who is keeping the two things from colliding with each other?", and responds: vishNunA vidhRte bhumI; iti vatsasya vetanA "vishNu is the One who is supporting them with His Sakit; this is the finding of sage vatsa". SrI Samkara gives the following supports for this nAma: antar bahiSca tat sarvam vyApya nArAyaNah sthitah - (mahA nArAyaNa upa. 1.13) nArAyaNa pervades the whole universe externally and internally. "yasmAd vishTam idam sarvam tasya SaktyA mahAtmanah | tasmAd vishNuriti khyAto veSer dhAtoh praveSanAt || (vishNu purANam 3.1.45) "Because the whole world has been pervaded by the energy of the great Self, He is named vishNu, from the root viS - to enter or pervade." vyApte me rodasI pArtha kAntiscApadhikA sthitA | kramaNaccApyaham pArtha! VishNuriti abhisamgj~nita: || (mahAbhA. 350.43) "As I have pervaded the horizons, my glory stands foremost, and as I have measured by my steps the three worlds, O Arjuna! I am named vishNu". SrI anatakRshNa SAstri interprets the term kAnti here as referring to His Effulgence - His radiance pervades

the firmament and transcends it. SrI BhaTTar has given the explanation of the nAma vishNu in terms of His power of pervasion (Sakti) under nAma 663. He refers to the mantra about bhagavAn: sarva SaktyAtmane - He, Who is the embodiment of all powers. He also gives reference to the Slokam: "yasmAd vishTamidam sarvam tasya SaktyA mahAtmanah." given earlier. As an instance of this Sakti, the trivikrama incarnation is also cited - the smRti declares "vishNuh vikramaNAt devah" - mahA bhA. udyoga. 5.68.13), a reference to His name being vishNu because He measured the three worlds with His steps. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr's praise of His Sakti: "ennaik koNDu en pAvam tannaiyum pARak kaittu emar Ezh ezhu piRappum mEvum tan maiyamAkkinAn vallan empirAn en viTTuvE" (tiruvAi. 2.7.4) "He changed me from a nitya samsAri to a nitya sUri; He exterminated all my sins, those of my predecessors and my successors for several generations, so that all of us have reformed to become His. Who did this? VishNu! He will do this because His name implies all-pervasiveness". SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma-s kRtAgamah, anirdeSya vapuh, vishNuh, and vIrah (nAma-s 661 to 664) as indicative of His being the Lord of Sakti. SrI cinmayAnanda refers us to ISAvAsya upanishad: ISAvAsyam idam sarvam yat ki'nca jagatyAm jagat Everything that exists in the universe is nothing but of the nature of the Lord, and without Him nothing exists. He pervades everything, unlimited by space, time, or substance. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives an additional interpretation not found in other vyAkhyAna-s: vi + shNuh = vishNuh - viSesheNa snAvayati prasrAvayati bhakta abhilAshAn iti vishNuh - He who bestows the wishes of the devotees like a fountain. Note that the root from which the second nAma is derived is the same as the root from which the first nAma - viSvam - was derived. However, the interpretation is different. The interpretation here is that BhagavAn has entered all beings - sentient and non-sentient, that He has created. The meaning for the first nAma was that bhagavAn is everything, the Absolute, full in all respects. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan nicely paraphrases the two nAma-s: "a'ngu pUrtiyil nOkku, I'ngu vyAptiyil nOkku". the first nAma emphasizes His Fullness and Perfection, and the second nAma indicates that He permeates everything. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri observes that meditation on the significance of the first two nAma-s - namely that Lord vishNu is in everything around us and in every one of us, and that without Him nothing exists, will lead us closer to a life of peace, tranquillity, ahimsA, and selfless service to Him. Sri Surin, in his commentary on amara KoSa, has given the following derivation for the word VishNu veveshti iti vishNu: - One who surrounds and envelops. This is derived from the root word vesht - to surround (recall the word veshti in Tamil for dhoti, which surrounds!). One interesting question that can be raised is: Given that the stotram is called visNu sahasranAmam, why did Sri VyAsa not start the stotram as vishNur viSvam vashatkAro, and instead chose to start it as viSvam vishNur vashatkAro...?

Based on the SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam, viSvam is the name that symbolizes the primary attribute of the para form as one of shAdguNya paripUrNatva, and vishnu and the following names then elaborate on the name or the guNa represented by the name viSvam. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha rhetorically asks the question: If Lord vishNu is everywhere, in everything, why is it that most of us don't see Him? The key is the SraddhA. SraddhayA vindate vasuh - Rg veda. 10.151.4 SraddhayAgnih samidhyate SraddhayA hUyate havih | SraddhAm bhagasya mUrdhani vacasA vedayAmasi (Rg. 10.151.1) SraddhAm prAtar havAmahe SraddhAm madhyam dinam pari | SraddhAm sUryasya nimruci Sraddhe SraddhApayeha nah | (Rg. 10.151.5) He who is endowed with the sAttavic disposition, or has developed it, keeps seeing vishNu in everything around him all the time. To summarize, - the nAma vishNu refers to the guNa of bhagavAn in pervading everything He has created, including all sentient and non-sentient objects from a blade of grass to brahma; - His pervasion is because of His Sakti; in other words, He is the power behind everything that exists; an instance of His Sakti is illustrated by His measuring the three worlds with His Foot; - His vyApati is indicative of the inseparable relation between Him and everything else outside Him, in the sense that nothing exists without Him. - His pervasion of everything is of the form of His enveloping and showering everything around Him with His Mercy. It is not just His sausIlya that is indicated by this nAma; all His powers including that of creation, sustenance, His Lordship, etc., are to be understood by this nAma. - It is because of His pervasion of everything in this universe that things (for example the constellations, the planets, etc.)., are in their respective positions without colliding with each other. - He is also called vishNu because He bestows the wishes of His devotees profusely like a fountain. Nama 3: vashatkAra: One who controls and directs (not merely pervades). Sri Bhattar interprets the names VishNu, vashatkAra, and bhuta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhu, as additional elaborations of the name visvam. The root of the word is vas - to control as He wills. It should be noted that Sri Bhattar has pointed out in his commentary for visvam that BhagavAn is everywhere with His shAdguNya paripUrNatva WHICH IS NATURAL TO HIM, in the commentary for vishNu that He permeates everything that HE CREATES AND POSSESSES, and in the current one for vashatkAra that He controls AS HE WILLS. Thus, all these guNas are not something that have been acquired or imparted by something external, but this is His will and schema. The following passages from the sruti are given in support of the interpretation of this nAma: * sarvasya vaso sarvasya IsAna: - He is the Controller of all and the Ruler of all. * jagadvase vartatedam - The Universe is under His control. The summarization from Nirukti is svecchayA yo sarvam vase karoti sa: vashatkAra: - One Who controls and directs everything and everyone as He wills.

Sri Sankara provides a very different interpretation for this nAma. He points out that BhagavAn is Himself the vashatkAra mantra, where vashat is a sacred sound (similar to Om, svAhA, etc). used on sacrificial offerings. It is also used in the anganyAsa and karanYasa practice before chanting the sacred slokas (e.g., sahasrArchis saptajihva iti saktyai sikhAyai vashat). Note the similarity of vashatkAra to Om kAra, a word with which we are familiar. VashatkAra is thus a mantra, and BhagavAn is the mantra svarUpi. The explanation in terms of BhagavAn having control over all His creations is appealing because of the continuity it provides to the interpretations of the previous nAmas. Nama 4: bhUta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhu: The Master of all things past, future, and present. Nirukti - trikAla vartinAm seshi - The Lord of all things that exist in the past, present, and future. From the srutis, we have "bhUta-bhavya-bhavan-nAtha: kesava: kesi sUdhana: " - Kesava, the slayer of Kesi, the asura, is the Lord of past, future, and present. The idea that BhagavAn is beyond the physical laws as we know them, such as the laws and constraints of time, can be inferred from this nAma. In order for Him to be the Lord of all things past, future, and present, He existed before anything existed, exists now, and will exist forever into the future. ..Thus the well-known and established physical law that all living things come to an end does not apply to Him. He is beginningless and endless. Sri Bhattar has explained that the nAmas 2, 3, and 4 elaborate the first nAma by indicating how the Allpervading vAsudeva is in everything living and non-living, controls everything, and is the Master of everything past, future, and present. He now proceeds to explain the next 5 nAmas as further expanding on this last aspect - how He is the Master of all things past, future, and present. We will see that this is so because he is the creator of all beings (nama 5), the supporter of all beings (this nAma 6 seems to be further elaborated by nAmas 8 and 9), has existence independent of any other being and as the Lord or Director of all that exist (7), supports all that He has created by being their antaryAmi or inner soul (8), and supports by nourishing them and growing them (9). Nama 5: bhUta-krit The creator of all beings. Sri Bhattar points out that this act of creation of is done by Him without dependence on anything external. "sarvANi bhUtAni svatantra: srjati" - note the word svatantrata: bhutAni karoti iti bhUtakrt - One who creates all the beings. In BrhadAraNya upanishad "sa visvakrt sa hi sarvasya kartA - He is the creator of the Universe and all the beings in the Universe. "tvam kartA sarva bhUtAnAm" - You are the Creator of everything that exists - VishNu PurANa 1-4-15. Nama 6 : bhUta-bhrt

The supporter of all things. BhUtAni Bibharti iti bhUta-bhrt - One who supports all. (seems to be further elaborated by nAmas 8 and 9) Sri Bhattar explains that this support is like that of the support at the center for a wheel and its spokes. If this central support does not exist, the rest of the spokes and the wheel collapse. Thus, one can think of this support as the responsibility for the existence of all the things that He creates. This support is in the form of being the inner soul or atman of all beings (nAma 8 below), and as the One who nourishes and protects all beings (nAma 9 below). Sri Radhakrishna Sastri in his work on Sri VishNu sahasranAma explains this support as that provided by Adi Kurma to support this universe, or by Sri VisNu as varAha mUrti when he retrieved and bore the world. Sri Sankara interprets nAma 6 above as referring to the acts of creation or destruction ("bhUtani krtanti krNoti hinsti iti bhUta krt), and nAma 7 as referring to the act of sustenance, in the context of the three functions of creation, sustenance, and destruction. Nama 7: bhAvah He who exists with all the splendor He who exists always, independent of anything else. This nAma is derived from the root bhU (bhavati - exists). Sri ChinmayAnanda gives the derivation: "bhavati iti bhAva:" Nama 8: bhUtAtma The AtmA or soul of all beings - sarveshAm bhUtAnAm AtmA All things are His body, and He is the soul of all things. The soul enters the bodies, and directly controls and directs all their activities. Sri Sankara gives the following reference from BrhadAraNya Upanishad: esha ta AtmA antaryamyamrtah (3.7.3) The Lord is the soul, the antarYamI or inner ruler of all beings, and amrta or never ceasing to exist. Sri Chinmayananda gives the following reference from Kathopanishad: "eko vasI sarva bhUtAntarArmA rUpam rUpam pratirUpo bahisca" The One Lord manifesting Himself as the souls of all beings who have different external forms. Nama 9: bhUta-bhAvanah One who nourishes and nurtures all beings that He created. The key word that both Sri Bhattar and Sri Sankara use in their vyAkhyAnas for this nAma

is vardhayati - makes them grow - the act of nourishing is emphasized. Sri Bhattar's words are: tAni dhAraka poshaka bhogyapradAnena vardhayati iti bhUta-bhAvanah He is bhUta-bhAvana because He makes all things grow by bestowing on them things that sustain them, nourish them, and contribute to their enjoyment. Sri Sankara bhAshya says: bhUtAni bhAvayati janayati vardhayati iti vA bhUta-bhAvanah He makes them shine (bhA - to shine), generates or invigorates, and makes them grow. With this, we have concluded the first sloka out of the 107 slokas. We notice that Sri Bhattar has beautifully brought out the continuity in the description between the 9 nAmas covered in this first sloka.

Slokam 2 -

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

-pUtAtmA -paramAtmA -muktAnAM paramAgatiH -avyayaH -puruShaH -sAkshI -kshetrajnaH

Nama 10: pUtAtmA The Pure Self - One who is untainted by the effects of karma - good or bad. PUta AtmA yasya sa pUtAtmA One who has the pure Atma is pUtAtmA.

Our Atmas reap the fruits of the actions that we are involved in because of their association with our body. BhagavAn is also associated with the same bodies since we are all extensions of His body. However, He is Pure Atman because He is not affected by the fruits of the association with the bodies. Sri Bhattar gives a very simple example to make this point. A teacher uses a stick to strike a student. Both the teacher and the student .come in contact with the same stick, but the pain of association with the stick is felt by the student, but not by the teacher. So also, even though both the Lord and the jIvAtmans are associated with the bodies of the jIvAtmans, the Lord is not affected by the fruits of the actions of the jIvAtmans. In the Gita, Sri KrshNa says: "na mAm karmANi lipanti" - actions do not taint me. Also, the sruti says: subhAsubah karmabhiryo na lipyati kadAcana - never tainted by actions, good or bad. Nama 11: paramAtmA The Supreme Soul - for whom there is no other guiding or superior soul paro mA asya .sa AtmA paramAtmA That Soul for whom there is none superior is paramAtmA. All of us have Him as our inner souls, but BhagavAn has no one as His Inner Soul that guides Him. There is no one superior to Him. The author of Nirukti says: "Atma IsvaratvAt paramAtmA - One who is the Lord of Himself is paramAtmA. Sri Eknath Easwaran indicates that Lord Krishna says in the Gita: "I am in every one, but no one is in Me". He does not give the reference to the Sanskrit sloka, and I am unable to reference it. I would like help from the Bhakti members in identifying the relevant sloka. There are several pramAnas from the srutis for this: "na param puNdarIkAkshAt drsyate bharatarshabha" There is nothing superior to the Lotus-eyed. "param hi puNdarIkAkshAt na bhUtam na bhavishyati" There was nothing in the past, and there will be nothing in the future, that is superior to the Lotus-eyed Lord. "na daivam kesavAt param: - There is no God superior to Kesava. "matta: para-taram nAnyat kincidasti" Greater than Myself, there is nothing else (GitA 7-7) "param hi amrtam etasmAt visva-rUpAt na vidyate" There is no greater nectar than the Lord of Universal form. "parah parANAm paramah paramAtmA" He is greater than the great; He is superior, and he is the Supreme Soul (visHNu purANa - 1.2.10) "paramAtmA ca sarveshAm AdhAra: paramesvara: | vishNurnAma sarva-vedeshu vedAnteshu ca gIyate || (VishNu purANa 6.4.10) The Isvara above all Isvaras, the paramAtmA who is the supporter of every being, is sung by all vedas and vedantas as Lord VishNu. Nama 12: muktAnAm paramA gatih

One who is the ultimate goal for all muktas or Released or Liberated Souls. Muktas are those who are already released from all bondage, and enjoy every bliss that the BhagavAn has. They have equality with God in the enjoyment of this Bliss. The goal that such a mukta longs for at this stage is to constantly serve the Lord., and thus the Parama purusha is muktAnAm-paramA-gatih. The muktas are .compared to those who reside in the celestial world, the sveta dvIpa. They have no needs such as food, no wants, no desires, etc. For these people who have accomplished everything and who are equal to God in their enjoyment of bliss, the one goal that is of interest is the unceasing servitude to God, and thus God is the Supreme and Ultimate Goal for the muktas. ParamA gati is the goal after attaining which you won't desire anything else. In other words, this is the limit of the goal . Normally, the nature of any goal is such that if you attain .that goal, then you will want to attain the next higher goal. This is not the case with paramA gati. Some pramANas from the srutis are the following: ".....mAmeva anuttamAm gatim" - (They attain) Me, the unsurpassed goal -Bhagavad GItA 7.18 "sA kAshthA sA parA gatih" - He is the highest means; He is the Supreme Goal - kaThopanishad -3.11. Sri Bhattar interprets the next 5 names in terms of why the muktAs choose BhagavAn as their Supreme goal. It should be noted that Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna weave a thread of continuity in the sequence of the names occurring in the stotram, and for this reason Sri Bhattar extends the interpretation to levels beyond what is etymologically derived from the word.. relatively speaking, Sri Sankara seems to more strictly adhere to the literal meaning of the word in his vyAkhyAna. Of course, there are also inevitable differences in interpretation because of the visishtAdvaita vs. advaita philosophies. The reasons for the muktAs choosing Sri MahA VishNu as their Supreme gaol are: He does not send them back to the cycle of samsAra once they reach Him (13), He gives the enjoyment of His Bliss to the muktas in abundance (14), He witnesses the muktas' enjoyment of Him and is in turn pleased, which pleases the muktas (15), He knows the right place for the muktas to get their eternal Bliss (16), and He is one whose Greatness never diminishes over time in spite of the constant Bliss that He provides to the muktas (17). Nama 13:avyayah a) One who does not send back anyone who has reached Him (to the cycle of birth and rebirth .(Sri Bhattar) b) Indestructible (Sri Sankara) Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna na vIyate - na vyapagamyate iti avyayah - He is avyaya because He does not send them back (to samsAra) .In the Yama Smrti, we find the following: "sattvam vahati sUkshmatvAt param nArAyaNam prabhum | paramAtmAnam AsAdya param vaikunTam Isvaram || amrtatvAya kalpeta na nivarteta vai puna:| "

The Mukta bears a body of pure and subtle sattva and attains the Supreme Lord nArAyaNa. Once he reaches the Supreme Lord in the supreme VaikuNTha, he becomes fit for immortality and is not returned back to this world any more. Sri Sankara's vyAkhyAna Sri Sankara gives a different interpretation to this name - Indestructible - based on na asya vyayah iti avyayah, where vyaya means something that can be destroyed. He gives the following pramANa from the BrhadAraNya Upanishad: "ajarah amarah avyayah - He is undecaying, immortal, and indestructible" (6.4.25). See also the nArAyaNa sUktam - anatamavyayam kavim ..... The Immortal and Indestructible Seer. 14:puruShah a) One who bestows on the Muktas the enjoyment of the Bliss of Himself in plenty.- puru sanoti iti purushah b) One who is reclining in this body - puri sete iti purushah c) One who existed before anything else existed - purA AsIt iti purushah d) One who completes and fulfills existence everywhere - pUrayati iti purushah Puru sanoti iti purushah - One who gives in plenty; puru means plenty, and sanoti means giver. Or, purUNi phalAni sanoti - dadAti iti pururshah One who gives plentiful benefits. We find in the taittirIya upanisahd "rasi vai sah , rasam hveyAm labdhvA AnandI bhavati He is Pure Bliss Itself. Having attained Him, the Mukta becomes endowed with joy". Several other explanations for this name are possible. One of these that is also given by Sri Sankara in addition to the above that Sri Bhattar has also chosen, is supported by the following in MahAbhArata "navadvAram puram puNyam etairbhAvaih samanvitam | vyApya sete mahAtmA yastasmAt purusha ucyate || -(12-203-35). "Since the great Soul pervades and resides in this holy city (the body) with nine dvAras or gates, possessed of these organs (senses, etc.)., He is called purusha". Another alternative interpretation that Sri Sankara gives is "puri sete iti purushah - One who dwells in this Fort city - our body". He refers to the following from the taittirIya AraNyaka "pUrvameva aham iha Asam iti purushasya purusahtvam" - I indeed existed here before; as I existed before, I am called purusha. We recall that the purusha is sometimes pronounced as pUrusha in vedic chantings (ato jyAyAgsca pUrushah - in purusha sUktam as an example). Pura is used to refer to this body, as in Gita 5-13: nava dvAre pure dehe..the fortress with nine gateways. Sri Chinmayananda suggests that these different ways of interpreting the meanings of the names is a way to understand more and more about the Nature of the Lord.

15: sAkshI One who directly witnesses everything .as it is. , The All-Knower, The Omniscient BhagavAn sees everything directly by His own awareness without any instrument for seeing (such as the sense organs) in between. SAkshAt Ikshate - The Direct Cognizer. Just as the sun illumines everything but is not affexted in anyway by the state of the objects it illumines, so also the Lord witnesses everything but is not affected by all that He witnesses. The jIvAtmAs see everything through some sense organ or othe other, and so the deficiencies of these organs limits what is seen. Not so in the case of the Lord. Sri Bhattar interprets this name as indicating that the Lord witnesses the muktas enjoying the Bliss that He confers on them, and is thus happy Himself. Obviously, this give great pleasure to Mukhtas, since they are interested in His happiness, and this is one of the reasons for His being their paramA gati. 16:kshetrajnah One who knows, and can lead the muktas to the exact place where the muktas will get their sought-after Supreme Bliss. Sri nArAyaNa is the vaikunTha vAsi. VaikunTha is the place after reaching which there is no return to this world. That this is a place which even the greatest of sages can realize only after intense meditation and devotion to the Lord is evident from the following passage attributed to Sage Agastya in varAha purANa "adyApi tam lokavaram dhyAyan tishThAmi suvrata! | kada prApyet tu asau loka: sarva loka varottamah || "I am even now steeped in the meditation of that supreme world. When am I going to reach that best and noblest of all worlds? This is the thought that is haunting me". In varAha purANa, BhagavAn tells Sage Agastya: "pasya lokamimam mahyam yo na vedestu drsyate | tvat-priyArtham ayam lokah darsitaste dvijottama || " See this world which exists for my sake and which is not seen even by the vedas. O best of Brahmins! This world has been shown to you in order to please you". Note that even a sage of the standing of Agastya has not seen this place except when God chose to show it to him. Sri Sankara has interpreted this name based on Bhagavad GItA Chapter 13 - slokas 1 and 2, in particular. Here, the word kshetra refers to the body, and kshetrajna refers to One who knows (understands the principle or tatva behind) all the bodies and is the direct witness of the actions of all the bodies (by being directly inside the bodies and not needing any secondary means to witness these). I would like to request our Bhakti group members to elaborate on the interpretation of the word kshetrajna as it occurs in Bhagavad GItA, and in particular if the interpretation of this term in GItA is different from the meaning that

God is the soul in all the bodies. May be kshetrajna is a guNa of the Supreme Soul, and is an elaboration of the name "bhUtAtmA". 17: akshara One whose greatness never diminishes over time in spite of being enjoyed by the miktas constantly. na ksharati iti aksharah . His greatness is innate, and does not derive from something external. So it never diminishes. In Nirukti, this is explained as follows: "sadA anubhUyamAno'pi nissIma guNa gauravAt | muktai: kvacit na ksharati iti akshara: parikIrtita: ||" Sri Sankara's interpretation is: "sa eva na ksharati iti aksharah - He alone exists without dying. Sri Bhattar has thus explained nAmas 13 to 17 as the reason why muktas consider the Lord the paramA gati. We will continue with nAma 18 in the next part.

Slokam 3

18. yogaH 19. yogavitAm netA 20. pradhAna puruSheshvaraH 21. nArasimha vapuH 22. shrImAn 23. keshavaH 24. puruShottamaH

18. yogah a) He Who is the sole means or upAya for salvation or mukti. b) He Who is reached through yoga (meditation). The word yoga has several different meanings given in the amara koSa: means, meditation, union, fitness, remedy, etc. yogah sannahana upAya dhyAna sangati yuktishu (amara koSa 3.3.22) Given this diversity of meanings for the word yoga, now let us see the different interpretations for the nAma yogah. a) SrI BhaTTar uses the meaning upAya or means for the term yoga. His interpretation for the nAma is that bhagavAn is the sole means or upAya for mukti (salvation) asyaiva nirupAdhika mukti upAyatvamapi vakti yogah He alone is the natural and independent means for salvation. He further comments sa sAyujyasya ananyApekshah sAkshAt hetuh ityarthah The meaning is that He is the immediate cause of salvation, and does not stand in need of the help of anything else. He gives support the brahma sUtra and from the gItA: t ad-hetu-vyapadeSAc-ca (brahma sUtra 1.1.15) He is the cause of the Bliss that all souls enjoy. esha hveya AnandayAti ( (taitt. Ananda. 2.7.1) aham tvA sarva pApebhyo mokshayishyAmi (gItA 18.66) I will release you from all sins.

SrI satya sandha tIrtha gives multiple interpretations, one of which uses the meaning upAyam for the word yoga. The explanation is along the lines given by SrI BhaTTar bhatAnAm bhava taraNa upAya iti yogah He Who is the means of salvation for His devotees.

Another vyAkhyAna kartA who uses the meaning upAyam for the word yoga is SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj yogah bhakta abhilAsha adhigamAya amogha upAyah The unfailing upAya or means for attaining the desires or wishes of the devotees. b) SrI Sankara uses the meaning union or oneness for the term yoga, and gives an interpretation that supports the advaita concept that the individual soul and the Supreme Soul are not different from each other. He notes that yoga is the process of controlling the senses and the mind, and realizing this oneness, and He is called yogah because He is to be reached by means of yoga as described here (in other words, by attaining this knowledge of oneness). (It should be noted that one of the main reasons for the great AcArya-s undertaking to write commentaries on important works such as the vishNu sahasra nAmam, the gItA, the brahma sUtra-s, the upanishad-s, etc., is to show that their particular philosophy is what is supported and advocated by the different smRti-s, Sruti-

s, purANa-s, etc. To quote svAmi AdidevAnanda from his Introduction to bhagavad rAmAnujas gItA bhAshyam, Such a method involves some text-torturing to get the meaning that one wants. To impart a sense of consistency of a text to their followers, they are compelled to give interpretations that may sometimes look far-fetched to others. SrI AdidevAnanda is careful to point out that on the whole, the AcArya-s give a reasonable and satisfying interpretation of their philosophy in the process. This is not just limited to SrI Sankaras interpretation, and can be seen in all interpretations. The current interpretation by Sri Sankara is one example of assigning interpretations that bring support for their philosophy from the ancient scriptures). c) SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN seems to use both the meanings union and meditation for the word yoga, and gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is called yogah, because the devotees mind becomes one with Him when the devotee meditates on Him - yujyate manah asmin iti yogah samAdheh SubhASrayah.

d) SrI cinmayAnanda uses the meaning meditation for the term yoga, and gives the interpretation for the nAma yogah as One Who is realized through yoga. His interpretation is By withdrawing the sense-organs from their objects of preoccupation, when the mind of the seeker becomes quiet, he is lifted to a higher plan of consciousness, wherein he attains yoga, meaning he realizes the Reality. He notes: At such moments of equanimity and mental quiet yoga is gained samatvam yoga ucyate (gItA 12.48). Note that while SrI Sankara also interpreted the nAma as One Who is attained through yoga, his interpretation of yoga was attaining knowledge of oneness of self and the Self, whereas SrI cinmayAnandas meaning for the word yoga is meditation by quieting the mind and controlling the senses. SrI satya sandha tIrtha also uses the meaning meditation for the word yoga in one of his interpretations yujyate hRdi yogibhih dhyAyata iti yogah He Who is meditated upon by the yogi-s is yogah . This nAma is probably a very good example where different vyAkhyAna kartA-s use the diversity of meanings for a word, and give interpretations that support their own schools of philosophy, and we get the benefit of diverse enjoyment of His guNa-s in the process. 19. yogavitAm netA One who leads those who practise yogA until they reach their Goal. From Sankara BhAshya, a yoga-vit is one who inquires into, realizes, or acquires yoga - yogam vidanti, vicArayanti, jAnanti, labhanta iti vA yoga vidah. Nayati iti netA - one who leads . In GItA, Sri Krishna says: "ananyAs-cintayanto mAm ye janAh paryupAsate| teshAm nityAbhiyuktAnAm yoga-keshemam vahAmyaham|| (GItA - 9-22) " On those who meditate on me with single-minded devotion, those that want to be with Me unceasingly, I confer on them .the Bliss of .union (yoga) with Me constantly and never returning back to samsAra again (the safety or kshema)"

20. pradhAna purusha Isvarah One who is the Lord of Primordial Matter as well as the Jivas.

PradhAna here refers to the cause of bondage, and purusha refers to the jivAtmA. Perhaps the easiest way to understand the concept of prakrti or pradhAna is through the following explanation for the Brahma Sutra deha yogAdvA so'pi - This conealment of the true nature of jiva is caused by the contact with the body (at the time of creation) or by the contact with the Primordial Matter (prakrti or pradhAna) at the time of deluge. Thus prakrti or pradhAna can be conceived of as the undifferentiated or 'asat' form of the bondage of the jiva, and the sarIra or body can be conceived of as the sat form that keeps the jiva in bondage.

Chapter 13 in the Bhagavad Gita deals elaborately with the concepts of prakrti and jIvAtmA and their interrelationship to each other. In sloka 19 of chapter 13, BhagavAn points out that both prakrti and purusha have always existed, and this nAma indicates that He is the Lord and Master of both. "prakrtim purusham caiva vidyanAdau ubhAvapi". prakrti can be considered to be composed of rajas, tamas and sattva, and from these all the rest such as the panca bhUtas, the eleven indriyas, the five indriya-gocaras, etc. arise. These are explained in detail in the gItA bhAshya by TirukkaLLam Sri NrsimhAchArya. 21. nArasimha vapuh -

He Who is possessed of a body of man and lion combined. om nArasimha-vapushe namah. SrI BhaTTar captures several thoughts about this incarnation of bhagavAn in one sentence in his commentary: sva-bhaktyantarAya nivAraNam bhkata-bhayApaha tadapekshA samakshaNa pratipannayathA kAma divya mahA-nRsimha samhananh. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. This incarnation shows a removal of impediments to devotion to Him. He takes incarnations at will. His incarnations are divine. They remove the fear of His devotees . The incarnations are assumed the moment the request is made.

SrI rAdhA kRshNa SAstri elaborates on these, and add his own anubhava-s. Among his additional thoughts are: 6. This incarnation shows that when it comes to bhagavAn, our "normal" rationalization should not be applied to anything associated with Him. For instance, we know that man is the best evolved species in the thinking capability (brain power). Similarly, lion is the most evolved in physical strength. Its strength is located in its body and its powerful nails. So, in order to destroy a powerful asura such as hiraNya kaSipu, it would have made a lot more sense if bhagavAn had taken a form with the head of a human being (with the associated highly evolved brain), and the body of a lion (the most evolved with respect to physical strength). BhagavAn does exactly the opposite - the head of a lion, and the body of a human being. This is a simple illustration of the point that He is beyond our capabilities of analysis.

BhagavAn does whatever it takes to fulfill the request of His devotee, irrespective of whether it shows Him in

the best light or not. ANDAL refers to His varAha incarnation as "mAnam ilAp panRi" - the shameless boar with dirt dripping from all over its body, to go after another rAkshasa, hiraNyAksha, the brother of hiraNyakaSipu.

7. Anyone who observes a scene of an ausra being torn to pieces with its nails by a lion-faced form with a human body, will be terror-stricken. And yet, we see prahlAda standing in great reverence, unperturbed, and pleased at having the divya darSanam of the Lord. But seeing the same form, hiraNya kaSipu was terrorstricken as the half-man-half-lion form emerged from the pillar. Thus, at the same time, with the same form, bhagavAn was pleasing to the eye of the devotee, and causing terror to the devotee's enemy. This is another revelation of the greatness of bhagavAn that simultaneously He is endowed with all opposites at the same time.

8. In addition to the aspect of His being able to induce fear or love at the same time, there is the beauty aspect to His form of half-man half-lion. Just for a moment, think of some human form with the head of a lion appearing in front of us, and imagine the aversion that this sight will induce in us. Not so with Lord nRsimha. He was absolutely beautiful in this form, as SrI BhaTTar elaborates in the next nAma SrImAn because He is always associated with SrI or Lakshmi. tirumazhiSai AzhvAr describes His beauty as ari pongik kATTum azhagu (nAnmugan tiru. 21) The beauty of nRsimha form looked like beauty bubbling and spilling over because it cant be contained anywhere.tirumazhiSai AzhvAr describes His beauty as ari pongik kATTum azhagu (nAnmugan tiru. 21) The beauty of nRsimha form looked like beauty bubbling and spilling over because it cant be contained anywhere. 9. In normal course of life, something that came from breaking a jaDa form such as the pillar should be expected to be another piece of the same jaDa form. One should expect a live form to be originating only from another life form. Hers relating to Him, we should not be applying normal logic as we are used to do. SvAmi deSikan describes this unusual birth of Lord nRsimha from the pillar in his daSavatAra stotram in one of his poetic naya-s. He describes the lucky pillar from which Lord nRsimha emerged, as the grandmother of brahmA mahAsura gRha sthUNA pitAmahyabhUt (Slokam 5). The lineage in this description is that bhagavAn is the father of brahmA, and since the pillar gave birth to Lord nRsimha, the pillar thus becomes the grandmother of brahmA.

10. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha does not support the interpretation that bhagavAn had an actual mixed body consisting of some aspects of man and some aspects of lion. Instead, he suggests that the nAma means that He took a normal form that possessed the best aspects such as the strength of a lion, and the best aspects of man such as the ability to think. We will not go into the merits of this interpretation. Only the interesting philosophical aspect that he brings out is dealt with here. He sees in this nAma the illustration that neither karma alone, nor j~nAna alone, are sufficient in the fulfillment of any undertaking, and that both are needed. He quotes from the Srtuti-s in support: idam me brahma ca kshatram ca ubhe Sriyam aSnutAm (yajur. 32.16) yatra brahma ca kshatram ca samya'ncou caratah saha | tam lokam puNyam pra~jnesham yatra devAh sahagninA || (yajur. 20.25)

As a lesson to take from this nAma, SrI vAsishTha makes the point that whatever action one undertakes, this should be done after fully analyzing and understanding the consequences associated with this action. One can also extrapolate from this the thought that it is not enough to have the ability to use force, but also along with that, one should know how to use this force, when to use this force, etc., in order for the force to have beneficial effects.

11. svAmi deSikan describes the six rahasya-s associated with bhagavAns incarnations in his SaraNAgati dIpikA Slokam 17. All of these naturally apply to nArasimha vapuh also. These are: - He takes many incarnations with different forms at will as needed nAnA vidhaih. One of these is the nRsimha incarnation. - The incarnations are all true forms that He assumes, and not just mAyA forms a-kapaTaih. - Every incarnation of His is fully endowed with His parattvam and all His kalyANa guNa-s in full, irrespective of the incarnation He takes ajahat-svabhAvaih - His forms in His incarnations are not made of panca bhUta-s like ours, but His tirumEni in His incarnations is also made of Suddha-sattva, and so He is beyond the three guNa-s, sattva, rajas, and tamas a-prAkRtaih - The forms in His incarnations are takenas part of His leelA, and not as a result of any karma as in our case nij-vihAra-siddhaih - They are taken purely for the protection of His devotees and the destruction of their enemies AtmIya rakshaNa vipaksha vinASanArthaih. 22. srImAn One with a lovely form. In the context of the uncommon and frightful form of nara-simha that we encountered in the previous nAma, one would not normally expect this to be a form of beauty. Not so in the case of BhagavAn, since His form is celestial, charming and beautiful. It is difficult to translate the description that Sri Bhattar has given in Sanskrit - soundarya lAvaNyAdibhih ati-manohara divya rupa. Sri Sankara interprets this name as One who has Lakshmi always with Him in His vaksha-sthala - yasya vakshasi nityam vasati srI: sa srImAn. And for this reason, even though He has the form of a man-lion, there is no diminution in His beauty. 23. kesavah One with lovely locks of hair. The name can be derived from the word kesa - hair. He is beautiful not only because he has Lkashmi with Him, but because He is naturally beautiful. "prasastah kesAh santu asya iti kesavah. An additional interpretation for this name, which is supported by VishNu purANa, is given by Sri Sankara. This interpretation says that kesava derives from the fact that KrishNa is the destroyer of the demon Kesi who was sent to kill the child KrishNa by Kamsa. "yasmAt tvayaiva drshTAtmA hatah kesI janArdana: |

tasmAt kesava nAmnA tvam loke jneyo bhavishyati || "

However, the name kesi-hA appears later on in the stotra, and this literally means the destroyer of kesi. So a different interpretation here will be appropriate since otherwise there is the punarukti dosha, or the fault of repetition. In fact, the name kesava itself repeats later on in the stotra, and we will wait to see what interpretation the great vyAkhyAna kartAs are going to give us at that time (kesavah kesi-hA hari: ). 24. purushottamah The Supreme amongst the purushas (i.e., individualsouls). Purushebhya: uttama:, purushANAm uttama:, purusheshu uttama: are all possible derivations for this nAma. We find the uttama purusha (purushottama) described in more detail in the Gita in sloka 15.16 and 15.17. Here the purushas are described as of two kinds - the kshara or those who have the association with prakrti and are under the bondage of samasara, and the akshara or the muktas who are released from bondage. The uttama purursha is different from either of these kinds of purushas, and is the paramAtmA who supports the acetana and the chetans who are either the baddhas (purushas under bondage) or muktas (purushas released from bondage).. In Gita 15-18, Lord Krishna summarizes the above as follows: "yasmAt ksharam atIto'ham aksharAdapi cottama: | ato'smi loke vede ca pratithah purushottama: || "Because I am superior to both kinds of purushas - the kshara and the akshara, all the srutis and smrtis praise Me as purushottama."

Slokam 4

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

sarvaH sharvaH shivaH sthAnuH bhUtAdiH nidhiravyayaH sambhavaH bhAvanaH bhartA prabhavaH prabhuH IshvaraH

25. sarvah (sa as in sanAtana) One who is all - the cause of creation and destruction of all things. We have the following from MahAbhArata "asatasca satascaiva sarvasya prabhavApyayAt sarvasya sarvadA jnAnAt savamenam pracakshate (MB 5.68.11) "He is the origin and end of all things, chetana and achetana, and He has full knowledge of all beings at all times, and so He is called sarva". Sri ChinmayAnanda gives a very simple illustration to help understand the concept behind this nAma. - "All waves arise from the same ocean, and so the ocean is the essence in all waves". 26. sharvah (sa as in Shiva) The Remover of all sins I am unable to get a good understanding of the interpretation of this nAma. The word is derived from the root sr - to tear to pieces, to kill, to hurt. Neither Sri Bhattar nor Sri Sankara have given references to other srutis for this nAma. If any of you know of a context in the Gita or elsewhere that this name occurs or is referred to, please advise me since I would like to understand the significance of this nAma better. Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna says that the Lord is called sarva because He removes the evils of objects that are His body (sva sarIra bhUtAnAm asubhamapi srNAti iti sarvah. Perhaps this means that BhagavAn destroys the sins of His devotees, but the significance of the word . "asubhamapi" in the above is unclear. The author of Nirukti interprets Sri Bhattar's above vyAkhyAna as follows: "sva sarIra jagad-duhkham sarva: sa sthAt srNAti yah"- Sri Sankara interprets this word in terms of the action of BhagavAn at the time of pralaya in withdrawing all beings unto Himself - srNAti samhAra samaye samharati samhArayati vA sakalAh prajA: iti sarvah. In this context, SrI RadhAkrshNa Sastri points out that this destruction at the time of prlaya is not

really to be considered cruel, since this is like "destroying" the shape of raw rice when it is cooked in order to make it edible - the beings are destroyed in order to give them new life. 27. shivah One who confers auspiciouness subha Avahasca sivah - One who bestows auspiciouness on all. In Mahabharata Drona Parva (202), we have the following for supporting the above interpretation: "sameghayati yan-nityam sarvArthAn sarvakarmasu | sivamicchan manushyAnAm tasmAdesha sivah smrtah || "One who bestows all that is desired always by all His devotees is called Siva because of this guNa of His". Two instances of Sri VishNu being referred to as Siva are in nArAyaNa upanishad "sAsvatam sivam acyutam" - The Eternal, The Auspicious, and the One Who never lets His devotees fall" "sa brahma sa sivah sendrah so'ksharah paramah svarAt" - He is Brahma, He is Siva, He is Indra, He is Eternal, He is Supreme, He is the Lord of all. 28. sthANuh One who is .firm in His benefits and anugraha to the devotees. The name derives from the word stha - tisThati, indicating firmness or steadiness. Sri Bhattar interprets this name as indicating that the result of BhagavAn's anugraha is firm in its effect of blessing the devotee far beyond what other lesser acts can bestow. Sri Radhakrishnam Sastri indicates that sthANu is also the name for a tree which has matured to such an extent that no changes affect it any more, including sun, rain etc. He interprets this name as indicating BhagavAn's guNa of not being affected by changes such as growth, decay, etc., nor impacted by the changes of time, place, etc. We will revisit the name sthANu again in the sloka "vistArah sthAvarah sthANuh.....", where we should expect a different interpretation for this guNa in the context that is applicable at that part of the stotram. 29. bhUtAdih a) One who is eagerly sought after by all beings b) The source or cause of all beings c) The very source of the panca bhUtas

Sri Bhattar gives the interpretation bhUtaih sprhaNIyatanatayA AdIyate - One who is eagerly sought after by all beings. Sri Sankara gives the interpretation bhUtAnAm Adi-kAraNatvAt bhUtAdih - BhagavAn is called bhUtAdih because He is the first cause of all beings. It is possible that Sri Bhattar chose to interpret it differently because the second interpretation is similar to the meaning for bhUtakrt (nAma 5). I would like to request any of our bhaktas to comment further. Sri ChinmayAnanda gives another plausible interpretation . - The very cause for the first five great elements - the panca bhUtas - Space, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. BhUtAnAm Adih 30. nidhiravyayah The inexhaustible treasure. Avayayah nidhih - He is like the wealth that is kept under safe keeping and always available at the time of distress to His bhaktas. Sri ChinmayAnanda points out that the term nidhi means that in which precious things are stored away or preserved secretly - nidhIyate asmin iti nidhih. Surely BhagavAn is a treasure that is not understood or obtained easily by everyone. Sri Sankara interprets this nAma as meaning that VishNu is the One in whom all things go and lie merged therein temporarily till the next creation, and so He is the Immutable Treasure Chest. 31. sambhavah (Though like a Hidden Treasure), One who manifests Himself at will to .those who sincerely seek Him. He manifests Himself at any place and at any time and in any form (e.g., nrsimha, matsya, kUrma, etc.). Note the following: "dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge" (GItA 4-8)" svecchayA sambhavAmyevam garbha duhkha vivarjitah" 32. bhAvanah (Having manifested thus), One who regenerates all by dispelling all their evils. The author of Nirukti summarizes Sri Bhattar's interpretation by the following words: yo janitvA janAn ujjIvayati sah bhAvanah - One who, after having manifested Himself (sambhavah - see above), brings back all to life. Sri ChinmayAnanda points out that to do bhAvana is to give, and BhagavAn gives the fruits of action as they deserve to all, and so He is bhAvana. This is consistent with Sri Sankara's interpretation that BhagavAn is bhAvana because He gives the fruits of actions to all jivas. 33. bhartA

Supporter. Sri Sankara gives the following vyAkhyAna - prapancasya adhishTAnatvena bharaNAt bhartA - BhagavAn is bhartA (Sustainer) because He sustains the universe as its Lord. Sri Bhattar points out that He does this nourishing of His devotees by giving Himself up to His devotees because this is His Nature - yasmAt pushNAti Atma-dAnAt. 34. prabhavah One whose birth is of a sublime nature. Asya bhavah prakrshTa iti prabhavah - His birth (bhava) is unsullied by any blemish, and is capable of uprooting the fetter of birth of all those who realize Him. Or, prakarsheNa bhavati . 35. prabhuh He who is all powerful. Sri Sankara's vyAkhyAna is - sarvAsu kriyAsu sAmarthya atisayavAn prabhuh - One who is the most powerful, showing it forth in all His actions. The author of Nirukti summarizes Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna thus: "brahmAdInAm ca sarveshAm bhoga-moksha-samarpaNe | samarthah prabhu: ityuktah sarveshTa phalado manuh || " He is prabhu - most powerful - because he can bestow fruits such as the enjoyment of the pleasures associated with those of Brahma and even moksha. 36. Isvarah a) One who has the supreme power of control over all beings b) One who has the ability to do anything without the help of any other beings or things This nAma is interpreted based on its relation to the word aisvarya or to the word ishta. The first meaning derives from the word aisvarya - nirupAdhikam aisvaryam asya iti Isvarah - He is Isvara because he has unlimited might or power. The second meaning derives from IshTe iti Isvarah - One who can do whatever He wills without the help of anything else.

Slokam 5

37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

svayambhUH shambhuH AdityaH pushkarAkshaH mahAsvanaH anAdinidhanaH dhAtA vidhAtA dhAturuttamaH

37. svayambhUh He who manifests Himself by His own free will. Svayameva bhavati iti svayambhUh - One who is self-born. Sri RAdhA KrishNa Sastri gives the example of how in the case of the birth of Lord KrshNa to Devaki and Vasudeva, the child was born unlike any other child, decorated with beautiful jewels, smiling, lotus-eyed, with divya rUpa, etc., and with no pain or discomfort to the mother. In Srimad BhAgavatam, we find the following description: tam adbhutam bAlakam ambujekshNam caturbhujam sankha gadAryudAyudham | srIvatsalakshmam galasobhikaustubham pItAmbaram sAndra payodasoubhagam || "(Sri KrshNa at birth) was of magnificent appearance, lotus-eyed, adorned with sankha, cakra, and gada, with four arms, the kaustubha around his neck, adorned with pitAmbara (yellow silk cloth) around His waist, and beautiful like the water-laden cloud". 38. shambhuh One who causes happiness to everyone by the beauty of His appearance.

Sam bhAvayati iti sambhuh - here sam (sa as in Shiva) means sukham or happiness. This happiness is caused by the sheer beauty of His manifestation. In RAmAyaNa we see the following passages: "rUpa audArya guNai: pumsAm drshti citta apahAriNam" - (Sri Rama) attracts the eyes and hearts of beholders by His beauty, generosity, and similar qualities. "candra kAntAnanam rAmam atIva priya darsanam" - Rama who has a face lovelier than the moon, and who has an extremely pleasing appearance 39. Adityah a) The purusha in the Sun b) One of the twelve Adityas c) One who sustains and nourishes everything like the Sun

Sri Bhattar points out that this is one example of BhagavAn manifesting Himself at His will. We are all familiar with "dhyeyah sadA savtr-manDala madhyavarti nArAyaNa...." Sriman nArAyaNa who is in the centre of the orb of the Sun must always be meditated upon. We also have "sa yascAyam purushe, yascAsAvAditye, sa eka: " (taittirIya upanishad) He is one and the same deity who is in the hearts of men and who is in the middle of the Sun. Sri Sankara gives the additional explanation that this nAma can refer to Lord VishNu being one of the twleve Adityas or Aditi's sons. He gives the Bhagavad Gita in support of this: "AdityAnAm aham vishNur-jyotishAm raviramsumAn | marIcirmaruTamasmi nakshtrANAm aham sasI || (10-21) "Among Adityas, I am VishNu", (the twelfth Aditya) ......... Sri Chinmaya points out that BhagavAn incarnated as Aditi's son in His vAmana incarnation. .

Sri Chinmaya also points out that another way to enjoy this nAma is to realize that BhagavAn is like the Sun in that everything depends on the Sun for its survival, and so BhagavAn is Aditya or the Sun or the supporter and nourisher of everything. 40. pushkarAkshah The Lotus-eyed.

Sri ChinmayAnanda refers us to the famous quote "The eye is the reflection of the mind", and points out that the reference to the beauty of the eye in this nAma is to be contemplated on in terms of the Inner Joy and Peace that BhagavAn beams out to all through His eyes and magically lifts out all the sorrows in His

devotee's hearts. This nAma re-occurs as nAma 561 later, where we will find a new interpretation. Pushkare akshiNI yasya sa pushkarAkshah; PoshayatI bhUtAni pushkare akshiNI yasya sa pushkarAkshah. 41. mahA-svanah He of the venerable sound (of the vedas) In BrhadAraNya upanishad, we have the following: "asya mahato bhUtasya ni:svasitametad yad-rg-vedo yajur-vedah sAma vedo-atharvAngirasa: itihAsa: purANam vidyA upanishada: slokA: sUtrANyaNuvyAkhyAnAni vyAkhyAnAni" (4.4.10) Thus has been breathed from this great Being what we have as Rg veda, Yajur veda, sAma veda, and atharva veda, etc. 42. anAdi-nidhanah One who is without beginning or end. Yasya Adi nidhanam na asti sa anAdi-nidhanah - One for whom there is neither beginning nor end. nidhana, which commonly refers to poverty or lack of wealth, also has a second meaning, death or destruction. . BhagavAn is anAdi-nidhana because His form is not composed of earthly elements like fat, flesh and bone na tasya prakrtA mUrti:mAmsa-medosthi-sambhavA (varAha purANa 75.44), His body is beyond the range of the sense-organs, and can be cognized only by the eye of the mind - rUpam vA atIndriyam, antahkaraNapratyaksha nirdesAt, His body is not made up of the combination of elements like earth, water, etc. - na bhUta sangha samsthAno deho'sya paramAtmanah (MahAbhArata - sAnti parva 206-60), etc. 43. dhAtA a) One Who created the Universe (dhA to produce, or dhA to lay upon). b) He Who supports and sustains (dhA dhAraN poshaNayoySca). c) He Who has no support other than Himself (a-dhAtA). d) He Who drinks everything during pralaya (dheT pAne to drink). e) One Who is the antaryAmi of the four-faced brahmA. This nAma occurs again in Slokam 102 (nAma 951). The nAma can be derived from the roots a) dhA - to produce, to bear, to place, to lay upon; . b) dhA dhAraNa poshaNayoH to support and nurture, or, c) dhEt pAne to drink. SrI Sankara has also provided an alternate interpretation based on the pATham a-dhAtA. SrI BhaTTar interprets the current nAma as The Creator of everything, including the four-faced brahmA. BrahmA has the responsibility for creation of everything inside the brahmANDa, through the powers given to

him by bhagavAn. On the other hand, bhagavAn creates the brahmANDa itself, and brahmA as the first one in the brahmANDa, before brahmA is given the responsibility for the creation of the rest of the things inside brahmANDa. BhagavAn performs the function of creation inside the brahmANDa by being the antaryAmi of brahmA. Thus, bhagavAn is the true Creator of everything. BhagavAns role as the true Creator is repeatedly sung by nammAzhvAr in his tiruvAimozhi.

SrI BhaTTars interpretation for the current instance of the nAma can be understood based on the root dhA to to put, place, lay, put in, lay on or upon (SrI Aptes dictionary). The main idea being conveyed here is that bhagavAn is the Creator of all, including the four-faced brahmA, rudra, etc., all the way down to the blade of grass. SrI BhaTTars interpretation is: aniruddha svarUpaH sarva yonau acit-samashTi bhUtAyAm prakRtau cit-samshTi bhUtam virincAtmakam garbham dadhAti iti dhAtA BhagavAn, in the form of aniruddha, places the aggregate of sentient beings (selves) into the prakRti (the aggregate of non-sentient principles), and it is this laying of one on the other, or association of one with the other by bhagavAn, that is the cause of all beings, namely, creation. SrI BhaTTar gives the gItA Slokam 14.3 in support of his interpretation: mama yonir mahad brahma tasmin garbham dadhAmyaham | sambhavaH sarva bhUtAnAm tato bhavati bhArata || (gItA 14.3) prakRti (referred to here by the term mahad brahma, meaning very large) is like My womb. In that I lay the germ (garbham dadhAmi; the germ or seed referring to the collection of all the jIva-s), and this is what results in the birth or creation of all life forms with a body associated with the self, O bhArata!. SrI BhaTTar gives additional supports from two other sources:

dhAtA kshetre karma-bIja- bhUtam garbham dadhAti (maula samhitA) dhAtA places the foetus (the jIva, which is the seed for actions) ) in the kshetra (prakRti). Apa eva sasarja Adau tAsu vIryam apAsRjat (manu. SmRti 1.8) First He created the waters (referring to the aggregate of prakRti); and in them hee put His vigor (the aggregate of sentients). We also have references to His function of creation in the following: tamasaH paramo dhAtA Sa'nkha cakra gadA dharaH (yuddha kANDa 114.18), where maNDodarI describes Lord rAma as dhAtA (The Creator). sUrya candramasau dhAtA yathA pUrvam akalpayat divam ca RthivIm cAnthariksham atho svah || (Rg. 10/190/3) |

He recreates the world with the sun, moon, etc., the same way all over again after each pralaya. SrI bala deva vidyA bhUshaN gives an interpretation along the lines of that of SrI BhaTTar: utpatti vinASa virahAdanAdi nidhanaH kAraNatve virincyAdibhyo viSesham Aha dhAtA iti | acit samashTau prakRti yonau cit samshTau virinci garbhasya dhAraNAt ituarthaH | - He Who is the cause of creation, protection and destruction, and He Who sows the seed for brahmA (creates brahmA), by the union of the cit samashTi and acit samsashTi (samashTi = conglomerate). All the other interpreters that we cover have used the root dhA dhAra poshaNayoH, or the root dheT pibe to drink. These interpretations are covered under nAma 951 (Slokam 102).

44. vidhAtA om vidhAtre namaH. a) He Who specially protected the seed He sowed for brahmA till the seed fully developed into the creation of catur-mukha brahmA. b) The Ordainer of the laws of conduct for all, including the likes of yama. c) The Dispenser of the fruits of action and the inducer of action. d) The Supporter of all supports such as AdiSesha. e) He Who lays down the code of conduct and the fruits to be attained from them. f) He Who protects the beings of this world in diverse ways (vi-dhAtA; vi = vividhaiH). g) He Who bestows the desires of His devotees. h) He Who is borne by garuDa, His vehicle (vi-dhAtA; vi = garuDa). This nAma occurs again in Slokam 51 (nAma 485). The meaning for the nAma can be understood based on the following meanings given in the dictionary, and the derivation given by SrI vAsishTha, among others: - vidhAtR A maker, a creator. Grantor, giver, bestower. - vidhAnam arranging, disposing. - vidhAnam - a rule, precept, ordinance, sacred rule or precept, sacred injunction. - vidhAtA vidhAnasya kartA He Who ordains the rules etc. For nAma 43, SrI BhaTTar uses the meaning Creator for the word dhAtA. For the current nAma, he continues on this interpretation, discussed below. SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also continues on this same line. All the other interpreters we have been covering, use one of the other meanings for their interpretations. These other interpretations are covered under nAma 485 in Slokam 51. a) For nAma 44, SrI BhaTTar continues on the interpretation of nAma 43 (dhAtA The Creator), and gives the explanation that bhagavAn is vidhAtA because He not only initiated the creation of brahmA in the form of the garbha (nAma 43), but also He protected the garbham until brahmA was born. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan explains that the nAma dhAtA refers to bhagavAn creating the seed for brahmA, and vidhAtA as referring to nurturing this seed and making it come into existence. SrImad SrImushNam ANDavan explains the nAma as: viSesheNa dhAtA vidhAtA.

SrI BhaTTar gives several supporting references: - yo brahmANam vidadhAti pUrvam yo vai vedAnSca prahiNoti tasmai | tam ha devam Atam buddhi prakASam mumukshur-vai SaraNam aham parapdye || (SvetAS. 6.18) I, an aspirant after liberation, seek refuge in the effulgent God who created brahmA first, and who endowed him with the Vedas also, and on account of whom my intellect shines. - hiraNyagarbham paSyata jAyamAnam (tait. NArA.) BhagavAn saw brahmA as he was being born. - tasmAt virAT ajAyata (purusha.sUk.) From Him, virAt (i.e., brahmA) was born. - tasmin jaj~ne svayam brahmA sarva-loka pitAmahaH (manu. 1.9) Therein was born brahmA himself, who is known as the grandsire of the universe. SrI baladeva vidyAbhUshaNs interpretation is the same as that of SrI BhaTTar tam garbham pariNamayya AvirbhAvayati it vidhAtA. SrI kRshNans anubhavam is that bhagavAn is called vidhAtA because He carefully protected brahmA in His beautiful nAbhI kamalam or the lotus in the navel, until he was born. Please see the write-up under Slokam 51 (nAma 485) for other interpretations. 45. dhAturuttamah a) One who is far superior to Brahma (dhAtr) b) The best of all basic constitutents The first interpretation is self-explanatory based on the previous two nAmas. Another explanation given is based on the word dhAtu, which means "element" or basic constituent. He is the ultimate constituent of all, and so He is dhAturuttama. Slokam 6

46. aprameyah 47. hrshIkesah 48. padmanAbhah 49. amaraprabhuh 50. viSva karmA 51 manuh 52. tvashTA 53. sthavishThah 54. sthavirah 55. dhruvah

46. aprameyah One who cannot be defined, explained, measured, etc. through logical means, (but who can only be experienced) pramAtum na yogya: aprameyah He is beyond reach through normal means because He is beyond sense organs (pratyaksha) such as our mortal eyes, ears, etc.; nor through inference (anumAna) because he is devoid of the marks leading to inference (e.g., the presence of fire can be inferred through smoke but, for this inference, one should have witnessed fire and smoke together at least once. No one has seen the Lord with or without anything associated); nor through analogy or comparison (upamA), because He is without parts and everything else is only parts, and hence no comparison can be made; nor through Apta vAkya or shabda pramANa (someone else who has seen Him telling us, or through sacred texts) because no one can see Him, since even the muktAs only experience Him. Sri Bhattar goes on to point out that BhagavAn is aprameya because He is beyond the sense organs of even Brahma and other gods (Sri RAdhAKrshNa Sastri points out that the means of sensing is the same for Brahma and other gods as it is for people). He is not describable as This or That, like this or like that, or inferred because of this or because of that, etc., and so He is aprameya. 47. hrshIkesah a) The controller of the sense-organs of all including Brahma, Rudra etc. b) One who, in the form of the Sun and the Moon, makes this world happy through His rays

The two interpretations are derived by looking at this word as hrshIkA + Isa or hrishI + kesa. The first explanation is derived from "HrshIkANAm Isah hrshIkesah - The Lord of the sense-organs. The second interpretation is given based on kesa - rays, hrshI - that give happiness. Sri Sankara gives the following support from MahAbhArata, Moksha dharma, SAnti parva for the second interpretation: "sUrya candramasoh SaSa vadamSubhi: keSa samjnitaih | bodhayan svApayanScaiva jagadutthisThAte prthak || bodhanAt svApanAccaiva jagato harshaNam bhavet || agnIshoma krtairebhih karmabhih pANdunandana | hrIkeSo'hamIsAno varado lokabhAvana: || "The sun and the moon through their kesa or rays always uphold the world by awakening it and causing it to sleep. By such awakening and sleeping, the world is delighted. It is in consequence of this act of fire (Sun) and Soma who uphold the universe that I have come to be known as HrshIkeSa...". Sri T.S. Krishnamurthy, who has written an English trnslation to Sri Sankara bhAshya, has taken this guNAnubhava one more step by saying that the keSa - hair of the Lord in the form of the rays of the sun and the moon give delight (harsha), and thus He is HrshIkeSa. 48. padma-nAbhah One from whose navel the lotus (the cause of the Universe) emanates. Sarva jagat kAraNam padmam nAbhau yasya sa padmanAbhah Sri Bhattar points out that this name substantiates or summaries all that has been said through the previous nAmas about BhagavAn being the creator or cause of Brahma (e.g., dhAtA, vidhAtA, dhaturuttamah). Sri RadhAkrshNa Sastri gives a beautiful and simple explanation to enable the appreciation of this nAma. In our normal life, the child before and at birth is connected to the mother through the navel chord, and gets its nourishment from the mother through this chord. Similar is the chord from the Lord's navel, which is nothing but the Universe in its prakrti form, and which looks like a lotus which has not expanded. This is prior to its expansion through Time, and He is the nourisher of this creation of His (which is none other than Brahma). 48. amara-prabhuh The Lord of the immortal gods. AmarANAm prabhuh amaraprabhuh. The Lord is amaraprabhu because He created the different devatAs and entrusted them with acts such as creation, destruction, etc., made them immortal because of their functions, and directs them in their functions. Sri Bhattar quotes the following words ascribed to Brahma in Uttara kANda in RAmAyaNa -

"mahArNave SayAnau'psu mAm tvam pUrvam ajIjana: | prAhApatyam tvayA karma sarvam mayi niveSitam || (104-4) "You were lying on the waters of the great ocean and you first of all created me. The entire duty of the PrajApati (the rulership of the beings) was entrusted to me by you". Also, the following from MahAbhArata is given "etau dvau vibudha SreshThau prasAda-krodhajau smrtau | tadAdarSita panthAnau srshTi samhAra kArakau ||(169-19) "These two great gods (Brahma and Rudra) are said to have emerged from the sweet temper and wrath of BhagavAn respectively. They carry out the duty of creation and destruction in the way shwon by Him". 50. viSva karmA a) One who is the agent of all actions with regard to the Universe. b) The Creator of the Universe viSvam karma jagad-vyApArah yasya sa viSva karmA. Sri Bhattar points out that this name signifies that all the entire work with regard to the affairs of the Universe are His alone either before or after the creation of Brahma. In other words, He is the director and controller. Among the many passages in the sruti that support the interpretation are: "so'kAmayatabahu syAm prajAyeya iti He willed, I shall become many, I shall take birth" - taittirIya AraNyaka - 6. "so'bidhyAya SarIrAt svAt sisrkshu: vividhAh prajA: Brahman willed to create different kinds of beings out of Its body and so It did" 51. manuh The Great Thinker: MananAt manuh In the BrhadAraNya upanishad, we have "nAnyo'to'sto mantA There is no thinker but Him" - (B.U. 3.7.23) To mentally conceive an act prior to the act itself is mananam. BhagavAn has to but think and not do anything else in order to achieve what He wills. The creation of the cosmos was only a minute part of His will. Sri Bhattar uses the word sankalpa lava mAtrAt - by the mere fraction (lava mAtrAt) of His will, to explain this 52. tvashTA One who created all the different forms and names in this Universe.

This name is dervied from the root tvaksh - to pare, to reduce, to chisel. Sri Bhattar uses this meaning to interpret this nAma to mean that BhagavAn has "chiseled" so many diverse forms and names of gods, man, birds, plants, insects, etc., and thus He is tvashTA. He gives the taittirIya araNyaka (3-11) in support tvashTAram rUpANi vikurvantam vipascitam. Sri Sankara uses the same meaning to interpret this name as indicating that BhagavAn pares down all the beings or makes them shrink at the time of cosmic dissolution or pralaya. It is interesting to note that the first interpretation refers to the creation of forms and shapes from the primordial matter, and the second interpretation refers to the dissolution of forms and shapes back into primordial matter. 53. sthavishThah One who is exceedingly huge in size. The name is derived from the two words sthUla and ishTha - One who willed to be huge. Sri Bhattar points out that this huge size is the manifestation of BhagavAn as the brahmANda (the eggshaped universe) with the fourteen worlds. which are the places of residences for all the beings that He has created, as well as its sheath, and the sense-organs of all the beings, as well as the sound, touch, and other qualities that are the objects of these sense-organs, as well as their effects. The fourteen worlds are referred to by Sri Ramanuja in his Sri VaikuNTha-gadyam (caturdaSa bhuvanAntaram aNdam daSa guNitottaram ....) in his reference to Sri VaikunTham's location far, far beyond the limits of these fourteen worlds. 54. sthavirah One who has always existed, Older than the oldest. The name is derived from the root stha - tishThati - to stand. This nAma signfies that BhagavAn is not constrained by Time. All His creation goes through the cycle of creation and pralaya, and He uses Time for His creation and dissolution, but He is not constrained by it. Thus He is older than the oldest. 55. dhruvah One who is unaffected by Time, Unchanging, Permanent. The word is derived from the root dhr - to carry, maintain, preserve, to be eternal, immovable - (sthiratvAt dhruvah). The previous nAma indicated that BhagavAn is the oldest of the oldest. This nAma signifies that He is unchanging while Time keeps moving. Perhaps because both the nAmas sthavira and dhruva refer to the quality of BhagavAn being beyond the influence, effect, or control of Time, Sri Sankara has chosen to interpret the two words as one nAma sthaviro dhruvah - One who is unchanging and older than the oldest. Thus the sequence number for the nAmas that follow start differing from this nAma between Sri Sankara bhAshya and Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna.

Slokam 7

56. agrAhyah 57. SASvatah 58. krsHNah 59. lohitAkshah 60. pradrdanah 61. prabhUtah 62. tri-kakuddhAma 63. pavitram 64. mangalam param

56. agrAhyah One who is beyond the grasp of others. The interpretation for this nAma by Sri Bhattar is that BhagavAn cannot be physically grasped, controlled, or acted upon by anyone or anything, and is thus beyond grasp. He gives the following reference to the sruti: nainam Urdhvam na tiryancam na madhye parijagrabhat One could grasp Him neither in the vertical dimension, nor in the horizontal dimension, nor in the third dimension, or for that matter, any other dimension. Sri Sankara's interpretation is karmendriayih na grhyata iti agrAhyah - One who cannot be grasped by the organs of action. He gives the following reference to taittirIya upanishad - yato vAco nivartante, aprApya manasA saha - He cannot be described through speech, and cannot be reached by mind.

Sri ChinmayAnanda gives us yet another interpretation. He points out that the Lord is not the "object" of perception ever by any one, but He is the "subject" who perceives. Thus He is ever the Subject but never the object of perception. He is imperceptible and incomprehensible. Sri Chinmaya refers us to the kenopanishad passage "yat cakshushA na paSyati yena cakshUmsi paSyanti tadeva brahma tvam viddhi - Understand that Brahman is That which cannot be seen by the eyes, but because of which eyes are perceiving other things.

57. shAshvatah One who is eternal. shASvat bhavatIti shAshvatah - That which remains the same at all times is the Permanent. Sri Bhattar points out that the fact that BhagavAn is SASvata is evident from the eternal flow of action pertaining to the world (i.e., creation etc.). Sri Chinmaya points out that for something to be permanent, it has to be changeless with time, and BhagavAn is the controller of time, and is not controlled or affected by time, and so is Eternal and permanent. 58. krsHNah a) One who is always in a state of Bliss (with His sport of creation etc.). b) One who has a dark-blue complexion.. The first interpretation is supported from the following verse in MahAbhArata krshir-bhU-vAcakah Sabdo NaSca nirvrti vAcakah | vishNus-tad bhAvayogAcca krshNo bhavati SASvatah || (MB Udyogaparva 5.68.5) Approximately translated, this says: krishi means bhU, Na means nirvrtti or happiness and bliss, and BhagavAn is called KrshNa because He is the union of these two. Sri Sankara and Sri Bhattar interpret the name slightly differently with this same starting point. Sri Sankara interprets bhU to mean existence (bhU bhav - to be), and Sri Bhattar interprets bhU to mean a receptacle or ground or container (e.g., bhUmi). So Sri Bhattar says that krshNa here means the receptacle of extreme joy because of His constant sport of creation etc. referred to in the previous nAma. Sri Sankara interprets the name to mean that He is the union of existence and bliss. The second interpretation also has its support in the MahAbhArata krshAmi prthivIm pArtha bhUtvA kArshNAyaso halah | krshNo varNaSca me yasmAt tasmAt krshNo'ham arjuna || SAnti parva 342.79 Note the words krshAmi, kArshaNa, and krshNa in the above. Each of these words leads to a new and different interpretation of the meaning of the nAma here. The meaning of the first line in the above sloka is "When the earth becomes shelled by its hard crust, I shall turn myself into an iron plough-share (blackcolored), and shall plough the earth." The name krshNa can arise out of the fact that He is doing the act denoted by the word "krshAmi". Sri Chinmaya beautifully points out that this "ploughing" refers to His ploughing all the stupidities in His devotees and preparing the heart-field, weeding out all the poisonous growth of sin, and cultivating therein pure Bliss. The second part of the verse means "O Arjuna! Because of my dark complexion, I am called KrshNa". The dark complexion referred to above could be because He is the (dark colored) iron plough, or because He is dark complexioned like the water-bearing cloud. Either way, because of His dark complexion, He is called krshNa. Notice that the dark complexion is associated with "kAr mugil vaNNan" or "nIla megha syAmalan" One who has the color of the rain cloud loaded with His limitless mercy.

Sri Chinmaya points out that the inner meaning behind the "dark" complexion is that BhagavAn is not easily recognized (i.e., He is veiled behind some darkness) by those who aspire to reach Him except through single-minded devotion. The nAma krshNa can also be interpreted in terms of the word "AkarshaNa" or magnetic attraction. He is krshNa because He irresistibly attracts all His devotees. Or He sweeps away (like a magnet drawing away the iron filings) the sins in the hearts of those who meditate upon Him. This nAma occurs once more later as nAma 554 in "vedAh svAngo'jitah krshNo.....". Sri Bhattar gives the meaning b) for nAma 554, and gives the first explanation for the current nAma describing the paravAsudeva form. 59. lohitAkshah One with eyes red like the beautiful lotus flower. Lohite akshiNi yasya sah lohitAkshah. Sri Bhattar enjoys the beauty of this nAma by ascribing the redness in the eye to the supreme joy that BhagavAn has. One can recall the mantra "sa mA vrshabho lohitakshah sUryo vipaScit mansA punAtu", which we chant during our sandhyavandanam. This is the second reference so far to the beauty of BhagavAn's eyes (the earlier one was pushkarAksha).

While Sri Bhattar explains the redness of the eye as resulting from extreme joy, another explanation given is that the redness is a result of BhagavAn's anger towards the evil-doers, for the destruction of whom He takes the different avatAras - vinASAya ca dushkrtAm. 60. pradrdanah The Destroyer. This name is derived from the root tardih - to cause destruction. Pra-tarda means extreme destruction. Sri Bhattar gives the following from kaThopanisahd - yasya brahma ca kshtram ca ubhe bhavatah odanah - He who has for His food the brahmins and the kshatriyas (i.e., all beings of the universe) at the time of pralaya. Sri RadhAkrshNa Sastri points out that given the interpretation for this nAma, the redness of the eye in the previous nAma can be appropriately the result of anger at the time of dissolution. 61. prabhUtah

One who is affluent, ever full, and well-endowed with wisdom, greatness, and other qualities.

Literally, the word means "born full" pra-bhUta. Even though at the time of pralaya, BhagavAn destroys everything, still His affluence remains since He has the parama-pada (the transcendental world), which is full of Bliss. And His essential Nature, well-endowed with jnAna, bala, aisvarya, vIrya, Sakti, and tejas still remain. Even after reducing everything at pralaya, the vAmana can be the trivikrama. 62. tri-kakud-dhAma

There are three words in this name - tri, kakub or kakut, and dhAma. tri means three; kakub means the direction or quarter of a compass (for example); kakut means the hump (such as the hump on the back of a bull, or a peak or mountain); kakub and kakut also are interchangeably used for either meaning. dhAma means abode or residence, and also a ray of light or brilliance. Several interpretations arise depending on the choice of the meanings. We will start with dhAma meaning brilliance. Sri Bhattar indicates that if this meaning is used, dhAma will have to be considered as a separate nAma. The first part is then interpreted as tri-kakut, which refers to the incarnation of BhagavAn as the varAha, the Boar with three horns. This interpretation for tri-kakut is supported by the following sloka from moksha dharma in the mahAbhArata tathaiva Asam tri-kakudo vArAham rUpam Asthitah | trikakut tena vikhyAtah SarIrasya pramApaNAt || moksha dharma 343-63. "Then I assumed the form of a Boar with three horns. So I became known as 'tri-kakut'. With that form I killed the rAkshasa." Sri Bhattar gives the above only as an alternative interpretation, but does not interpret the phrase tri-kakuddhaAma as two separate words as explained above. Sri Sankara also interprets tri-kakub-dhAma as one nAma.

One interpretation Sri Bhattar gives for tri-kakud-dhAma is One who has as His abode parama-pada, which is thrice as large as this universe. An alternative interpretation given is that the three parts refer to the three groupings of the six guNas (jnAna, bala, aisvarya, vIrya, Sakti, tejas), and since He is the abode of these three groups of guNas, He is tri-kakud-dhAma. Sri Sankara gives the interpretation that He is the base or support for the three regions of the entire space, the upper, the lower, and the middle, and therefore He is tri-kakud-dhAma. Sri Chinmaya gives the vedAntic interpretation that He is the base or support for the three states of consciousness, viz., the jAgrat, svapna, and sushupti, and this is why He is called tri-kakud-dhAma. 63. pavitram

Purity Incarnate. Up to this point, the qualities, possessions, and body of BhagavAn have been portrayed step-by-step. Now we are passing to His essential Nature which is to be cognized through all of the above. The word is derived from poo - to purify. Either He is the Deity that purifies, or He is the means of purification. The purity referred to here is the inner purity of the mind, which He gives to those who meditate on Him.

Both Sri RadhAkrshNa Sastri and Sri Chinmaya offer a second and more uncommon interpretation - One who gives protection (trAyate) from the thunderbolt of Indra (pavi). Sri Chinmaya points out that in vedAnta indra refers to the mind (indriyANam rAjA indrah - the mind), and the thunderbold of mind can destroy all the accomplishments of a sAdhaka, and uninterrupted medidation of Sri VishNu can give the protection against

such distractions, and thus VishNu is pavi-tra. 64. mangalam param The Embodiment of Supreme Auspiciousness Sri Sankara quotes the following from VishNu PurANa aSubhAni nirAcashTe tanoti Subhasantatim | smrti-mAtreNa yat pumsAm brahma tanmangalam viduh || "Brahman is known as beneficence because He wards off all evils and brings on a series of benefits to men on being merely remembered by them". param just emphasizes that He is the Supreme Beneficence. We may recall the introductory sloka "pavitrANAm pavitram yo mangalAnAm ca mangalam" by Bhishma; these two names occur now sequentially here. Slokam 8

65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

ISAnah prANa_dah prANah jyeshThah SreshThah prajApatih hiraNyagarbah bhUgarbhah mAdhavah madhusUdhanah

65. ISAnah The controller By this name, BhagavAn is clearly distinguished from the bound souls, released souls, and ever-free souls. The name signifies that it is His innate nature to keep all things under control under all circumstances. The name is derived from the root Is - to command, to control, to rule, to possess. The names ISvara and ISAna are both derived from the root IS. I was not able to understand how the word ISAna is grammatically derived from its root, and what the special significance of this particular variant is. I would like to request any one who can elaborate on this further to advise me. 66. prANa_dah The life-giver a) prANAn dadAti iti prANa-dah This gives the first example of how BhagavAn is the controller as indicated in the previous nAma. Sri Bhattar indicates that the life-giving function referred to here is the act of BhagavAn in giving the strength to the nitya-sUris or ever-free Angels to visualize Him always, enjoy Him and do service to Him. Sri Sankara points out that in addition to the above interpretation, the same name can be interpreted to mean that BhagavAn is also the taker of the prANa - prANAn dyati iti - One who takes away the prANa or vital airs at the time of death, or prANAn dIpayati iti - One who purifies and brightens the vital airs. 67. prANah Life.

That which sustains is prANa - prANiti iti prANah. That which has prANa functioning in it is a prANI. BhagavAn is PrANa because He sustains the PrANi. The name can also be understood as referring to BhagavAn being the cause of the pRANA or life-impulse in the air that sustains the life - in kenopanishad we find the Supreme defined as prANasya prANah - the prANa of prANa itself. 68. jyeshThah Older than the oldest. Vrddhatamo jyeshThah.

Brahma is called vrddha-tara since he is older than all other beings that he created as a result of this function being entrusted in Him by BhagavAn; BhagavAn is vrddha-tama because He created Brahma, and is thus older than Brahma. Sri ChinmayAnanda points out that jyeshTHa is the superlative of vrddha (vrddha aged; jyAyAn - more aged; jyeshTha - most aged). 69. SreshThah

Most praise-worthy. PraSasyatamo SreshThah. SreshTha is the superlative of sreya - glorious. It is to be noted that the sequence of the three names above, prANa, jyeshTHa and SreshTHa is the same sequence that occurs in the chandogyopanishad - prANo vAva jyeshThaSca SreshTHASca. 70. prajApatih Lord of the Ever-free Angels. PrakarsheNa jAyante iti prajAh, teshAm patih prajApatih - The leader of those who have a glorious birth - the nitya-sUris, who are far superior to the baddha and mukhta, or the bound and freed souls. An explanation which interprets the term prajA to mean all beings, rather than the special class of Ever-free Angels, has also been provided, and thus the meaning in this case will be Lord of all beings. 71. hiraNyagarbah He who is in a lovely Abode. The word hiraNya means golden. Sri Bhattar interprets it as fitting or lovely. The word garbha means womb. Sri Bhattar interprets it as the Abode or Living Place. Thus the meaning - One who is in a fitting or Lovely Abode, viz. The Parama Padam. Or, He is the garbha , or originator, of hiraNya or gold, a term used to refer to all that is the Object of fulfillment and joy. 72. bhUgarbhah One for whom the Earth is the object of protection. He is the protector of Mother Earth. It can also mean One who has the Universe in Himself - bhU garbhe yasya sah bhUgarbhah. Or, He is the garbha, or Originator, of the Universe. BhU, which is His garbha, is constantly and lovingly nurtured and nourished through His very Essence. 73. mAdhavah a) The consort of MA or Lakshmi. b) One who is attained through the madhu vidyA, or through mauna, dhyAna, and yoga c) The Lord of knowledge or the propounder of the knowledge of the Supreme Being. d) One who is born in the race of Madhu, a yAdhava e) One for whom there is no Lord (i.e., One who is the Lord of everyone) f) A silent observer, a maunee, The nAma mAdhava occurs three times (nAma 73, 169, 741) in Sri VishNu sahasranAmam, and different interpretations are offered in the three contexts. We will deal with all the different interpretations here, and

will refer back to this section for the future. a) MAyAh dhavah mAdhavah - One who is the Lord or consort of MA or Lakshmi. The concept here is that BhagavAn and SrI are eternally and constantly associated with each other, and inseparable. As if to emphasize this, Sri Bhattar gives the detailed explanation for the qualities of MA or Lakshmi under this name, rather than dwell on the nAma MAdhava. In Brahma PurANa, we have tat Saktih durjayA bhImA vishNu-Saktih iti smrtA | sarvabhUta hrdabjasthA nAnArUpa dharA parA || prANAkhyA mantramAtA ca viSvasya jananI dhruvA || "Her power is invincible and awe-inspiring and She is considered the power of VishNu Himself. She is the Supreme Being who lives in the hearts of all beings of the universe and She is endowed with divine forms. Her name is prANa or life. She is the Mother of all mantras, and is the eternal Mother of the Universe". It continues on to say that She pervades the entire universe, moving and non-moving - jagat carAcaram idam sarvam vyApya vyavasthitA. In Sri Lakshmi sahasranAmam, She is called the Supreme Prakrti who possesses the six qualities (shAdguNya)- jnAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakti, tejas. She is the supreme, unique, and eternal Sakti of BhagavAn. She is one with Him, and yet remains distinct like the moon-light of the cool-rayed moon. She pervades the Universe and is the very embodiment of all Saktis. She is endowed with all glory and qualities, and is eternal. Her dharma is the same as that of BhagavAn. She is the life-giving Sakti of all beings on earth. These are expressed in the following Slokas: mahAvibhUteh sampUrNa shAdguNya vapushah prabhoh | bhagavad vAsudevasya nityaiva eshA anapAyinI || ekaiva vartate bhinnA jyotsneva himadIdhiteh | sarvaSaktyAtmikA caiva viSvam vyApya vyavasthitA || sarvaiSvarya guNopetA nityam taddharma dharmiNI | prANaSaktih parA hyeshA sarveshAm prANiNAm bhuvi || The secret of the true nature of MA is thus summarized SraddhayA devo devatvam aSnute Madhava gets His Lordship because of His association with MA or Lakshmi. b) One who is attained through the madhu vidyA, involving mauna, dhyAna, and yoga. The support for this comes from the mahAbhArata madhuvidyAvabodhatvAt dhavatvAdvA Sriyo'niSam | maunAd-dhyAnAcca yogAcca viddhi bhArata mAdhavam || (Udyog a parva 68.4)

Here, mA stands for mauna, dha stands for dhyAna, and va stands for yoga. He is experienced by the seeker who has stilled his mind through mauna, dhyAna, and yoga practices. Or, it can be said that He is mAdhava because He is endowed with mauna, dhyAna, and yoga - He silently observes the physical, mental, and intellectual activities of all beings, and is ever the non-interfering Observer. c) The Lord of knowledge. In this interpretation, mA stands for knowledge, and dhava is Lord. The support for this interpretation comes from HarivamSa mA vidyA ca hareh proktA tasyA ISo yato bhavAn | tasmAd mAdhava nAmAsi dhavah svAmIti Sabditah || (HarivamSa 3.88.49) "O Hari! You are the Lord (dhava) of mA (knowledge); hence you are named Madhava, the Master of mA". d) madhukule jAtatvAt mAdhavah - One who is born in the race of Madhu, a yAdava. e) mA dhavah yasya sa mAdhavah - One for whom there is no other Lord. This interpretation is included as one of the explanations for this name by ThirukkaLLAm sri NrsimharAghavAchAriAr in his bhAshya on Sri Bhagavad GItA. f) One who is the Silent Observer - this is discussed under item b) above. 74) madhusUdhanah The slayer of the evil demon called Madhu. In the MahAbhArata we have the following vishNu karNodbhavam cApi madhu nAma mahAsuram | tasya tAvadvadhAdeva deva dAnava mAnavAh madhusUdhana ityAhur-rshayaSca janArdanam || (MahAbhArata 2.63.13) "Because Sri VishNu destroyed the mahAsuran by name madhu, He is called MadhusUdhana by the sages, devas, asuras, and men". Sri ChinmayAnanda indicates that madhu is a term used in vedAnta to refer to the fruits of actions. Since BhagavAn destroys the effects of the fruits of actions of those who meditate on Him, He is madhusUdana.

Slokam 9

75. ISvarah 76. vikramI

77. dhanvI 78. medhAvI 79. vikramah 80. kramah 81. anuttamah 82 durAdharshah 83. krtajnah 84. krtih 85. AtmavAn

75. ISvarah The Ruler.

This nAma occurred earlier (nAma 36). At that time we had indicated that the name can be interpreted as One who has unlimited aiSvarya, or One who can do whatever He wills (IshTe). AiSvarya means might or power, sovereignty, affluence or wealth, etc. Sri Sankara seems to interpret the first occurrence of this nAma as One who has unlimited might, and the next one as One who has unlimited power. Sri Bhattar interprets the first occurrence as One who has supreme power of rulership over all beings, and seems to interpret the second one as One who does whatever He wills - yatra kAma gamo vaSI - He has self-control and goes wherever He wants. Sri ChinmayAnanda interprets the first occurrence as One who has the ability to do whatever He wants and the second occurrence as One who is Omni-potent or All-powerful, with control over all forms of Sakti - kriyA Sakti, icchA Sakti, and jnAna Sakti. However, all of them seem to use the two variants we have covered under nAma 36. 76. vikramI a) The most courageous, The most powerful. b) One who has the "Special" footsteps viz. Vamana Vikramah Souryam, tadyogAt vikramI - vikrama is courage; He who is ever a courageous One, is vikramI. Sri Bhattar points out that the name signifies that it is His nature that it dispels all possibility of anything going against His will or desire.

Sri ChinmayAnanda gives the additional interpretation which uses the meaning of krama as steps, and interprets the nAma as One who has "Special" footsteps, referring to the vAmana incarnation. 77. dhanvI The wielder of the bow. Dhanurasya asti iti dhanvI. He is the wielder of the divine bow Sarnga. It is well-known that in His incarnation as Sri Rama, He had to dedicate a substantial part of His life wielding His bow. In the GitA, Sri KrshNa says rAmah Sastra bhrtAmaham - I am Rama among the wielders of the bow. 78. medhAvI One who is capable of powerful memory. Sri Sankara gives the following definition "medhA bahugrantha dhAraNa sAmarthyam, sa yasya asti sa medhAvI - medhA is the ability to grasp several ideas on different subjects at the same time; One who has this ability naturally is medhAvI". Sri RadhAkrshNa Sastri points out that BhagavAn is Isvara, vikramI, dhanvI, etc., because He is a medhAvI, one who can command the knowledge of anything at any time as desired. 79. vikramah a) One with great strides (see nAma 76), such as in the vAmana incarnation b) One who rides on the king of birds, the Garuda. The first meaning has been explained under the earlier nAma 76. The second is derived as follows: vi refers to the king of birds, Garuda; krama refers to His sancAra playfully on the Garuda who is the embodiment of the three vedas, around the world. 80. kramah a) One who is the basis for the order in the Universe b) One who controls and bestows the power of movement c) One who is highly prosperous Krama can refer to systematization, sequence, ordering etc. (The word kramam is commonly used in Tamil as a word acquired from Sanskrit with this meaning). It can also refer to steps, as we indicated under vikramI, virkramah, etc., and as a result, motion. Based on the meaning as ordering or sequence, He is the one who makes the events of the world conform

to an order, for eg., night and day following each other. Based on the meaning as steps or motion, He is responsible for the power of His creatures having the power of motion or movement. According to PaNini sUtra 1.3.38, which reads "vrtti-sarga-tAyaneshu kramah", krama also can indicate continuity, energy, or good progress or development. Sri Bhattar uses the last of these, and gives the meaning "One who has great prosperity". 81. anuttamah One for whom there is nothing superior or better. na vidyamAna uttamo yasmAt sah anuttamah - One for whom nothing superior is known. The nirukti summarization of Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna is uttamo nAsti yasmAt sah anuttama udAhrtah. 82. durAdharshah daityAdhibhih dharshayitum na sakyata iti durAdharshah One who cannot be overcome by the demons and others. 83. krtajnah One who is grateful. Sri Bhattar gives the following references from the GItA in support of this interpretation: api cet sudurAcAro bhajate mAm anayabhAk | sAdhureva sa mantavyah samyag vyavasito hi sah || (9.30) A portion of the translation of the bhAshya of Sri RAmAnuja for the above sloka is: "If even the most sinful man worships Me with undivided devotion, with worship as the only purpose, such a person must be considered highly righteous. He is eminent among the worshippers of VishNu - a great Sri VaishNava (vaishNava SreshThasara eva mantavyah are Sri RAmAnujA's own words). He must be esteemed as fit for honor." BhagavAn is so grateful that the mere worship of Him with sincerity is sufficient for Him to forgive all other sins committed by the worshipper. The second support given by Sri Bhattar for the gratefulness of BhagavAn for a devotee who cried for help with full surrender to Him is from the MahAbhArata govindeti yadAkrandat krshNA mAm dUravAsini | rNam pravrddhamiva me hrdayAt na apasarpati || (MB 3-58-22) "That cry for help uttered aloud by Draupadi even from a distance, calling me "GovindA" - that cry is never

away from my mind like a debt that has increased with the interest accumulated on it". Sri Sankara points out that He confers emancipation (moksha) on those that offer to Him in worship even such common objects as a leaf or flower - patrapushpAdyalpamapi prayacchatAm moksham dadAti. Another explanation given for this nAma is that BhagavAn is One who knows the actions of all the other beings, good and bad - prANinAm puNya apuNya Atmakam karma krtam jAnAti iti krtajnah. He is the one Knower who knows all physical activities, all emotional feelings, and all intellectual thoughts and motives. Sri ChinmayAnanda points out that He knows the exact depth of sincerity, the true ardency of devotion, the real amount of purity in the heart of His devotees, and as a result of His gratitude, He brings joy and bliss to their hearts because He is a krtajna. 84. krtih One who is the cause of the virtuous act of His devotees. In the previous nAma we saw that BhagavAn has great gratitude for the good acts of His devotees. Through the current nAma it is pointed out that in reality BhagavAn is really the cause behind the good deeds, and all we can and should do is practice pure and sincere devotion. Sri Bhattar points out that BhagavAn alone makes us do virtuous acts when He wants to lift us up from the worlds of material existence. The virtuous act of the Jiva owes its origin to the Lord when He is pleased - tacca teshAm sukrtam asmAdeva prasannAt iti krtih. 85. AtmavAn The real Owner and Controller of the souls of those who do these virtuous acts.

The basic elemental fact that stands out from the last three nAmas is that it is not we who bring about our salvation through our effort or actions; it is He who makes it happen based on the sincerity of our devotion, trust, and surrender to Him as the sole cause of our salvation. He is the krtajna who, just pleased immensely by our small effort of sincere devotion, will cause our souls which He owns, and divert it towards actions that He will then use as the hetu or reason or pretext for conferring His blessings on us. Another explanation Sri RAdhAkrshNa SAstri gives for this nAma is One who is not dependent on anything else for His actions - for example when He killed PUtanA the demoness, He drank the same milk that she gave Him to bring about her destruction.

Slokam 10 nAmas 86 to 95

86. sureSah 87. SaraNam

88. Sarma 89. viSvaretAh 90. prajAbhavah 91. ahah 92 samvatsarah 93. vyAlah 94. pratyayah 95. sarvadarSanah

86. sureSah a) The Lord of all the other gods. b) The best among those who can bestow their devotees' desires. a) SurANAm ISah sureSah. The word sura means one who can fulfil the desires of the devotees (sushThu rAti - dadAti - iti surah. He is sureSa because He created the other gods (sura) such as Brahma and Rudra and conferred on them the functions for which they are responsible. b) su rA Isah - Best among those who can bestow blessings on their devotees. su - Sobhanam, rAti - dadAti, Isah - Their Lord or the The Best. Thus sureSa means the best among those who can fuflfil the desires of the devotees. Sriman nArAyaNa is the only one who can fulfil the ultimate desire of the devotees - that of moksha. 87. SaraNam The Refuge. According to amarakoSa, SaraNam means protection as well as home - SaraNam vadha rakshitror grha rakshaNayorapi. BhagavAn is the Ultimate Refuge to those who are in misery - ArtAnAm Arti hantAram. He is the also the final Goal or the Destination - nivasishyasi mayyeva ata Urdhvam na samSayah; the one who realizes Him comes to live in Him. Sri ChinmayAnanda points out that He is not only the Home for those who

have realized Him, but in pralaya time He is the home for all beings. 88. Sarma One who is Bliss, the Highest Goal to be attained. AmarakoSa gives this word as an alternative (i.e., with the same meaning) as prIti, sukha, etc. In the vyAkhyAna for amarakoSa, LingAyasurin gives the following derivation - SrNAti duhkham iti Sarma - One who destroys or removes the sorrows. Both Sri Sankara and Sri Bhattar give the meaning "Bliss". ParamAnanda rUpatvAt Sarma, and sukham paramprApyam iti Sarma, respectively. I could not find the root word for the nAma from the dictionary. Sir William-Monier's dictionary speculates that the name is probably derived from Sri. 89. viSvaretAh The seed for the Universe. retas means seed. ViSvam kAryam asya iti viSvaretA, or viSvasya kAraNatvAt viSvaretA. The name denotes that He is the seed from which the tree of life has sprung forth. Later on, in nAmas 118 and 151, we will see that He is the also the viSvayoni where the seed develops and takes full form. In other words, everything results from Him and exists because of Him. Sri Bhattar notes that the purpose of His creation is for His service and His service only. In vishNu tatva, we have the following "vicitrA deha sampattih IsvarAya niveditum | pUrvameva krtA brahman! Hasta-pAdAdi samyutA || "Brahman! This wonderful wealth, namely body, associated with hands, legs, etc., has already been created by me with a view to enable beings to use them in the service of the Supreme." 90. prajAbhavah One from whom all beings have originated. In nAma 70, prajApati, we found that prajA can refer to those special births (prakarsheNa jAyante) such as the nitya suris. So here prajAbhava can refer to the general interpretation that prajA refers to all beings, or more specifically that He created all the other suris or Ever-Free Angels. Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri points out that while normal evolution starts with primitive forms and evolves to higher forms, BhagavAn deiced to create the higher forms such as Brahma first, and then the forms that are not as accomplished, such as all the animals, the humans, etc., later. 91. ahah a) One who never forsakes anyone. b) One who is like the Day that awakens people from ignorance. c) One who does not destroy His devotees. The first interpretation is based on "na hInah asya asti iti ahah - There is no one who is abandoned by Him.

The second interpretation is based on the traditional meaning of the word aha - day. The third interpretation is derived by a-ha, where ha means destroy; One who does not destroy is a-ha. 92. samvatsarah He who lives for the uplift of His devotees. This name repeats again as nAma 423. The meaning is derived from the root vas - to live. samuddharaNAya samvasati iti samvatsarah. The term samvatsara is also used to denote the year, and hence another interpetation for this nAma is that BhagavAn is Time itself. 93. vyAlah a) One who accepts the devotees - e.g., vibhIshaNa. b) One who is beyond grasp such as a vyAla - a serpent, an elephant, a tiger, etc. Sri Bhattar gives the first interpretation based on the root lA - to take or accept. VyAla also means a serpent, a mad elephant, a vicious tiger etc. BhagavAn is vyAla because He is slippery like a serpent to grasp, or beyond grasp like a huge elephant. Or He is impossible to be controlled by the demons, like a mad elephant - vyAlavat bhujangavat gajavat grahItum aSakyatvAt vyAlah. 94. pratyayah One who can be relied upon. PratIyate asmin iti pratyayah - One in whom we can place confidence.In the sabhA parva in mahA bhArata, we have "yadi te hrdayam vetti yadi te pratyayo mayi | bhImasenArjunau SIghram nyAsabhUtau prayaccha me || (20.7) "If your heart understands me, and if you have FAITH in me, place BhIma and arjuna immediately at my disposal". 95. sarvadarSanah a) One who shows all His grace to His devotees b) The All-seeing. Sri Bhattar interprets darSana to mean He shows everything, and Sri Sankara interprets this word to mean He sees everything. Great indeed are the ways great minds see and enjoy the BhagavAn in many different ways! Sri Sankara gives the following reference to the sruti "viSvataScakshur viSvAksham - One who has eyes on all sides - One who has a Universal eye". (taittirIya AraNyaka 10.1, 11).

SrI ChinmayAnanda gives the following reference to GItA sarvato'kshi Siromukham - One who has eyes and heads everywhere.

Slokam 11 nAmas 96 to 104

96. ajah 97. sarveSvarah 98. siddhah 99. siddih 100. sarvAdih 101. acyutah 102. vRshAkapih 103. ameyAtmA 104. sarva yoga vinissRtah

96. ajah a) Unborn. b) The Remover of all obstacles. c) One who moves in the hearts of the devotees d) One who removes the ignorance from the hearts of His devotees e) One who is the root of all sound (akshara "a"). This nAma occurs two more times later (nAma 206 and 524).

a) The first meaning is derived as na jAyata iti ajah - One who is not born in the traditional sense. Sri Sankara gives the following from the srutis to support this explanation: na jAto na janishyate - He was neither born nor will be born (Rg veda 1.81.5) "na hi jAto na jAye'yam na janishye kadAcana | kshetraj~nah sarvabhUtAnAm tasmAt aham ajah smrtah || MB SAntiparva 330.9

"I was not born, nor am I born, nor will I have a future birth; I am the soul in all beings; hence I am called the Unborn". Other references to the name aja are: "ajo nityah SASvato'yam purANah" (kaThopanishad 1.2.18), and "sa vA esha mahAn aja AtmA" (brhadAraNyaupanishad 4.4.22). Sri Bhattar points out that BhagavAn only emerges out of a pillar etc., but is not born like others (see the explanation for svayambhuh - nAma 37). b) There are several interpretations of the nAma aja using the meaning "movement" for the root aj - aja gati kshepaNayoh - The root 'aj' signifies movement or throwing away . Sri Bhattar uses this meaning and interprets the name as meaning "The Remover of all obstacles" to ensure that His devotees accomplish in their objective of reaching Him. Sri Sankara uses the same meaning for aja (movement, motion) and comes up with the explanation - ajati gacchati kshipati iti vA ajah - He who moves into the heart of His devotees. Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri uses the meaning "movement" and interprets the name as Remover of the ignorance in us, or One who goes to the bhaktas to enable them to reach Him, or One who throws away His weapons at anyone who disturbs or causes hardship to His devotees. One other explanation given for aja is akAravAcyatayA jAtah - One who is known through the letter "a". akAra vAcyatayA jAtah ajah. In the gItA we have "aksharANaAm akAro'smi - (gItA 10.33) - I am 'a" among the syllables. Sri rAdhAkrhNa SAstri points out that at the time of pralaya the panca bhUtas coalesce into ehter (the reverse of AkASAt vAyuh, vAyoragnih, aganerApah, adbhyah pethivI, etc.)., and the ether coalesces into its tanmAtra, the sound, and Sabda ultimately dissolves into the sound "a", which is the form of BhagavAn at the conclusion of prlaya. The sruti is 'akAro vai sarvA vAk". In tirukkural we have "akara mudalAya ezhutthellAm Adi bhaghavan mudatre ulagu". 97. sarveSvarah a) One who reaches all who seek Him b) One who is the Isvara for all isvaras a) Sri Bhattar derives the first interpretation from the root aS to pervade. By the uNAdi sUtra 738, aSnoterASukarmaNi varat ca - the affix varat comes after the root aS - to pervade, when the word formed from it refers to "having the power of granting success soon". Thus aS + varat = ISvarah. The interpretation is that He is sarveSvara because He quickly reaches all those who have taken refuge in Him in order to avoid delay in dispelling their uneasiness whether they are qualified or not. Or rather, the sufficient

qualification is that they have taken refuge in Him. b) sarveshAm ISvarANAm ISvarah sarveSvarah. The Sruti says - esha sarveSvarah - BrhadAraNya upanishad - 4.4.22 - He is the Lord of all lords. 98. siddhah One who is available at the hands of His devotees. niruktam summarizes Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna as svarUpeNaiva bhaktAnAm siddhatvAt siddhah ucyate - He is in the hands of His devotees in His true form. A siddha can also mean One who has accomplished all that has to be achieved. Sri Sankara gives the interpretation that He is ever perfect - nitya nishpanna rUpatvAt siddhah. An interpretation for the amarakoSa gives the definition siddhyati iti siddhah. 99. siddhih The Goal. The word siddhi literally means accomplishment, success etc. BhagavAn is siddhi because He is the Goal or accomplishment by adopting the means. Or, in the context of success or accomplishment, He is siddhi because He gives the ultimate fruit of action, moksha. All other accomplishments can only give lesser benefits such as the lesser joys of heaven etc., but only by attaining Him one can get moksha, the ultimate success. 100. sarvAdih The Origin or Cause of all things. SarveshAm purushArtAnAm Adih sarvAdih or sarva bhUtAnAm AdikAraNatvAt sarvAdih. One who is the very beginning of all; One who was in exsitence earlier than anything else. Even before the effects arise, the Cause. The Infinite whish was before creation, and from which the created beings emerged out. 101. acyutah a) One who has never slipped from His glory. b) One who never lets His devotees slip. c) One who undergoes no modifications such as birth, growth, decay, disease, etc. This nAma occurs two more times later (320 and 557). a) cyti means "fall" and cyuta means "fallen". acyuta means "One who has never fallen from His true nature". Several explanations are given to further expand this guNa of the Lord. Sri Bhattar points out that He does not ever fall from His position of overlordship unlike Brahma, Indra, etc. who are subject to loss of position, and therefore He is called acyuta. Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri points out that He also does not slip from

His position by being influenced by kAma etc. unlike Brahma, Indra etc. In mahAbhArata we have "yasmAt na cyuta pUrvo'ham acyutastena karmaNA" - SAnti parva 12.330.16. Sri Sankara and Sri Bhattar have interpreted the above sruti slightly differently. Sri Sankara's words are svarUpasAmarthyAt na cyuto na cyavate na cyavishyata iti acyutah - He has not lapsed, is not lapsing, and will not lapse from His own glory; hence the name acyuta. Sri Bhattar's interpretation fo the above Sruti lead to the second meaning, which follows: b) Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna for the above is "I have never abandoned (my bhaktas). Because of this act of mine, I am known as acyuta". His words are "tebyah prapannebhyah na apagatah acyutah - He is never away from those who have sought refuge in Him". Sri tirukkaLLam nrsimharAghavAchAryar in his bhagavadgItA bhAshya has given the explanation na cyAvayati iti acyutah - One who does not let His devotees slip - arjuna using this name here to call Lord krshNa who has taken it upon Himself to be his charioteer and who will not let him slip. c) cyutam means modification. The upanishad says of BhagavAn - "SASvatam Sivam acyutam" - Eternal, Auspicious, and Changeless" - taittirIya AraNyakam - 10.11). Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri points out that BhagavAn is acyuta because he does not slip from stage to stage in the sequence of events such as birth, living, growth, change in appearance, decay, and finally disappearance from the body. 102. vRshAkapih One who lifted the Earth from the waters of adharma in the form of varAha. In the mahAbhArata we have "kapir varAhah SreshThaSca dharmaSca vRsha ucyate | tasmAd vRshAkapim prAha kASyapO mAm prajApatih || (Santi parva 330.24) "The word vRsha means dharma, and the word kapi refers to boar (pA means to protect and ka means water, and so kapi refers to varAha incarnation where He protected the Earth from the waters). Sri chinmayAnanda points out that the name derives from the fact that He protected the Earth from the ocean of adharma in His varAha incarnation. The meaning dharma for the word vRsha is based on the ability of dharma to shower all that is desired. Sri chinmayAnanda points out that this is one of the nAmas on which there is wide controversy between the different vyAkyAna kartAs; however, in the few tests that I have referred to, this indication of serious controversy is not evident. If any of you can elaborate on other interpretations by our AchAryas and other vyAkhyAna kartAs, I will be extremely grateful. 103. ameyAtmA One whose Nature cannot be comprehended. Ameya means unaccountable or incomprehensible. Sri ChinmayAnanda indicates that the virAt purusha

form of the Lord is suggested here. His self or nature is such that it cannot be measured by any particular standard and determined. 104. sarva yoga vinissRtah a) One who is beyond any attachment b) One who is easily attained by all means by His devotees The word yoga can mean union or it can mean the means. Depending on which one of these is chosen, we get a different interpretation. VinissRta means gone forth or out, or escaped according to the Sanskrit dictionary by Sir William-Monier. Using the first meaning for yoga, we get the interpretation that He is free from any and all of kind of bondage, and so He is sarva yoga vinissRta. Using the second meaning, Sri Bhattar's interpretation is that He is attainable easily by all means. His interpretation is - yOgaih - upAyaih; vi - viSheshENa - vEda parama guhyairiva; nissRtah - prAptum yogyah, sugraha iti vA. Slokam 12 105. vasuh 106. vasu-manAh 107. satyah 108. samAtmA 109. sammitah 110. samah 111 amOghah 112. puNdarIkAkshah 113. vRshakarmA 114. vRshAkRti

105. vasuh a) One who dwells in the hearts of His devotees. b) One who dwells in the Milk-Ocean. c) One who is the wealth that His devotees seek. d) The best among the eight vasus - pAvaka. e) One who lives in the sky. This nAma occurs two more times (nAma 271 and 701). a) & b): vasati iti vasuh - One who dwells. He dwells in the hearts of His devotees even with a small amount of devotion, and He dwells in the kshIrArNava. SrI krshNa-prEmi in one his upanyAsas remarks that SrIman nArAyaNa chose to dwell in the Milk-Ocean as if to be nearer to those devotees who are not yet accomplished enough to join Him to SrivaikuNTham, or as if He can be closer to the devotees so as to rush to help those who need Him. We have the following from the srutis "sa lokAnAm hitArthAya kshIrOdhE vasati prabhuh" The great Lord resides in the milk ocean for doing good to the people of the world. "Esha nArAyaNah SrImAn kshIrArNava nikEtanah" This nArAyaNa is always with Lakshmi, and resides in the Milk-ocean (HarivamSa 113.62). c) The word vasu also means wealth - vasati nItimatAm gRha iti vasu. In gItA we have vAsudevah sarvam - vAsudeva is everything (gItA 7.19). He is the wealth that great men seek. d) He is vasu because He is one of the eight vasus. Sri Sankara gives the following reference to the gItA to support this interpretation - vasUnAm pAvakaScAsmi - I am pAvaka among the vasus (gItA 10.23). e) One who, as air, moves about and has residence in the mid-region. In kaThopanishd we have vasurantiksha sat ( kaThopanisahd 2.5.2). 106. Om vasumanasE namah vasu-manAh a) One who has a 'wealthy' or rich mind. b) One who has a mind which thinks of His devotees as a treasure. a) BhagavAn is vasu-manA because His mind is unpolluted by anything such as rAga, dvesha (attachment, hate), and similar secondary afflictions such as mada or infatuation. He has a mind which has none of the sins of passions and pains, none of the storms of desires and jealousies, none of the quakes of likes and dislikes.

b) Sri kRshNa says in the gItA that the high-souled man is very hard to find - sa mahAtmA sudurlabhah - gItA

7.19. 107. Om satyAya namah satyah a) The Truth b) One whose form is made up of prANa, matter and sun c) One who is well-disposed towards the good. This nAma occurs two more times later (nAma 213, 873). a) The most commonly known meaning for this word is Truth. The direct support for this interpretation comes from mahAbhArata "satye pratisThitah kRshNah satamasmin pratishThitam | sattAsattE ca gOvindah tasmAt satyah satAm matah || (udyOga parva 69.12.13) "KRshNa is rooted in satya and satya is rooted in kRshNa. Existence and non-existence are grounded in govinda. So great men opine that kRshNa is Truth itself". b) Sri Sankara gives the following from aitrEya AraNyaka in support of the second interpretation saditi prANAstItyannam yamityasAvAdityah - sat means prANa, ti means food, and yam the sun. He is satya because His form is made up of prANa, matter and sun. c) satsu sAdhutvAt satyah - He is satya because He is well-disposed (excellent) towards the noble souls. The pANini sutra that supports this interpretation is tatra sAdhuh (4.4.98) tatrEti saptamIsamarthAth sAdhurityEtasminnarthE yatpratyayO bhavati The affix yat comes after a word in the locative construction, in the sense of 'excellent in regard thereto'. Sri ChinmayAnanda points out that in philosophy, satya is that which is the same in all three periods (past, present, and future). He is the the only one who fits this definition, and so He is satya. 108. Om samAtmanE namah samAtmA - One who has an even mind. One whose mind is undisturbed by love or hatred. He is also sama AtmA since He does not distinguish one from another when it comes to His thoughts on His devotees. Since He is the soul in everything, He finds no distinction between them. Since He is unattached to anything, He sees everything and everyone as equal. 109. Om sammitAya namah sammitah a) One who has let Himself be understood (controlled) by His devotees.

b) The One Truth who is accepted by the Rshis and revealed in the upanishads. Either meaning seems to be based on the word sammata - accepted. The first interpretation is by Sri Bhattar, who points out that this name signifies that He willingly accepted the role of being 'controlled' by devaki, kausalyA, yasoda, dasaratha, vasudeva, etc. He chose the parents to whom He was going to be the child, and then 'played' the role of the child willingly. Sri chinmayAnanda points out that sammita can mean that He is the only one who is the accepted Truth or sammata by the Rshis and the upanishads. The advaita pATha is asammita, which is interpreted as referring to One who is limitless or immeasurable. 110. Om samAya namah samah - One who treats all His devotees equally. In gItA we have "samO'ham sarva bhUtEshu" - I am equally disposed towards all beings (gIta 9.29). Sri Sankara interprets the meaning as One who is the same at all times. He gives another interpretation also - He is ( sa) with (mAyA) lakshmi always; therefore, He is sama. 111. Om amoghAya namah amOghah - One who always gives fruits to those who worship Him. MOgha means futile. Mogham nirarthakam is amrakOSa. AmOgha is the opposite of it. We have the following from rAmAyaNa "amOgham darSanam rAma na ca mOghah tava stavah | amOghAstE bhavishyanti bhaktimantaSca yE narAh || (rAmAyaNa yuddha 120.31) "o rAma! A sight of You is never futile. The praise of You is also never futile. Those who are endowed with devotion to You will always be successful in their life". 112. Om puNdarIkAkshAya namah puNdarIkAkshah a) One whose eyes are beautiful like the lotus flower b) One who resides in the heart space of everyone and observes all c) One who is like the eye to the residents of SrIvaikunTham. puNdarIkam means lotus flower. PuNdarIkE iva akshiNI yasya sah puNdarIkAkshah - One whose eyes are beautiful like lotus flowers. lingAyatasUrin in his bhAshya for amarakOSa gives a second interpretation as well - puNdarIkam hRtkamalam akshatIti vA - One who pervades the heart space - akshati pervades. SrI Bhattar gives the meaning 'vaikuNTham' to the word puNdarIka based on the following, and interprets puNdarIkAkshah as One who is the eye for the residents of SrIvaikunTham -

puNdarIkam param dhAma nityam aksharam avyayam | tadbhavAn pundarIkAkshah ........ || PuNdarIka is the Transcendental world which is eternal, indestructible, and immutable. You are like the eye to that world and so you are known as puNdarIkAksha." - (MahAbhArata udyoga - 69.6). 113. Om vRshakarmaNE namah vRshakarmA - One who is of righteous actions. VRsha means dharma or virtue - abhilashitam varshatIti vRshah. SrI chinamayAnanda points out that His actions are righteous, and He acts only to establish righteousness - dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yugE yugE. In gItA BhagavAn says that He does his actions according to His dharma even though He has nothing to gain or lose by any action - na anavAptam avAptavyam varta eva ca karmaNi 3.22. 114. Om vRshAkRtaye namah vRshAkRti - One who is an embodiment of dharma. vRsha - dharma, AkRti - form. One whose form is itself dharma. Lord Rama is considered Dharma Incarnate. Or it can mean One who incarnates for the sake of preserving dharma - dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge. Slokam 13 115. rudrah 116. bahu-SirAh 117. babhruh 118. viSva-yonih 119. Suci-SravAh 120. amRtah 121. SASvatasthANuh 122. varArohah 123. mahA-tapAh

115. rudrah a) One who brings tears to the eyes. b) One who confers the good on the devotees c) One who destroys misery. Om rudrAya namah

rOdayati iti rudrah - Sri Bhattar interprets this to mean that He brings tears of joy to the eyes of His devotees. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAStri gives an example from SrImad bhAgavatam in support of this, but probably because of a typographical error in the book I could not find the particular Sloka in my copy of SrImad bhAgavatam. The gist of this reference is that one who is not shedding tears of joy on hearing of bhagavAn's guNas, singing His praise etc., must indeed have a heart made of stone. The reference given is MB 3.3.24. It could also mean that He brings tears to the eyes of the beings when He withdraws them during the pralaya. Sri Sankara points out that it could also mean one who confers (ra) the good (rud), or it could mean one who destroys (dru) misery and its cause (ru - duhkham) - rum drAvayati iti rudrah. 116. bahu-SirAh One who is multi-headed.Om bahu-SirasE namah. In purusha sUktam of Rg veda we have the description of the cosmic form ofBhagavAn described as "sahasra SIrshA purushah sahasrAkshah sahasra pAt Thepurusha of thousand heads, thousand eyes and thousand feet..... In gItA wefind the following description of the viSvarUpa of bhagavAn -sarvAScaryamayam devam anantam viSvatOmukham - the rUpa with uncountablefaces in all directions (11.11). Again in gItA (13.13), we have "sarvatahpANi pAdam tat sarvato'kshi SirO mukham - The Pure jivAtma savarUpa has handsand legs everywhere, has eyes, heads, and mouths everywhere.....". Sri Bhattar has interpreted the name as referring to the form of bhagavAn asananta, in which form He has many faces and over a thousand hoods. 117. babhruh The Supporter.

Om babhravE namah bibharti lOkAn iti babhruh - The one who supports the worlds. He as AdiSesha supports the earth. He is also the supporter of the Earth as Adi kUrma, Adi varAha, etc. 118. viSva-yOnih a) The cause of this world. b) One who unites His devotees with Himself. Om viSva-yOnayE namah yOni means cause. Since He is the cause of this world He is called viSvayOni. In nAma 89 - viSvarEtA - we saw that He is the seed from which the world originates. This nAma says that He is also the place where the seed develops into its full blossom. yOni means womb, and He is the seed, the womb, the sustainer after the birth of the world, the one who impartially observes as the kshetraj~na, etc. Note that we have refeered to the following from the gItA a few times before, and it applies here again - vAsudevah sarvam. The word yOni can also be derived from the world yu - to unite (yu miSraNE). Thus yOni can refer to bhagavAn's act of uniting His devotees with Him. Without His will, no one will be united with Him. He is viSvayOni because He unites His devotees with Himself. 119. Suci-SravAh a) One who listens to words which are pure. b) One whose names are worthy of being heard. c) One who has beautiful and divine ears. Om Suci-Sravase namah. a) SucIni SrAvaNyAni SRNoti iti Suci-SravAh One who listens to words that are pure. Sri Bhattar gives the following reference to mahAbhArata in support of this interpretation SucIni SrAvaNIyAni SRNomi iha dhanan~jaya | na ca pApAni gRhNAmi tato'ham vai SuciSravAh || (MB Santi parva 344.61) "O dhanan~jaya! I listen here to all that is pure and agreeable to hear. I do not heed to what is sinful. Therefore I am known as Suci-SravAh". In this context, Sri Bhattar points out the incident where bhagavAn just kept listening to the words of vidura which were full of dharma, and the night passed away for KRshNa unnoticed dharmyA ramyASca arthavatIh vicitrArtha padAksharAh | SRNvanto vividhA vAcah vidurasya mahAtmanah | akAmasyaiva kRshNasya sA vyatIyAya SarvarI || (MB Udyoga 93.2) b) Sri Sankara gives the following interpretation -

SucIni Sravamsi nAmAni SravaNIyAnyasyeti Suci-SravAh One whose names and glories are very holy and purifying to hear. c) The word Sravas also means ear. Sri chinmayAnandA thus interprets the name as meaning One who has divine ears - He is the Hearer of all ears. 120. amRtah a) The unsatiating nectar to His devotees b) One who is Immortal Om amRtAya namah a) The devotees never get satiated by doing service to bhagavAn, and He is sweet to the devotees to an unlimited extent. b) na vidyate mRtam maraNam asya iti amRtah - He has no decay or death.The sruti says He is nondecaying and Immortal ajarah amarah -(bRhadAraNya upanishad 4.4.25). Sri chinmayAnandA points out that He is amRtah because He can cure the disease of ignorance in His devotees. 121. SASvata-sthANuh One who is Eternally Firm. Om SaSvata-SthANave namah. The two parts of this name, SASvata and SthANu, occurred as separate names earlier (SASvata - which occurred as nAma 57, and sthAnu as nAma 28). sthANu also occurs as part of the current nAma and of nAma 427 - sthAvara-sthANuh later. Recall that sthANu was earlier interpreted as One who is firm in blessing His devotees, and SASvata was interpreted as One who is Eternal because of His unceasing act of creation, sustenance and destruction. SASvata-SthANu here is interpreted as one name in all the references I have, and there is no discussion on why it is treated thus. Sri Bhattar gives this name the meaning 'Eternal and Steady'. Unlike the nectar for which the devas and asuras churned the Ocean, He is Eternal because he cannot be taken away from those who enjoy Him. Sri Sankara gives the meaning "Eternally Firm". SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri gives the interpretation that He is SASvata because He has no beginning or end, and sthANu because He does not age or decay. 122. varArohah a) One who is the most supreme object of attainment.

b) One of Excellent Ascent. Om varArohAya namah. Varam means supreme, and Arohanam means ascent. Sri Bhattar's interpretation is that He is the Supreme object of attainment, since all other objects are inferior. Sri Sankara gives the meaning that He is of Excellent Ascent. Sri rAdhAkRshNa Sastri suggests that bhagavAn is varAroha because He is reclining on AdiSesha, the high paryanka. In the second or third article in this series, I had indicated that Sri Bhattar interprets the first 122 nAmas as describing the para-vAsudeva form of the Lord, which is not conditioned by any limiting adjuncts and which is not the effect of another object. It is endowed with six qualities (~jnAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakti, tejas). This is the object of attainment of the released souls. The transcendental nature (paratva) of bhagavAn has been spoken of mostly by the names ending with the above nAma - varAroha. Sri Bhattar also interprets the contents of the first 122 names as the response from BhIshma to YudhisThira for the first two of the six questions posed to him 1) kim ekam daivatam loke? 2) kim vApi ekam parAyaNam? The next set of nAmas are interpreted by Sri Bhattar as a) representing the vyuha (emanation) forms, and b) responding to YudhisThira's question - stuvantah kim - eulogising whom? The vyuha forms are four in number - vAsudeva, samkarshaNa, pradyumna, aniruddha. Of these, vAsudeva can be taken as having been included in the para form. The vyUha forms are in charge of the work of creation, sustenance, and destruction; they propound the Sastras, explain their significance, and give the fruits in accordance with the rules laid down therein; they also teach the method of meditation and workship of bhagavAn. The six qualities of the para rupa are distributed amongst the four vyUhas and each has its own form and duties. They are the means for the attainment of salvation. The samkarshaNa form is associated with knowledge and strength. Starting with the next nAma, the samkarshaNa form - the second in the vyuhas - is to be dealt with. 123. mahA-tapAh One who is endowed with great knowledge. Om mahA-tapase namah. Tapas is given the meaning "great knowledge" based on muNdakopanishad yasya ~jnAnamayam tapah - Whose tapas is the nature of knowledge. Mahat is pUjyam - worthy of respect. Here, knowledge is the ability to guide people so that they may be rid of the miseries of the world which they have been having from time immemorial.

Slokam 14

124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134

sarva-gah sarva-vit bhAnuh vishvak-senah janArdanah vedah vedavit avya~ngah vedA~ngah vedavit kavih

14.124 - sarva-gah One who reaches all.Om sarvagAya namah. sarvatra gacchati iti sarva-gah - One who pervades everything. Or, by His strength which displays His capacity to support, He supports everything He has taken in during the pralaya, and thus He reaches all. 14.125 - sarva-vit One who is the All-knower. Om sarva-vide namah. Sarvam vetti vindata iti vA sarva-vit - One who knows everything or One who obtains everything. In the first interpretation, bhagavAn is the knower in all - the inner soul. In the second interpretation, He performs the function as pradyumna and recovers or obtains all the jivas that have been absorbed into Him in the form of

samkarshaNa. 14.126 - bhAnuh One who shines. Om bhAnave namah. bhAti iti bhAnuh. In spite of His act of creation and maintenance, He remains unchanged and continues to shine undiminished. 14.127 - vishvak-senah One who has His army in all directions for the protection of all. Om vishvaksenAya namah. SrI Bhattar interprets this nAma as referring to aniruddha, the protector. The word senA is derived from "inena vartate iti senA" - where inena means svAmin saha. So sena is one which is with the Lord always seSvara. This nAma indicates His Sakti which indicates His capacity. a-niruddha refers to One who is not under anyone else's control. This nAma also indicates the gUna of the Lord by which He is always there to protect His devotees. 14.128 - janArdanah a) One who destroys the wicked. b) One who protects people from the wicked. c) One who is approached by devotees for their wishes. Om janArdanAya namah. SrI Bhattar gives the support from mahAbhArata - dasyu-trANAt janArdanah (MB udyoga parva 71.6) He is janArdana because He protects people from dasyus (demons). SrI Sankara gives the following two interpretations: One who destroys those who are wicked - janAn - durjanAn, ardayati - hinasti (destroys). ard also means to beg, to ask - gatau yAcane ca. janaih ardyate - yAcyate - One who is approached by His devotees for whatever they want. 129. vedah One who is the embodiment of scriptures. Om vedAya namah. Veda is derived from vid - to know. Vedayati iti vedah - One who explains everything or That which explains everything - the Ultimate Truth - is vedah. Since veda-s originated from His breath, they are not distinct

from Him. In mahAbhArata, we have "sarve vedAh sarvavidyAh saSAstrAh sarve ya~jnAh sarva ijyASca kRshNah" "All the veda-s, all the vidyA-s, all the Sastra-s, all the ya~jna-s, and all offerings, are kRshNa". In SrI Bhattar's vyAkhyAna, this nAma again refers to the vyUha form of 14.130 - vedavit The true knower of the meaning of the veda-s. Om veda-vide namah. This nAma appears once more in this slokam itself (nAma 133). Vedam, vedArtham vetti iti vedavit. Or, vedAn vinte - vicArayati iti vedavit. One who knows the veda-s, or One who spreads the knowledge of veda-s (e.g., in the form of pradyumna, vyAsa, etc.). He is vedavit since He is the knower without any doubts or errors of interpretation, and He is the only one. In gItA the Lord says - vedAnta-kRt vedavideva ca aham - I am the author of the upanishads - vedAnta-s, and I am indeed the knower of the vedas (gItA - 15.15). He is also vedavit in the sense of knowing the true meaning behind the veda-s, viz. dharma. SrI Bhattar interprets this nAma as representing the pradyumna incarnation - as one who propounds the Sastra-s and explains their significance. samkarshaNa who has knowledge as one of His attributes. 14.131 - avya~ngah One who has no imperfections. Om avya~ngAya namah. vya~ngam is imperfection. a-vya~ngam is no imperfection. In the context of the previous nAma-s relating to His originating veda, and His full knowledge of veda, this nAma means that He is not in any way deficient in the knowledge of the chandas, kalpa, and other accessories of the veda-s which He himself has created. One could also interpret the nAma as meaning that He is not deficient in any way in any of the six guNas ~jnAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakti, and tejas. 14.132 - vedA~ngah a) One who has veda-s as His body. b) One who has the sruti-s and smRti-s as His body. Om vedA~ngAya namah. vedAh a~ngabhUtAh yasya sah vadA~ngah. In kenopanishad we have vedAh sarvA~ngAni... - all veda-s are His limbs. Or He is vedA~nga since the sruti-s and smRti-s are His commands. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives

the following quotes from SrImad BhAgavatam in support of the interpretation that He has veda-s for His body: "...trayIm tanum svAm paridhunvate namah - We offer our worship to One who has veda for His body" (SrImad bhAgavatam 3.13.34) "trayImayam rUpamidam ca saukaram - One who has the varAha form which is the veda svarUpam" (SrImad bhAgavatam 3.13.41). 14.133 - vedavit One who knows not only the veda-s, but the true meaning behind the veda-s, viz. the dharma. Om vedavide namah. Please see the explanation under nAma 130 for the interpretation of the guNa expressed by this nAma. 134. kavih One who cognizes beyond ordinary perception. Om kavaye namah. krAnta-darSitvAt kavih - sarvadRk. One who sees beyond what is revealed only by the senses. BhagavAn is the best among the kavi-s.

Slokam 15

135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142

lokAdhyakshah surAdhyakshah dharmAdhyakshah kRtAkRtah caturAtmA catur-vyUhah. catur-damshtrah. catur-bhujah.

15.135 - lokAdhyakshah 15.136 - surAdhyakshah 15.137 - dharmAdhyakshah The Lord of the worlds, of the deva-s, and of dharma. Om lokAdhyakshAya namah. Om surAdhyakshAya namah Om dharmAdhyakshAya namah. adhyaksha means master or superintendent. Loka refers to people whose duty it is to practice dharma, sura-s refers to devas who are worshipped with the dharma, and dharma signifies the means by which this worship is performed. BhagavAn in the form of aniruddha is the presiding deity over all these, who closely observes all these and grants the fruits of the dharmic acts. He also ensures that the benefits are not obtained by those who do not observe the dharmic acts, and ensures that those who observe the dharmic acts do not go without the fruit. An alternate interpretation is that loka refers to the people, sura-s are those who protect the people, and dharma is the means by which they protect them. BhagavAn is the controller and supervisor or master of all these. For instance, the deva-s control the natural elements and ensure that these perform in such a way that they benefit the people. Thus the rising of the sun, the rains, etc. are controlled. When the deva-s swerve from their path, BhagavAn takes over and ensures that the violations are set right. For instance, when indra got angry with the gokula-vAsi-s and tried to destroy gokulam with unending rain, Lord KRshNa bore the govardhana mountain and protected the people from indra's fury and brought indra under control. 138. kRtAkRtah a) The grantor of fruits that are this this-worldly as well as those that are eternal. b) One who is both the cause and effect of all things. c) One who has a form which is nitya or permanent, as well as transient forms. SrI Sankara interprets kRta as effect (kArya rUpa) and akRta as cause (kAraNa rUpa), and thus he interprets this nAma as symbolizing that bhagavAn is both cause and effect of all things. KRtam is vyaktam (that is manifested), and akRtam is unmanifested or avyaktam. Or, the nAma can mean that bhagavAn appears

with a form that is akRtam or nityam in nature, and also in forms which remain only for a limited time (kRtam). A third interpretation is that He gives benefits which are this-worldly (kRtam), as well as eternal (akRtam), and so He is kRtAkRta. 139. caturAtmA One whose Self has a four-fold manifestation. Om caturAtmane namah. One explanation for this is the Self has control over the four-fold nature - the wakeful state, the state of dreams, dreamless deep sleep, and turIya state where even the breath is suspended. These involve the external senses, the mind, breath, and suspended breath. These are also the four stages of development which a worshipper who meditates upon the Lord goes through. SrI Sankara interprets the nAma as signifying that bhagavAn expresses His energies in four forms in each of His acts of creation, protection, and dissolution. He quotes the following sloka in vishNu purANa brahmA dakshAdayah kAlas_tathaivAkhila jantavah | vibhUtayo hareretA jagatah sRshti_hetavah || vishNur_manvAdayah kAlah sarva_bhUtAni ca dvija | stither_nimitta_bhUtasya vishNoretA vibhUtayah || rudrah kAlotankAdyASca samastAScaiva jantavah | caturdhA pralayAyaitA janArdana-vibhUtayah || The four energies of Hari for creation are - brahmA, daksha and others, time, and all creatures. The four energies of Hari for protection are - vishNu, manu and others, time, and all creatures. The four energies of JanArdana for dissolution are - rudra, time, the god of death, and all creatures. Thus He is caturAtma at all times. 15.140 - catur-vyUhah. One with four forms (the vyUha forms). Om catur-vyUhAya namah. This nAma is interpreted as signifying the four vyUha emanations (vAsudeva, samkarshaNa, pradyumana, and aniruddha). SrI Sankara give the following reference to support this interpretation. In my version of the vyAkhyAna, the original source for this reference is not given, but the quote is attributed to vyAsa vyUhyAtmAnam caturdhA vai vAsudevAdi_mUrtibhih | sRshtyAdIn prakarotyesha viSrutAtmA janArdanah || vishNu, of excellent fame, manifests Himself in four forms, vAsudeva, etc. (vAsudeva, samkarshaNa, pradyumna, aniruddha) and carried on creation etc. vyUha refers to a form that has a purpose associated with it. pradyumna is for "padaippu" or creation; samkarshaNa is for samhAra or destruction; aniruddha is for protection; vAsudeva is the overall leader of these three forms. Pradyumna, the one in charge of "padaippu" or creation, is endowed with the leadership

of aisvarya and vIrya. pra-dymna means one who has enormous vIrya in His responsibility of creation. aniruddha, in charge of protection, is endowed with immeasurable Sakti and tejas. a-niruddha means One who cannot be obstructed in His function of protection. SamkarshaNa is endowed with enormous ~jnAnam and balam. Sam-karshaNa means one who attracts (note AkarshaNa - attraction) or draws everything towards Him and makes them draw into Him during the pralaya or great destruction. VAsudeva is the form endowed with all the six qualities and is the Supreme parabrahman. 15.141 - catur-damshtrah. He of four teeth. Om catur-damshtrAya namah.

damshtra refers to canine teeth. The reference here could be to the four full and strongly developed, powerful, beautiful canine teeth in His incarnation in nRsimhAvatAra. SrI Bhattar points out that caturdamshtratvam is a mahApurusha lakshNam. He gives reference to the description of Sri Rama by Hanuman to SItA devi - catur-daSa sam-dvandvah catur-damshtrah catur-gatih - One who has the fourteen parts of the body such as the legs, the hands, etc. fully symmetric with no blemishes, One who has four beautiful canine teeth, and One who has the beauty of the walks of elephant, tiger, lion, and bull. (VAlmIki RamayaNam Sundara kANdam - 35.19). 15.142 - catur-bhujah. One with four arms. Om catur-bhujAya namah. The four hands carry the conch, the discus, the mace, and the lotus respectively. SrI ChinmayAnanda gives a very nice explanation of how the four arms are used by the Lord in maintaining dharma. The conch calls man to the righteous path that directly leads to peace and perfection, the divine vishNu padam. Not very many of us listen to this inner voice of conscience, the sound of the pAncajanya conch, and so He gently wields the 'Mace' and we come to suffer small calamities and tragic jerks in our smooth existence. If the individual still does not listen to the call of the 'Conch', the 'Chakra' - the wheel of time, annihilates the entire being. This call and punishment are solely meant to take man to the Ultimate Goal, symbolized by the 'Lotus' in His hand. SrI RAdhAkRshNa SAStri gives the explanation that the four hands signify that He gives the four purushArtas (I assume dharma, artha, kAma, and mokha are the four being referred to here). Or the four arms represent the four tatva-s - satva, rajas, tama, and ahamkAra. "satvam rajas tama iti aha~nkAraScaturbhujah (gopAlottaratAmini 55). Yet another explanation is that the Self functions in a four-fold pattern involving mind, intellect, cit, and ego, and these are represented by the four arms containing the conch, the mace, the cakra, and the padma. The cit is represented by the Lotus or Padma, the intellect is the 'Conch', ego is the 'Mace', and mind is the 'Discus'.

Slokam 16

143 - bhrAjishNuh 144 - bhojanam. 145 - bhoktA 146. sahishNuh 147 - jagadAdijah 148 - anaghah 149 - vijayah 150 - jetA 151 - viSva-yonih 152 - punarvasuh

16.143 - bhrAjishNuh One who is effulgent. Om brAjishNave namah. bhrAjata iti tacchIlo bhrAjishNuh - One who has the habit of being effulgent. The name is derived from the root bhrAjR and the pANini sutra 3.2.138 - bhuvasca - which states that the afix ishNuc in the sense of "the agent having such a a habit etc." comes after the verbs such as bhU, bhrAjR etc. SrI Bhattar points out that it is the nature of bhagavAn to show Himself to His worshippers. An author by name satyadevo vAsishTha, who has written a detailed vyAkhyAna for Sri vishNu shasranAma in samskRt in this century, points out that the radiance in the sun, the moon, etc. arise only because they derive it from the effulgence of vishNu. Sri rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that we see objects because of the light that makes them visible, and we see the light only because it gets scattered by the objects. But bhagavAn is Pure Effulgence without any association with any object, and this is why the non-devotees don't see Him, though He makes Himself

visible to His devotees. The yajurvedic passages given to support the interpretation for this nAma are: "brahma surya samam jyotih"; "suryo jyotir-jyotih surya" etc. 16.144 - bhojanam. One who is the object of enjoyment. Om bhojanAya namah. taih bhujyate - sukhena anubhuyate iti bhojanam bhagavAn is bhojanam because He is enjoyed with pleasure by His worshippers. bhojanam also means literally food or the means of sustenance. Even though in nature one object becomes the means of sustenance of another object, He is the one who maintains this balance and sustains everything. The vedAntic interpretation for bhojanam is the collection of all objects of enjoyment by the sense-organs. He makes the objects of this world fit for enjoyment, and He also becomes the object of enjoyment Himself when His devotee overcomes the desire for the material objects of enjoyment and longs for Him. 16.145 - bhoktA The Enjoyer. Om bhoktre namah. He Himself is the Enjoyer since He enjoys the things offered by His devotees like nectar. In gItA we have patram pushpam phalam toyam yo me bhaktyA prayacchati | tadaham bahktyupahRtam aSnAmi prayatAtmanah || (gItA 9.16) "If a devotee offers to me a mere leaf, flower, fruit, or water with sincere devotion and love, I accept it as invaluable treasure." Or He is the bhoktA for all the sacrificial offerings irrespective of the deity to whom the offering is made aham hi sarva ya~jnAnAm bhokta - gItA 9.14. 146. sahishNuh The Forgiver. Om sahishNave namah. The word is derived from sah - to put up with, forgive. Note the grammatical rule quoted for bhrAjishNu earlier - the affix ishNuc is added to indicate one having a habit etc. Thus it is His Nature to forgive. We

have the yajurvedic mantra "saho'si saho mayi dhehi". sah also means to suffer patiently. He is sahishNu because He suffers patiently, in His perfect detachment, all that is happening around. He is just a mere witness. He continues to support this world without ever getting impatient - nAkshastapyate bhUribhArah - Rgvedic manta. sahate also means conquers, and Sri Sankara uses this meaning and interprets this nAma as meaning that bhagavAn is sahishNu because He conquers daitya-s such as hiraNyAksha. In SrI Bhattar's vyAkhyAna, the vyuha forms are covered up to the above nAma. .Starting with the next nAma, he interprets the guNa-s as reflecting those of the vibhava form of vishNu, the second of the trinities. 16.147 - jagadAdijah He who was born at the beginning of the Universe. Om jagadAdijAya namah. jagat + Adi + jAtah = jagadAdijah. Before the world got created, one who had the ability to create the world had to exist. Thus bhagavAn existed before the world was created. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that this is the manifestation of bhagavAn as HiraNyagarbha, the form where the world of all objects is submerged after pralaya and before the manifestation of the gross world emerges out. This is the manifestation of bhagavAn as the virAt Atma. That vishNu was the first-born among the gods is supported by the following from mahAbhArata gatiSca nastvam pUrvajo jagatah prabhuh | rakshArtham sarva-bhUtAnAm vishNustvam upajagmivAn || (MB Udyoga 12.11) "Thou art our refuge; Thou art the first-born amongst the gods. Thou art the Lord of the Universe. Thou didst assume the role of vishNu for the protection of all the worlds." 16.148 - anaghah One who is Sinless, Un-contaminated. Om anaghAya namah. aghah pApam na vidyate asmin iti anaghah. Though He resides in the midst of the samsAra in His incarnations, He is untainted by sins. Because He is unattached, He is not contaminated by the effects of any actions. Several passages in the sruti-s refer to this attribute - suddham apApaviddham - yajur 40.8, na puNya pApe mama (kaivalya 22), etc. 16.149 - vijayah

Victory Incarnate. Om vijayAya namah. vividham viSesheNa vA jayati iti vijayah - One who wins over everything in different and special ways. He is sat, cit, and Ananda rupa, and thus controls everything including the prakRti and jiva-s. Or He excels in everything - ~jnAna, vairAgya, aisvarya, etc. SrI Bhattar points out that He is vijaya because He controls everything that happens in this world, including the creation and destruction, which are performed by Brahma and Rudra with His help and guidance "tad_AdarSita panthAnau sRshti samhAra kArakau - Guided by Him in the right way, Brahma and Rudra carry out the task of creation and destruction (MB moksha 169.19). 16.150 - jetA The Conquerer. Om jetre namah. sarvam jagat sa jayati iti jetA. He is jetA because nothing ever can happen that is not His will. All the other gods act His will. One who has satyam as His sthira guNa never has any failure or defeat. He is satya kAma, satya samkalpa, etc. 16.151 - viSva-yonih The Cause of the Universe. Om viSva-yonaye namah. viSvasya - sakalasya yonih - kAraNam viSva-yonih. Another interpretation is that He is viSva-yonih because He has the world as His Cause, i.e., He manifests Himself in various incarnations because of the condition of this world. 16.152 - punarvasuh One who lives again and again as the antarAtmA of all His creations. Om punarvasave namah. He is the antarAtmA of all the other gods whom He creates for different functions, beginning with rudra and brahma. In moksha dharma in mahAbhArata we have indra saying to rudra tavAntarAtmA mama ca ye cAnye dehi-samjnitAh He is the Inner Soul of yourself and myself as well as those who are called the Released Souls" - MB moksha 179.4.

It can also mean that He is punarvasu because He recreates the world with the sun, moon, etc., the same way all over again after each pralaya sUrya candramasau dhAtA yathA pUrvam akalpayat | divam ca pRthivIm cAnthariksham atho svah || Rg 10/190/3)

Slokam 17

153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164

upendrah vAmanah prAmSuh amoghah Sucih Urjitah atIndrah samgrahah sargah dhRtAtmA niyamah yamah

17.153 - upendrah a) One who appeared as the younger brother of indra to help him. b) One who is superiror to indra. Om upendrAya namah. a) upagatah indram - One who assisted indra. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri gives the following instance in this

context. PrahlAda's grandson Bali defeated Indra by doing penances according to SukrAcArya's advice. Indra's mother aditi prayed to God to get Indra's position back. Since Bali had attained Indra's position through penance etc., there was no way of getting back the position easily. So bhagavAn appeared as the younger brother of indra by being born as the son of aditi, and restoring the position of indra by asking for three feet of land from Bali in his yAga Sala. b) indrasya upari indrah - One who is superior to indra. upa also means above or superior. Sri rAdhAkRshNa Sastri gives the example of Lord KRshNa subduing indra's self-assumed superiority complex in gokulam when indra tried to flood and destroy the place for not offering prayers to him. 17.154 - vAmanah One with the Dwarf form. Om vAmanAya namah.

vAmayati tyAjayati madam balim - One who expelled the pride out of Bali. Vam literally means to vomit out, and vAm could mean one who made Bali literally vomit out his pride. LingAyatasurin gives the interpretation vAmo valgutvam asya asti iti vAmanah - One who has a very charming short form. Or it can be also be interpreted as vAmo vatutvam asya asti iti vAmanah - One who has a short form of a gurukula student, which is how mahAvishNu appeared in front of Bali to ask for the three feet of earth from him. The rupa soundaryam (valgutvam) of the vAmana incarnation is beautifully described in Srimad bhAgavatam - e.g., yajamAnah pramudito darSanIyam manoramam| rUpAnurUpAvayavam tasmA Asanam Aharat|| - Bali, the yajamAna of the yAgaSala, saw the beautiful appearance of the brahmachAri in the dwarf form and offered the seat to him with a completely captivated heart (BhAgavatam 8-18-26). Another interpretation - sarvANi vAmAni nayati iti vAmanah - One who bestows all the desires of the devotees, or He produces joy in those who see Him, by His effulgence. In chAndogyopanishad we have "esha u eva vAmanIh esha hi sarvANi vAmAni nayati (chAndogyopanishad 4.25). 17.155 - prAmSuh The Tall. Om prAmSave namah. prASnute prakarsheNa Urdhvam iti prAmSuh In the vAmana incarnation, bhagavAn very quickly grew from His dwarf form into a form which covered the three worlds under His two feet. As soon as Bali poured the water to accompany his gift of three feet of land into the dwarf hands, the dwarf was no longer a dwarf. The Lord manifested His universal form; the earth was His feet, the sky His head, and the sun and the moon His eyes. The vyAkhyAna kartA-s give the reference, from HarivamSa, to the beauty of His growth from the dwarf form, in relation to fixed objects, the Sun and the Moon. First, He assumed the tall form where the Sun and the Moon were His two eyes. Then as He measured the earth, they were at the level of His bosom. As He measured the space, the Sun was at the level of His navel, and as He lifted His feet to measure the Heaven, the Sun and Moon were just below His knees.

tasya vikramato bhUmim candrAdityau stanAntare | nabhah prakramANasya nAbhideSe vyavasthithau || (HarivamSa 31.89) 17.156 - amoghah One whose acts are never purposeless. Om amoghAya namah. na mogham ceshTitam yasya sah amoghah. When bhagavAn asked for three feet of earth from bali, it helped indra; when Bali could not give the third foot of earth, it helped subdue Bali and make him a great devotee on the spot; subduing Bali led to Bali getting the status equal to indra in a trice, and led to all the gods partaking in the offerings made in the sacrifice. Thus every act of His has a purpose. 17.157 - Sucih Pure. Om Sucaye namah. Sucyata iti Sucih - One who purifies is Sucih. BhagavAn is Pure because He is the ParamAtmA who is uncontaminated by actions and their effects. He is Sucih because One who contemplates on Him becomes pure, and thus association with Him makes one pure. Whatever He does is uncontaminated by anything other than dharma, and so His purity never diminishes. When He helped indra by subduing Bali, one could say He was biased towards the deva-s; not so, since He made Himself the door-keeper of Bali and thus Bali benefited several-fold more than indra did in the process. He is pavitrANAm pavitram, or purer than the purest. The several references from sruti attest to His purity - Suddham apApa viddham - ISAvasya - 8); asparSaSca mahAn Sucih etc. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha takes this interpretation one step further by pointing out that everything bhagavAn does is resplendent with the beauty that speaks of His purity. All one has to do to realize this is to look at the beauty of His creations such as the flowers, the leaves, the waters of the rivers, etc. So He is all around us displaying His innate quality of purity constantly. He points out that thus guNa of bhagavAn should constantly remind His devotees to be always pure in their actions, words, and deeds as a means to attain Him. 17.158 - Urjitah One who is endowed with immense strength. Om UrjitAya namah. UrjA means balam or strength. This is one of the shadguNa-s of bhagavAn (~jnAna, bala, etc.). This strength is displayed whenever He has had to take care of the evil demons. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that He is Urjita not only because of His immense strength, but also because whatever strength each being in His creation has, is because He is the source. He gives the following vedic quotes to substantiate this interpretation -

UrjA detAm avasyojasA tvAm pibA somamadAya kam Satakrato (Rg. 8.36.3) UrjA pinvasva samishodidehi na (Rg 3.3.7) UrgasyAngirasyUrNamradA Urjam mayi dehi (yajur 4.15) balamasi balam mayi dehi (yajur 19.9) Urjo balam sa ojo ma Agan (atharva 18.4.53) Ojo'si saho'si balamasi bhrAjo'si As is evident, through many of mantra-s, the devotee is asking for balam from bhagavAn i.e, He is the source of balam or strength in all His creations. 17.159 - atIndrah One who is superior to indra. Om atIndrAya namah. We saw how He surpasses indra by His lordship and glorious acts. Indra is the king of gods, and bhagavAn exceeds him in wisdom, greatness, etc. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that in vedAnta indra stands for mind-intellect, and the paramAtmA or the Pure Self is superior to mind since it transcends the mind. 17.160 - samgrahah a) He who is easily reached. b) He who has everyone under His control. Om samgrahAya namah. The meaning given in the dictionary by Sir William-Monier is "holding together", "drawing togther", etc. a) SrI Bhattar gives the interpretation "atha bhaktaih ayatnena samgRhayata iti samgrahah" - One who is reached by His devotees without any effort (other than pure devotion). b) SrI Sankara gives the interpretation "sarveshAm samhRtau pratisamhArAt samgrahah" - One who withdraws everything into Him during pralaya.

c) SrI chinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is samgraha because he holds the entire world of beings and things together. SrI satya vAsishTha looks at the nAma as sama + graha, or holding everything together in one form, viz. by being the Atma in everything. 17.161 - sargah The creator of Himself. Om sargAya namah. sRjati iti sargah - One who creates. The word sarga is derived from the root sRj - to create. He is sarga since He created the whole world out of Himself. Sarga refers to primary creation as opposed to pralaya or

dissolution, and sthiti or maintenance. 17.162 - dhRtAtmA The supporter of all the jivAtmA-s. Om dhRtAtmane namah. dhRtah AtmA yena sah dhRtAtmA - One who supports all the jIvAtmA-s, or One who supports (conducts) Himself uninfluenced by any change (birth, death, likes, dislikes, etc.). 17.163 - niyamah The Controller. Om niyamAya namah. niyamayati iti niyamah - One who assigns and directs the different functions to the different beings. The root yam has two meanings: yam uparame - to check, and yam pariveshaNe - to surround. One who is the Creator of all beings is also naturally the Controller of all those beings. It is He who orders all the mighty forces of nature and prescribes for each the laws of their conduct, the ways of their behavior and the methods of their functions. The Sun, Moon, Air, Waters, Death, etc., are all appointed and controlled by the Lord. 17.164 - yamah The Ruler. Om yamAya namah. yacchati iti yamah or yamayati iti yamah - One who rules. He rules all our selves from within. He also rules all the beings of the earth from within the sphere of the Sun. We have the passage from bRhadAraNya upanishad yah sarvANi bhUtAni antaro yamayati (3.7.15). Other passages from the sruti-s are "yah pRthivIm antaro yamayati - He who rules the earth from within" - BRhadAraNya 3.7.3, yah AtmAnam antaro yamayati - He who rules the self from within", etc. Slokam 18

165 166 167 168 169 170 171

vedyah vaidyah sadA-yogi vIra-hA mAdhavah madhuh atIndriyah

172 - mahA-mAyah 173 - mahotsAhah 174 - mahA-balah

18.165 - vedyah a) He who can be realized. b) That which should be known or realized. Om vedyAya namah. veditum Sakyah vedyah, vedanArhatvAt vedyah, or veditum yogya iti vedyah. SrI chinmayAnanda interprets the word to mean "That which should be known - as the Ultimate Truth; having known which, everything else becomes known". This is supported by the following from the gItA - "vedaiSca sarvairahameva vedyah I am the One who is to be known through all the veda-s" - gItA 15.15, and vedair_anekair-ahmeva vedyah kaivalya 22. 18.166 - vaidyah The knower of vidyA or knowledge. Om vaidyAya namah. The word vaidya is related to the word vidyA. One who right from the beginning of the world knew all the vidyA-s that went into the creation of this Universe is vaidya. It is not only that He is the knower, but no one else is the knower of creating all the wondrous and manifold objects in His creation. This is supported by "viSvAni deva vayunAni vidvAn" - yajur 7.43. He is the sarva-vidyA-maya vaidya. Also note "Isvarah sarvavidyAnAm"- taittirIya AraNyaka 10.21. The knowledge that we see displayed even in the insects, birds, etc., should be a constant reminder of the vaidya or All-knower that is bhagavAn, and should lead us to the constant awareness that it is His feet that

we should worship. SrI Bhattar points out that He knows the vidyA of releasing His devotees from the cycle of rebirth, and so He is vaidya. In the traditional meaning of vaidya referring to a doctor, SrI chinmayAnanda points out that He is vaidya since He alone can doctor to the world's suffering from ego and ego-centric misconceptions. In SrI Bhattar's vyAkhyAna we find a supporting reference "meru mandara mAtro'pi pApasya karmaNah | keSavam vaidyam AsAdya durvyAdhiriva naSyati (vishNu dharmam 69.110) One might have accumulated sins the size of the meru mountain; however if one worships keSava, the sins disappear just as the worst diseases disappear when treated by a good vaidya or doctor". 18.167 - sadA-yogi a) One who is always awake with respect to His devotees. b) One who unites this Universe as the sarva-vyApi c) One who always follows the dhArmic way. d) One who is in constant yogic meditation e) One who always displays the samatva-bhAva, i.e., treats everyone equally. Om sadA-yogine namah. One explanation for this nAma is that bhagavAn is always attainable, and so He is sada-yogI. SrI Bhattar interprets the nAma to mean that He is awake at all times with respect to His devotees, and He is always awake as the antaryAmi in all of us.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives three different interpretations for this nAma - satah AyogI, sadA yogI, and sadA AyogI. Satas means equally, and Ayuj means to unite or to join. The roots from which from the nAma can be derived are also many - yugi varjane - to give up; yuj samAdhau - to concentrate the mind; yuj yoge to unite; yuj samyamane - to join; He is a sadA-yogi because He has always given up everything except the good and the just, the dharmic way. He is also a sadA-yogI because He unites this world into one through His sarva-vyApti, His pervasion into everything that exists - sadaiva yojayati samyamayati visvAn lokAn sa sadA-yogI. He is also a sada-yogI because He is constantly in yogic meditation, which is His nature. Yoga here can be interpreted as samatvabhAva. SadA yogah asya asti iti tam sadA-yoginam, sadA yoga Silam svabhAva-dharmANam vA.

The vyAkhyAna in dharma cakram (whose author is not identified) points out that people live one of three ways of life - a rogi, a bhogi, or a yogi. Of these, the life of a yogi (who spends his life by diverting his senses away from sense-enjoyment and towards the parama-purusha) is the one that leads to peace of mind and bodily health. The yogic state of mind is naturally attained by one who devotes one's mind to the worship of the Lord, the sadA-yogi.

18.168 - vIra-hA The slayer of strong men of wicked nature. Om vIraghne namah. We may recollect "paritrRNAya sAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRtAm" - 'For the protection of the good and the destruction of the wicked'. If the quality of being a vIra is used to commit adharma, bhagavAn destroys those vIra-s or rAkshasa-s. SrI Bhattar interprets the vIra-s here as referring to people who are "kutarka-Sura-s" or those who put up false arguments to prevent people from meditating on Him. He refers us to the sloka-s in bhagavad gItA in Chapter 16 starting from sloka 16-8 and ending in 16-19, where bhagavAn gives a description of the kinds of behaviors that these kutarka-vAdi-s demonstrate - claiming that God does not exist, or claiming that they are the God, etc. 18.169 - mAdhavah The propounder of the knowledge of the Supreme Being. Om mAdhavAya namah. The detailed interpretations for this nAma have been given earlier under nAma 73. Please refer to that description. 18.170. madhuh One who is like honey to His devotees. Om madhave namah. He is madhu because He creates Nectarine Bliss in the hearts of His devotees. He causes great satisfaction, like honey. We have from bRhadAraNya upanishad - ayamAtmA sarveshAm bhUtAnAm madhu - 2.5.14. We also have "thEnil iniya pirAne" as He is referenced by PeriyAzhvAr in his PoocchUttal. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha indicates that madhu also means knowledge (derived from man- ~jnAne to know), and He is madhu because He knows everything by His pervading everything - ~jnAna dharmeNa vyApnuvan sarvam viSvam manyate jAnAti, tasmAt sa madhuh. We have the yajurvedic mantra - tadantarsya sarvasya tadu sarvasyAsya bAhyatah - He is inside everything, and He is also outside of everything, and by virtue of this, He is ~jnAna mayam or Knower of everything. The commentator in dharma cakram points out that madhu or honey is unique among all the edibles that when consumed, all of it is digested into the system with no waste products. He also points out that madhu is unique in that there is no ill-effect that results from its consumption, unlike some of the other edibles where an excessive consumption will lead to harmful effects. In our context, bhagavAn is the knowledge that is madhu, from which only good can result. SrI Bhattar interprets the next several nAmas as descriptive of the six celestial qualities of bhagavAn -

~jnAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakti, and tejas. 18.171 - atIndriyah He who is beyond the range of the sense organs. Om atIndriyAya namah. Only those objects that have a fixed shape, color, or other characteristics will be recognizable by the indriya-s or sense organs. He is beyond these sense-organs, and cannot be realized through these or through sheer reasoning. The only way to realize Him is to experience Him through pure devotion. The two mantra-s of ISAvAsya upanishad (anejadekam.., and tadejati tannaijati..) remind us of this quality of bhagavAn in simple words. In kaThopanisahd we have indriyebhyah parAhyarthA ...avyaktAt purushah parah | aSabdam-asparSam-arUpam-avyayamtathArasam nityam-agandhavacca yat | (kaTho 1.3.10 etc.) (He is soundless, untouched, formless, immutable, and so without taste, eternal, smell-less.) SrI chinmayAnanda points out that it is not just He is beyond the reach of the sense-organs, but that the sense-organs don't exist without Him, and so cannot sense anything without His power. So He is the very subject of the sense-organs, and not the object of the sense-organs (the eye cannot see itself, but only its reflection in a mirror!). He is also not seen by the indriya-s because He is not anywhere outside where the senses can sense Him, but is inside each of us in the cavity of our hearts where the senses cannot reach, the size of a thumb angusTha mAtrena. 18.172 - mahA-mAyah One who is possessed of wonderful power of enchantment. Om mahA-mAyAya namah. SrI Bhattar points out that this nAma signifies that He conceals Himself from those who are not devoted to Him through His power of enchantment. This is natural for one who is not within the reach of the sensesorgans as we saw in the previous nAma. Lord KRshNa says in the gItA - mama mAyA duratyayA - My mAyA is very difficult to overcome - gItA 7.14). mAyA here is not to be interpreted to as magic or illusion or untruth, but as something wonderful and unusual. (sItA devi is referred to as devamAyA - janakasya kule jAtA devamAyeva nirmitA). The mAyA referred to here is that bhagavAn wonderfully conceals Himself from those who do not seek Him. Other references to the sruti-s are - ati-mohakarI mAyA mama (Sarabha 24), vidyAt mAyinam tu maheSvaram (SvetASvatAra 4.10). 173. mahotsAhah

He of great enthusiasm. Om mahotsAhAya namah. SrI Bhattar points out that this nAma particularly indicates that unlike the Isvara of the sAnkhya system who is possessed of knowledge but is a non-doer of acts and is indifferent, Sri mahA vishNu is enthusiastic in performing acts which signify His lordship, such as the varieties of His creation, their sustenance etc. The mahotsAha is a guNa that bhagavAn has as an aiSvarya, with no dependence on anything else for support. Because of this, He is unceasingly creating, maintaining and withdrawing His creations, and managing the affairs of the Universe. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that this world will not exist without the endless enthusiasm of His Mighty Power. Just as the ocean, with its endless waves is the "sleepless agitator", so also bhagavAn is the Enthusiastic Accomplisher. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a different interpretation to this nAma. He looks at this word as mahAn + ut+ sAhah - mahAntam uccaistamam sAhah, sahate, sAhayati, sahati vA sa mahotsAhah - One who has immense ability to endure. Here sAhah has the same meaning as sahah - sahati. He gives reference to the Rg vedic mantra nAkshastapyate bhUribhArah - 1.164.13 to support this interpretation. He supports the Sun, the Moon, etc., tirelessly, and He is also the self in every being that has been created, and it is His mahotsAha that is manifested in His act. His guNa of endurance is also noted through the yajurvedic mantra "saho'si saho mayi dehi (yajur 19/9)". The word utsAhah traditionally means enthusiasm. The commentator in dharma cakram points out that of the three qualities, the rajas, tamas, and satva bhAva-s, actions that are done with enthusiasm and that benefit the rest of mankind are those that are done by those with the satva disposition. The actions by these are the ones that continue successfully, with full benefits to His subjects. It is good to remind ourselves in this context that He is pure Satva, and one way of offering worship to Him is to follow this model and lead a sAtvic life ourselves. 18.174 - mahA-balah One with immeasurable strength - The Omnipotent. Om mahAbalAya namah.

SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAna is "balinAmapi balavatvAt mahAbalah - Being stronger than the strongest, He is mahAbalah". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAStri gives several examples of this guNa of bhagavAn. RAvaNa went to the pAtAla loka to win over bali. BhagavAn wo had established Himself as the gatekeeper of bali temporarily made Himself invisible. RAvaNa tried to move the kundalam of hiraNyakaSipu which was lying at the doorstep as it has fallen from hiraNyakaSipu's ears at the time of his being slain by Lord nRsimha. RAvaNa's hands got caught under the kundalam. BhagavAn appeared on the scene, and kicked rAvaNa without effort and rAvaNa fell far far away. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha starts from the root bal - prANane to live or to breathe, and gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is mahAbalah because He makes the world live or supports the world. He points out that there are different kinds of balam, e.g., vidyA balam, senA balam, dhana balam, anna balam, etc., and bhagavAn is the One who is the bestower of all the balams (means of support) to the different devotees, and so He is mahA-balah.

Slokam 19

175 - mahA-buddhih 176 - mahA-vIryah 177 - mahA-Saktih 178 - mahA-dyutih 179 - anirdeSyavapuh 180 - SrImAn 181 - ameyAtmA 182 - mahAdri-dhRt

19.175 - mahA-buddhih He of infinite knowledge. Om mahA-buddhaye namah. SrI Bhattar points out that He is mahA-buddhi because His knowledge does not depend on His sense organs or any external help. He sees and hears and senses all at the same time with any of His organs or with no need for any of the organs. This is supported by several passages from the sruti-s - viSvataScakshuruta viSvatomukhah - He has eyes on all sides and faces on all sides (taittirIya nArAyaNa upanishad 1.12); paSyat_yacakshuh sa SRNoti akarNah - He sees without eyes and hears without ears (SvetASva 3.19); sarvato'kshi Siromukham - He has everywhere eyes, heads, and mouths (gItA 13.13). We also have the venerable AcArya nAthamuni's words - yo vetti yagapat sarvam pratyaksheNa sadA svatah - Who sees directly by perception and of His own accord all things simultaneously (nyAyatatva). The dhAtu word from which the name is derived is budh ~jnAne to know, to understand. BhagavAn is the buddhi behind the functioning of all His creations, and so He is the mahA-buddhi. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha

points out that the behavior of many objects such as even the shedding of the leaves by the trees during the winter months and the regeneration during the summer months etc., is indicative of knowledge that He has invested in them. The establishment of the stars and planets in their respective positions and orbits is a totally different dimension of the same mahA-buddhi of the Lord. The magic of creation of the multitude of beings and their being held together as a functional entity is beyond the knowledge of anyone else but Him. The author also points out cases such as a "lajjAvanti" plant which survives and grows only if a woman waters the plant, and dies if a man pours the water to the plant, which are all examples of the wonders of the ~jnAna that is the mahA-buddhi. In a publication titled dharma cakram published by SrI rAmakRshNa tapovanam in India, a writer has given the additional example of a crow's behavior when threatened by an enemy as an illustration of the knowledge that He has invested in His creations. When a crow is chased by a small child, it just displays minimal effort to get away. If a grown-up person chases it with a stick, it takes just a little bit more effort to run. If a person with a gun appears, the crow will be nowhere to be seen. Who but the mahA-buddhi could have given the crow this level of buddhi, which in addition gets transmitted from parent to offspring in an unending chain? SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that buddhi is the most important of the four antah:karaNa-s. buddhi chooses between the options provided by the manas, taking into account the pictures of previous experiences provided by the cittam, before the ahamkAram takes over and executes the action. If the buddhi makes a poor choice, then it becomes alpa-buddhi; if the buddhi always chooses noble choices, then it is the mahA-buddhi. 19.176 - mahA-vIryah He of great virility. Om mahA-vIryAya namah. He is mahA-vIrya because He remains unchanged unlike everything else which changes with time (e.g., milk changing to curd). It is but a tiny fraction of this quality of His that is reflected in the fact that that the Yogins are of steady mind and do not get distracted. Just as flowers give out their fragrance to all their surroundings with no effort on their part, bhagavAn performs all His acts with no effort on His part, and this is an indication of His vIrya. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that vIrya is the essence of all dynamism or creative urges, and He is mahAvIrya because He is the driving force from whom alone all the dynamism for creation can manifest. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri explains that vIryam is the quality of achieving one's objective no matter how difficult it is. bhagavAn's first accomplishment, the creation of this Universe from the prakRti or primordial matter, is a result of His vIrya. In the vyAkhyAna in dharma cakram it is pointed out that one with the vIrya or creative energy should also be one who has complete control of the indriya-s in order for this creative energy to be beneficial to evreryone else. From this point, the Lord is the only one who can be called the mahA-vIrya. 19.177 - mahA-Saktih

Of immense power. Om mahA-Saktaye namah. SrI Bhattar points out that this nAma emphasizes that bhagavAn is not just the sentient cause of this world, but is also the material cause of this world; i.e., He is not only the brain behind the creation, but He is also the one whose immense power caused the physical creation of this world from the prakRti. SrI Bhattar indicates that this is unlike the view held by the pasupata school that holds that Isvara is only the sentient cause and not the material cause. He points out that the constant change going on in pradhAna or primordial matter, milk, curd, etc., every moment, is but the result of a small fraction of this Sakti of bhagavAn. Unfortunately I am unfamiliar with the details of the point made here about the pasupata school of thought , and would like to invite additional comments/elaborations from the readers. The word can be derived from Sak - marshane to endure, to be able, or Sak Saktau to be able, to endure, to be powerful. Thus SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the meaning to be similar to be mahA-bala, mahotsAhah etc. SrI Sankara interprets Sakti as sAmarthyam or skill, and Sri chinamayAnanda follows up on this and indicates that He is mahA-Sakti because He is the cause of the interplay of the three Sakti-s, the kriyA Sakti or the power-of-action, the kAma-Sakti or the power-of-desire, and the ~jnAna Sakti or the power-of-knowledge, which in turn is the cause of this Universe. As pointed out under the previous nAma, He uses the mighty power for the good of the world, and every instance of this Might should remind us of Him. 19.178 - mahA-dyutih He of great splendor. Om mahA-dyutaye namah. The derivation of this nAma is from the dhAtu dyuta dIptau to shine. dyotate iti dyutih - One who is shining is dyutih, dyotayitA vA dyutih - One who makes things shine is dyutih. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the following yajurvedic mantras to support the point that all that shines in this world is because of His effulgence yaste divi sUrye mahimA sambabhUva| tasmai te mahimne prajApataye devebhyah svAhA || yaste nakshatreshu candramasi mahimA sambabhUva | tasmai te mahimne prjApataye devebhyah svAhA || (yajur 23-2, 23-4)

SrI Bhattar explains that this nAma indicates that bhagavAn neither depends on nor needs any external help for any of His actions, and the great splendor (tejas) in His appearance reveals this. This tejas is capable of removing both the outer and the inner darkness in us. The tejas of the Sun and the shining of the precious jewels are but a tiny part of the tejas of the Lord. This tejas of the Lord is so pleasing to His devotees, and so frightening to His enemies (we may recall the description of the nAma nArasimha-vapu earlier, where we emphasized the same point about the nRsimha avatAram). The sruti references that support this are: svayam jyotih - He is pure Effulgence Himself without the need for external means to illuminate Him

(bRhadAraNya upanishad 4.3.9), jyotishAm jyotih - The Light among lights (muNdakopanishad 2.2.9), etc. The dharma cakram writer points out that those who worship the Lord are automatically blessed by the Lord with a part of this dyuti (The face is the index of the mind - agattin azhagu mugattil teriyum is the Tamil saying). SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that there are 43 nAmas in sahasranAmam that start with mahA. Of these, the above six nAmas refer to bhagavAn's qualities of overlordship, strength, knowledge, virility, power, and effulgence. The combination of these six guNas is what makes bhagavAn the mahA-mAya or the One who performs the wonderful acts which are His sport. The six great qualities of bhagavAn that have been referred to in the previous nAma-s 173-178 are also referenced in many sruti-s: (173 - mahotsAhah 174 - mahA-balah 175 - mahA-buddhih 176 - mahAvIryah 177 - mahA-Saktih 178 - mahA-dyutih ) parA asya Saktih vividhaiva SrUyate svabhAvikI ~jnAna bala kriyA ca (SvetAsvatara U. 6-8) He has varieties of Sakti-s in par excellence as part of His Nature. His superior knowledge, superior might, and His power of creation etc., are some examples. ~jnAna Sakti bala aiSvarya vIrya tejAmsi aSeshatah | bhagavacchabda-vAcyAni vinA heyaih guNadibhih || (vishNupurANam 6-5-79) The word bhagaVan is associated with the six superior qualities of knowledge, strength, lordship or nondependence on anything else, virility, power, and effulgence, with no association whatever with any negative connotations. tejo bala aiSvarya mahA avabodha suvIrya SaktyAdi guNaika rASih| (vishNu purANam 6-5-85) The Lord is the abode for good qualities such as tejas, balam, aiSvaryam, great knowledge, abudant vIrya, Sakti etc. 19.179 - anirdeSya-vapuh He who possesses an indescribable body. Om anirdeSya-vapushe namah. Something that can be described as this or that, or can be pointed to as this or that, is nirdeSa - idam tat ityAdi rUpeNa vi~jnApanam, ~jnApyasya prakASanam vA nirdeSah. AnirdeSa is something that cannot be described as above. vapu means SarIra or body. vapu also can be derived from the dhAtu vap - bIjasantAne chedane ca - to sow, to scatter, etc. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses this latter approach and gives a meaning for anirdeSyavapu as One who cannot be easily described and who is the sower of the seed for this Universe. He indicates that the word bAp, bApu etc., - father in Hindi is derived from a colloquial derivative of vapu. All beings who have a body as we know it have the body which is formed from the panca-bhuta-s, mahat and ahamkAram. BhagavAn's body is different - it is formed from the six maha-guNa-s that we just learned

about. He becomes whatever He wants to become. He is pure effulgence, pure knowledge, pure power, pure lordship incarnate, etc. In vishNu purANa, we have "rUpa varNAdi nirdeSa viSeshaNa vivarjitah - Regarding His form, color, etc., there is nothing that can be compared to them" - (1.2.10). SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri remarks in his commentary that the mahA-guNas cannot be visualized by the meager knowledge that we possess, and it is only by the inner experience that He can be realized. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that He is the knowledge through which we can describe everything else, but He himself cannot be described. (Just as the eye can see others, but the eye cannot be used to see itself). 19.180 - SrImAn Possessed of beauty. Om SrImate namah. This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 22, and will re-occur as nAma 222 later. NAma 22 occurred succeeding the nAma nArasimha-vapuh, which was nAma 21, and was interpreted in that context (viz., the nRsimha incarnation was of exceptional beauty). The nAmas immediately preceding nAma 222 are interpreted by SrI Sankara and SrI Bhattar in the context of the matsya -avatAra, and so they interpret nAma 222 as referring to the beauty of the matsya-avatAra. For the current nAma, since this immediately succeeds the description of the body of the Lord (anirdeSya vapu), they interpret this in this context, and give the meaning that here it refers to the enormously beautiful ornaments that decorate the body of bhagavAn (SrI Bhattar), or they refer to the beauty associated with the six great qualities (SrI Sankara). Note that even though the same nAma, SrImAn, occurs three times, both SrI Sankara and SrI Bhattar interpret them differently each time depending on the context. SrImAn also refers to Sriyah pati, or the Lord of Sri or mahA-lakshmi. BhagavAn's beauty is natural to Him because He has SrI in his vaksha-sthala. The dharma-cakram author inteprets this nAma to mean that the prakRti and purusha are inseparable, just as SrI and the Lord are inseparable, and are part of the same para-brahmam. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the root as "Sri -sevAyAm" - One who is fit to be served. SrI also means SobhA or beauty or "kAnti". He points out that the beauty that is seen all around us in the trees, the birds, the rivers, the flowers, the Sun, the Moon, the stars, etc., should remind us constantly of bhagavAn, the SrImAn whose SrI is shining in everything. SrI also means wealth. The wealth that humans have is transient, and can disappear any time. BhagavAn is SrImaAn whose wealth is nitya or permanent. 19.181 - ameyAtmA He of an incomprehensible nature. Om ameyAtmane namah. SrI Bhattar explains that based on the diverse qualities which are in abudance as described in the previous nAma-s, He is ameyAtmA.

SrI Sankara interprets the meaning of AtmA here as buddhi or intelligence, and He is ameyAtmA because He

has remarkable intelligence which is beyond measure. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha starts from the root or dhAtu from which this nAma is derived - mA mAne to measure, to compare with. MAtum arhah meyah; na mAtum arhah ameyah. Here AtmA refers to the svarUpam. Since He in the inner soul of everything, it is not possible to describe Him from outside, just as an ocean cannot be precisely defined when you are in the middle of the ocean. 19.182 - mahAdri-dhRt The bearer of the great mountain. Om mahAdri-dhRte namah. There are two instances of bhagavAn bearing the mountain. One was the instance of bearing the mandara mountain during the time of churning of the Milk Ocean, when bhagavAn appeared in the form of the Great Tortoise to bear the churning stick (which was the mandara mountain) on His back. The other is the instance when Lord KRshNa bore the govardhana mountain in gokulam to protect the cows.

SrI chinamayAnanda points out that bhagavAn also supports the mind-intellect of the sAdhaka while he is churning, through SravaNa (study) and manana (reflection), his own milk-like pure heart of devotion in order to gain the amRtam of immortality. Some versions of sahasranAmam have this nAmam as mahAdridhRk instead of mahAdri-dhRt. Sri rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out the difference between the two as follows: mahAdri-dhRk - One who is capable of bearing a huge mountain (mahAdraye didhRshNoti); mahAdri-dhRt - One who bears a huge mountain (mahAdrim dharati). My knowledge of samskRt grammar is not good enough to explain this distinction clearly. I would request anyone who can explain the difference between the two versions based on etymological considerations to contribute to clarifying this difference in meaning.

Slokam 20

183 184 185 185 186 187 188 189 190

maheshvAsah mahI-bhartA SrI-nivAsah SrI-nivAsah satAm-gatih a-niruddhah surAnandah govindah govidAm patih

20.183 - maheshvAsah a) The discharger of great arrows b) The wielder of the mighty bow Om maheshvAsAya namah. mahAn - manohArI - enchanting; ishUNAm - arrows; Asah - discharger. SrI Bhattar gives the examples of Lord Rama discharging the arrows to establish a bridge across the sethu river and at the time of destroying the ten-headed RAvaNa. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that ishvAsa can mean the bow (that which throws or discharges the arrows), and one who has the great dhanus is maheshvAsa - mahAn ishvAsah asya asti iti maheshvAsah. The dharma cakram author points out that even though modern science provides a lot of facilities like being able to build bridges to cross great rivers in times of war in a short time nowadays, the result is more war and more insecurity and more evils. Not so with the Lord's arrows, which always achieve their objective without fail (rAma bANam vIN pogAdu is a saying in Tamil - Rama's arrows never go to waste), and bring good to mankind. 20.184 - mahI-bhartA The bearer of the earth. Om mahI-bhartre namah. SrI Bhattar interprets this nAma as referring to bhagavAn bearing the earth constantly as the Adi kUrma. SrI SrInivAsa rAghavAchAryAr has pointed out in his nRsimha priyA articles that the following mantra in the nitya Ahnika karma - Om akhila jagadAdhArAya kUrma-rUpiNe nArAyaNAya namah - is a reference to this act of Sriman nArAyaNa. BhartA literally means husband or supporter. mahI means earth. mahI-bhartA means the Husband of Mother Earth. We have the description of how the Lord, as the Great Boar (varAha) uplifted the earth from

the "waters of Deluge", and is still supporting the earth. The author in dharma cakram surmises that the gravitational force which keeps everything in this universe in its place is just a demonstration of the Sakti or power of this mahI-bhartA. 20.185 - SrI-nivAsah In whom Lakshmi resides. Om SrInivAsAya namah. SrI refers to Lakshmi. NivAsam is the place or abode. Sri mahA-lakshmi emerged from the ocean as one of the nectars as it was churned. All the deva-s were watching and waiting, and She chose the Lord as She emerged. BhagavAn greeted Her with sweet words and offered Her the place on His vaksha-sthalam. This is one of His leela-s. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that SrI connotes "all Glory and power, faculties and strength, to be good and to perform creative acts of righteousness". She never resides permanently in any bosom, and even great saints and sages are known to have compromised the perfections in them in recorded history. The only place where imperfections never enter to molest the serene essence, is the seat of Eternal Perfection, which is the bosom of nArAyaNa. This is a very elegant way of interpreting and understanding the significance of the statement that SrI is always in the vaksha-sthalam of the Lord. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that SrI also means beauty (SobhA), fame (vibhUti), wealth (dhana). One who is the residence of all these is SrI-nivAsa. The statement that SrI resides always with mahA-vishNu in his vaksha-sthalam emphasizes the concept that lakshmi and nArAyaNa should be viewed as One, just as the fire and the heat associated with it are not two separate things. SrI is the brightness, the success, the wealth, the beauty, associated with nArAyaNa. 20.186 - satAm-gatih The Ultimate Goal for all spiritual seekers. Om satAm-gataye namah. sat refers to all spiritual seekers and all those who are virtuous. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that this name implies that He is not only the final goal for these, but also the very direction, path, and progress as well. BhagavAn is the goal for the devotees because they do not want anything except Him once they become His devotees. 20.187 - a-niruddhah One who cannot be obstructed or resisted by anyone. Om aniruddhAya namah.

Examples of this guNa of bhagavAn are seen all around us all the time. Nothing can stop the rising and setting of the sun, the absorption of sun's energy by the different things, etc. The laws of Nature are irresistible. In SrI chinamayAnanda's words relating to this nAma, "Time and tide wait for none". BhagavAn has been victorious and unobstructed in all of His incarnations. SrI Bhattar gives the reference to maula smahitA to support the interpretation for this nAma - aparimita cheshTo bhagavAn aniruddhah - Unlimited are the exploits of bhagavAn aniruddha". The writer in dharma cakram gives a very obvious example of the unobstructed nature of bhagavAn's wishes. Kamsa tries many things to get rid of child KRshNa right from the time of His birth, and in fact He had planned to get rid of the child long before the child was to be born. We all know that nothing worked, and the child kRshNa became the boy kRshNa and got rid of kamsa as He had planned. This nAma not only says that no one can obstruct bhagavAn helping His devotees, but it also says that no one can save His enemies. 20.188 - surAnandah One who gives delight to the gods. Om surAnandAya namah. surAn Anandayati iti surAnandah. The word sura is composed of su - good, and rA - to give. So bhagavAn is One who brings happiness to those who bring good to the world (sura-s). He has assigned them the different functions on these lines. He gives delight to the gods by helping them in times of distress. One instance of this is when the Milk-Ocean was churned and the Lord gave the amRtam to the sura-s. The instance that Sri Bhattar alludes to is the hamsa incarnation which is extensively referred to in the divya prabandham. This is covered in several places in the divya prabandham, and in addition there is a whole chapter dedicated to this incarnation in SrImad-bhAgavatam. The following are references in divya prabandham: mun iv-Ezhu ulagu uNarvinRi iruL miga umbargaL tozhudEtta annamAgi anRu aru-maRai payandavanE enakku aruL puri nIyE... (periya tirumozhi 5.3.8) "When all the seven worlds were immersed in darkness because of all kinds of conflicting and contradictory beliefs, brahma and sanaka-sanandanAdi deva-s prayed to Lord nArAyaNa, He appeared in the form of a hamsa (swan) and gave them the benefit of the knowledge of the path of righteousness." The significance of hamsa here is that it is capable of separating the milk from the water; so also, bhagavAn identified the good from the bad for the benefit of the sura-s. "tunni maNNum viNNAdum tOnRAdu iruLAi mUdiya nAL annamAgi aru maraigaL aruLicceyda amalanidam.... (periya tirumozhi 5.1.9) mannu mA-nilamum malaigalum kadalum vAnamum tAnavar-ulagum tunnu mA-iruLAi tulangoLi Surungi tollai-nAnmaRaigaLum maRaiya pinnum vAnavarkkum munivarkkum nalgi piRangiruL niRam keDa orunAL annamAi a~ngu arumaRai payndAn aranga-mA-nagar amrndAnE. (periya tirumozhi 5.7.3)

"tunniya pEriruL Suzhndu ulagai mUDa manniya nAnmaRai muRRum maRaindiDa pin ivvulagil pEriruL nI~nga anRu annamadAnE! AccOvaccO arumaRai tandAnE! AccOvaccO!" (periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 1.9.10) In SrImad-bhAgavatam, chapter 13 of the 11th skandam is devoted to hamsa avatAram. There bhagavAn describes how brahma meditated upon Him for guidance in answering the question from sanakasanandanA-s on the relationship between buddhi, AtmA, guNa-s, etc., and how He appeared in the form of a swan incarnation and gave the upadeSa to them. 20.189 - govindah a) One who is praised by the gods (for His help). b) One who dug out the Earth from the depths of the Ocean. c) The protector of cows. d) One who confers the veda-s Om govindAya namah. go in samskRt means "Earth", "cows", "speech", or "veda-s" - gaur-vANI, dharA, dhenurvA. From this we derive gavAm, gAm, etc. vid - lAbhe to get, to find, to feel is the root from which vinda is derived. a) gavAm vindah govindah - gavAm - praise, vindah - recipient. He is govinda because He is the recipient of praise by the gods for the help He renders as outlined in the previous nAma. b) Another interpretation is gAm avindat - One who retrieved the Earth from the depths of the Ocean. The following is from Santi parvam in mahAbhAratam nashTAm vai dharaNIm purvam avindam vai guhAgatAm | govinda iti tenAham devair-vAgbir-abhishTutah|| (Santi - 330.5) "I first rescued the earth which was carried away and hidden in depths of the Ocean (by an asura); hence I am praised by the appellation Govinda by gods and scriptures". The significance of this is pointed out by the dharma cakram writer. BhagavAn is the One who truly understands the world and all its subjects. c) gAvo vedavANyo yam vindanti labhante, yatra vA avatisThante sa govindo bhagavAn vishNuh - One who is reached by vedic chanting, or One who is the abode of the veda-s, is govinda or vishNu. In harivamSa we have the following gaureshA tu yato vANI tAm ca vindayate bhavAn | govindastu tato deva! munibhih kathyate bhavAn! || (harivamSa 3.88.50) gau means words. You pervade all words giving them power. Sages, therefore, call you govinda. d) The protector of the cows - again supported from harivamSa -

aham kilendro devAnAm tvam gavAm indratAm gatah | govinda iti lokAstvAm stoshyanti bhuvi SASvatam || (harivamSa 2.19.45) "I am indra, leader of deva-s. You have attained the leadership of the cows. So in this world men praise You always addressing you as govinda". He is the protector of the cows and played the part of gopAla in gokulam. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that the leadership of cows also suggests the importance of milk, ghee, etc., in worship, yaj~na etc., and how these also play a key role in the nourishment of the world. An author by name ananta kRshNa Sastri, who has translated SrI Sankara's vishNu sahasranAma vyAkhyAnam, gives 10 meanings for the combination go+vid - 1) go -svargam - He transcends Heaven. 2) arrows - He knows all the weapons. 3) cattle - He is the leader of cows. 4) Speech - He is to be known by the veda-s. 5) Thunderbolt - He has the vajra marks on His feet. 6) Quarters - He is known in all quarters. 7) Eyes - He is the seer in every person. 8) The Sun - He is in the orb of the sun. 9) Earth - He recovered the Earth from the Ocean. 10) Waters - His seat is in the waters. 20.190 - govidAm patih The protector of those who know the veda-s. Om govidAm-pataye namah. Here go means veda-s. vid is one who knows. pati is the leader or protector. The significance to be recognized here is that He is the source of all knowledge, and it is by His grace that knowledge is attained. Recall from the previous nAma that the word go in samskRt has several meanings, including speech, earth, cows, etc. This opens up the beauty of other interpretations for the current nAma. BhagavAn is also the master of speech of all other creations such as birds, etc., the leader of those who know the principle (tatvam) of this Universe, etc. I am indebted to Sri M. Srinivasan for helping me with identifying these references. Dasan Krishnamachari

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 21 191 - marIcih 192 - damanah

193 - hamsah 194 -suparNah 195 bhujagottamah 196 - hiraNyanAbhah 197 - sutapAh 198 padma_nAbhah 199 - prajApatih

21.191 - marIcih Ray of light. Om marIcaye namah. The word marIci means a ray of light. SrI Bhattar interprets this name as indicating that bhagavAn reveals Himself to His devotees through the eye of their devotion even though they can't see Him through their natural eye. The author in dharma cakram indicates that this guNa of bhagavAn should remind us that we should aim for the ray of light that will help us meditate on Him. This we can achieve by first controlling our indirya-s, which then converts the body's energies into mental energy. Then by control of the mind, this energy is converted into the light that gives the clarity of mind that can help us meditate on Him. A different interpretation is given by SrI satyadevo vAsishTha for this nAma. The word marIci is derived from mR prANatyAge to die, to perish. He interprets marIci as one who destroys. Since it is one of bhagavAn's functions to destroy the beings that He creates, He is marIci. To support this, he gives the examples from bhagavad-gItA - jAtasya hi dhruvo mRtyur-dhruvam janma mRtasya ca (2.25); mRtyuh prajAnAm adhipatih (atharva 5.24.13), etc. 21.192 - damanah.

a) Dispeller (of the samsAra bhAram) b) Subduer - One who controls and punishes those who swerve from their prescribed path. c) He Who controls everything by pervading everything. Om damanAya namah The word is derived from the dhAtu - dam upaSame = to tame. damayati iti damanah - One who dispels. a) Continuing his interpretation of the previous nAma (One with great radiance), Sri Bhattar interprets this nAma as indicating that He guides His devotees overcome the sufferings of samsAra or the material world through His guiding Light kAnti mandAkinIbhih bhava-tApam daayati iti damanah SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj and SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN give similar interpretations. SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN explains the nAma as damayati vicheda tApam sva-dhyAtRRNAm kAnti kantalIbhih iti damanah He Who dispels the sufferings of those who meditate on Him through His kAnti. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation: dAmyati upaSamayati kAnti kiraNaih upAsInAnAm manas-tApam iti damanah He Who removes the sorrow in the minds of His devotees through His when they meditate on Him. b) SrI Sankara interprets the nAma as The Subduer - One Who controls and punishes those that swerve from their assigned duties (damayitum Seelam yasya sa damanah). This could be in the form of a king while the people are in their mortal bodies, as yama after they die, etc. SrI cinmayAnanda explains that the damana aspect of bhagavAn is responsible for controlling the rAkshasic impulses within every one of us. In the form of pain and agitation, sorrow and death, it is He who controls all the negative tendencies in everyone's heart. He also has controlled the vicious against the good in the form of His ten incarnations. c) SrI vAsishTha interprets the nAma as One Who controls everything in this world by pervading everything and keeping things in order damayati upaSamayati yathA sthAnam prApayati, damana dharmeNa viSvam sa-carAcaram vyApnoti, iti damanah. d) SrI satya sandha tIrtha gives several interpretations for the nAma: i) ii) damanAsura samhAratvAt damanah He Who destroyed the asura by name damana. damana priyatvAt da-manah He Who likes taming or subduing the wicked.

iii) damo yeshAm asti iti damAh, tAn nayati iti dama-nah He Who is the Supreme among those who have control of the mind and the indriya-s (dama-nah). iv) dam abhIshTa dAtR mano yasya sa iti vA da-manah He Who has the mind to bestow whatever is desired on His devotees (da-manah). The author in dharma cakram points out that when one does not lead a life based on strict sAttvic principles, including the food habits, etc., one gets diseases and other mental pains. These are all acts of bhagavAn to discipline the person with the intent of helping the person learn and realize the right path. This is His act of damana, or controlling, punishing, guiding, etc. The reader is also referred to nAma 864 (Slokam 92) - damayitA, which is dervied from the root as the current nAma, damanah.

21.193 - hamsah Om hamsAya namah.

One who is like the swan.

Hamsa is capable of separating milk from water and drinking only the milk and leaving the water behind. Hamsa is also noted for its beauty, especially for its walk. BhagavAn is hamsa in that He is everything that is good and nothing that is not good. He is also hamsa for His beauty in thought, word, and deed. We had made extensive reference to the hamsa incarnation of bhagavAn in the explanation for the nAma surAnanda. Thus the current nAma can also be viewed as a reference to the hamsa avatAra of bhagavAn. Another interpretation, given by SrI Sankara, is that hamsah indicates that bhagavAn kills (han) the fear of samsAra in those who realize that aham sah - I am He. This (I am He) is traditionally quoted in discussions supporting the advaita philosophy. In some of his upanyAsa-s, SrI kRshNa Premi describes the following upa-katha involving a disciple who went alternately to an advaita and a visishTAdvaita teacher, who taught him alternately their philosophy - so'ham, dAso'ham, sadA so'ham, and dAsadAso'ham. Notice the play of words here, adding dA to the first one, sa to the next one, and dA again to the third word to get the fourth. Yet another interpretation is hanti gacchati sarva SarIreshu iti vA hamsah - He moves in all beings and bodies and so He is called hamsa. 21.194 - suparNah a) (literally) One possessed of charming feathers see below. b) One who can lead men to the other shore across the ocean of samsAra. Om suparNAya namah. a) In SrImad-bhAgavatam we have - siddheSvarANAm kapilah suparNo'ham patatriNAm - Among the siddha-s, I am Kapila, and among birds I am GaruDa (11.16.15). In Bhagavad-gItA, we have mRgANAm ca mRgendro'ham vainateyaSca pakshiNAM - Among beasts, I am the lion, their king, and among birds, I am GaruDa, the son of VinatA (10.29). Thus, suparNa is interpreted as referring to His being the Best of the best in all that exist. b) parNa means wings. Sobhana parNatvAt suparNah - suparNa means One with auspicious and beautiful wings. He is suparNa because He carries His devotees to the other shore of the ocean of samsAra. c) In the upanishad-s, we have reference to two beautiful birds sitting on the same tree - signifying the jIvAtmA and the ParamAtmA dwelling in the same body. One (jIvAtmA) eats the fruits of actions, and the other (ParamAtMA) just gazes on (sAkshI). VishNu is this all-experiencing Principle of Consciouness. "dvA suparNA sayujA sakhAyA samAnam vRksham parishvajAte tayoranyah pippalam svAdvanti, anaSnan anyo abhicAkaSIti (mundakopanishad - 3.1) A pair of white-winged birds extremely friendly to each other sit on one and the same tree; one eats the fruits, the other eats not and gazes on". SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri refers to one as the great enjoyer (pErinbam), and the other as the Great Knower (pEraRivu). d) The nAma can also relate back to the previous nAma The hamsa incarnation with beautiful wings.

21.195 - bhujagottamah Om bhujagottamAya namah.

The Master of the Serpent AdiSesha.

bhujaga refers to the species which navigate using their shoulders or arms - bhujena gacchanti, rather than through their legs. Here bhujaga refers to AdiSesha. uttama can refer to 'one who is above'. Here it refers to bhagavAn who is reclining on top of the AdiSesha. He is the SeshI or the Lord of the Sesha. He is reclining on ananta the Serpent as the couch. Or the name could also refer to bhujagAnAm uttamah - One who is the best among the serpents. i.e., it can refer to ananta - see bhagavad-gItA 10-29 - anantaScAsmi nAgAnAm. Even though I am finding the interpretations of SrI satyadevo vAsishTha to be on the side of being unconventional, I am including them since he supports his interpretations with extensive support from grammar, quotes from sruti-s etc. Here he starts with the dhAtu bhuj kautilye to bend, to curve. He points out that bhagavAn is bhujagottama because He is the best of all that bend and move. This includes air, birds, etc. Wherever anything of this category can reach, no matter how fast they fly or move, bhagavAn is there before them. Even the man-made machines that fly cannot go anywhere including other planets faster than Him, since He is there before them. Not only that, even the ability for those that fly etc. are given only by the Grace of the Lord. 21.196 - hiraNya-nAbhah Om hiraNya-nAbhAya namah. Literally the word means "One who has a beautiful navel with a golden hue". Here it refers to the navel that is great by having created the catur-mukha-brahmA who is also well-versed in the catur-veda-s. brahmA gets his greatness because he creates all the beings thus giving them the opportunity to reveal their greatness. This great brahmA was borne out of the navel of vishNu, and thus the greatness of the navel that bore the great brahmA is evident. Just as a nation that creates great people becomes known as a great nation, so is the analogy here, to quote the dharma cakram writer. 21.197 - sutapAh a) One who is possessed of supreme knowledge. b) One with consistent creative thinking. Om sutapAse namah. SrI Bhattar interprets tapas as knowledge, and gives the first interpretation above. SrI Sankara uses the following from mahAbhArata - mansaScendriyANAm ca hyaikAgRyam paramam tapah - The concentration of mind and senses is called supreme tapas - (MB 12.242.4). SrI chinmayAnanda gives the following support from the upanishad - sa tapah taptvA idametadasRjat (He thought, and through thought He created all this). The author in dharma cakram points out that the strength derived from tapas is more powerful than any other strength, and gives the example of how viSvAmitra's army was powerless against vasishTha's tapoOne who supports in His navel the creator, hiraNyagarbha.

Sakti. It was through tapas that viSvAmitra ultimately attained brahma-j~nAna, and it was through tapas that dhruva attained the immortal position. Lord vishNu is tapas-Incarnate (sutapAh), and thus guides His devotees in the path of tapas. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets tap to mean the ability to bear (kleS kA sahnA in Hindi). The example of a mother bearing the strain of an unborn child for 9 months just so she can bring out the child to this world is but a reflection of bhagavAn's su-tapa or His bearing the tejas of the likes of Sun so that it can bring out the good for the beings of this world, without burning them with its heat etc. So bhagavAn is the mahAtapasvI. 21.198 - padma_nAbhah a) One who has the lotus emanating from his navel (carrying brahma) b) One who resides in the center of everyone's heart Om padma nAbhAya namah. This nAma had occurred earlier as nAma 48. There the interpretation was that the lotus (the cause of the Universe) emanates from His navel. Another explanation given by SrI Sankara for the current nAma is that bhagavAn is in the centre of everyone's hRdaya kamalam or heart (nAbhI means also the central part, and padmam in this context is heart). The author in dharma cakram enjoys this nAma in various other ways. When lotus (padmam) blossoms, it attracts the bees and other insects towards it; so also, bhagavAn (padma-nAbhI) attracts all the jeevans to Him. Lotus is the most beautiful and fragrant of flowers; so also our padma-nAbha is the embodiment of beauty. Lord rAmA's beauty has been described by Sri Kamban - tAL kandAr tALE kandAr. Unlike the bodily beauty which brings down people to a lower level, the beauty of padma-nAbha can only elevate people to a higher level. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives additional insight into this nAma from yet another perspective. Padmam also means knowledge - padyate j~nAyate anena padmam j~nAnam. One who is the Center or reservoir of Knowledge, or One who controls and rules over Knowledge is padmanAbha (the author uses the term j~nAna-bandhanah as the equivalent of padma-nAbha based on this explanation). 21.199 - prajApatih Om prajApataye namah. tat padmodbhava-prabhRtInAm prajAnAm patih - The Lord of all beings including brahma born of that lotus. This pertains to the creation and destruction that take place periodically. Pati also means father, and since all creatures have emerged from Him, He is prajApati. He is the Leader who appears whenever needed to establish dharma. The Lord of beings.

Slokam 22

200 - amRtyuh 201 - sarvadRk 202 - simhah 203 - sandhAtA 204 - sandhimAn 205 - sthirah 206 - ajah 207 durmarshaNah 208 - SAstA 209 - viSrutAtmA 210 - surAri-hA

22.200 - amRtyuh One who is beyond death or decay. Om amRtyave namah. mRtyuh yasya na asti iti amRtyuh. Birth, growth, decay, disease, and death, are the five modifications through which every finite object must pass. Everything that is born is bound to die. Since He is not born, He is beyond decay, death, or other modifications. The author in dharma cakram points out that this nAma should remind us of the indestructibility or deathlessness of the jivAtmA, and should remind us of the need to mediate on Him without associating ourselves with this perishable body. 22.201 - sarvadRk All-seeing. Om sarva-dRSe namah.

He is the Seer and Knower of everything at all times in all beings. He is the witness of all, and sees those who are well-disposed or hostile or indifferent to Him as the Ruler of all and rewards them according to their deeds. The author in dharma cakram points out the concept that is simple but worth repeating - that this nAma should remind us that it is important to be pure in thought, word, and deed, since He is ever watchful of these in all beings at all times. It is easy to swerve from His path without any human being being aware of it, but we should be aware that He is the All-seeing. 22.202 - simhah a) The Lion b) Destroyer Om simhAya namah. SrI Bhattar interprets the nAma as one who has assumed the body of man and lion. SrI Sankara gives the meaning that He is the Destroyer (Lion) of sins. He gives the following etymological derivation "hinasti iti simhah" - hinasti smaraNa mAtreNa samasta pApAn iti simhah. According to this interpretation, the word himsa changes to simha by transposition of letters according to the grammatical rule "pRshodarAdIni yatopadishTam" (PANini 6.3.109). SrI chinmayAnanda points out that even taking the literal meaning "Lion" for simha, He is the Lion at the mention of whose name all the animal passions flee from the jungle of the mind. In the gItA we have "mRgANAm ca mRgendro'ham - Among the animals, I am the king of animals - The Lion" - gItA 10.30. In dharma cakram, the writer says that meditating on this nAma with its meaning should give us the vIrya to destroy the evil in our thoughts, words, and deeds. It is only a strong personality which can help us overcome the negative forces around us and help us realize Him. It is necessary to be good and to be strong (nallavanAgavum vallavanAgavum as stated in the tamizh language). 22.203 - sandhAtA a) One who unites His devotees with Him b) One who unites the beings with the fruits of their actions Om sandhAtre namah. sandhatta iti sandhAtA - One who unites. The first meaning is given by Sri Bhattar, giving the example of prahlAda. The second meaning is given by SrI Sankara. The nirukti gives the description - prahlAdAdyaih sandhAtA samSlesha-karaNAcca sah - One who makes the likes of prahlAda join Him. 22.204 - sandhimAn One who is always united with His devotees. Om sandhimate namah.

sandhi is union. SrI Bhattar gives the explanation that this name indicates that He is always united with His devotees, and so He is sandhimAn. Again, quoting the nirukti, prahlAdAdyaih nityasandhih yasya syAt sandhimAn smRtah - One who is in permanent union with the likes of prahlAda. 22.205 - sthirah One who is firm in His relation to His devotees. Om sthirAya namah. SrI Bhattar's interpretation is that He is sthirah since He is firmly attached to His devotees in spite of any wrongs by them - apacAre'pi acAlyatvAt sandhAne sthira ucyate. SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He is sthira in the sense that He is Constant, being always the same, free from birth, decay, etc. - sadaika rUpatvAt sthirah. 22.206 - ajah a) Unborn b) Remover of obstacles c) One who moves in the hearts of the devotees d) One who removes the ignorance from the hearts of His devotees e) One who is the root of all sound (akshara "a") Om ajAya namah. We encountered this nAma as nAma 96 earlier. It will recur also as nAma 524. Please see the explanations under nAma 96. 22.207 - durmarshaNah The Unassailable. Om durmarshaNAya namah. dushkaram marshaNam asya iti durmarshaNah - One who cannot be overcome by His enemies. SrI chinmayAnanda gives a very interesting perspective for this nAma. We may swerve from His path, and satisfy our sensory urges, but after being born over and over, we ultimately have no choice except to follow His path. In the lesser levels of evolution, we may deny ourselves the peace and joy of living the spiritual values, but in the end we will be seeking the feet of vishNu for real happiness and true achievement. Thus, His is the final victory. The root from which this nAma is derived is mRsh - sahane to bear. Literally this means One who is difficult to bear (for His enemies). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha starts with this, and interprets the nAma to mean that bhagavAn is durmarshaNa because His tejas cannot be confronted in His forms such as the Sun. He also points out that this principle is demonstrated by bhagavAn in everything in this world - the moon cannot stand the tejas of the sun, the brightness of the stars is diminished by the presence of the moon, the power of agni is subdued by that of water, and water disappears in the presence of agni.

Two other explanations for which I could not corroborate the meanings from the dictionary etc. are included as well. One of these is by SrI satyadevo vAsishTha. He gives the alternate interpretation that durmarshNa also means one who cannot be easily understood, based on the alternate meaning for marshitum = ~jNAtum - duhkhena marshitum Sakyah durmarshaNah. The other interpretation is by the dharma cakram writer who gives the meaning that He is durmarshaNah because He destroys the evil asura-s ( I assume this derivation is based on based mR to kill), and protects the deva-s. Meditating on this nAma with its meaning in mind will help in driving away the evil thoughts from the devotee's mind , and help to develop the good thoughts that will lead to realization of Him. VAlmIki who was ignorant in the beginning, meditated on rAma nAma, and this led him in course of time to the realization of Him.

22.208 - SAstA The Teacher. Om sAstre namah. The word is derived from SAsu - anuSishTau to teach, to govern, to correct, to advise. SAsti viSvam iti SAstA - One who teaches the veda-s to the world and governs is SAstA. (The words Sastra, SikshA etc. are derived from the same root). He is constantly teaching us through our elders, through sruti-s, smRti-s, watching us constantly by being the observer in us, etc. SrI Bhattar gives the meaning that He righteously punishes (teaches a lesson to?) those who are hindrance to His devotees, and so He is SAstA. 22.209 - viSrutAtmA a) One whose exploits are praised with wonder. b) One who is called by special names (such as Truth,Knowledge, etc). c) One whose praise is sung in various forms. d) One whose AtmA is of a special Nature. The interpretations except the last one result based on the different ways in which the vyAkhyAna kartA-s have interpreted the "vi" in viSrutAtmA. SrI Bhattar gives the interpretation vismayena - with wonder, SrI Sankara has interpreted it as viSesheNa - specially, and SrI satyadevo vAsishTha has given the meaning vividhaih - through many forms. Sru SravaNe to hear is the second part, and AtmA is the third part in the above nAma. SrI Bhattar adds that this praise in wonder is by all, at all times, and at all places. SrI Sankara points out that He is characterized through special terms like truth, wisdom, etc., and specially glorified in Sruti-s. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that He is known through different forms like Sun, Moon, etc. He gives the following corraboration from Sruti tadevAgnis-tadAdityas-tadvAyus-tadu candramAh | tadeva Sukram tad brahma tA Apah sa prajApatih || (yajur 32-1). He is also viSrutAtmA since he is sung through various means such as gAnam, arcanam, etc., and through sAma veda, yajurveda, etc.

Interpretation (d) is based on viSesheNa Srutah (~jnAtah) AtmA yena sa viSrutAtmA One who is known to be different from the jIvAtmA, One who is sarva~jna, sarvaSakta, sarva-niyantA. His AtmA is pure shAdguNya paripUrNa form, unassociated with an external form, unimpacted by the effects of karma, etc. 22.210 - surAri-hA The slayer of the enemies of the gods. Om surArighne namah. The nAma consists of the three words sura, ari, and hA, where sura refers to gods, ari is the enemy, and hA is the destroyer. SrI Bhattar reminds us of bhagavAn's destruction of hiraNyakaSipu in this context. SrI chinmayAnanda points out that meditating on this nAma's meaning leads to the destruction of the enemies of our mind's aspiration to evolve, the enemies being "the sensuous claims of the flesh, the mild assertions of the ego, the nocturnal devils of desires and passions". One who drives away all the above inimical negative tendencies is surAruihA. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha has included the Rg vedic mantra 1.36.15 starting with "pAhi no agne rakshasah" in his vyAkhyAna, and says that it is his own personal experience that chanting this mantra helps in warding off all evils or evil-doers. I have not included the full mantra because I am not sure about the correct pronunciation etc. If anyone has the original mantra, please share it. All the nAma-s in this Slokam have been interpreted by SrI Bhattar as relating to the description of the guNa-s associated with the nRsimha avatAra.

Slokam 23

211 - gurur-gurutamah 212 - dhAma 213 - satyah 214 - satyaparAkramah 215 - nimishah 216 - animishah 217 - sragvI 218 - vAcaspatih 219 - udAra-dhIh

23.211 - gurur-guru-tamah The foremost among the preceptors. Om gurutamAya gurave namah. guru means 'spiritual preceptor'. SrI Bhattar interprets the following phrase 'guru-tamah' as an adjective for guru, i.e., the guru who is the best of all guru-s. SrI Sankara views this as two nama-s, guru and guru-tama. He is the foremost of preceptors since he is the one who gave the veda-s to brahma, who then is the source of the veda-s to the rest of the world. yo brahmANam vidadhAti pUrvam yo vai vedAnSca prahiNoti tasmaiHe who brought brahma into existence and imparted the veda to him (SvetASvatara 6.18). We also have "guruh ka iti | guruh sAkshAd-AdinArAyaNah" - The Ultimate guru is AdinArAyaNa (tripAdvibhUti mahAnArAyaNopanishat - 8.15). In SrI SankarAcArya guru pramparA, the first guru is nArAyaNa nArAyaNam padmabhuvam vasisTham Saktim ca tatputra parASaram ca vyAsam Sukam ........SrI SankarAcAryam. We all know that SrIman nArayANa is the first and foremost in the SrIvaishNava guru paramparA. In dharam cakram, the writer says that He is guru-tama because you don't have to even go and look for Him. He pervades everything and is everywhere, and all we need to get His teaching is to feel the need for it. All that is needed is the thirst for His mercy in order for us to progress in getting true knowledge instead of living the life of a stone or tree. 23.212 - dhAma a) The Place of Residence. b) The Supreme Light. c) The Abode of all desired things. Om dhAmne namah. We encountered the word dhAma when we looked at the nAma tri-kakud-dhAma (nAma 62). Some of the same thoughts presented there apply here. SrI Bhattar interprets the nAma-s starting with the previous one as referring to the matsya incarnation. Because of my a~jnAnam, I was not able to understand the connection with matsya avatAra for the previous nAma. For the current one, he points out that bhagavAn is dhAma because He is like the helmsman who steers the boat carrying the seeds of all the transitory moving and non-moving objects at the time of pralaya. SrI Sankara interprets the nAma as being the Supreme Leading Light. SrI RAmAnuja in his gItA bhAshya for slokam 10.12 (param brahma param dhAma), chooses the meaning "Supreme Light" in that context for the word dhAma - dhAma Sabdo jyotirvacanah - param jyotih. The writer in dharma cakram elaborates further on the term "Supreme Light". The eye sees with the light from the Sun. But neither the Sun's light nor the eye can see the Ultimate. For that you need the light

called bhagavAn's Grace, the Inner Light. This is what mahA vishNu is, viz. dhAma the Supreme Light, which can reveal what no other light can. It is the eye of intense desire to reach Him that can see this light, and no other eye can. Other interpretations given include "He is the Abode of all desired objects", "He is the Abode of all desires", "He is the Abode for all karma-s", etc. SrI chinmayAnanda, in addition to the interpretation "Supreme Light", gives the alternate interpretation that He is dhAma because He is the Ultimate Goal (dhAma = peak). 23.213 - satyah The Good. Om satyAya namah. This naAma has occurred previously as nAma 107, and will re-occur as nAma 873. Please refer to the explanation for nAma 107. In the current context of matsya avatAra, SrI Bhattar points out that He is satya because He was good to sat-purusha-s such as Manu who sought His help at that time. At the time I submitted the explanation for nAma 107, I did not have SrI satyadevo vAsishTha's vyAkhyAna. Now I am adding some extracts from this source. Under nAma 107, one explanation given was - satya is One who is 'excellent' in sat, based on the pANini sUtra 4.4.98. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha refers us to the Slokam in bhagavad gItA (17.26 and 17.27) for a definition of 'sat' in Lord KRshNa's words. sad bhAve sAdhu bhAve ca sadityetat prayujyate | praSaste karmaNi tathA sac-chabdah pArtha ucyate || ya~jne tapasi dAne ca sthitih saditi cocyate | karma caiva tadarthIyam sadityevAbhidIyate || (gItA 17.26 and 27) The word 'sat' thus refers to existence, goodness, good acts, firmness in sacrifice, austerities, and gifts, and any acts for such purposes. One who is excellent in all these, or One who is excellent to (i.e., supports) those who do acts along these lines, is satya. 23.214 - satya-parAkramah One of unfailing valor. Om satyaparAkramAya namah. SrI Bhattar, continuing on his interpretation of this sequence of nAma-s in terms of maysa avatAra, gives the example of bhagavAn performing truthfully the courageous acts towards Manu and others. The writer in dharma cakram points out that there can be two kinds of valor, one which is used for the good of the people, such as that of SrI Rama, and the other that is used for demonstrating power and for hurting others, such as RAvaNa's. Meditating on mahA vishNu gives us the ability to develop the valor of the former kind.

23.215 - nimishah One whose eyes are closed (towards the enemies of His devotees). Om nimishAya namah. na Ikshate iti nimishah. His Graceful Sight does not fall on those who are opposed to Him or His devotees. SrI Sankara gives the meaning that His eyes are closed while He is in yoga-nidrA. SrI RAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that He is nimisha (with closed eyes) because He does not need His eyes to see, His ears to hear etc. The dharma cakram writer points out that He of closed eyes is seeing all because He is everywhere, in every one of us, all the time, and is watching all that happens everywhere even without eyes. Those who can contemplate on the yoga-nidrA of vishNu can close their eyes and meditate, and over a period of time, will be able to divert their minds towards Him in that state (normally, whether our eyes are open or closed, they wander in worldly thoughts!). 23.216 - animishah One with eyes closed. Om animishAya namah. SrI Bhattar interprets the nAma in terms of the matsya incarnation. In His celestial Fish incarnation, He never closes His eyes and is ever-watchful of His devotees (Fish do not have eyelids, and so never close their eyes). SrI Sankara gives two additional explanations - He is ever awake because of His wisdom, or He is Atma svarUpa, and AtmA never sleeps. The dharma cakram author gives the significance of this nAma as indicating that one who contemplates on this nAma will be always spiritually awake, and bad thoughts and the worldly distractions won't enter his mind. One is reminded of tiruppANAzhvAr's concluding pASuram in amalanAdipirAn "en amudinaik kanDa kaNgaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE". While the AzhvAr sang this when he was witnessing the beauty of the Lord in the temple, the statement aptly applies to the inner eyes as well. 23.217 - sragvI Adorned with the garland (vaijayantI). Om sragviNe namah. srag means garland. According to PANinI's ashTAdhyAyI 5.2.121 - as mAyA medhA srajo vinih - the affix vin coming after sraj indicates 'association with'. So here the meaning is 'One who is associated with the garland always - referring to the vaijayantI garland of vishNu. Prof. A. srinivAsa rAghavan points out that the vaijayanti is composed of the five precious gems - pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire, and diamond. SrI Sankara refers to the vaijayanti as referring to the garland made of the tanmAtrA-s or the rudiments of the five basic elements (taste, sight, sound, smell, and sensation) of the pa~nca bhuta-s. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri gives the reference to vishNu purANa - pa~nca svarUpA yA mAlA vaijayantI gadA bhRtah | sA bhUta hetu sangAtA bhUta mAlA ca vai dvijah || (1.2.72). The writer in dharma cakram suggests that we should divert all our tan-mAtra-s to the service of vishNu (he gives the example of ANdAL who decorated herself with the flower garland just to make sure it was good enough for Lord RanganAtha).

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning starting from sRj to create or set forth. Since all creations such as the stars, Sun, etc., are Hiscreations, He is sragvI. In a garland, there may be different kinds of flowers, but they lose their identity as soon as they are part of the garland. So also, all these different creations are together the sragvI or bhagavAn vishNu. Or, just as it is common practice to identify an important person in our society by putting a garland around the neck, bhagavAn is distinguished by this unique garland to indicate His Lordship and superiority. 23.218 - vAcaspatih The Lord of Speech. Om vAcaspataye namah. SrI Bhattar's interpretation is that He is vAcaspati because it was He who propounded the knowledge of the veda-s through SrImad matsya purANa. It is the power of expression in the matsya purANa that reveals the guNa of vAcaspati in Him. SrI Sankara interprets this nAma and the next one - udrAradhIh, as one nAma, vAcaspatirudAradIh, meaning "The Lord of vidyA, being of magnificent intellect. All the other interpretations I am using, except that of SrI satyadevo vAsishTha, follow this same line. The latter gives the vyAkhyAna for these as separate nAma-s, but lists the nAma as one, and points out that this combining is done only to make sure the count of the nAma-s is exactly 1000. SrI Bhattar does not have the problem since there are other places where the others consider two separate names whereas he combines them into one (e.g., gurur-guru-tama, the first nAma in the current posting). According to satya bhAshyam (the name that SrI satyadevo vAsishTha has given to his vyAkhyAnam), the term vAcaspati signifies that bhagavAn protects, or is the Master of, vidyA or veda. 23.219 - udAra-dhIh One with vast knowledge. Om udAra-dhiye namah. dhI here means buddhi or intellect. UdAra means generous, noble, illustrious, etc. One who has a generous disposition towards His devotees, or one who has an illustrious or special intellect that can capture all things at all times, is udAradhIh. SrI chinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that bhagavAn has a largehearted tolerance to appreciate the weekness of His devotees' heart, and a great sympathy and infinite kindness towards sinners in general. He has enough paternal kindness to overlook our trespasses, unlike the laws of physical nature which are blind and uncompromising. Slokam 24

220 221 222 223

agraNIh grAmaNih SrImAn nyAyah

224 - netA 225 - samIraNah 226 - sahasramUrdhA 227 - viSvAtmA 228 - sahasraakshah 229 - sahasra-pAt

24.220 - agraNIh One who leads forward. Om agraNye namah. agre nayati iti agraNIh - One who leads forward is agraNIh. SrI Sankara and SrI Bhattar interpret the 'leading forward' as referring to bhagavAn's guNa of leading His devotees to moksha.

The writer in dharma cakram gives an elaborate account of the kind of people whom He will lead to moksha. The example compares people to four stages of fish in a river in which a fisherman casts his net. The nitya sUri-s are like the fish which do not get caught in the net - i.e., they do not fall for the bait, and remain safely outside. The mukta jiva-s are those who get caught in the net, but with their best effort, succeed in getting out. The mumukshu-s are like the fish which keep trying to get out, even though they have not succeeded in escaping. The baddha jiva-s are like the fish who enjoy the bait the fisherman has provided, and remain happily in the net and become the food for the fisherman. SrI vishNu's guNa of agraNI applies to those who are the mumukshu-s, who constantly want to get out of this ocean of samsAra by devoting themselves to the worship of Him. They are like the fish that has been taken out of water and that is desperately trying to get into the water, or like the man who has been thrown into water and drowning and who is desperately interested in getting a breath of air. It is this kind of intensity in seeking Him that will qualify a person for the agraNI's dayA. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that this attribute of SrI vishNu in 'moving everything forward' is constantly demonstrated in everyone's life - i.e., we only keep moving forward, and can never go backwards

in time, and time lost is lost forever. Not only we are moving forward, but we are moving forward according to His will. This is true of the Sun, the moon, etc. 24.221 - grAmaNih Leader of the hosts of angels. Om grAmaNye namah. grAmam samAjam nayati iti grAmanIh - One who leads the group (of devotees). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that grAma refers to any collection, e.g., of several houses ( a village), of several indirya-s (the body), of several musical instruments (sapta svarAs-trayo grAmA - in nAradIya SikshA), or the collection of all created beings. The writer in dharma cakram interprets this nAma in the context of the devotees who have unconditionally entrusted themselves in His care that are led by Him to moksha. He gives the example of one who is lost in a forest (of samsAra). If this person goes and seeks help for getting out of this forest from others (such as his relatives, his friends, etc.), who are also lost in this forest, this request for help is going to be futile. But if they seek the help of vishNu who alone can lead us from the bondage of samsAra, then and only then will they be able to get out of this forest. It is this category of people who are led by this guNa of bhagavAn denoted by the nAma grAmaNI. 24.222 - SrImAn a) One who is endowed with wealth. b) One who is full of all glories. c) One who is radiant. d) The Lord of MahAlakshmi e) One who has MahAlakshmi in his vaksha-sthala. f) One who is endowed with all the powers. Om SrImate namah. This nAma occurred previously as nAma-s 22 and 180. Under these names, the translator of SrI Sankara's bhAshyam had added his own personal comments, which I had incorrectly attributed to SrI Sankara. So I am revising the write-up for SrImAn to correct this error as below. Under nAma 22, I had incorrectly indicated that both SrI Sankara and SrI Bhattar interpret the nAma as referring to the beauty of nRsimha avatAra. SrI Bhattar does interpret nAma 22 as referring to the beauty of nRsimha incarnation. SrI Sankara interprets nAma 22 as 'One who has lakshmi on His vaksha-sthalam'. A translator of Sankara bhAshyam, SrI ananta-kRshNa SAstri, has added his own note that vishNu is SrImAn because there is no diminution in His beauty even though He has the form of a man-lion. Probably this note was added based on SrI Bhattar's vyAkhyAna. I had incorrectly attributed the translator's note to SrI Sankara. For nAma 180, SrI Bhattar interprets SrImAn as referring to the beauty of the Lord decorated with celestial ornaments, and SrI Sankara interprets SrImAn as referring to the Lord's prosperity (SrI), and the translator's note adds that this refers to the six kinds of prosperity (shADgunya paripUrNatva).

For the current nAma (222), SrI Bhattar's interpretation is that bhagavAn is endowed with SrI or wealth. He makes reference to the "Lotus-eyed matsya mUrti - matsyah kamala locanah", and indicates that based on this, the matsya mUrti form is none other than SrImAn who is the paramAtmA. SrI Sankara interprets SrI as kAnti or radiance in this instance, and gives the interpretation that here SrImAn refers to the Lord who is more radiant or resplendent than anything else that exists. Here again, the translator has added a note that though He incarnated as a fish, His splendor was supreme in that form. Here again, the translator's note is probably based on Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna. SrI cinmayAnanda interprets SrI as Mother lakshmi, who is the total manifested power potential and stands for all powers or all glories. VishNu is SrImAn because He has all these powers in Him or is courted by all glories.

SrImAn also refers to Sriyah pati, or the Lord of Sri or mahA-lakshmi. BhagavAn's beauty is natural to Him because He has SrI in his vaksha-sthala. The dharma-cakram author inteprets this nAma to mean that the prakRti and purusha are inseparable, just as SrI and the Lord are inseparable, and are part of the same parabrahmam.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the root as "Sri -sevAyAm" - One who is fit to be served. SrI also means SobhA or beauty or "kAnti". He points out that the beauty that is seen all around us in the trees, the birds, the rivers, the flowers, the Sun, the Moon, the stars, etc., should remind us constantly of bhagavAn, the SrImAn whose SrI is shining in everything. SrI also means wealth. The wealth that humans have is transient, and can disappear any time. BhagavAn is SrImAn whose wealth is nitya or permanent. 24.223 - nyAyah a) The Just. b) Logical arguments (tarka) and lines of contemplation (yukti) that help us in arriving at the absolute experience. Om nyAyAya namah SrI Bhattar interprets this nAma as referring to the Lord's guNa of ensuring that He does whatever is appropriate for His devotees, and ensures that nothing faulty or unwelcome happens to them. SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He is nyAya because He is both the tarka (logical contemplation) and yukti (the lines of contemplation) running through all sources of knowledge (pramANAnugrAhakah). The sense here as expressed by SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri is that He is nyAya because He is the only one who can give what is good for His devotees in a rational and consistent form that cannot be refuted through counter-arguments (probably through the veda-s?).

The writer in dharma cakram elaborates on this further, and points out that there are three types of tarka (lines of argument) - vAda, vitanDA, and jalpa. Of these, vAda is done with the purpose of understanding and arriving at the truth, and is undertaken with humility and sincerity. VitanDA is the argument which is meant to just confuse the opponent, and is undertaken with a haughty disposition and with ahankAra. Jalpa is the line of argument where the power or position is used to subdue, frighten, insult and threaten the opponent. Of these, vAda is the most appropriate way of argument, and will lead to enhancing understanding. Devotees who worship mahA-vishNu are blessed by Him with the ability to analyze and understand the truth through the just means, and they are saved from destructive thoughts and are led towards self-realization. The example of Lord KRshNa's instructions to arjuna is given to illustrate the instance that bhagavAn leads

His devotees to the thought process involving nyAya yukti, whereby arjuna's thoughts become clear, his attachments are removed, and he acts on the right and just course of action.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha, in addition to the above explanation, derives his interpretation based on nIyate prApyate iti nyAyah - One who ensures that everything in this world is on its right track and reaches its destination is nyAyah. The yantra that is this Universe, with its Sun, moon, stars, etc., is functioning under the guidance of the nyAya that is vishNu. So also the indriya-s in our bodies are directed by the SarIra-nyAya that is vishNu. The word 'niyati', which means 'rule', is related to the word nyAya (nIyate). 24.224 - netA a) One who fulfills the requests of His devotees. b) One who manages or regulates the affairs of the cosmos. Om netre namah. a) niyuktam karoti iti netA (SrI Bhattar), or b) jagad-yantra nirvAhakah netA (SrI Sankara). The dharma cakram writer gives the analogy of objects attached to a rotating wheel. The objects rotate because of the movement of the wheel. We are all moving around because of His Will which is analogous to the rotating wheel. However, we keep believing that it is we who are responsible for our motion, and forget that it is He who is moving us as He wishes. Those who understand this get out of the false belief that we are the ones who are achieving everything around us. arjuna the jivAtmA was sitting in the chariot or the body, and Lord kRshNa was driving both the chariot and arjuna. The chariot did not have any feeling of responsibility for its motion, but arjuna believed that his actions were caused by his will. The Lord did not take up weapons, but was witness to what was happening. Similarly, in our case bhagavAn is in each of us watching and witnessing our actions. This nAma indicates that He is the Controlling Force behind everything in this Universe. 24.225 - samIraNah a) One who performs acts which are delectable. b) One who controls all movements (e.g., breath) in beings. Om samIraNaya namah.

This nAma is derived from the root Ir- to move (IraNa). SrI Bhattar associates this movement with that part of the matsya incarnation where bhagavAn dove deep into the Ocean to retrieve the veda-s from the netherworld from the asura named hayagrIva. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri associates the motion implied by IraNa with the act of bhagavAn leading the boat with the seeds of creation during the pralaya in His matsya incarnation. The following is from SrImad bhAgavatam skandam 8, chapter 24, Slokam 33 trilokyAm lIyamAnAyAm samvartAmbasi vai tadA | apsthAsyati nauh kAcit viSAlA tvAm mayA IritA || "When all the three worlds disappear under the Ocean, a large boat will be steered by Me towards you" -

note the use of the word IritA here. SrI Sankara associates the motion or movement with the breath in living beings. He is samIraNa because He controls the functioning of the body through the breath. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha takes this concept of control further, and points out that this control by bhagavAn is seen even in the fact that man has had 32 teeth ever since creation, and will continue to have this till the end of the kalpa, man gets the teeth twice in his life, and this is as it has been since creation, and will continue till the end of kalpa, etc., and so will the rising and setting of the Sun and the moon and the movement of the planets etc. 24.226 - sahasra-mUrdhA The thousand-headed 24.228 - sahasra-akshah The thousand-eyed 24.229 - sahasra-pAt The thousand-footed. Om sahasra-mUrdhne namah; Om sahasrAkshAya namah; Om sahasra-pade namah. SrI Bhattar interprets these three names together, and points out that the reference to head, eyes, and feet really includes all organs of knowledge and action, and the reference to a thousand signifies 'innumerable'. What is referred to here is that bhagavAn is endowed with infinite capacity to know and act, which are the functions of these organs. Reference is made to the following sruti-s: sahasra SIrshA purushah sahasrAkshah sahasra-pAt -(purusha sUktam) sarvatah pANi pAdam tat sarvato'kshi Siro-mukham (gItA 13.13) viSvataScakshuruta viSvatomukho viSvato bAhuruta viSvatspAt (taittirIya AraNyaka 10.1) aneka vaktra nayanam anekAdbhuta darSanam (gItA 11-10) rupam mahat-te bahu-vaktra-netram........bahu-bAhUru pAdam (gItA 11-23) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that reference is made to the head first in the above sequence of nAma-s because head is the first one that forms when a child is formed in the mother's womb, and head is the part of the child that appears first when the child is born. Also, reference is made to head, eyes, and feet because of their importance in exercising the j~nAna and kriyA Sakti-s. These three nAma-s also remind us that He is everywhere, in everything, all-powerful, always observing everything in every one of us, etc. Many heads can also refer to His unlimited intellect (SrI satyadevo vAsishTha). We are all part of His body, and thus all our heads are His heads, and so also He is sahasramurdhA. By the fact that He is the antaryAmi in all of us, and is always observing all that we do and think from within each of us, He is sahasrAkshah. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha adds that "One who is of many legs" also suggests that He has made his creations such that they can get around by many means e.g., as two legged humans, as four-legged animals, as the hundred-legged centipedes, as multi-legged millipedes, as no-legged serpents, as birds getting around by flying, as fish by swimming, etc. In this sense, sahasrapAt really reveals that He is ananta j~nAnavAn, or of Infinite Intellect, in having created and supported this kind of immeasurable diversity. Note the similarity in the vedic chanting "sahasra SIrshA purushah sahasrAkshah sahasrapAt", including the sequence which is the same as in SrI vishNu sahasra nAma.

Sri cinmayAnanda points out that the "many heads", "many eyes", and "many legs" together indicate that the One Infinite Consciousness expresses everywhere in all forms and at all times through all these equipments of thinking (head), perception (eyes), and action (legs). 24.227 - viSvAtmA The very soul of the Universe; the very inner Essence in all living creatures. Om viSvAtmane namah. viSvasya AtmA viSvAtmA. He is viSvAtmA because He pervades the entire Universe by His knowledge and strength. In gItA, Lord KRshNa says: "ahamAtmA gudAkeSa! Sarva bhuta.... Arjuna! I am the AtmA that resides in the heart of all beings" (gItA 10.20).

The writer in dharma cakram points out that the true significance in this nAma lies in our realizing the unity among all the living beings, rather than seeing the difference in our outer appearance or the difference in our thoughts etc. By seeing the difference in our external appearance or in our thoughts, only kAma, krodha, lobha, moha, matha, and mAtsarya grow and develop in us. Only when we learn to see the unity behind our inner selves, we will qualify to receive His dayA. This is what sage yAg~nyavalkya taught to maitreyi viz. that when one loves one's wife, it is not her shape that should be loved, but it is the AtmA in her that should be loved, etc. (na vA are jAyAyai kAmAya jAyA priyA bhavati, Atmanastu kAmAya jAyA priyA bhavati etc.). That is the true meaning of love.

Slokam 25

230 - Avartanah 231 - nivRttAtmA 232 - samvRtah 233 - sampramardanah 234 - ahahsamvartakah 235 - vahnih 236 - anilah 237 - dharanIdharah

25.230 - Avartanah He who turns the wheel of worldly life or samsAra. Om AvartanAya namah. samsAra-cakram Avartayitum Silam asya iti Avartanah. Avartanam means repetition. BhagavAn is Avartana since He is the Unseen Dynamism behind the ever-whirling wheel of time and the associated endless cycle of birth and death. This is the cycle of night and day, life and death, joy and sorrow, creation and destruction, which are all His play - His mAyA. In gItA, bhagavAn says that He reveals the way to overcome this mAyA to those who surrender to Him daivI hyeshA guNa-mayI mama mAyA duratyayA | mAmeva ye prapadyante mAyAm etAm taranti te || (gItA 7.14) 25.231 - nivRttAtmA a) He whose nature rises above other things. b) He whose mind is turned away from worldly desires. c) He who is the AtmA of those who practice nivRtti dharma. d) He who is beyond the bonds of samsAra. Om nivRttAtmane namah. This nAma occurs later as nAma-s 454, 604, and 780. This is another casewhere when the same nAma occurs more than once, the interpreters have givendifferent interpretations for each occurrence. It is a characteristic of acomposition of quality that there is no redundancy in expression of thoughts. a) For the first interpretation, SrI Bhattar gives the following references: tripAdUrdhva udait-purushah - The Purusha stands eminent in the parama-padawhich has thrice the glory of the material world" - purusha sUkta 4. parAt-param yan-mahato mahAntam - He is greater than the greatest, moreexalted than the most exalted. -

taitti. nArAyanIya 1.5. b) parama vairAgya khyApanaAya vishayebhyah pratyAhRta-manAh nivRttAtmA - Toindicate His profound non-attachment to material objects, He has His mindwithdawan from them. About His meditation it is said antarnivishTa bhAvam ca -He who has His thoughts concentrated on Himself. Also, Atma-dhyAna parAyaNAya -To Him who has His thoughts concentrated within Himself"; "hRd -admArpitamAnasam - Him with His mind fixed on the lotus-heart", etc. c) One who is the AtmA of those who practice the nivRtti dharma. (There aretwo kinds of dharma - the pravRtti dharma and the nivRtti dharma. pravRti dharmatakes us to the world of the pitR-s where we enjoy the fruits of our karma, andcome back to this world with the balance of karma-s to our credit; niv*ttidharma is that which leads one to moksha). d) samsAra bandhAn nivRtta AtmA svarUpam asya iti nivRttAtmA. nivRtta meansthat which has retreated totally, abstaining from worldly acts, etc. 09 SrI cinmayAnanda points out that in the example of the two birds sitting onthe same tree that is referred to in the munDakopanishad which has been referredto earlier in our write-up, the nivRttAtmA is the one who is looking on withouteating the fruits of the tree. The writer in dharma cakram points out that the significance of this nAma isto realize that we should live a life with detachment in material objects inorder to realize the Truth, and meditating on this nAma of mahA vishNu will helpus live that kind of life. Meditating on the Lord who has no attachments willlead us to live a life without attachment. He gives the life of Lord Rama as anexample of the life of nivRttAtmA. Some interpreters have identified the nAma itself as vimuktAtmA oranivRttAtmA in one or more of the occurrences of this nAma later. We will lookat the interpretations of these under the later occurrences. 25.232 - samvRtah He who remains hidden. Om samvRtAya namah.

samvRtatvAt samvRtah. The root is vRn~j AvaraNe to cover. He remains hiddenfrom the unenlightened in whom the tamo-guNa dominates - tamsah parastAt. It isdevotion to Him alone that can reveal Him to us. The dharma cakram writer quotesnammAzhvAr's pASuram "mayarvaRa madi-nilam aruLinan evan avan" (Weshould worship the One) who can bless us with the j~nAna and bhakti that canremove the ignorance, doubts, and viparIta j~nAnam - counter-productiveintellect?. Just as the sun creates the cloud which keeps the sun covered fromus, the a~jnAnam is covering us. Just as the sun's lustre is untouched by thecloud, His lustre is untouched by our a~jnAna. It is his dayA alone which canremove this a~jnAna, and it is devotion to Him alone that can help in this. 25.233 - sampra-mardanah The dispeller (of the darkness).

Om sampra-mardanAya namah. The nirukti author summarizes SrI Bhattar's vyAkhyAna by the following words- tamaso vidyayA samyak mardanAt sampramardanah - He is sampramardana because Hedispels the enveloping darkness by the light of His knowledge. SrIaNNangarAcArya gives the meaning that He dispels the mAyA in His devotees. SrI Sankara interprets the nAma based on mardana - to destroy, and gives themeaning that He is sampramardana because of His act of destruction in the formsof rudra, yama, etc. - samyak pramardayati rudra-kAlAdyAbhih vibhUtibhih itisampramardanah (see the similarity to pradardanah earlier). Recall that SrIBhattar's interpretation is that mardana refers to destruction of the darknessor mAyA. SrI cinmayAnanda interprets mardana as referring to the act ofdestruction of the evil-minded and sensuous and extrovert rAkshasa-s.

The dharma cakram author interprets mardana in the context of the act ofbhagavAn in helping us to destroy the pride and aham-kAra in us and to unitewith Him. Life consists of destroying certain things and preserving certainthings. A good life is that where we understand what is to be preserved andpreserve those values, and destroy those that need to be destroyed. It is thusthat Lord rAma had His kodanDam when He went to the forest - to help preservethe Rshi-s and to help destroy the rAkshasa-s. Chanting the name of rAma wassufficient to turn vAlmIki from the ignorant person that he was to the greatsage vAlmIki. The nAma sampramardana should lead to understand the value ofdestroying the evil qualities in us and to develop the good qualities that willhelp us in realizing Him, which is naturally accomplished when we meditate onthe guNa of bhagavAn expressed by this nAma. 25.234 - ahah-samvartakah The regulator of the day (time); The Sun. Om ahah-samvartakAya namah. samyak ahnAm pravartanAt ahah-samvartakah - He who regulates well thesuccession of day and night. He is the cause for the revolution of the day andother divisions of time. The division of time into past, present, and futureprovides the knowledge of objects as old or young. It brings about theseparation or union of prakRti and purusha (Matter and Soul). It is also thecause of the six kinds of transmutations of prakRti (viz. birth, growth, change,existence, decay, and final death). SrI cinmayAnanda gives reference to the following Sloka from gItA yadAditya gatam tejo jagad bhAsayate'khilam | yac-candramasi yaccAgnau tat-tejo viddhi mAmakam || (gItA 15.12) Understand that I am the Light of the Sun that illumines all earth; and thetejas in the moon and fire are all mine only". The one who dynamises theday and gives life to all and lends energy to them to act, etc. is vishNu in theform of the Sun.

The writer in dharma cakram points out that just as we can see an objectclose to us easily once there is light even though we can't locate it in theabsence of light, bhagavAn is the generator of light that helps us realize theknowledge of the Self, and in this sense also bhagavAn is ahah-samvartakah (thegenerator of day). Just

as the Sun causes all beings to wake up when it rises,mahA-vishNu causes our desire to attain this knowledge of the Self to wake up inus. Just as the fall of the rays of the Sun causes the life forms to becomerejuvenated, the thought of vishNu rejuvenates the jIvAtmA in us and makes itshine. Just as the fall of the rays of the Sun on objects purifies them bydestroying the disease-causing germs etc., the thought of bhagavAn kills theevil thoughts in us and purifies our thoughts. So vishNu is the Sun for ourinner self just as He is the Sun for the external world. 25.235 - vahnih The Bearer or The Carrier; The Fire. Om vahnaye namah. The root from which this nAma is derived is vah - to carry. SrI Bhattarinterprets the nAma as referring to the act of bhagavAn in supporting theUniverse in the form of space. SrI aNNangarAcArya gives the meaning that He isthe bearer (supporter) of everyone. Vahni also refers to fire, since fire is thecarrier of the oblations offered in homa etc. SrI Sankara interprets the nAma inthis context - devebhyo havyam vaha nah prajAnan One who, as fire, carries theoblations to the gods, or havir-vahanAt vahnih. 25.236 - anilah a) The Giver of life-breath; The Air. b) One who needs no goading to Help His devotees. c) The Beginningless. d) One who has no binding, unaffected by virtue and vice. e) One who is beyond dissolution. f) One who is omniscient - All-Knowing. g) Easily accessible to His devotees. h) One who has no fixed residence. i) One who is not supported (by Earth etc). j) One who does not hide anywhere i.e., who is present everywhere k) One who is always awake. Om anilAya namah. This nAma occurs again as nAma 818. tadevAgnih tad-vAyuh - He is agni Himself and He is vAyu - (taittirIya AraN.10), supports the interpretation of this and the previous nAma-s as agni andvAyu respectively. ananAt - ujjIvanAt anilah - Bestows the life-breath on all. Ko hyevAnyAt kah prANyAt - Whoever can breathe and whoever can live if the AkASa(i.e., paramAtmA) were not there? - (taittirIya nArAyaNa 7); prAnAt vAyur_ajAyata - The wind was born out of His breath (purusha sUktam 14). In the occurrence of the nAma as nAma 818, SrI Bhattar derives the meaningbased on ila - to urge, and so the meaning given is - One who does not need tobe goaded by any one to serve His devotees. Ilati preraNam karoti iti ilah,tadrahitatvAt anilah - One who does not need a proposer or inducer.tadapyaprArthitam dhyAto dadAti madhusUdanah - When meditated upon, bhagavAnmadhusudana

bestows His blessings on His devotee without the need for anyoneelse urging Him - vishNu dharma 74.42. SrI Sankara and other interpreters give several alternate interpretations inaddition to above twoanAditvAt aniti yo'asu anilah (c above) - Beginningless, anAdAnAt anilah - One who has no binding, ilati svapiti iti ilah, tad-viparItah anilah - One who is ever awakened (f) nilater-gahanArthAt ka-pratyayAntAt agahanah - anilah - One who is not difficultto access for His devotees (g) anilayah anilah (h) - One who has no fixed abode. An interpretation for the occurrence of this word in amarakoSa is na vidyate nilah nilayam sthAnam yasya. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds that ila is Earth, and since He existed beforethe Earth existed, He is not supported by the Earth etc., and so He is anila (i).An alternate interpretation is na nilIyate iti anilah - He is Omnipresent,indestructible, in the form of anila - vAyu (j). Yet another interpretation is anAdAnAt anilah - One who has no binding (d). The dharma cakram writer gives us a view of how important the meditation onthis guNa of bhagavAn is for our life. Without food we can go on for many days;without water we can survive for a few days; but without air, but a few minutes.That is how important air is for our living; so is the meditation on vishNu forour spiritual life. He quotes mahAtmA gAndhi in this context - that he cansurvive without food for several days (and hasn't he proved it several times!),but he cannot live without prayer for even a day. Another view presented relatesto arjuna's words to Lord kRshNa that mind wavers like wind and he can't get itunder control. BhagavAn, like vAyu, is spread everywhere, and it is difficult toget a grasp of Him just as we can't get the mind under control or keep the airstatic in one place without a sealed container. But just as man has learned tocontrol and contain air, he can learn to control his mind by constant meditationon vishNu. The uncontrolled mind is like a storm, and it can be trained to becalm by meditation on vishNu. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation starting from ila - tosleep. Thus one meaning given is One who never sleeps, or One who is alwaysawake - jAgRvim vibhum - Rg veda. This is reflected in His forms as the Sun, therest of the planets, the oceans, the wind, etc. In addition to thisinterpretation he also gives the interpretations a) and h). I was amazed to find that this seemingly simple nAma of two syllables hasthis many interpretations. 25.237 - dharanI-dharah The bearer of the Earth. Om dharaNI-dharAya namah. dharaNIm dhatta iti dharaNI-dharah - One who bears the Earth. SrI Bhattartakes this simple interpretation one level further, and gives the significancethat He bears those who bear others, e.g., He bears AdiSesha, bhUmi, etc. SrIBhattar gives the following supporting quotes

sa dAdhAra pRthivIm dyAm utemAm - He bore the Earth and all the Heaven -yajur 13.4 uddhRtA'si varAheNa - Thou (O Mother Earth) hast been lifted up by varAha -taitt. AraN. 10.8 "pRthivIm ca antariksham ca dyAm caiva purushottamah | manasiava visRshTAtmA nayati AtmavaSam vaSI || 'Purushottama, by His will, created Earth, the Interspace and Heaven; beingthe Supreme Ruler, He keeps them all under His control.' SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives references to several other nAma-s which expressthe above idea - mahIbhartA (184), mahI-dharah (319, 371), triloka-dhRt (757),dharA-dharah (762). In addition, some vyAkhyAnakartA-s have interpreted nAma240 (which we will cover next week) as viSva-dhRk - One who rules over theworlds, similar in purport to the current nAma. The writer in dharma cakram brings the significance of this nAma to a levelof understanding that is easier to comprehend. When we say bhagavAn is thebearer of the Earth, what we mean is that directly or indirectly He issupporting all the life forms by providing food and shelter to all, irrespectiveof whether we are devoted to Him or not, all the good and the bad. Either wesurvive by drawing on the vegetables and other food that we directly get fromthe earth, or some beings survive by preying on other life forms which in turnlive by drawing on the direct produce from the earth. So this nAma signifiesthat He supports us physically in the form of the earth, and also sustains usall through the food from the earth. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha adds that a mother bears and protects the children,the husband protects the wife, and He protects everyone, and so thedharaNi-dharatva guNa of bhagavAn is all around us. Slokam 26

238 - su-prasAdah 239 - prasannAtmA 240 - viSva-sRt 241 - viSvabhugvibhuh 242 - satkartA 243 - satkRtah 244 - sAdhuh 245 - jahnuh 246 - nArAyaNah 247 - narah

238. su-prasAdah

The Giver of good favors.Om suprasAdAya namah. Sobhanah prasAdha dAtRtvAt suprasAdah - For those who surrenderto Him He confers all that is good. In fact He goes further and confersthe good to those who are His enemies as well, as in the cases ofrAvaNa, SiSupAla, duryodhana, etc., by conferring moksha on themultimately. In other words, whatever bhagavAn confers, it is for thegood of the recipient. This concept is repeatedly pointed by svAmideSikan in the dayA-Satakam when he describes the dayA aspects of thedifferent incarnations. Thus for instance, in the paraSu-rAmaincarnation, when He destroyed the evil kshatriya kings, He really gotrid of their sins, and sent them to moksha. In the kalki incarnation,when He will destroy those at the end of the kali-yuga who are soaked insin, it is only to wash them of their sins and reestablish adharma-oriented kRta yuga where their jIva-s can flourish again thatthis act of His is undertaken. The writer in dharma cakram points out that there are those ofus who will do good to those who are bad to us, in addition to those whofollow the rule of an eye for an eye, and worse still, there are thosewho do bad to those who are good to them. SrI mahA-vishNu is one whodoes always what is good for everyone irrespective of how they aretowards Him. Meditation on Lord vishNu with this guNa implied by thisnAma will give us the right frame of mind to follow the sAttvic path. 239. prasannAtmA He with a clear mind; Of delightful nature.Om prasannAtmane namah. He is of delightful nature because He has no desires and nowants since He has realized all desires - avApta-sarva-kamatvAt. Orbecause He is extremely merciful by nature - karuNArdra-svabhAvAt. OrHe is prasannAtmA because His mind is not contaminated by passion(rajas) and inertia (tamas). SrI P.B. aNNangarAcArya svAmi points outthat He has a clear mind because He is unaffected by likes and dislikes.SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that He is All-Blissfulbecause He is not affected by sorrows resulting from association withmatter and its imperfections (guNa-s). He is of a clear mind, withoutbeing affected by the tamasic and rajasic guNa-s. The dharma cakram writer gives the example of the threebrothers, rAvaNa, kumbhakarNa, and vibhIshaNa, respectively dominated byrajasic, tAmasic, and sattvic guNa-s. rAvaNa was indulging innon-righteous acts under the influence of kAma, and broughtself-destruction as a result. Kumbha-karNa was inactive under theinfluence of tamas. VibhIshaNa on the other hand had the clarity ofmind aided by his sattvic guNa. He could save SrIlankA from destructionand could attain the grace of the Lord because of his clear thinking.Meditating on the nAma prasannAtmA will lead to the clarity of mind thatbhIshma could command, when he advised duryodhana prior to the start ofthe mahAbhArata war that they won't win a war fought on immoral andunethical grounds, and the support of the Lord will be on the side ofdharma. prasannatA results out of the dominance of sattva guNa.

240. viSva-sRt The Creator of the Universe.Om viSva-sRje namah. viSvam sRjati yo sa viSva-sRt. He created this Universe outof kindness unmindful of its merits and deficiencies. In SankarapATham, this nAma is given as viSvadhRg - The Overseer of the cosmos.Prof. SrInivAsa rAghavan points in his writings in SrI nRsimha priyAthat other pATha-s are viSva-sRshT and viSva-sRg. In the context of the interpretation based on viSva-dhRg theoverseer or ruler of the cosmos, the dharma cakram commentatorrhetorically asks the question - Do we rule our mind, or does our mindrule us? If we learn to rule over our mind, then we can rule ourfamily, our nation, etc., and also know the Ruler of everything. And weget this conditioning of our mind through meditation on the Lord who isviSva-dhRg. SrI satyadevo vAsisshTha gives the meaning based on the rootdhRsh prAgalbhye to be bold, confident, proud, or brave. He isviSva-dRk because He has created this world with skill (cAturya),prouldy, boldly. Everything He has created, including the differentseasons, the flowers, the different forms of life, etc., are constantlydisplaying His brilliance in the different ways they reproducethemselves, the different forms in which they appear, etc. 241. viSvabhug-vibhuh He who pervades all things and protects them.Om viSvabhug-vibhave namah. vyApya bhunakti - pAlayati iti viSvabhug-vibhuh. SrI Bhattarinterprets this phrase as one nAma, whereas SrI Sankara interprets it asconsisting of two nAma-s, viSva-bhuk and vibhuh. The interpretation for viSva-bhuk is given as viSvam bhu~nkte -The Enjoyer of the Cosmos, or ViSvam bhunakti - The Protector. Thedharma cakram writer points out that He is the Protector for theUniverse in its expressed form with all its created beings or in itsunexpressed or pralaya form as well. This compares with the situationof mortals like us who cannot do any good in protecting this worldeither in our wakeful state or in our sleep state. SrI cinmayAnandagives the interpretation that He enjoys or swallows (bhuk) allexperiences (viSva). The Supreme Consciousness, apparently conditionedby the mind and intellect, is the experiencer of joys and sorrows. Or,the term can mean "One who absorbs all names and forms unto Himself atthe time of pralaya". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the reference totiattirIya AraNyaka 10.91 - prabhuh prINAti viSva-bhuk. SrI satyadevovAsishTha gives an alternate interpretation based on bhuj kautilye tobend, to curve, and says that the nAma can mean that He established theworld by bending or extending it in all eight directions. Since SrI Sankara interprets vibhuh as a separate name, he givesthe meaning - One with multi-form - vividham bhavati iti vibhuh. Hebecame many from HiraNyagarbha downwards. Vividham bhAvayati is anotherinterpretation, again referring to the multi-forms. SrI rAdhAkRshNaSAstri gives the meaning that He is vibhu because He fills everythingeverywhere - mahAntam vibhum AtmAnam - kaThopanishad 2.22. The dharmacakram writer elaborates on the multi-form by giving reference to LordkRshNa's words in the gItA in Chapter 10 starting with Slokam 21 andgoing up to Slokam 38, where bhagavAn gives several examples of HisvibhUti-s, and then says in Slokam 40 that there is really no limit toHis vibhUti-s. 26.242 - satkartA He who honors the good.Om satkartre namah. satkaroti pUjayati iti satkartA - One who adores those who aregood and wise. SatkAram is worship. SrI rAma was known as sajjanaprati pUjakah - He who worships those in return who are good to Him.SrI radAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the reference to rAmAyaNa -bahuSrutAnAm vRddhAnAm brAhmaNAnAm upAsitA (2-2-33) - He worshipsthose who are learned, old in age, and brAhmaNas. The writer in dharma cakram points out the example of Lord rAmapraising hanumAn as soon as He saw him. The Lord rejoices to find thosewho are in this category. The lesson we should take from this nAma isthat we should do acts that will make us fit for this kind ofrecognition. Acts that fall in this category are those that give peaceof mind and inner happiness to the doer. By corollary, we shoulddesist from acts

which lead to a feeling of self-centeredaccomplishment, pride, etc. Our acts should be directed to His service,and not for the satisfaction of the human ego. 26.243 - satkRtah

He who is worshipped by the sAdhus (even by those whodeserve to be worshipped).Om satkRtAya namah. The word satkRta means pUjita - One who is worshipped. He isthe Object of worship for everyone. The nirukti summarizes SrIBhattar's vyAkhyAna for this nAma as arcAdibhih sajjanaih yah pUjitahsatkRtah smRtah. Prof. SrInivAsa rAghavAcArya svAmi in his commentaryin nRsimha priyA points out that when the ekAntins who worhsip onlymahAvishNu make their offerings to Him, no matter how small the offeringis, He considers it big by considering it as worthy of His SupremeStatus, and receives through His head what is offered at His feet, andreceives it personally and not through other intermediary gods. As ifthis is not enough, He then feels that whatever He does to His devoteesis inadequate in return (recall Lord kRshNa's feeling of being indebtedto draupati for ever when she cried out for help and He helped but notby coming in person right away). The dharma cakram writer points outthat as a means of developing this devotion to Him, our vedas ask us toworship our mother, our father, our teacher - mAtR devo bhava,pitRdevo bhava, AcArya devo bhava. 26.244 - sAdhuh

One who carries out (whatever His devotees say).Om sAdhave namah. sAdhayati iti sAdhuh - One who carries out, or sAdhnoti itisAdhuh - One who makes it possible to carry out, through various meansthat He has provided for the benefit of the beings that He has created.Going as a messenger, acting as a charioteer, etc. are examples of Hiscarrying out His undertaking. Even though Lord kRshNa was Himself a king like duryodhana, He didnot mind doing the work of a messenger, and did not mind doing the workof a charioteer which is like that of a servant to arjuna. Thus, sAdhuhere refers to His act of carrying out whatever He has to do to takecare of His devotees. He takes several incarnations in which He suffersand gets insulted by the likes of duryodhana, SiSupAla, rAvaNa etc., andappears as a fish, a boar, etc., and undergoes suffering and misery asin the case of the rAma incarnation, all because He is a sAdhu, whocarries out what He has to in order to help His devotees. The nAma sAdhu has also been interpreted as One who isrighteous, i.e., conducts Himself according to the code laid in thevedas. And because He follows the righteous path always, Heaccomplishes whatever He undertakes always. The lesson to take here is(dharma cakram) that we should always follow the righteous path ineverything we do, and this will not only endear us to Lord vishNu, butalso lead to success in our just endeavors. 26.245 - jahnuh The Concealer (of His greatness from the non-devotees).Om jahnave namah. This nAma is derived from the root hA - tyAge to forsake.abhakteshu Atma-mAhAtmyam apahnute iti jahnuh. jahAti avidushah jahnuhis another derviation for the same meaning - He leads those devoid ofdevotion away from the Supreme. SrI Bhattar gives the following quotefrom udyoga parva: "cakram tad-vAsudevasya mAyayA vartate vibhoh | sApahnuvam pANdaveshu ceshTate rAhasattamah || (udyogaparva 6.7.2) "That discus of the Omni-present vAsudeva acts by His will forthe benefit of the pANdavas being invisible (to the eyes of others), OGreat King!". SrI Sankara gives an addtional interpretation that He is jahnubecause He is the disintegrator of the Universe at the time of pralaya -janAn samhAra-samaye apahnute apanayati iti jahnuh. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the incidence of Sage Jahnu whohid the Ganges when bhagIrata brought Ganges(jAhanavI) to the Earth.Similarly bhagavAn hides the Universe during pralaya into Himself, andso He is jahnu. In dharma cakram, we find a description of how His act of hidingsome things from us is really devoted to helping us in

our day-to-daylife until we can really realize Him. Thus it is for our benefit thatwe forget some of our bad experiences of the past, and do not know someof the future incidences in our life ahead of time. In fact, thisprocess of things being hidden intermittently is the law of life, as forinstance the child being hidden in the mother's womb before being born,the seed being hidden underground before it sprouts, the time of ourbody's demise being hidden from us till the incident happens, theoutcome of a contest between two competing teams being hidden from themtill the incident concludes, and the same way, the jiva-s being hiddenin Him before the world is re-created after pralaya. This nAma shouldhelp us forget the wrong-doings of others, and remember only the goodthings in life. This training will help us realize Him in the process,and then He does not have to use His act of hiding anything from us. SrI satyadevo vAsisshTha also starts with the root hA tyAge togive up, and interprets the nAma to mean that He is jahnu because He isdevoid of the defects such as kAma, krodha, lobha, moha, mada, andmAtsarya, and is Suddha svarUpa. Ganges is jAhnavI because Gangeswashes away the sins. 26.246 - nArAyaNah

The Supporter of the hosts of souls.Om nArAyaNAya namah. All the previous nAma-s referred to nArAyaNa through His otherincarnations or through His many guNa-s. Now SrI vyAsa gives the namethat only refers to mahA-vishNu, and that is not used to refer to anyother gods (such as the nAma-s rudra, Siva etc., which also occur in thevishNu sshasranAma to refer to mahAvishNu). SrI Bhattar points outthat this nAma is spoken of in every upanishad, and the veda itselfgives the derviation of the name nArAyaNa thus - yacca ki~ncit jagat sarvam dRsyate SrUyatepi vA | antar-bahiSca tat-sarvam vyApya nArAyaNah sthitah || "Whatever object there is in the Universe that is seen or heard,nArAyaNa remains pervading all that, both inside and outside". SrI Bhattar gives several references to bring out the greatnessof this nAma. "nArAyaNAya vidmahe vAsudevAya dhImahi | tanno vishNuh pracodayAt || (taitti. nArAya. 6.1.28) "nArAyaNa param brhma tattvam nArAyaNah parah | nArAyaNa paro jyotir-AtmA nArAyaNah parah ||(taitt. NArAya. 6.11) "eko ha vai nArAyaNa AsIt| na brhamA na ISAnah na Apah naagnishomi yau na eme dyAvA pRthvI na nakshatrANina sUryah na candramAh| (mahopanishad) etc. SrI Sankara gives the following interpretation: nara refers toAtman; nAra refers to ether and the other effects produced from it; He,as their cause, pervades them and they are thus His abode (ayana).Hence He is named nArAyaNa. He gives the following quote frommahAbhArata supporting this interpretation: "narAjjAtAni tattvAni nArANIti tato vidhuh | tAnyeva cAyanam tasya tena nArAyaNah smRtah || (anu.Parva. 13.1.2) "The tattva-s are called nAra since they are sprung from nara(Atman); He is called nArAyaNa as they are His abode". Anotherinterpretation he gives is "narANAm jIvAnAm ayanatvAt pralaya iti vA -Whom the jIva-s appraoch and enter (He is the abode of the beings duringpralaya). This is supported by 'yatpryantyabhisamviSanti' - Whom theyapproach and enter - taittirIya upanishad 3.1. Or He is nArAyaNa sinceHe is the seat of the nAra-s or the tattva-s - nArANAm ayanam yasmAttasmAn-nArAyaNah smRtah - brahmavaivartapurANa. (Note that this thirdinterpretation is that He is their seat, whereas the firstinterpretation was that they are His seat). Manu-smRti gives thefollowing definition - "Apo nArAh iti proktAh Apo vai narasUnavah | tA yadasyAyanam pUrvam tasmAn-nArAyaNah smRtah ||(manu-smRti 1.10) "nAra refers to waters (the panca-bhUta-s before theyinter-mixed and became visible through forms etc.) which He created. Asthey are His original abode (i.e., during prlaya), He is callednArAyaNa". SrI satyadevo vAsishTha draws the parallel between theworld being born out of the waters in which nArAyaNa is floating, andthe child that is born out of the mother's womb after being supported bythe waters in the mother's body. In narasimha purANa, we have the following - "nArAyaNAya nama ityayameva satyah samsAra ghora visha samharaNAya mantrah | SRNvantu bhavyamatayo yatayo'starAgA uccaistarAmupadiSAmyaham UrdhvabAhuh || (narasimha purANa18.31) "This is the real mantra that destroys the deadly poison ofsmasAra nArAyaNAya namah. This I proclaim loudly with uplifted hands;let the ascetics, with passions curbed and inteleects clear, listen tome". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri reminds us that the mantra-devatA thatwe worship through the gAyatri mantra is SrIman nArAyaNa - dhyeyah sadAsavitRmandala madhyavartI nArAyaNah. The

dharma cakram writer refersus to divya-prabandham - "nalam tarum Sollai nAn kaNdu koNdEn nArAyaNAennum nAmam" to remind us of the greatness of this nAma japam. It is very important to note SrI Bhattar's concluding statementof his vyAkhyAnam on this nAma. He points out that the secret of thissacred mantra should only be properly learned by approaching an AcArya,and not by reading the explanations like the one presented. His wordsare that he does not want to say anything more on this nAma because itsgreatness can only be learned from an AcArya, and is thus a matter thatshould be seen by four eyes (the two eyes of the disciple and the twoeyes of the AcArya) and not by six eyes viz. he does not want to addhis two eyes further. So no amount of explanation on paper can bringout the greatness of this nAma. 26.247 - narah a) He who is imperishable.b) The Leader.Om narAya namah. SrI Bhattar gives the meaning that nara refers to one withimperishable possessions, both sentient and non-sentient (both of whichare eternal by nature). SrI Sankara gives the meaning "Leader" to nara, and gives thequote from vyAsa (the source is not identified in my book) - nayati itinarah proktah paramAtmA sanAtanah - Because He directs everything, theeternal paramAtman is called nara. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha also starts with the root as nR nayeto lead, and gives the meaning as nayati - One who leads, or nRNati -One who takes things away. He is nara since He takes this Universe fromkalpa to kalpa through many kalpa-s. nara also refers to water orfluid, since this takes things from one place to another as it flows.That there was only water everywhere before sRshTi took place issupported by the following vedic quote - tama AsIt tamasAgUDhamagre'prakRtam salilam sarvamA idam (Rg 10.129.3). The dharma cakram writer points out that just as a mother leadsa child with the child's welfare in mind, and does not mind discipliningthe child for its own good when the child goes and eats dirt, or theteacher tries to discipline a student who is not learning the knowledgefrom the teacher, so also nara, viz. mahAvisNu, leads us all for ourgood even if He has to mete out some punishment occasionally to get ourways straightened out. Slokam 27

248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256

asankhyeyah aprameyAtmA viSishTah SishTa-kRt Sucih siddhArthah siddha-sankalpah siddhi-dah siddhi-sAdhanah

27.248 - asankhyeyah

One whose attributes, names, forms, etc. are Innumerable.Om asankhyeyAyanamah.sankhyA is number. asankhyeya is One who cannot be quantified. In gItA,arjuna describes Lord kRshNa as such -aneka-bAhUdara vaktra netram paSyAmi tvAmsarvato'nanta rUpam |nAntam na madhyam punas-tavAdim paSyAmi viSveSvaraviSvarUpa || (gItA 11.16)"O Lord of the Universe! I see you with numberlessarms, stomachs, mouths, and eyes, of boundless forms on every side, and I do notsee the end or the middle or the beginning". He is of infinite knowledge,infinite bliss, infinite manifestations, immeasurable strength, etc. 27.249 - aprameyAtmA One who cannot beknown through knowledge, direct or indirect. Om aprameyAyanamah. SrI satyadevo vAsishThagives the interpretation "pramANaih pramAtum aSakyah aprameyah". prameya is anything that can be known through intellect. aprameya is one whose nature cannot be grasped by any of the existingmeans of knowledge. We get animpression of an object by seeing it with our eyes, and it is this vision of thecolor, shape, or other attributes, or the smell etc., that gives us a feel foran object. BhagavAn isbeyond our senses. SrIsatyadevo vAsishTha gives the quote from yajurveda - na tasya pratimA asti yasyanAma mahad-yaSah - yajur. 31.3. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out the similarity between this nAma and the nAma-saprameyah (46) and ameyAtmA (103,181). 27.250 - viSishTah He who isSuperior. Om viSishTAyanamah.

SrI Bhattar interprets thisnAma as signifying that He is Superior because He does not have to depend onanything else and He excels in everything. SrI Sankara gives the meaning that He transcends everything. The dharma cakram writer points out that superiority in life is notachieved by just wealth, power and fame, but true superiority results only whenwe develop bhakti to the Lord. Theother superiorities do not give us the purity of mind.

27.251 - SishTa-kRt He who makes Hisdevotees eminent. Om SishTa-kRte namah. Because of association with Him, He makes His devotees also superior. An alternate interpretationgiven is that SishTa means discipline, good manners. In this sense, the previous nAma would mean that He isviSishTa because He is of Supreme discipline, and the current nAma would meanthat He helps His devotees acquire this discipline through the mental strengthetc. needed for this. SishTa alsomeans Law, rules, or commands. Theinterpretation then becomes He is One who makes the Law, One who commands, orOne who protects (though the laws). Thegreatest and most significant of these commands is Love, through whichmahA-vishNu rules over us all, and this is the lesson to be derived from thisnAma (dharma cakram). 27.252 - Sucih

Pure.Om Sucaye namah. This nAma occurred earlier (157). His purity is such that associationwith Him makes these devotees pure also. He is pure by body, mind,action, and all, and this is what makes Him viSishTa and SishTa-kRt.One commentator points out that He makes us shine consistent with ourdevotion. (dharma cakram) - Just as we clean our body to avoid diseases of thebody, we can develop cleanliness in our words through the chanting ofbhagavan-nAma, and we can develop and improve the cleanliness of ourthoughts through the control of the five senses, which are the means bywhich we get our input to our thoughts from the external world.Worshipping the Lord in the temple, listening to the sound of the bellduring the worship, observing the karpUra Arati, listening to the nAmasankIrtana, listening to the bhajans, offering fragrant flowers to theLord, observing the beauty of His decorated mUrti, smelling the divinefragrance of His presence in the temple, etc., are the different waysthat the five indriya-s are exposed to opportunities for cleansingourselves through these indriya-s. Simultaneously, we should doeverything to constantly divert the mind from thoughts that are notconducive to the service of SrIman nArAyaNa. Deep meditation on theLord is one way to train our mind. The constant training of our body,mind, word, and deed towards Him is the lesson we should take from thisnAma. 27.253 - siddhArthah One who is in possession of all desirable things.Om siddhArthAya namah. He already possesses all that is desirable in Him naturally andeffortlessly. SrI Sankara gives the passage "satyakAmahsatya-sankalpah" in chAdogya upanishad (8.1) in support of this and thenext nAma. SrI cinmayAnanda points out that this name signifies thatbhagavAn has already the four purushArtha-s (dharma, artha, kAma, andmoksha) that are the object of attainment for mortals. He has attained(siddha) all that is to be attained (artha). 27.254 - siddha-sankalpah One whose wishes are always fulfilled.Om siddha-sankalpAya namah. One whose wishes are fulfilled at the very instance He wishes.Sankalpa means intellectual willing and wishing. One who gains all thatHe wishes for, or One who immediately gains what He wills is calledsiddha-sankalpah. The reference in chAndogya upanishad (see previousnAma) conveys the same idea. Examples in dharma cakram for His being asiddha sankalpah are the decision to make sugrIva and vibhIshaNa thekings of their respective kingdoms, the

destruction of vAli, thesankalpam to fulfill daSaratha's promise to kaikeyi, etc. The devotionto mahA-vishNu makes the devotees equally capable of fulfilling theirsankalpa-s with His help. Thus, bhIshma made Lord kRshNa carry arms inthe battle of mahA-bhArata (thereby Lord kRshNa proved that He is theservant of His devotee, and will fulfill whatever they wish, even if itinvolved His breaking His vow not to carry arms),and hanumAn fulfilledhis sankalpa to find sItA pirAtti. The way we become siddha sankalpa-sis to entrust ourselves completely in His care, and He takes care of therest for us, since whatever we wish will then be for the cause ofdharma. 27.255 - siddhi-dah The bestower of siddhi-s or super-human powers.Om siddhi-dAya namah. There are eight siddhi-s or powers that can be acquired by yogi-s whomeditate on Him. These are aNimA (the ability to assume the size of anatom), mahimA (the ability to assume a very huge size), laghimA (to makethe body weightless like a cotton ball), garimA (to assume heavy weightlike an iron mass), prApti (to obtain anything desired), prAkAmyam (toattain any desired bhoga), ISitvam (to be able to assume rulership orLordship over anything or anyone), and vaSitvam (to get anyone to beunder one's control).SrI Sankara interprets the nAma to mean that He provides benefits orfulfillment according to our action. 27.256 - siddhi-sAdhanah One who makes the means for siddhi as pleasantas the fruit itself. Om siddhi-sAdhanAya namah. siddheh sAdhakatvAt siddhi-sAdhanah. He is the promoter ofachievements. He is the very secret force which enables the seeker todiligently continue all efforts of his seeking. He is the sAdhana ormeans for all siddhi or fulfillment, in particular the moksha siddhi,which no one else can help achieve except Sriman nArAyaNa. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that the sequence "siddhArtahsiddha-sankalpah siddhi-dah siddhi-sAdhanah" is a great mantra byitself, and chanting it will be very beneficial for fulfillment of ourendeavors without interruption when we undertake a good deed and worktowards attaining the desired goal. The dharma cakram writer points outthat the goal that is attained by chanting this mantra is the cleansingof our minds from worldly thoughts, lust, etc., and concentrating themind towards thoughts about Him. By chanting this mantra, He ensuresthat we attain our goal. Slokam 28

257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265

- vRshAhI - vRshabhah - vishNuh - vRsha-parvA - vRshodarah - vardhanah -vardhamAnah - viviktah - Sruti-sAgarah

28.257 - vRshAhI a) One who shines in the form of dharma.b) One who makes His devotees shine like day because of their dharma.c) One who makes the day auspicious when the devotee approaches Him.d) One who reveals dharma.e) One who is the devatA for the vRshAha sacrifice.f) One who has the brightness of agni etc., or is the cause of the brightness of all objects Om vRshAhiNe namah. This nAma is interpreted differently by different vyAkhyAna-kartAs. The nAma is composed of two words, vRsha meaning dharma, and aha meaning day.One interpretation is that He shines bright like day because of His dharma. Or He makes those who adhere to dharma shine like day. Both these are given by SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri. SrI Bhattar's interpretation is that He is vRshAhI because the day on which a devotee approaches the Lord, is a day of auspiciousness -dharma, i.e., He has the day which is made auspicious because ofapproaching Him. SrI Sankara's interpretation for this is vRshah dharmah tadeva Ahah - One who reveals dharma. An alternate interpretation he gives is that vRshAha refers to a ten or twleve-day sacrifice, and He is vRshAhI because He is the performer or enjoyeras the devatA for the sacrifice. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the meaning "fire" or "agni" to theterm vRsha based on vRsho agnih samidhyate (Rg veda 3.27.14), anduses ahah to mean brightness or prakASa, and so gives the meaning thatbhagavAn has the brightness of agni and so is called vRshAhI. Hethen generalizes this and says that vRshAhI really refers to One whohas the brightness of anything that is bright, such as the Sun etc.,or in other words, their brightness is because of Him. So is thebrightness resulting from knowledge, brightness of life because of thejivAtmA, etc., which get their brightness from Him. He is the onlyone who has svayam-prakASa. 28.258 - vRshabhah a) He who showers (His grace).b) He who shines because of His dharma.Om vRshabhAya namah. varshati esha bhaktebhyah kAmAn iti vRshabhah. He gives blessing toHis devotees and protects them from the fire of samsAra. He is alsovRshbha because He showers all that is desired by His devotees, e.g.,glowing health, burning devotion, etc. vRshAtmanA bhAti - One whoshines in the form of dharma, is the explanation given by SrIrAdhAkRshna SAstri. (dharma cakram): BhagavAn gives whatever is aspired by the beings,according to their efforts. Of these, the real wish should be torealize Him. All other wishes, while they will also be fulfilled byHim for those wish these lesser desires, will only result in sorrowafter the interim pleasure is over. The desire should be "acyutA!amarar ERE! Ayar tam kozhundE! ennum iccuvai tavira yAn pOy indiralOkam ALum acuvai perinum vEndEn". 28.259 - vishNuh One who pervades everything.Om vishNave namah. This nAma occurred as nAma 2, and will re-occur as nAma 663. Theroot from which this nAma is derived is vish - to pervade. SrI BhaTTar gives the meaning

that this pervasion is in the sense of association such as between fire and smoke. Wherever there is smoke there is fire, but when there is fire, smoke is not necessarily present (e.g., in the case of a red-hot piece of iron). So also, bhagavAn is there in association with His bhakta-s always, and rendersall kinds of help to His devotees as needed. It was mentioned in the introductory article to this series that thevyAkhyAna kartA-s give different interpretations to the same nAmadepending on the context. Since we are now dealing with the sequenceof nAma-s which describe the Lord's guNa of helping His devotees infulfilling their desired wishes, this new interpretation is given. 28.260 - vRsha-parvA He who has provided the steps of dharma to reachHim.Om vRsha-parvaNe namah. vRsha is dharma as has been noted before. ParvA refers to steps. SrI BhaTTar's interpretation is that He is vRsha-parvA because Hehas revealed the steps ofvarNASrama dharma as the means to attain Him. Other vyAkhyAna kartA-shave included various steps such as j~nAna, bhakti, etc. as the stepsthat He has established. These include SravaNam, mananam, kIrtanam,sat-sangham, SraddhA, etc. These are like the steps of a ladder toreach Him. 28.261 - vRshodarah One who has dharma as His mid-region or belly.Om vRshodharAya namah. Different interpretations are given for this nAma. One is that He isthe receiver of all the offerings through yag~na etc., and so He isthe one with the udara that receives all offerings of dharma. Theother is that creations of those who observe dharma such as Brahmaoriginate from His belly. The third is that this is where He keepsall the beings at the time of pralaya, and this is where everythingoriginates at the time of re-creation. In this context, the meaning"shower" is used for the word vRsha. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha continues to interpret all the previousnAma-s and the current one using the meaning "agni" for the word"vRsha". Thus, He is the One who has agni in His stomach. This isknown even for humans that we have the "agni" (the acid) that digestsour food, there is agni in the centre of the earth, in the centre ofthe sun, the Oceans, etc. These are reflections of the principle ofbhagavAn as vRshodara. 28.262 - vardhanah He who nourishes.Om vardhanAya namah. vardhayati iti vardhanah. One who augments, increases, or nourishes. Following up on the interpretation of the previous nAma, SrI Bhattarinterprets this nAma as One who keep the beings in His womb like amother and nourishes them. SrI P. B. aNNa~ngarAcArya svAmi gives themeaning that he is vardhana because he 'grows' those who have resortedto Him more and more (towards the spiritual path?). SrI rAdhAkRshNaSAstri gives the example of the offer of one handful of 'aval' aform of compacted rice, by His friend kucela, which was augmented somuch in return that kucela became richer than kubera. So is theoffer of patram, phalam, pushpam, toyam, etc. that we make to Him. Thus He is vardhana because an offer of the size of an atom to Himwith devotion results in a mountain of return and protects Hisdevotees like a mother. The dharma cakram writer points out thatwhile everyone takes all the efforts to grow his body and his wealth,the real effort should be in growing the j~nAna and bhakti, and Hehelps those who are devoted to Him in this area, and so He isvardhana. 28.263 - vardhamAnah He who grows.Om vardhamAnAya namah. In the previous nAma we saw that He makes things grow. In this nAma,it is indicated that He Himself grows as a result or simultaneously. SrI BhaTTar interprets vardhamAnah as one who grows happy as He seesHis devotees grow. Or He keeps growing in spite of His

bestowing allthat anyone asks for. SrI cinmayAnanda points out that this name isindicative of the vAmana incarnation in which He continued to grow tocover the three worlds. SrI Sankara's interpretation is "prapa~ncarUpeNa vadhate iti vardhamAnah - One who grows or multiplies Himselfin the form of the Universe". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri indicates thatthe 'ca' at the end of vardhamAnah is because He grows at the samefast rate at which the Universe is growing. 28.264 - viviktah He who is unique.Om viviktAya namah. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the root vij - pRthakbhAve to separateor to distinguish as the etymological basis for this nAma. He gives asimple example of a machinist who makes machines but is separate fromit. So also bhagavAn creates all the beings and keeps them in shapeand in action, but is unique and separate from them. He gives theexample of two birds in a tree, one enjoying the fruits and the otherwatching and observing, which we have referred to before (dvA suparNAsayujA sakhAyA etc. - Rg veda 1.164.20). This author (SrI vAsishTha) has composed one Slokam of his own as the explanation for each Slokam of sahasranAma, and I am just sharing one example here:"sRTvA jagat sarva-vidham vidhAtA svayam vivikto hyajaro'marah sah| sahasra-SIrshA sa sahasradRshTih sa sarva-bandhuh sa pRthak ca dRSyAt||BhagavAn is unique in many ways. He is untouched by the effects ofaction unlike His creations (nirlipta). He is unique because Hisactivities are extra-ordinary and superior to those of others in theworld (SrI BhaTTar). Or it may mean that He remains unique anddistinct even though He pervades the Universe as described inprevious nAma-s (SrI Sankara). He is also unique because He isbeyond our ability to be recognized by our intellect and logicalanalysis alone (SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri; also recall the ISAvAsyaupanishad Slokam 4 - anejadekam manaso javIyo ....).The dharam cakram writer points out that this quality of being outsideof, and unaffected by, our surroundings, is the true basis ofaccomplishing our mission in life viz. realizing the paramAtmA. If wedo not get swayed by the pa~nca indriya-s, then in spite of living inthe midst of all the noise and pleasures around us, we will be able tohave control of our mind and divert it to the service of mahA vishNu. This is the significance and lesson to take from this nAma. 28.265 - Sruti-sAgarah He who is the sea where all veda-s take us.Om Sruti-sAgarAya namah.Srutayah sAgara iva atra nidhIyante iti SrutisAgarah. Just as the ocean is the final destination for all the rivers, so also all theveda-s lead us to Him, and He is thus Ocean for the Sruti-s (Sruti-sAgarah). SrI BhaTTar refers us to SrImad bhAgavatam (2.5.15)- nArAyaNa parA vedAh - The veda-s only speak of nArAyaNa, and to the gItA 15.15 - vedaiSca sarvaih ahameva vedyah - "I am the only one that is to be realized through all the veda-s". Slokam 29

266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275

su-bhujah dur-dharah vAgmI mahendrah vasu-dah vasuh naika-rUpah br*had-rUpah Sipi-vishTah prakASanah

29.266 - su-bhujah One with majestic arms.Om su-bhujAya namahSobhanA bhujAh asya iti subhujah. SrI BhaTTar interprets the majesty and strength of His arms to always shoulder the burden of those that seek refuge in Him. SrI Sankara extends this to refer to the protection of the whole world. SrI cinmayAnanda refers to the beauty of the arms that always protect and bless (abhaya and vara-da). SrI rAdhAkr*hNa SAstri describes the beauty of the arms that are always ready with the Ayudha-s for the protection of the devotees lest there is any delay when the need arises to use them - pAtu praNata rakshAyAm vilambam asahanniva, sadA pa~ncAyudhIm bibhrat sa nah SrIra~nga nAyakah.The writer in dharma cakram points out that the term subhuja refers to the hands of mahAvishNu that carry the Sa~nkha, cakra, gadA and padma. The Sankha reminds us of the Om-kAra or praNava mantra. The cakra both protects those that follow the path of dharma and destroys those who follow the path of adharma. The gadA functions to discipline the evil, and the padma shows His sweet disposition towards those who seek Him. 29.267 - dur-dharah a) The irresistible.b) One who is difficult to comprehendc) One who is difficult to hold in concentrationd) One who cannot be supported by anyone or anything elseOm durdharAua namah.Recall that SrI BhaTTar has interpreted the previous nAma in terms of the strength of His arms. He continues with that thought, and interprets the current nAma as indicating that the strength is such that it is irresistible like the force of the gushing waters of a great ocean against a dam made of playsand.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He is difficult to be held, e.g., the yogi-s find it difficult to hold him in their thoughts during their meditation. An alternate interpretation given by him is that nothing else can support Him who supported everything else. SrI cinmayAnanda interprets the nAma as one who is difficult to comprehend even by the great yogi-s.The dharma cakram writer points out that we should develop a clean mind in order to be able to retain Him in our mind. For this, recourse to such things as nAma pArAyaNam areof help. Once the mind becomes clean, thoughts of mahA vishNu occupy our mind, and bad thoughts do not occupy our mind. 29.268 - vAgmI a) He who has words which are praise-worthy. b) He who has powerful words.c) He from whom the veda-s originated.Om vAgmine namah. veda-s arebut the words of bhagavAn. He also was powerful in persuading arjuna through His words (gItA) in the battlefield when arjuna had laid down his arms. He is vAgmI also because His words are sweet and kind - buddhimAn madhurAbhAshI pUrvabhAshI pryam vadah - rAma is wise and speaks sweet words; He is the first to speak and also speaks kind words - ayodhyA kANdam 1.13. A very good summary of the power of His words is quoted in dharma cakram from the gItA, reflecting

arjuna's state of mind after listening to Lord kr*shNa's words -nashTo mohah smr*tir-labdhA taaaat-prsAdAn mayA acyuta | sthito'smi gata-sandehah karishye vacanam tava || (18-73) "acyuta! By your Grace (gItopadeSam) my ignorance has now gone; I have regained my memory, and now I am steady and free from doubt and am ready to act according to Your instructions" 29.269 - mahendrah a) He of great wealth.b) The God of Indra and other gods.Om mahendrAya namah. The root from which this nAma is derived is idi - paramaiSvarye - to own great wealth. Since He thus pervades everything in many different ways, He is the Lord of everything. He is also mahendra because He is the Lord of Indra, who is the representation of strength, which is one of the six qualities of SrIman nArAyaNa. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a second interpretation based indhI - dIptau to shine, to kindle. Thus He is mahendra since He is the one who kindles the light in every being or is the light in all beings. 29.270 - vasu-dah The Giver of wealth.Om vasudAya namah. vasu - dhanam dadAti iti vasu-dah. One who bestows His wealth to the devotees without their asking for it. He can give the lordship of the three worlds to a devotee, or He can also give the lesser riches to those who want it. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that this act of bhagavAn giving wealth to everyone is behind the act of anyone giving anything to anyone. For instance, when one does vastra-dAnam, or anna-dAnam, or imparts knowledge to another, or any other act of giving, it is a demonstration of the guNa of Giver of mahA vishNu. 29.271 - vasuh He who is Himself the wealth sought by those who have realized the Truth.Om vasave namah.This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 105, and will re-occur as nAma 701. Please refer to the previous write-up as well. vAsudevah sarvam iti sa mahAtmA sudurlabhah - Rare indeed is the great soul who has realized that the ultimate object to be attained is vAsudeva, and the means for attaining this wealth is also vAsudeva (gItA 7.19).>From the next nAma, SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma-s as illustrations of the cosmic form or the viSva-rUpa of the Lord. 29.272 - naika-rUpah He of Infinite forms (as seen in viSvarUpa).Om naikarUpAya namah. In gItA we have paSyAmi tvAm sarvatah ananta rUpam - I see You everywhere with Your endless forms - 11.16. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the following quote - "jalam vishNuh sthalam vishNuh vishNur_AkASam ucyate | sthAvaram ja~ngamam vishNuh sarvam vishNu-mayam jagat || SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri expressses his anubhavam of this nAma by pointing out that this guNa of assuming multiple forms is consistent with (almost necessitated by) His role is the Giver of wealth to everyone. For giving wealth to everyone, He needed to be in multiple forms and at multiple places at the same time. 29.273 - br*had-rUpah He of an immense form.Om br*had-rUpAya namah. br*hat means mahat or big. SrI T. S. Kr*shNamUrti has translsted this as 'mysterious'. He is of an immense form. SrI Sankara has given the example of the varAha incarnation where He carried the submerged Earth with a form which was big enough to ensure that the Earth did not submerge again as it was carried. The trivikrama incarnation is another example where His form covered all the three worlds and the skies. SrI cinmayaAnanda gives the purusha sUktam passage -

atyatishThat daSA~ngulam - He is not only of the total size and dimension fot he Universe but He stands beyond it by ten digits. The dharma cakram author points out that to "see" this br*had-rUpam, the mortal eyes are not sufficient, and it is thus that we do not just see Him but have to experience Him. The more we see this immensity of His Nature and His sarva vyApatitvam, the more we will get out of this "small" world or our bodies and our small pleasures. 29.274 - Sipi-vishTah He who pervades the rays.Om Sipi-vishTAya namah. The word Sipi has two meanings - rays and animals. Thus there are two interpretations. The first is that He is Sipi-vishTa because He is in the forms of rays for example the Sun's rays, the rays emanating from the fire, etc. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is Sipayah raSmayah, tAn sampravishTah - vyAptavAn iti SipivishTah. He quotes Yaska from nirukata to support this Sipayo raSmayah ucyante, taih AvishTah. In the nirukti which is a summary of SrI BhaTTar's interpreations by an unknown author, we have Sipayo raSmayah proktAh vyApya teshvapi vartanAt | SipivishTah samAkhyAtah sUryendy-agnAdi rUpavat ||In mahAbhArata we have Sipi-vhshTeti yaccAsya pItam romam ca yad-bhavet | tenApi vishTam yat ki~ncit Sipi-vishTam hi tat-smr*tam || (Santi parva 343-41) "He has tawny hairs on His body; with that body He has pervaded all other things. So He is known as Sipi-vishTa." In udyoga parva we have roma kupeshu ca tathA sUryasyeva marIcayah - He who enters into the pores of the body like the rays of the sun. lingAyatasUrin in his vyAkhyAna for amarakoSa has given the following Sipishu paSushu janeshu vishTo vyApta iti SipivishTah - One who has pervaded all animals and humans is SipivishTah. 29.275 - prakASanah a) One who shows Himself to His devotees.b) One who illumines everything.Om prakASanAya namah. SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma to mean that BhagavAn shows His celestial form to arjuna and others who long to see it. SrI Sankara's interpretation is that He is prakASana because He illumines everything prakASayati iti prakASanah. The dharam cakram writer points out that the illumination He provides is the path that leads to His realization. Slokam 30

276-ojas-tejo-dyutidharah 277-prakASAtmA 278-pratApanah 279-Rddhah 280-spashTa-aksharah 281- mantrah 282-canDra-amSuh 283bhAskara-dyutih

30.276 -ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharah One who is endowed with strength, vigorand brilliance.om ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharAya namah. Ojas means strength or inherent vitality, tejas means reputationor power to overcome enemies, and dyuti means effulgence or radiance.Since bhagavAn alone has all of these, He is ojas-tejo-dyuti- dharah.Recall that we are now going through the nAma-s that describe theviSva-rupa. SrI Sankara gives the reference to gItA tejas-tejasvinAmaham (7-10), and balam balavatAam cAham (7-11). 30.277 - prakASAtmA He of a nature that is well-known to all.Om prakASAtmane namah. dhRtarAshtra was blind not only externally but also in hismind. Even to him, bhagavAn made Himself known. In mahAbhArata -udyoga parva, dhRtarAshtra says - "tvameva puNdarIkAksha! Sarvasya jagatah prabhuh | tasmAt te yAdavaSreshTha! PrasAdam kartumarhasi || "Oh Lotus-eyed One! You are the Protector of all the worlds.Therefore, the foremost among the yAdavas! You should take pity on me."Another interpretation is that He has a form whose nature is ofradiance. The writer in dharma cakram points out that the prakASa or lightfrom the sun and stars can reveal external objects, but none of thesecan reveal the Absolute Truth. This can be revealed only by mahAvishNuthe prakASAtmA, who gives the external light to the sun and stars in thefirst instance. 30.278 - pratApanah He who scorches (His enemies).Om pratApanAya namah. SrI BhaTTar interprets this nAma in the context of the gItAwhere arjuna says that he is unable to stand the sight of themagnificent viSvarUpa darSanam when Lord KRshNa reveals that theenemies in the kaurava side are falling into the fiery mouth of the Lordand being scorched to their end - tejobhirApUrya jagat samastambhAsastavogrAh pratapanti vishNo (gItA 11.30). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstripoints out that this can also refer to the time of pralaya when the Lordscorches the Earth with the prlayAgni. SrI Sankara gives the explanation that He is pratApana becauseHe heats the world through power manifestations like the Sun. 30.279 - Rddhah He who is full in all respects.Om RddhAya namah.The root from which this word is derived is Rdh vRddhau to prosper,to increase. He is full of guNa-s like dharma, knowledge, dispassion,etc. 30.280 - spashTa-aksharah

He of clear words (through the veda-s).Om spashTAksharAya namah.The reference here is to the veda-s. SrI BhaTTar's interpretation isthat He is spaTAksharah because He revealed Himself through the lettersof the veda-s very clearly. SrI Sankara's interpretation is that He hasthis nAma because He is clearly indicated by the supreme sound OM. SrIcinmayAnanda gives the reference to gItA in support of thisinterpretation OmityekAksharam brahma vyAharan mAm anusmaran | Yah prayAti tyajan deham sa yAti paramAm gatim|| "One who chants my name Om and leaves his body at the time ofdeath thus remembering Me, he shall go to the Supreme state".SrI satyaevo vAsishTha gives a very different interpretation. He usesthe root spaS bandhane - to tie together, and akshara to mean thingsthat don't disappear but reappear again and again until (and evenafter?) pralaya - he uses the words Apralaya sthAyI nakshatrAdi inHindi), viz. the nakshatra manDala etc. Thus he interprets this nAma'smeaning as referring to mahA vishNu who has thus tied together and isholding together this Universe with its constellation of the heavenlybodies. 30.281 mantrah

The mystic word (He who protects those who meditate onHis name).Om mantrAya namah.tan-mantAram trAyate iti mantArah, or mananAt trAyate iti mantrah -mantra is that which protects him who meditates on it. In BrahmapurANa, BhagavAn says - thRshNA toya samAkIrNAt ghorAt samsAra sAgarAt | apArAt pAramApnoti yo mAm smarati nityaSah || "He who thinks of me always, will certainly cross this vast andfrightful sea of samsAra which is filled with the waters of greed andavarice".SrI BhaTTar also gives the reference to the varAha carama Sloka-s fromvarAha purANa - sthithe manasi susvsthe SarIre sati yo narah | dhAtu-sAmye sthithe smartA viSva-rUpam ca mAma ajam || tatastam mriyamANam tu kAshTha pAshANa sannibham | aham smarAmi mad-bhaktam nayAmi paramAm gatim || "The man who, when his mind is in normal condition, when thebody is not shattered, and when the elementary constituents of his body(dhAtus) are in perfect equipoise, meditates on Me who has thew worldas My body and who am not subject o biths due to karmA - when that manlies like a log of wood or a piece of stone in his dying moments, Ithink of this devotee of Mine and lead to attain the Supreme Abode".SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He is the Sacred formula inthe form of the three veda-s.The writer in dharma cakram gives the perspective on the importance ofmantra-s in our scheme of life. Just as we take external bath forkeeping our bodies clean, mantra-s are the means to keep our mindsclean. This can be done either through constant repetition of themantra-s (japam), through deep and constant contemplation (meditation),through musical singing (bhajan) etc. Recall tirumangai AzhvAr - nalamtarum Sollai nAn kaNDu koNDEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam peria tirumozhi1-1-9). 30.282 - canDra-amSuh He who is possessed of the effulgent rays likethose of the moon.Om canDrAmSave namah.The word canDra is derived from the root cadi AhlAde dIptau ca - todelight, to shine. He brings delight to the minds of those who arescorched by the heat of samsAra. He also nurtures the vegetable kingdomwith nutrition paushNAmi caushadIh sarvA somo bhUtvA rasAtmakah - gItA15-13. It is known in experience also that the cool rays of the moonare soothing. BhavAn is like the rays of the moon for His devotees. 30.283 - bhAskara-dyutih He who has the effulgence of the sun.Om bhAskara-dyutaye namah.This effulgence is such that it shatters and throws His enemies in alldirections. Recall the reference to Lord rAma as rAma-divAkara - Sara jAlAmSumAnSUrah kape! RAma-divAkarah | Satru-rakshomayam toyam uapSosham nayishyati ||(sundara kANdam 37-18) "O Monkey (HanumAn)! The sun-like rAma, who is valiant and whohas heaps of ray-like arrows, will certainly dry up the water of theinimical rAkshasa-s."The reference to SrI AndAl's tiruppAvai (kadir madiyam pOl mugattAn) isrelevant in this context. Dr. V. V. rAmAnujan in his vishNu shasranAmabhAshyam points out the significance of the two nAma-s - candrAmSuh andbhAskara-dyutih

occurring side by side. It is unique that BhagavAn hasat the same time the comforting coolness of the moon and the scorchingheat of the sun in Him - He is soothing to His devotees and burning toHis enemies. The description of the viSva-rUpam continues, and we knowfrom arjuna's description that the tejas of the viSvarUpam is scorchingand frightful. An instacne of this simultaneous existence of thecoothing and burning guNa-s of His tejas is the nRsimha incarnation,where His form terrorized hiraNya-kaSipu, and but was divinely pleasingto prahlAda.He is bhAskara-dyutih also because He is the cause for the dyuti orbrightness of bhAskara or the sun, or for that matter, the brightness inevery one of us. We can see the brightness of the sun but we cannot seethe brightness of mahA vishNu. His effulgence is explained by sanjayain the gItA - divi sUrya sahasrasya bhaved yugapadutthitA | yadi bhAh sadRSI sA syAd-bhAsas-tasya mahAtmanah || (gItA 11-12) "If simultaneously thousands of suns appear in the sky shiningbright, the tejas or effulgence that is seen can be compared to afraction of the tejas of paramAtmA". The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamacharifor the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 31

284. amRta-amSuudbhavah 285. bhAnuh 286. SaSabinduh 287. sureSvarah 288. aushadham 289. jagatah-setuh 290. satya-dharmaparAkramah

amR^itaaMshuudbhavo bhaanuH shashabinduH sureshvaraH .aushhadhaM jagataH setuH satyadharmaparaakramaH .. 31.. Om Om Om Om Om amRtAmSUdbhavAya namah bhAnave namah SaSabindave namah sureSvarAya namah aushadhAya namah

Om jagatas-setave namah Omsatya-dharma-parAkramAya namah. 284.amRta-amSu-udbhavah The source of nectar-rayed moon. Om amRtAmSUdbhavAya namah. ThisnAma consists of three words amRta, amSu, and udbhavah. amRta means immortalor life-giving, amSu refers to rays, and udbhavah is one who created. Both SrIBhaTTar and SrI Sankara have interpreted this as referring to the creation ofthe moon by the Lord during the churning of the Milky Ocean. This is generallythe interpretation that most other authors have accepted. SrI cinmayAnanda givesreference to the gItA to point out how the moon's rays are life-giving to theplants - pushNAmi caushadhIh sarvAh somo bhUtvA rasAtmakah - I become thelife-giving rays of the moon and make all the plants grow and flourish. SrIsatyadevo vASishTha has given an independent interpretation. He uses the meaningliquid or "jalam" for the word amRta, and the meaning"distribute" from amSu - vibhAjane to distribute, and gives theinterpretation that the name means that He created the life-forms bydistributing the waters or amRta. He gives the example of how the lifeform iscreated in the mother's womb floating in the waters, and how lthe physical bodyis kept healthy and well-nourished by drinking the water and eating the food. 285. bhAnuh The lustrous Sun or One who is Radiant. Om bhAnave namah. BhAtiiti bhAnuh - That which shines or One who shines. BhagavAn is the source ofradiance to the Sun itself. The passage from muNDakopanishad tameva bhAntamanubhAti sarvam, tasya bhAsA sarvamidam vibhAti -(muNda - 2.2.10). He illuminesHimself, and illumines everything else in this world as well, including the Sun,whose lustre is onethousandth of His lustre. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha alsopoints out that He is the lustre in all of us by being the agni or fire in allbodies. As long as this agni is lit in our body, we are healthy; when the firesubsides, the body is non-functional (death of the body occurs). So He is thebhAnu in all of us. The dharma cakram author reminds us that the light of theSun can only give external light, but cannot help in revealing the paramAtmA orthe Supreme Soul. This can be done only by the paramAtmA or bhAnu. 286. SaSabinduh a) He who disowns the evil-minded. b) The Moon c) One whocontrols the paths of the planets and the stars. Om SaSabindave namah. SrIBhaTTar derives the interpretation from SaSa - pluta gatau - to swerve or jumpfrom the right path, and bindu derived from bidi - to disown. SrI Sankara hasinterpreted the nAma as referring to the moon. The interpretation given is - Onewho has the mark of a hare - viz. the moon. This is based on the words SaSameaning hare,and bindu meaning a dot. Since the moon has a mark which looks likea hare, this interpretation is given. SrI sataydevo vAsishTha has used the nAmaas SaSa-vinduh instead of SaSa-binduh. He uses the meaning for SaSa as thatwhich leaps or moves around, from the root SaS pluta-gatau. For vindu hederives the meaning from the root vid - j~nAne - to know ( based on the pANinisUtra vinduricchuh - 3.2.167) - vinduh = vedana SilAh - intelligent. Thus forthe nAma SaSavinduh, the meaning given is One who knows (controls) the paths ofall the planets and stars (the Sun, the moon, etc.). 287. sureSvarah The Lord of the gods. Om sureSvarAya namah. SurANAm IsvarahsureSvarah - One who is the Leader of all the gods. Just as He disowns those whogo in the wrong path (previous nAma), this name says that he is the Leader ofthose who tread the good path. The word sura itself is composed of su - Sobhana,and rA - dAnah

i.e., one that brings or bestows auspicious or good things. Onewho is the Lord of those who bestow auspiciousness or do good in plenty issureSvara. The dharma cakram writer reminds us that the significance of thisnAma is that by worshipping mahA vishNu who is the sureSvara, we will movetowards the path of the sura-s. 288. aushadham The Medicine. Om aushadhAya namah. He is the Ultimate Medicinefor the poison of samsAra, and there is no other medicine for this. InmahAbhArata we have "devA devarshayaScaiva yam viduh duhkha bheshajam"-The gods and the celestial sages know Him to be the remedy for distress - Santiparva 79-22. Another quote in SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam (the source is not given)is "ekAgratA mUlya balena labhyam bhavaushadham tvam bhagavan! kilaikah"- Oh BhagavAn! Thou alone art verily the recipe for the samSAra, and can beobtained by the high price of the concentration of the mind on Thee". Dr.V. V. rAmAnujan has given the following reference from divya prabandham insupport of the interpretation of this nAma "tE~ngOda vaNNan varu naragamtIrkkum marundu" - 3rd tiruvandAdi - 3. The dharma cakram writer points outthat BhagavAn who is Nature Incarnate is aushdham in day-to-day life as wellsince inhaling the fresh air of nature, eating food which is not synthetic,etc., lead to a healthier life. 289. jagatah-setuh a) The barrier for the world. b) The brodge for corssing theocean of samsAra. c) One who binds and keeps in-tact all that moves in thisworld. Om jagatah-setave namah. He is the barrier that ensures that there isorder in the different things in this world, by making sure that the good andbad do not mix together in a chaoatic way. He ensures that there is no effectfor the karma that is not undertaken, there is always effect for the karma thathas been undertaken. Those who do good get the benefit for their good and thosewho indulge in bad deeds get the benefit of their bad deeds, etc. The passagefrom bRhadAraNya upanishad is given in support of this interpretation - eshahsetuh vidharaNa eshAm lokAnAm asambhedAya - 6.4.22 (He is the bridge thatsupports all the worlds so that they may not get into confusion). SrI Sankaragives an additional interpretation, viz. that He is the bridge for crossing theocean of samsAra. SrI satdevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that BhagavAnties together all that exists in this world. This includes the function ofholding together the different bones, nerves, and muscles in the body, as wellas the system of stars and planets. Jagat is derived from gati - that whichmoves, and setu - that which binds. He is the setu in all bodies, and inaddition holds all these bodies and other things that exist in this worldtogether in order, and thus He is hagatah-setu. The dharma cakram writer givesthe example of a river which is bound by its banks and kept in control, or theocean which is bound by the land surrouding it and kept under control. So also,BhagavAn has kept the jivAtmA under control by limiting it to the indriya sukhamand the ocean of samsAra. It is only mahA vishNu who can help this jIvAtmA outof these bounds, and it is by meditating on Him that the jIvAtmA can getliberated and cross the ocean of samsAra. 290.satya-dharma-parAkramah One whose qualities and valor are always true. Omsatya-dharma-parAkramAya namah. Here dharma refers to the auspicious qualitiesof BhagavAn, and parAkrama refers to His valor. One in whom they are neverfailing (satya) is satya-dharma-parAkramah. SrI cinmayAnanda interprets the nAmato mean that BhagavAn is one who embodies satya (truth), dharma (righteous), andparAkrama (heroism). In vAlmIki rAmAyaNa SrI rAma is referred to assatya-parAkramah - One whose parAkrama is never in vain, and is always used forthe good of the world. The writer in dharma cakram points out that the nAmatells us the importance of living a life of truth, righteousenss, and the valorresulting from this kind of life. Those who live a life along these lines arebound to succeed in what they do, as evidenced by the lives of HanumAn, Bhishma,etc. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 32

291. bhUta-bhavya-bhavannAthah 292. pavanah 293. pAvanah 294. analah 295. kAma-hA 296. kAma-kRt 297. kAntah 298. kAmah 299. kAma-pradah 300. prabhuh

Om bhUta-bhavya-bhavan-nAthAya namahOm pavanAya namahOm pAvanAya namahOm analAya namahOm kAma-ghne namahOm kAma-kRte namahOm kAntAya namahOm kAmAya namahOm kAmapradAya namahOm prabhave namah 291. bhUta-bhavya-bhavan-nAthah The Lord of all in the past, present and future. Om bhUta-bhavya-bhavan-nAthAya namah.

Sankara distinguishesthe meanings of the two nAma-s by interpreting the first one as "TheLord of Past, Present, and Future", or that He is beyond time, and thecurrent one as "The Lord of all beings in the Past, Present, andFuture". In other words, the first interpretation refers to His beingTimeless, and the second refers to His being the Lord of all beings inall time. 292. pavanah He who moves about (Wind).Om pavanAya namah. Pavata iti pavanah. SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation based on theroot pavi - to move about. He moves about in all places at al timeswith no constraints. The wind's ability to do this is but a fraction ofHis ability in this regard. pavatAm pavanah asmi (gItA 10-31) - Amongthose that move about, I am the wind. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the meaning for this nAma as One who isPure, and for the next nAma he gives the interpretation that in additionto His being Pure (pavanah), He also purifies everything else -pAvanah). 293. pAvanah He who purifies everything.Om pAvanAya namah. pAvayati iti pAvanah. pAvanah sarva-lokAnAm tvameva raghu-nandana -Oh Scion of raghu race! You alone are the purifier of all the worlds -rAmAyaNam - uttara kANDam - 32.9. The power of Ganges to purify anyonefrom all sins is because of its contact with His Sacred Feet. We havein SrI vishNu sahasranAmam "pavitrANAm pavitram yo mangalAnAm camangalam - He is the Purest of the pure, and the Most Auspicious amongthose that are auspicious". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives the reference fromtiruvAi-mozhi (2-8-5) - devAdideva perumAn en tIrthanE - tIrthan heremeans Pure. Another reference he has given is - karam nAngudaiyAn pErOdi tIrthakarar Amin (iraNDAm tiruvandAdi - 14) - Let us become pure bychanting the name of the One with Four Hands. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that it is mahA-vishNu's pAvana Saktithat is at play when the effect of the poison of a crab bite is removedfrom the body of a person by dropping the juice of red chile in the earsof that person. He gives several other examples as well. 294. analah One who is never satisfied (in His Mercy or dayA).Om analAya namah. alam means "to be satisfied". analam is the condition of never beingsatisfied. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to periya tiruvantAdi - unaDiyArkku en Seyvan enRE irutti nI (53) - "Always thinking about whatYou can do next for Your devotees". He is the One who helped draupadiduring her time of distress and then forever felt that He did not doenough for her because He did not personally appear in the palace whenshe called for Him, and when He ultimately departed for SrI vaikunTham,still felt that He was indebted - RNam pravRttam idam me hRdayAtnApasarpati. analam literally refers to fire (since fire is never satisfied, and willkeep consuming more and more things if left uncontrolled). A certainamount of heat is necessary in the body for the body to continue alive.Since He is the fire that supports life in the body, He is called anala.The insatiable nature of His dayA has been sung by SrI deSika in dayASatakam, where we find that no matter what great sins we have committed,His dayA

will consume (forgive) all those when we surrender to Him withdevotion and sincerity. The hunger of His dayA will not be easilyquenched even by the enormous sins committed by us, and He will forgiveall these if we adopt the simple step of SaraNAgati to Him (Slokam 29 ofdayA Satakam). He is like the fire that will burn all our sins withoutlimit. So He is analah in this sense as well. 295. kAma-hA The Destroyer of desires.Om kAma-ghne namah. He removes the desires in worldly matters in the minds of His devotees.SrI cinmayAnanda gives an analysis of why it is necessary that desireshould be destroyed. When desire arises, there are two possibilities -either the desire is fulfilled, or it is not. If it is fulfilled, theresult is the desire for more - greed. If it is not fulfilled, theoutcome is anger and frustration. So for inner calm, desire needs to bedestroyed, and it is only His Grace which can cause this to happen. Someone who has successfully climbed a very high hill will not desire toconquer a smaller hill. So also, one who has developed a desire for theparamAtmA will not desire anything less or anything else. He iskAma-hA in the sense that desire in Him will automatically destroy thedesire in lesser objects. 296. kAma-kRt One who creates desirable things, and also fulfils the desires. Om kAma-kRte namah. He fulfils whatever is desired, be it towards bhoga or moksha. SrIsatyadevo vAsishTha gives the explanation - kAmAn karoti pUrayati itikAma-kRt - One who fulfils the desires. It is natural that a personwith less wealth goes to a person with more wealth for fulfilling hisneed. The only one who can ultimately fulfil the desires of anyone isthe One who has everything, vishNu the kAma-kRt. kAma-kRt can alsomean One who creates desires; in this sense, He creates the gooddesires, just as He destroys the undesirable desires (kAma-hA). the dharma cakram writer from mANikka vAcakar " vENDattakkadu aRivOy nI,vENDa muzhudum taruvOy nI, vENDum pariSu onRu uNDu enil aduvum undanviruppanRE". He also quotes tirumangai AzhvAr in this context - kulamtarum Selvam tandiDum, aDiyAr padDum tuyar Ayina ellAm nilam taramSeyyum nIL viSumbum aruLum aruLODu peru nilam aLikkum, nalam tarumSollai nAn kaNDu konDEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam. He gives the lesserobjects to those who desire this, and the very utterance of His nAma cangives moksham also. 297. kAntah He who is charming.om kAntAya namah. This nAma will re-occur as nAma 660 later. kAnta also means attraction.In tamizh, this word is used to refer to magnet. The dharma cakramwriter describes the different kinds of attraction, involving the fivesenses, as well as the attraction involving thought and the oneinvolving good behavior or character. BhagavAn is kAntah because He isthe One responsible for all the different types of attractions, and inaddition He is also attractive in every one of these.

298. kAmah The Lovable (or manmatha).om kAmAya namah. People in this world are after dharma, artha, kAma or moksha. For allthese four, He is the one who is sought after. The dharma cakramwriter points out that those who desire wealth or physical objects andare after sensuous attraction lower themselves, whereas those who desirebhagavAn elevate themselves. Those who desire the ultimate liberationknow that the most desirable is bhagavAn vishNu. kAma also refers tomanmatha, whos is considered the god of desire. manmatha's ability tobe desirable is but a fraction of bhagavAn's. 299. kAma-pradah The Grantor of wishes.om kAma-pradAya namah. He grants the wishes of those who desire Him as well as those who areafter trifles. For those who desire nothing other than Him, He fulfilstheir desire by being in their mind constantly. He makes Himselfavailable in any form that is desired. In kaThopanishad we have "ekobahUnAm yo vidadhAti kAmAn (2.5)" - The One who fulfils the desires ofthe many. 300. prabhuh One who has the supreme power to attract the minds of alltowards Himself; One who surpasses all in being. om prabhave namah. power to attract everyone's mind towards Him through His extremeloveliness. SrI Sankara bhAshyam for this nAma is prakarsheNa bhavanAtprabhuh - One who surpasses all in being. The dharma cakram writergives examples of how bhagavAn surpasses all in being: by not slippingfrom the right path (acyuta), by always having the indriya-s undercontrol (hRshI-keSah), by establishing dharma over adharma (paritrANAyasAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRtAm), by being the destroyer of the evilasura-s (madhusUdana, keSi-sUdana, kamsa cANUra mardana, etc.)... -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 33

301. 302. 303. 304. 305.

yugAdi-kRt yugAvartah naika-mAyah mahASanah adRSyah

306. vyakta-rUpah 307. sahasra-jit 308. ananta-jit

om om om om om om om

yugAdi-kRte namahom yugAvartAya namah naika-mAyAya namah mahASanAya namah ad*SyAya namah vyakta-rUpAya namah sahasra-jite namah ananta-jite namahnAma-s

Starting from this, up to nAma 313, are interpreted by SrI BhaTTar asreferring to the vata-patra-SAyI avatAra or the incarnation as a Child onthe banyan leaf. 301. yugAdi-kRt The Creator at the beginning of a yuga.om yugAdi-kRte namah.SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation "yugasya ante'pi Adim karoti" - Even atthe end of a yuga, He makes the beginning of another. Even at thedissolution of the Universe, He saves it from the distress of Deluge bybeginning the Universe again; even at the end of the Universe throughpralaya, He begins Creation again. SrI Sankara gives the derivation: yugAdeh kAla-bhedasya kartRtvAtyugAdi-kRt He is called yugAdi-kRt because He is the cause of periods oftime such as yuga. According to SrI cinmayAnanda, Adi here refers to otherdivisions of time such as centuries, years, months, days, etc. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri suggests that through these divisions of time, likethe day and night following each other, He gives a meaning of continuity totime which is otherwise a never-ending cakra or circle with no beginning orend. The word yuga is derived from the root yuj - yoge - to unite. Hecreates the continuity or connectivity between one yuga and another byensuring that the life-forms are re-created according to their karma-s.

Arelated alternate interpretation given by SrI Sankara is yugAnAm AdimArambham karoti iti yugAdi-kRt The Institutor of the yuga etc. It may berecalled that there are four yuga-s, kRta, tretA, dvApara, and kali. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets yuga as kAla-cakra, Adi as beginning, andthe term yugAdi as referring to the Sun, who is the cause of the division oftime as day and night etc. He then interprets yugAdi-kRt as the One whocreated the Sun or One who created the kAla-cakra. The dharma cakram writer points outs the limited nature of our body and ourlife in this world in the context of this huge, immeasurable, and unending,kAla or time. Instead of wasting it on petty goals, and worrying about thepast which is gone or the future on which we have no control, we shouldlearn to meditate on Him in the present, over which we have control. 302. yugAvartah He who revolves the yuga-s or aeons. om yugAvartAya namah. Avarta refers to revolution or rotation. SrI BhaTTar's interpretation isthat He is yugAvarta because He makes the kRta and other yuga-s go roundagain and again with their respective dharma-s. (It is said that if theextent of dharma in the society in kRta yuga is 100%, that in tretA yuga is75%, in dvApara yuga is 50%, and that in kali yuga is 25%. kRta yuga isalso called satya yuga based on this). This rotation is seen in a dimensionwhere we can relate to it easily in the form of day and night, morning,afternoon, and evening, the four seasons with their constant attributes(rain, snow, heat, etc.,) repeating again and again.He is not only the Creator of Time as we saw in the previous nAma, but He isalso the Administrator of Time as we see in this nAma. 303. naika-mAyah He of multifarious wonders. om naika-mAyAya namah. This is one of the nAma-s for which the interpretation of SrI BhaTTar andSrI Sankara are purely based on the respective philosophies (viz.viSishTAdvaita and advaita respectively) to which they subscribed. SrI BhaTTar points out that mAyA here refers to knowledge or wonderfultruths, and should not be interpreted as illusion. He is naika-mAyabecause of His innumerable and wonderful exploits. He gives severalexamples to point out the use of the word not as illusion but as truth,knowledge, etc. "mAyAm tu prakRtim vidyAt" - Know that mAyA is prakRti or PrimordialMatter. "mAyA vayunam j~nAnam" - all signify knowledge, according to niruktam. In vishNu purANa, there is mention of Lord vishNu destroying the thousandsof mAya-s of SambarAsura with His discus. If mAyA here refers to illusion,then a discus was not needed to destroy it; so obviously here mAyA refers toreal objects. SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that this nAma refers to His assumingmany forms of illusion.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning from the root mA - mAne - tomeasure, and gives the interpretation that this nAma means that He hasinnumerable dimensions to Him. 304. mahASanah He who is a voracious eater. om mahASanAya namah. mahat aSanam yasya sah mahASanah. The root is aS - bhojane - to eat. Thereference here is to His swallowing the seven worlds.Recall the pASuram "ulagam uNDa peru vAyA". Also we have from tiruvAi mozhi- "kArEzh kaDalEzh malai Ezh ulagu uNDum ArA vayiRRAnai aDa~ngap piDittEnE" - 10-8-2. SrI Sankara refers to His act of consuming everything during the time ofpralaya. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives another additional derivation for this nAmabased on aS - vyAptau sa~nghAte ca - to pervade, to accumulate. So inaddition to the meaning that His food is huge, he also gives the alternateinterpretation that His pervasion or vyApti is large or extensive. 305. adRSyah He Who cannot be seen. om adRSyAya namah. BhagavAn's acts are inscrutable. In mahAbhAratam, we have katham nu ayam SiSuh Sete loke nASam upAgate | tapasA cintayanScApi tam SiSum nopalakshaye || (vana parva -191-94) "When the entire world has met with destruction, how come this childis alive and lying down (on a leaf)? Even though I try to understand thisthrough the power of my austerities, I am unable to understand the truenature of this child". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr "katkilI unnaik kANumARu aruLAi- tiruvAi mozhi 7.2.3. katkilI here means One who cannot be seen throughour normal vision. In the upanishad-s we have "adreSyam agrAhyamagotram...." (muNdakopanishad 1.1.6), "adRSyam avyavahAryam agrAhymalakshaNam...SAntam Sivam advaitam..." (mAnDUkya 1.7). The dharma cakram writer points out that He is adRSyah because He cannot berecognized through the five senses, nor by logical analysis. For thatmatter, it is only His Grace that can make Him be realized. 306. vyakta-rUpah He of a manifest form. om vyakta-rUpAya namah.

His celestial form is easily visualized by the sages such as mArkaNDeya. atasI-pushpa samkASah SrI-vatsa kRta lakshNah | sAkshAt lakshmyA iva AvAsah sadA pratibhAti me || (bhArata - vana188.96) "He, who is like the blue lily flower in color, and who is adornedby the SrIvatsa mole, appears to me always as the abode of Lakshmi". tasya tAmra-talau tAta! caraNau supratishThitau | sujAta-mRdu-raktAbhih a~ngulIbhih alamkRtau || praNatena mayA mUrdhnA gRhItvA hyabhivanditau || (bhArata - vana188.13) "O Dear! His two feet with red surface adorned by the lovely softand red toes, were firmly placed on my head when I bowed with bent head andworshipped Him".Notice that just in the previous nAma we had seen Him to be adRSya, and nowwe encounter Him as vykata-rUpa. The difference is that in the previousnAma we saw that He cannot be seen through the normal means of perception.In the current nAma we see that He is easily perceived by His devotees whohave transcended the influence of the five senses. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstripoints out that the ca in the Slokam - vyakta rUpaSca - indicates that evenwhile being adRSya, He is of vykata-rUpa or manifest form to His devotees,through so many incarnations etc. The dharma cakram writer points out that the previous nAma revealed vishNu'sattribute which is beyond our perception, and the current nAma reveals Hisattribute of being present in everything as antaryAmi. 307. sahasra-jit The Conqueror of thousands. om sahasra-jite namah. SrI BhaTTar interprets the 'thousands' here as referring to thousands ofaeons or Time which He conquers by being in yoga-nidrA while everything elseis dissolved in pralaya. SrI Sankara interprets it as referring to Hisconquering thousands of enemies or asura-s in battle. 308. ananta-jit One whose victory is endless, limitless, countless. om ananta-jite namah. He is ananta-jit because He has everything that exists under His control.In every incarnation He alone wins in the end. SrI BhaTTar gives theinterpretation that His mahimA or greatness is beyond comprehension. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme

by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 33

301. 302. 303. 304. 305. 306. 307. 308.

yugAdi-kRt yugAvartah naika-mAyah mahASanah adRSyah vyakta-rUpah sahasra-jit ananta-jit

om om om om om om om

yugAdi-kRte namahom yugAvartAya namah naika-mAyAya namah mahASanAya namah ad*SyAya namah vyakta-rUpAya namah sahasra-jite namah ananta-jite namahnAma-s

Starting from this, up to nAma 313, are interpreted by SrI BhaTTar asreferring to the vata-patra-SAyI avatAra or the incarnation as a Child onthe banyan leaf. 301. yugAdi-kRt The Creator at the beginning of a yuga.om yugAdi-kRte namah.SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation "yugasya ante'pi Adim karoti" - Even atthe end of a yuga, He makes the beginning of another. Even at thedissolution of the Universe, He saves it from the distress of Deluge bybeginning the Universe again; even at the end of the Universe throughpralaya, He begins Creation again.

SrI Sankara gives the derivation: yugAdeh kAla-bhedasya kartRtvAtyugAdi-kRt He is called yugAdi-kRt because He is the cause of periods oftime such as yuga. According to SrI cinmayAnanda, Adi here refers to otherdivisions of time such as centuries, years, months, days, etc. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri suggests that through these divisions of time, likethe day and night following each other, He gives a meaning of continuity totime which is otherwise a never-ending cakra or circle with no beginning orend. The word yuga is derived from the root yuj - yoge - to unite. Hecreates the continuity or connectivity between one yuga and another byensuring that the life-forms are re-created according to their karma-s. Arelated alternate interpretation given by SrI Sankara is yugAnAm AdimArambham karoti iti yugAdi-kRt The Institutor of the yuga etc. It may berecalled that there are four yuga-s, kRta, tretA, dvApara, and kali. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets yuga as kAla-cakra, Adi as beginning, andthe term yugAdi as referring to the Sun, who is the cause of the division oftime as day and night etc. He then interprets yugAdi-kRt as the One whocreated the Sun or One who created the kAla-cakra. The dharma cakram writer points outs the limited nature of our body and ourlife in this world in the context of this huge, immeasurable, and unending,kAla or time. Instead of wasting it on petty goals, and worrying about thepast which is gone or the future on which we have no control, we shouldlearn to meditate on Him in the present, over which we have control. 302. yugAvartah He who revolves the yuga-s or aeons. om yugAvartAya namah. Avarta refers to revolution or rotation. SrI BhaTTar's interpretation isthat He is yugAvarta because He makes the kRta and other yuga-s go roundagain and again with their respective dharma-s. (It is said that if theextent of dharma in the society in kRta yuga is 100%, that in tretA yuga is75%, in dvApara yuga is 50%, and that in kali yuga is 25%. kRta yuga isalso called satya yuga based on this). This rotation is seen in a dimensionwhere we can relate to it easily in the form of day and night, morning,afternoon, and evening, the four seasons with their constant attributes(rain, snow, heat, etc.,) repeating again and again.He is not only the Creator of Time as we saw in the previous nAma, but He isalso the Administrator of Time as we see in this nAma. 303. naika-mAyah He of multifarious wonders. om naika-mAyAya namah. This is one of the nAma-s for which the interpretation of SrI BhaTTar andSrI Sankara are purely based on the respective philosophies (viz.viSishTAdvaita and advaita respectively) to which they subscribed.

SrI BhaTTar points out that mAyA here refers to knowledge or wonderfultruths, and should not be interpreted as illusion. He is naika-mAyabecause of His innumerable and wonderful exploits. He gives severalexamples to point out the use of the word not as illusion but as truth,knowledge, etc. "mAyAm tu prakRtim vidyAt" - Know that mAyA is prakRti or PrimordialMatter. "mAyA vayunam j~nAnam" - all signify knowledge, according to niruktam. In vishNu purANa, there is mention of Lord vishNu destroying the thousandsof mAya-s of SambarAsura with His discus. If mAyA here refers to illusion,then a discus was not needed to destroy it; so obviously here mAyA refers toreal objects. SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that this nAma refers to His assumingmany forms of illusion. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning from the root mA - mAne - tomeasure, and gives the interpretation that this nAma means that He hasinnumerable dimensions to Him. 304. mahASanah He who is a voracious eater. om mahASanAya namah. mahat aSanam yasya sah mahASanah. The root is aS - bhojane - to eat. Thereference here is to His swallowing the seven worlds.Recall the pASuram "ulagam uNDa peru vAyA". Also we have from tiruvAi mozhi- "kArEzh kaDalEzh malai Ezh ulagu uNDum ArA vayiRRAnai aDa~ngap piDittEnE" - 10-8-2. SrI Sankara refers to His act of consuming everything during the time ofpralaya. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives another additional derivation for this nAmabased on aS - vyAptau sa~nghAte ca - to pervade, to accumulate. So inaddition to the meaning that His food is huge, he also gives the alternateinterpretation that His pervasion or vyApti is large or extensive. 305. adRSyah He Who cannot be seen. om adRSyAya namah. BhagavAn's acts are inscrutable. In mahAbhAratam, we have katham nu ayam SiSuh Sete loke nASam upAgate | tapasA cintayanScApi tam SiSum nopalakshaye || (vana parva -191-94) "When the entire world has met with destruction, how come this childis alive and lying down (on a leaf)? Even though I try to understand thisthrough the power of my austerities, I am unable to understand the truenature of this child". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr "katkilI unnaik kANumARu aruLAi- tiruvAi mozhi 7.2.3. katkilI here means One who cannot be seen throughour normal vision.

In the upanishad-s we have "adreSyam agrAhyamagotram...." (muNdakopanishad 1.1.6), "adRSyam avyavahAryam agrAhymalakshaNam...SAntam Sivam advaitam..." (mAnDUkya 1.7). The dharma cakram writer points out that He is adRSyah because He cannot berecognized through the five senses, nor by logical analysis. For thatmatter, it is only His Grace that can make Him be realized. 306. vyakta-rUpah He of a manifest form. om vyakta-rUpAya namah. His celestial form is easily visualized by the sages such as mArkaNDeya. atasI-pushpa samkASah SrI-vatsa kRta lakshNah | sAkshAt lakshmyA iva AvAsah sadA pratibhAti me || (bhArata - vana188.96) "He, who is like the blue lily flower in color, and who is adornedby the SrIvatsa mole, appears to me always as the abode of Lakshmi". tasya tAmra-talau tAta! caraNau supratishThitau | sujAta-mRdu-raktAbhih a~ngulIbhih alamkRtau || praNatena mayA mUrdhnA gRhItvA hyabhivanditau || (bhArata - vana188.13) "O Dear! His two feet with red surface adorned by the lovely softand red toes, were firmly placed on my head when I bowed with bent head andworshipped Him".Notice that just in the previous nAma we had seen Him to be adRSya, and nowwe encounter Him as vykata-rUpa. The difference is that in the previousnAma we saw that He cannot be seen through the normal means of perception.In the current nAma we see that He is easily perceived by His devotees whohave transcended the influence of the five senses. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstripoints out that the ca in the Slokam - vyakta rUpaSca - indicates that evenwhile being adRSya, He is of vykata-rUpa or manifest form to His devotees,through so many incarnations etc. The dharma cakram writer points out that the previous nAma revealed vishNu'sattribute which is beyond our perception, and the current nAma reveals Hisattribute of being present in everything as antaryAmi. 307. sahasra-jit The Conqueror of thousands. om sahasra-jite namah. SrI BhaTTar interprets the 'thousands' here as referring to thousands ofaeons or Time which He conquers by being in yoga-nidrA while everything elseis dissolved in pralaya. SrI Sankara interprets it as referring to Hisconquering thousands of enemies or asura-s in battle. 308. ananta-jit

One whose victory is endless, limitless, countless. om ananta-jite namah. He is ananta-jit because He has everything that exists under His control.In every incarnation He alone wins in the end. SrI BhaTTar gives theinterpretation that His mahimA or greatness is beyond comprehension. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 34 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 ishTah aviSishTah SishTeshTah SikhanDI nahushah vRshah krodha-hA krodha-kRt kartA viSva-bAhuh mahI-dharah

om ishTAya namahom avSishTAya namahom SishTeshTAya namahom SikhanDine namahom nahushAya namahom vRshAya namahom krodhaghne namahom krodha-kRte namahom kartre namahom viSvabAhave namahom mahI-dharAya namah 34.309 - ishTah a) One who is liked by everyone.b) One who is worshipped in ishTi or sacrifice.om ishTAya namah.He is ishTa because He is liked by everyone and this is because He is theSupreme Bliss. The dharma cakram writer emphasizes that there is nothingelse that is worth liking and going after, because nothing else is PermanentBliss. We should learn to convert the desire that we have for materialobjects to the desire for understanding AtmA, and ultimately to the desirefor paramAtmA.The second interpretation is selfexplanatory, and is related to the termishTi which means sacrifice. 34.310. aviSishTah a) He who is impartial to everyone.b) He who cannot be distinguished.c) He who has no equal.om aviSishTAya namah.He protects everyone just as a mother protects all of her children withoutpartiality. Another interpretation is that He is aviSishTa because Hecannot be distinguished by virtue of the fact that He is the antaryAmi ineverything.It is unclear from the sources I have on whether SrI BhaTTar had interpreted309 and 310 together as one nAma - aviSishTah ishTah - meaning He is one whodoes not distinguish between beings and treats them all alike like a motherher children. Two of the four sources I have that follow SrI BhaTTar'svyAkhyAna treat the two toegether as one nAma.In the versions which treat these as two nAma-s, there is a furthervariation for nAma 310 - viSishTa instead of aviSishTa - One who is Specialand Unique - One who is the noblest and most sacred. This version is usedby SrI cinmayAnanDa. 34.311 - SishTeshTah a) He who is dear even to eminent persons.b) He who dearly loves the eminent personsom SishTeshTAya namah.a) SishTAnAm ishTah SishTeshTah or b) SishTA ishTA asya iti SishTeshTah.SrI Sankara gives reference to bhagavad-gItA - "priyo hi j~nAnino atyarthamaham sa ca mama priyah (7.17)" - I am dear to a j~nAni beyond description;and he is also very dear to Me. A j~nAni here refers to one who hasrealized that the one goal that is worth striving for is He, and nothingelse; thus, by his very nature, the only thing dear to him is BhagavAn.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to tiruppAvai - "veLLattaravil tuyilamarnda vittinai uLLattukkoNDu munivargaLum yOgigaLum". 34.312 - SikhanDI a) He who has the plume (or effulgence) of Lordshipb) He who wears a peacock featherom SikhanDine namah.The word SikhanDa means a tuft of hair or the plume of a peacock. SrIBhaTTar uses the meaning 'crest' to mean that He is at the crest or peakof Lordship. SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that this nAma refers toLord KRshNa as a cowherd boy, with the peacock feather in His head. 34.313 - nahushah One who binds (the jiva-s by His mAyA).om nahushAya namah.nahyati iti nahushah. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the interpretation thatHe binds all beings through His beauty and soulabhyam. SrI satyadevovAsishTha interprets this to mean that He binds (controls) all beings and soHe is nahushah. This binding extends in the world we observe even to thedifferent parts of the body being bound appropriately so that they functionas a unit. So also the different planets are bound together so that thereis order.

34.314 - vRshah a) He who drenches (those who are scorched by the heat of samsAra).b) He who showers His devotees with all that is asked forc) He who is the embodiment of dharma.om vRshAya namah.The word is derived from the root vRsh - to drench or to shower. He alsoshowers whatever is asked for on His devotees, and so He is vRshah in thatsense as well - kAmAnAm varshaNAt vRshah - SrI Sankara. He also gives thefollowing verse from mahAbhArata vRsho hi bhagavAn dharmah smRto lokeshu bhArata | naighanTuka padAkhyAnaih viddhi mAm vRsha ityuta || (SAntiparva 330.23) "O arjuna! vRsha is explained by the lexicographers and likewiseknown in this world as sacred dharma. Hence know Me as vRsha". Thus,vRsha and dharma are synonyms.SrI BhaTTar interprets the next 8 nAma-s as referring to paraSurAma orbhArgava rAma incarnation. 34.315 - krodha-hA a) He who gave up His anger.b) He who destroys the anger in sAdhu-s.om krodha-ghne namah.krodham hanti iti krodha-hA.SrI BhaTTar's interpretation: At the mere request of KASyapa mahArshi, Hegave up His anger which had previously resulted in the destruction of 21lineages of kshatriya-s. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to divyaprabandham in support of this interpretation: "mazhuvinAl avani araSai mUvezhu-kAl maNi-muDi poDi paDuttu udirakkuzhuvAr punalil kuLittu ven-kopam tavirndavan" - periya tirumozhi 8-1-6.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that this nAma indicates that BhagavAncan control His anger just at the mere thought of controlling it. In Hisincarnation as Lord rAma, we find that He became intensely angry at times(rosham AhArayat tIvram - 3-30-19), (krodhasya vaSameyivAn - 6-59-136), butonly He can also get rid of this anger at will in an instant.A lesson applicable in this context to real life is given by the dharmacakram writer who quotes SrI paramahamsa on how to handle situations whichmay require one to be angry - "Hiss but don't bite". In other words, donot ever let your anger get to a point where you cause harm to others. SrI Sankara's interpretation: He is krodha-hA since He helps the sAdhu-sto overcome anger. Anger is a result of unfulfilled desires, and whendesire is overcome, anger is also overcome. 34.316 - krodha-kRt He who developed anger. om krodha-kRte namah.In HIs incarnation as paraSurAma, He got angry at kArta-vIrya and hiskshatriya race and destroyed 21 generations of them, before giving up Hisanger as mentioned in the previous nAma.SrI Sankara gives the meaning that He creates anger in people who are wickedor bad -asAdhushu krodham karoti iti krodha-kRt, and they cause their owndestruction because of this anger. 34.317 - kartA He who slays. om kartre namah.Continuing his interpretation of the sequence of nAma-s as describingparaSu-rAma incarnation, SrI BhaTTar interprets this nAma as referring tothe slaying of kArta-vIrya. SrI Sankara gives the meaning that He is kartAor Creator of the Universe - kriyata iti karma jagat tasya kartA.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation for 316 and 317 as individual nAma-s,and also suggests that the can be considered as one nAma together -krodha-kRt-kartA - One who destroys those who demonstrate anger viz. theasura-s. For the purposes of accounting for 1000 nAma-s, 316 and 317 astreated as one nAma in SrI Sankara bhAshyam, and as two in SrI BhaTTar'svyAkhyAnam.om krodha-kRt-kartre namah.The interpretation in this

case is krodha-kRtAm daityAdInAm kartA chedakaiti ekam nAma. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation - krodhamkaroti iti krodha-kRt krodha-kRtam kRntati chinatti hanti vA sakrodha-kRt-kartA. 34.318 - viSva-bAhuh He who has arms for the good of the world. om viSva-bAhave namah. Bhagavan uses His arms for removing the thorns (evil-doers) for the good ofthe world. Hence He is is called viSva-bAhuh. Again the context in whichSrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma is with respect to paraSurAma incarnation,and thus the reference here is to the destruction of 21 generations ofrAkshasa-s.SrI Sankara gives the meaning in a more general sense. He is viSva-bAhusince He has arms that are endless in number to support the world, andextend everywhere for the same cause. In SvetASvatara upanishad, we havereference to viSvato-bAhuh ( 3.3). Everything depends on Him, and in thissense also He is viSvabAhuh. Thus, He has infinite arms for bothdestroying the evil-doers (SrI BhaTTar), and for helping His devotees (SrISankara). In both cases, His actions are always for the good of the world.The dharma cakram writer points out that as we use our hands in performingour karma-s, BhagavAn performs the acts of creation, protection, etc. of theworld, and in this sense He is viSva-bAhu. The nAma should also remind usthat these hands of ours are for doing good to others. 34.319 - mahI-dharah The Supporter of the world. om mahI-dharAya namah. mahIm dhatte iti mahI-dharah. He supports the world by removing theevil-doers or wicked people in the world.SrI Sankara bhAshyam is that mahI means both pUjA (mahatva) and earth. Heis mahI-dhara because He accepts the offerings from devotees or because Hesupports the world. SrI cinmayAnanda gives an example to explain themeaning of 'support'. This is like the cotton supporting the cloth, thegold supporting the ornament, or the clay supporting a clay pot. In thissense, His supporting the world is the same as saying that the world and Heare inseparable and same, and the world is one of His manifestations. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 35 320. acyutah 321. prathitah 322. prANah

323. 324. 325. 326. 327. 328.

prANa-dah vAsavAnujah apAm-nidhih adhishThAnam apramattah pratishThitah

om acyutAya namahom prathitAya namahom prANAya namahom prANadAya namahom vAsavAnujAya namahom apAm-nidhaye namahom adhishThAnAya namahom apramattAya nmahom pratishThitAya namah 320. acyutah He who does not fall from His status.om acutAya namah.This nAma occurred previously (nAma 101). The different interpretationshave been covered there.The additional material below was not covered earlier. SrI v.v. rAmAnujanadds the following reference from rAmAyaNa "mitra-bhAvena samprAptam na tyajeyam kathancana dosho yadyapi tasyasyAt " - "No matter what flaws a person has, if he has come to Me seeking Myfriendship, there is no way that I will abandon him under any circumstance".SrI rAmAnujan also gives the reference to divya prabandham "kArtigaiyAnum kari-mugattAnum kanalum mukkaNmUrtiyum mODiyumveppum mudugiTTu" - the reference here is to the story of bANAsura who wasabandoned by the other devatA-s when he approached them for protection. Notso with bhagavAn - na me bhaktah praNaSyati - "My devotee will never perish" - gItA.Another meaning for acyta is One who does not slip from His position - nacyuta iti acyutah. The dharma cakram writer points to the passage inmuNdakopanishad which describes the two birds sitting in different branchesof the tree, one tasting the fruit and the other just watching the bird thatis tasting the fruit (of karma). This has been described in a previouswrite-up. BhagavAn is the acyuta, from His superior position, watching thejIvAtmA which is tasting the fruits of karma in this case. 321. prathitah One who is famous, One who is of great reputation.om prathitAya namah.The nAma is derived from the root prath - to become famous (prath - prakhyAn - prasiddhi). This fame can be associated with the previous nAma - His guNaof being acyuta, or on account of His creation, sustenance, etc. of theUniverse. Supports

for the interpretation are: "tasya nAma mahad-yaSah" -taittirIya nArAya... 1.9; "yaSasaSca eka bhAjanam" - rAmAyaNa - kishkindA ..15.19; perumai uDiaya pirAnAr - tiruvAi mozhi - 1-6-9; nagar-il- pugazhAi -tiruvAi mozhi - 6-10-10.The dharma cakram writer points out that the fame that is derived fromthings such as wealth, position in life, etc. are impermanent and disappearas soon as the underlying cause that resulted in this fame disappears.This is not the case when the fame results from adherence to dharma, and inthis case the fame is permanent. This is as evidenced by the cases ofhariS-canDra, the pANDava-s, prahlAda, hanumAn, etc. BhagavAn is prathitahfor the same reason i.e., He is satya-parAkrama, satya, satyakAma,satya-samkalpa, satya-vrata, etc., and so He is prathitah. 322. prANah The Life-Breath.om prANAya namah.He is prANa for those who resort to Him (SrI BhaTTar). He is also thelife-energy for all beings (SrI Sankara) - prANo vA aham asmi - aitareyaAraNyaka 2.2.3). SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to prabandham - ulagukkEOr uyirumAnAi - tiruvAi mozhi 6-9-7.The next 11 nAma-s are interpreted by SrI BhaTTar as describing the kUrma(Tortoise) incarnation. 323. prANa-dah The Life-Giver.om prANadAya namah.Since He gave the strength to the deva-s to churn the Milky Ocean, He isprANa-dah (SrI BhaTTar). SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He isthe Life-giver to everyone (deva-s and asura-s), and also gives anadditional interpretation using the meaning dyati - cuts - He cuts thestrength of asura-s. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the followingexplanation - prANan dadAti dyati khaNDayati va sa prANa-dah - BhagavAn bothgives life to all beings, and takes away the life of all beings when thetime comes, and so He is prANa-dah in both senses.The dharma cakram writer points out that the different aspects of our lifeand body - such as our thoughts, our words, etc., are all differentreflections of the prANa in us. Without prANa, our life will cease toexist, and our body will cease to function. But by controlling this prANa,we can control our body and all its actions. There is no limit to what canbe achieved by having control over our prANa or breath. This nAma of mahAvishNu should teach us that the prANa that has been given to us by Himshould be used for good purpose. 324. vAsavAnujah The younger brother of vAsava or indra.om vAsavAnujAya namah.SrI BhaTTar says in his vyAkhyAna that this nAma refers to BhagavAn beingborn as the younger brother of indra in order to help him get the nectarwhich he wishes to have. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points out that the referencein this nAma is NOT to upendra or vAmana (nAma 153). I am unable toexplain what this incarnation is.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an interpretation which does not involve areference to indra. He interprets vAsavAnujah to mean One who has enteredinto everything in this world vasati sarvatra vaste sarvam iti vA vAsuh ISvarah; vAsohidam vAsavam sarvam jagat; vAsavam jagat anujAto = anupravishTovAsavAnujah. 325. apAm-nidhih The Sustainer of the waters of the ocean.om apAm-nidhaye namah.SrI BhaTTar continues his interpretation of this nAma based on the kUrmaincarnation, and points out that this name indicates that He sustained thegreat Ocean when it was being churned.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAi mozhi - appanE! AzhkaDalaik kaDaindatuppanE! (4.7.5).SrI Sankara gives the meaning "The Ocean" to this nAma based on "Apo yatranidhIyante sah apAm-nidhih - The place where the waters get collected inabundance". He also gives reference to the gItA - sarasAm asmi sAgarah -Among lakes I am the Ocean - gItA 10.24. SrI cinmayAnanda points out thatthe glory and might of the oceans are but a tiny reflection of bhagavAn'sglory

divine.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri takes the anubhavam of this nAma a step further andpoints out that just as the waters of all the rivers and canals ultimatelyreach the ocean and lose their identity, so also those who worship BhagavAnbecome one with Him. In this sense He is apAm-nidhih, or the Ocean whereeverybody merges in the end.The dharma cakram writer points out that just as the ocean is the beginningand the end for the water (by evaporation of the waters of the ocean, thevapor rises, condenses and comes back in the forms of rain, which then formsthe rivulets and rivers, and these in turn go back to the ocean), so alsothe beings of this world originate from Him, and ultimately merge back intoHim. Just as the good water as well as the dirty water gets into the oceanbut then lose their identity and get merged into the ocean, so also thejIvAtmA-s attain equality without distinction when they reach Him. Unlikethe bounds which man can place for the lesser bodies of water, there is nobound that he can place for the ocean - another reflection of BhagavAn asapAm-nidhih or Ocean. Though the external surface of the ocean is full ofwaves, its deep inside is peace incarnate, and in this sense also He isapAm-nidhih. 326. adhishThAnam The Support.om adhishThAnAya namah.SrI BhaTTar interprets this as referring to His supporting the mandaramountain in His kUrma incarnation. He gives reference to vishNu purANa insupport "kshIroda-madhye bhagavAn kUrma-rUpI svayam harih | mandarAdreh adhishThAnam bhramato'bhUt mahA-mune || (1.9.88) :Bhagava nArAyaNa Himself, in the form of kUrma, supported themandara mountain in the middle of the Milk Ocean when the mountain wasrevolving (at the time of churning)".SrI Sankara gives the more general meaning that He is adhishThAnam becauseHe is the basis or support for everything in this Universe - adhithishThantibhUtAni. 327. apramattah The Vigilant.om apramattAya namah.He is extremely attentive in the protection of those who are in distress(SrI BhaTTar). pramatta refers to one who is careless or inattentive.apramatta refers to His guNa of extreme vigilance in protecting those whohave surrendered to Him - ASrita-rakshakan. SrI Sankara's interpretationis that He is vigilant in awarding the effects of karma to those who areentitled to them. SrI cinmayAnanda points out that pramada refers to onewho makes errors in judgment, and apramatta is One who does not make errorsin judgment. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that the vigilance herecould also refer to bhagavAn being very careful and vigilant in distributingthe nectar that came out of the churning of the Milk Ocean to theappropriate persons.The dharma cakram writer points out that the lesson we should take from thisnAma is that we should always be vigilant about the thoughts that enter ourmind, and ensure that our thoughts do not stray towards the pleasures ofindriya-s but instead meditate on Him constantly. Just as a thief wouldnot enter a house where people are awake, negative thoughts won't enterone's mind when one is awake and vigilant in the thought of bhagavAn.Whenever negative thoughts enter one's mind, one should divert thosethoughts to positive energy by chanting bhagavAn's nAma instead. This isthe lesson one should take from this nAma. 328. pratishThitah He who is self-dependent.om pratishThitAya namah.One who is supported and established in His own greatness, without anysupport from external sources. The following upanishadic quote echoes thisexplanation almost verbatim "sa bhagavah kva pratishThita iti | sve mahimni" (chAndogya7.24.1) To the question "Where is bhagavAn firmly established?", the replyis "In His own greatness".In vishNu dharma (72.2), we have a similar statement - "sve mahimni sthitamdevam" - "The Lord who rests on His own greatness".One who supports the rest of the Universe obviously is not supported bysomething external, since then His support will depend on something else.We get our greatness from our wealth, our fame, etc., which are allimpermanent; not so with bhagavAn - His greatness is not dependent

onimpermanent things.SrI cinmayAnanda explains this nAma in terms of cause and effect.Everything else in this Universe has its cause, and thus everything else isan effect. Unlike this, bhagavAn is the Ultimate Cause.The lesson we should take from this guNa of bhagavAn is that we should learnto depend on the One who is Permanent in this Universe, and not be dependenton all the impermanent things such as wealth, fame, etc. The dharma cakramwriter gives the example of pANdava-s and kaurava-s. We are constantlyreminded of the impermanent things in life by the occurrence of aging,death, loss of fame, friend becoming enemy, etc., and all these should teachus that the life that is to be led is by meditating on the One who isPermanent, viz. bhagavAn. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 36 329. 330. 331. 332. 333. 334. 335. 336. 337. skandha skanda-dharah dhuryah vara-dah vAyu-vAhanah vAsu-devah bRhad-bhAnuh Adi-devah purandarah

om skandAya namahom skanda-dharAya namahom dhuryAya namahom varadAya namahom vAyuvAhanAya namahom vAsudevAya namahom bRhad-bhAnave namahom Adi-devAya namahom purandarAya namah 329. skandha He who dries up (destroys).om skandAya namah.skandayati Soshayati iti skandah - One who destroys the asura-s and otherevil-doers (SrI BhaTTar). skanda also can mean One who melts like butterwhen it comes to helping His devotees, or flows like nectar in the thoughtsof His bhakta-s - skandati iti skandah (This is one interpretation that SrISankara gives). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives reference to gItA senAnInAmaham skandah (gItA 10.24) - I am skanda among the chiefs of armies. Hereskanda refers to subrahmaNya, who is considered the chief among the chiefsof armies. 330. skanda-dharah The Supporter of skanda.om skanda-dharAya namah.(SrI BhaTTar) - BhagavAn is the supporter of skanda, the commander-in-chiefof the army of gods. The above quote from gItA thus states that skanda is apart of bhagavAn's vibhUti or glory.SrI Sankara's interpretation for the term skanda is "righteous path dharmapatham", and so the vyAkhyAna he gives is that bhgavAn is the upholder ofthe path of dharma. 331. dhuryah The Supporter.om dhuryAya namah.One of the meanings for the word 'dhur' is load. He bore the weight of themandara mountain in His kUrma incarnation, and so He is the Supporter. Heis also the Supporter of the Universe - bhuvana-bhRte. SrI satyadevovAsisshTha gives an alternate meaning also for the word "dhur" the frontpart of an object, and interprets the nAma to mean that bhagavAn is themArga-darSi or one who shows the path for everyone. 332. vara-dah The Grantor of boons.om varadAya namah.varAh abhIpsitah arthah, tam dadAti iti vara-dah. varam also means "thebest", and so One who gives the best to those devotees who pray to Him withdetachment is vara-da. The dharma cakram writer reminds us that the bestfor us is "nalam tarum Sollai nAn kaNDu konDEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam" pertirumangai AzhvAr. Needless to say what one gets by chanting the nAma ofnArAyaNa - "kulam tarum Selvan tandiDum aDiyAr paDu tuyar Ayina ellAm nilamtaram Seyyum.... peRRa tAyinum Ayina Seyyum". 333. vAyu-vAhanah He who has vAyu as His vehicle.om vAyu-vAhanAya namah.BhagavAn rides on and drives vAyu, the lifebreath of the world. IntiruvezhukkURRirukkai, we have - mEdagum aim-perum bhUtamum nIyE - Hecontrols the pa~nca bhUta-s such as air etc.The dharma cakram writer points out that while air is very important for usto live, this nAma should remind us that mahA vishNu who makes the air moveis just as important to us, and thus we should learn to meditate on Him.SrI Sankara gives the vyAkhyAna that bhagavAn controls the atmosphere in theseven regions of space. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri describes in detail aboutthese seven regions which are controlled by seven different sons of kaSyapaand diti, because of the powers given to them by bhagavAn. They are calledthe sapta-maruta-s. Six of these regions are listed by many of the authors.These regions are: the space between earth and the clouds, that between theclouds and the sun, that between the sun and the moon, the moon and thestars, the stars and the planets, and the planets and

the sapta-RshimanDala. It is said that it is because of the pressure exerted by theseregions of air that the various stellar objects keep from colliding witheach other.The next 12 nAma-s are interpreted by SrI BhaTTar as referring to adhyAtmavAsudeva or para vAsudeva form of bhagavAn. Prof. A. SrInivAsa rAghavannotes that coincidentally, the vAsudeva mantra also has 12 akshara-s in it. 334. vAsu-devah He who pervades and sports.om Vasu-devAya namah.This nAma occurs again as nAma 701. The name indicates that bhagavAn isvAsu and He is deva. vAsu is derived from vas - to reside and to envelope.sarvam vasati - everything lives in Him, and sarvatra vasati - He liveseverywhere. He is vAsu since He lives in the world making it live withinHimself like a mother and also protects it by covering it like a bird thatprotects its young ones with its out-spread wings. He is deva because Heplays, wishes to conquer, and shines. He also protects the beings asdescribed above (vAsu) as a leelaa, and so He is vAsudeva. The word devais derived from div - krIDAyAm - to play. So all His acts are leelaa-s.The following quotes are given by SrI Sankara and SrI BhaTTar to support theinterpretation: "chAdayAmi jagadviSvam bhUtyA sUrya ivAmSubhih | sarva-bhUtAdhi-vAsaSca vAsu-devah tatah smRtah || -moksh dharma 12-328-36) "Like the sun with his rays, I am covering the whole universe, andalso I am residing in all beings; hence I am called vAsudeva". "vasanAt sarva-bhUtAnAm vasutvAt deva-yonitah | vAsudevastato j~neyah yogibhis_tattva darSibhih || (udyoga69-3) "I am the abode of all beings, and with a divine form I live in allof them. Therefore I am known as vAsudeva by the yogi-s who have realizedthe truth". "sarvatrAsau samastam ca vasatyatreti vai yatah | tatah sa vAsudeveti vidvadbhih paripaThyate || (vishNupurANam 1.2.12) "Learned men declare that bhagavAn is called vAsudeva because Heabides in all things, and al things abide in Him". "sarvANi tatra bhUtAni vasanti paramAtmani | bhUteshu ca sa sarvAtmA vAsudevastatah smRtah || (vishNu purA.6.5.80) "All beings remain in the paramAtman, and He is in all beings; hencethe omnipresent is called vAsudeva".SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points out that bhagavAn got this name also by Hisincarnation as the son of vasudeva. The dharma cakram writer brings outthe subtle point that bhagavAn is in everything and everywhere, and yetsuccessfully conceals Himself from all except His devotees. Hesuccessfully conceals Himself while being present in everything as theantaryAmi, controlling the air, the sun, the planets, etc., havingsvayamprakASa, etc.SrI BhaTTar points out that like the nAma nArAyaNa, this nAma is also arahasyam whose meaning should be learnt from an AcArya, and so is notdiscussed in further detail. 335. bRhad-bhAnuh He of profuse luster.om bRhad-bhAnave namah.bRhat means huge, very large. bhAnu means rays. SrI Sankara gives thefollowing reference:"bRhanto bhAnavo yasya candra sUryAtigAminah | tair-viSvam bhAsayati yah sa bRhad-bhAnurucyate || (udyoga70.4) "He, whose great rays surpass the sun, moon, and others, and He whoilluminates the universe through them, is called bRhad-bhAnuh".SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the support from muNDakopanishad - na tatrasUryo bhAti na candra tArakam nemA vidyuto bhAnti kuto'yamagnih | tamevabhAntam anubhAti sarvam tasya bhAsA sarvamidam vibhAti (2.2.10). The sunand moon get their luster from Him.The dharma cakram writer points out that while the sun gives light to theexternal world, BhagavAn gives light to the Sun as well as the light neededfor us to realize our internal self. 336. Adi-devah The First Deity.om Adi-devAya namah.That He sports with the worlds as He pleases is indicated by the nAmaAdi-devah. As was seen earlier in "vAsu-devah", the term deva refers to HisleelA or sport in creation, protection, and destruction of all the beings.He plays with the act of creation etc. just like a child playing on theseashore by building and smashing sand-castles (SrI v.v.rAmAnujan). "akhilabhuvana janma sthema

bhangAdi leele" - It is His sport to go through thiscycle of creation, protection and destruction.SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAnam is "Adih kAraNam" - The First Cause.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the definition from niruktam - "devo dAnAdvadIpanAdvA dyotanAdvA dyusthAno bhavati (7.25) - deva is one who gives inplenty, one who shines and makes others shine, and one who dwells in space".BhagavAn is Adi-deva in this sense. 337. purandarah a) The Destroyer of the cities.b) The Destroyer of the sufferings from the Adi-daivika causesc) He who helps the devotee in transcending the attachment to sthUla, sUkshma and kAraNa SarIra-sd) He who brings an end to the bodies of all beingsOm purandarAya namah.Puram dArayati iti purandarah - One who destroyed the cities. a) bhagavAn was the antaryAmi of rudra in destroying the three citiesas referenced by nammAzhvAr in tiruvAimozhi 1.1.8 (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). The second half of the pASuram is: "puram oru mUnru eRittu amararkkum aRivu iyandu aran ayan ena ulagu azhittu amaittu uLanE"."EmperumAn is the One who destroyed the three cities in the form ofrudra, gave the knowledge of the veda-s to the deva-s in the form ofbrahma, and performs the functions of creation, protection anddestruction".SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj gives the explanation - purANi SambarAdInAmasurANAm nagarANi dRNAti iti purandarah. He gives reference to the Rgvedic mantra 7.99.5 - indrAvishNU dRgmhitA Sambarasya nava puro navatimca SnathishTham - Ye have destroyed, thou, Indra, and thou, vishNu,Sambara's nine-and-ninety fenced castles.SrI Samkara vyAkhyAnam is "sura SatrUNAm pura dAraNAt purandarah" -Because He is the Destroyer of the cities of the enemies of the gods,He is called purandarah.b) SrI BhaTTar: asurapurAni dArayati iti purandarah - The destroyer ofthe cities of asura-s. This indicates the removal of fear fromasuras, piSAca-s, thunder and lightning, planets and other troubleswhich go by the name "Adi-daivika" - those that proceed from the gods. Puram in this sense refers to the "dwellings of asura-s".c) SrI cinmayAnanda talks of the "cities" referring to the fields ofexperiences - waking, dream and deep-sleep. Since bhagavAn helps intranscending the Gross, Subtle, and Causal bodies (sthUla, suKshma, andkAraNa), and then experience the self, at that moment the three"cities" are burned down or pillaged or blasted. Without overcomingthe attachment to the sthUla, sUkshma, and kAraNa SarIra-s, we cannotexperience the self. The darma cakram writer graphically explains thatif we consider the sthUla SarIra as belonging to bhagavAn and surrdnerit in His service, then He helps in overcoming our attachment to thesthUla SarIra. If we dedicate the mind to His service and tomeditation on Him, He helps us overcome our actions being controlled byour mind. If we have mahAviSvAsam in Him and surrender to Himunconditionally, He relieves us from the constraints of the kAraNaSarIram as well. This is when we are able to experience the self.Since bhagavAn is the cause of the destruction of the three sArIra-sthat are standing in the way of our experiencing the self, He iscalled purandarah. d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha starts with the meaning "body" for the wordpura, and gives the interpretation that since bhagavAn puts an end tothe body, He is purandarah - puram dArayati iti purandarah. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 37 338. a-Sokah 339. tAraNah

340. 341. 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347.

tArah SUrah Saurih janeSvarah anukUlah SatAvartah padmI padma-nibhekshaNah

om aSokAya namahom tAraNAya namahom tArAya namahom SUrAya namahom Sauraye namahom janeSvarAya namahom anukUlAya namahom SatAvartAya namahom padmine namahom padmanibhekshaNAya namahThe previous nAma, purandarah, and the following three nAma-s, aSoka,tAraNa, and tAra, are interpreted in terms of bhagavAn's guNa of removingthe fears of different kinds in us. Different vyAkhyAna-kartA-s haveassociated the different types of fears with the different nAma-s, but theunderlying idea is that His dayA is helping to remove these fears from us.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri sums this up nicely "Especially when we havedifficulties of any kind, chanting the sequence of nAmas"aSokas-tAraNas-tArah" will help us overcome these difficulties". SrIBhaTTar has referred to these fears in terms of AdyAtmika, Adi-bhautika, andAdi-daivika. Adi-daivika is the class of fears that can arise from theasura-s etc. The Adibhautika group is the category of fears that canarises from enemies, animals such as tiger, lion, serpent, etc. TheAdyAtmika refers to the fears such as sorrow, delusion, hunger, etc.There is also the major fear, that of the cycle of birth and death, that ofsamsAra.One may wonder how bhagavAn helps in removing the fears of these kinds, whenwe know most of us have the fear anyway. The dharma cakram writer gives avery good explanation. Fear arises when we associate our life with ourbody. When we realize the true nature of our soul, then we know there isnothing to fear, because the soul is neither created nor destroyed. Whenone meditates on mahA vishNu, one realizes this true nature of AtmA, andthen he is relieved of all fears. This is how bhagavAn helps in removingthe fears described below.With this brief introduction, let us look at the individual nAma-s. 338 a-Sokah The dispeller of sorrows.om a-SokAya namahSrI Sankara and SrI BhaTTar give differing but equally enlighteningvyAkhyAna-s for this. SrI BhaTTar points out that bhagavAn has this nAmabecause He is the dispeller of the troubles such as sorrow, delusion,hunger, etc. SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is devoidof defects such as sorrow, delusion, hunger, etc., and so He has this nAma.In SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAna. this nAma is associated with His removing thesorrows of the adhyAtmika kind. The next nAma will be interpreted in termsof Adi-bhautika. nAma 336, purandarah, which was covered last

week, coveredthe category of sorrows designated as Adi-daivika. Thus, the sequence ofnAma-s purandarah, aSokah, tAraNah, and tArah, are interpreted as His guNaof protecting us from all the different kinds of fears. 339. tAraNah He who takes others to the other shore (a boat).om tAraNAya namah.tArayati iti tArah - One who helps in crossing. The interpretation thatSrI BhaTTar gives, continuing on the vyAkhyAna he gave for purandara andaSoka, is that this name refers to His assisting us in overcoming the fearsgrouped as Adi-bhautika. SrI BhaTTar reserves the explanation that He helpsin crossing the ocean of samsAra for the next nAma, tAra, whereas SrISankara associates the current nAma with this guNa of bhagavAn.SrI cinmayAnanda seems to make a subtle suggestion that tAraNa refers tobhagavAn "helping" others crossing the ocean of samsAra, whereas the nextnAma "tAra" refers to His saving others Himself. I wonder if the differenceis one of throwing a stick to someone who is drowning but trying to swim,vs. pulling out the drowning person when he has given up swimming. This isthe kind of distinction that is made sometimes between how the person who ispersuing the bhakti mArga for attaining moksha is helped by bhagavAn vs. onewho is following the prapatti mArga. 340. tArah The Savior.om tArAya namah.SrI BhaTTar's interpretation is that He is tArah because He makes Hisdevotees cross over the ocean of samsAra. The following quote fromatharva-Siras (4) - "garbha-janmajarA-maraNa- samsAra sAgara mahA bhayAttArayati tasmAt ucyate tArah" - One who takes His devotee across the greatfear of the ocean of samsAra consisting of garbha-vAsa or conception, birth,aging, and death. 341. SUrah The Valiant.om SUrAya namah.This nAma is derived from the root "Su" to go, and signifies the urge forvictory. Perhaps to emphasize the "go" aspect of this nAma, SrIv.v.rAmAnujan gives examples from divya prabandham which illustrate the"go-get" nature of His victories. "SenRu a~ngu ten ila~ngai SeRRAn" -tiruppAvai; "SenRu a~ngu vANanai Ayiram tOzhim tenRit tiSai tiSai vIzhaccheRRAi" - periYAzhvAr tirumozhi 5.3.4 (Note the choice of the word "SenRu"in both examples).The dharma cakram writer illustrates the significance of this nAma for ourday-to-day life. He points out that whenever there is battle between thedeva-s and asura-s, the asura-s invariable win first, and then the deva-sseek the help of mahA vishNu who then helps them defeat the evil asura-s.Our life is a replay of this scenario, with the constant battle between thebad qualities in us and the good in us. Invariably, the bad will win outunless we seek the help of mahA vishNu by chanting His nAma. This is whatwe should learn from this nAma. 342. Saurih a) The son of valiant people like vasudeva, dasaratha, etc.b) The grandson of SUra, the name of vasudeva's father.c) The descendant of the group of people called SUra-s in the yAdavarace.om Sauraye namah.The above different interpretations are found for this nAma based on thedifferent vyAkhyAna-s. The first is from SrI parAsara BhaTTar and otherswriters who base their vyAkhyAa-s on SrI BhaTTar. The second is from SrISankara. The third is from SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri. In support of thefirst interpretation, SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points out the valor of nandagopan -ODAda tOL valian nadagOpan kumaran, the valor of dasaratha - dayaraRkkumaganAit tOnRi - born as the son of the valiant dasaratha, etc.SrI Sankara's interpretation is that bhagavAn in His incarnation as kRshNawas born as the son of vasudeva, whose

father's name was SUra. SUrasyagotrApatyam pumAn Saurih or SUra kulodbhavAt Saurih. SrI rAdhAkRshNaSAstri points out that among the yAdava-s, there was a group who were calledthe SUra-s. Since vasudeva was from this group, kRshNa is Saurih. 343. janeSvarah The Lord of the people.om janeSvarAya namah.janAnAm jantUnAm ISvarah janeSvarah - The Lord of all things that are bornor created. The dharma cakram writer points out that bhagavAn is the Leaderof everything by guiding them always as appropriate. When there issuffering, those that meditate on Him benefit by those sufferings byreaching higher levels, and those that don't benefit fall to lower levelstill they reach a point when they feel they need to seek Him. At this pointHe guides them appropriately to the higher levels. SrI satyadevo vAsishThagives the interpretation that He is janeSvarah because He gives aiSvarya orwealth to people. 344. anukUlah One who is within bounds.om anukUlAya namah.kUlam means shore. kUlam anuvartate iti anukUlah - One who is constrainedby the limits. Lord rAma had great valor, but was not was conscious andwonder-struck about that - "vIryavAn na ca vIeyeNa mahatA svena vismitah".SrI P.B. aNNa~ngarAcArya svAmi explains that in spite of His enormous andunbounded greatness, He is easily accessible to those who seek Him. He isbound by bhakti, and this is His AnukUlya svabhAva or ability to be withinbounds. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points out the incident of His being bound byyaSodA - being within the bounds of what a child is supposed to be -kaNNInUN SiruttAmbinAl kattuNNap paNNiya peru mAyan. Aycci kaNNIkkayiRRinAl kaTTat tAn kaTTuNDirundAn - mUnRAm tiruvantAdi - 91. Withoutknowing His identity, YasodA challenges Him - Make yourself free if you can! - "yadi Saknoshi gaccha tvam ati ca~ncala ceshTita!" - and He just remainstied, because He is anukUlah.SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that He is anukUlah because Healways goes along with whatever anyone does. Thus a murderer commits hismurder, and another helps humanity, and bhagavAn just is the Observer inboth cases. He keeps Himself within His bounds. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstrigives the meaning that anukUla means going towards the shore, based on kUla= shore. bhagavAn is anukUla because He helps His devotees go towards theshore when they try to cross the ocean of samsAra.The dharma cakram writer points out that bhagavAn is always acting His roleas an anukUlah to everyone (including the murderer in the above para) bybeing the internal conscience of everyone and telling them what is right.The inner conscience is always pointing to what is right and what is wrong.Those who obey their inner conscience do not do anything that will benegative to their path of progress towards Him, and those who disobey theirinner conscience deteriorate and move away from Him. But He does His job ofbeing the anukUlah in everyone's case all the time by being their innerconscience. 345. SatAvartah a) He who has several incarnations to sustain dharmab) He whose wealth is bubbling but not overflowing (like vortices)c) He who maintains and manages several cycles - the cycle ofsamsAra for all the beings, the cakra-s of graha-s, nakshatra-s etc.om SatAvartAya namah.Sata means hundred. Here it means innumerable. For the protection ofdharma in the world, He takes infinite varieties of forms or incarnations,and so He is called SatAvarta (SrI Sankara). Recall "dharamasamsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge". Another interpretation, also bySrI Sankara, is that it refers to the 100 nADi's or vessels that proceedfrom the heart and maintain prANa or life in the body - nADI-Sate prANarUpeNa vartata iti vA.dharma cakram: There are several examples which illustrate His guNa ofSatAvarta. He appears in the form of the sun everyday in order to sustainlife in this world. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the reference to atharvaveda - sUryasya AvRtam anvAvarte - 10.5.37. His repeated incarnations inhuman form to protect dharma in this world is another example. Hisprotection of pAnDava-s and draupadi repeatedly when they

were in distressis another example. He protected draupadi from duryodhana's evil act ofstripping her in public, from durvAsa's curse when he tested her byappearing in her house and asking for food after she had cleaned the akshayapAtra, etc. He protected prahlAda from all cruelties meted out to him byhiraNyakaSipu. He did many wonders by protecting the yAdava people in Hisincarnations as kRshNa.Avarta also means vortex. Since His riches (aiSvarya) are so enormous thatthey keep expressing themselves without overflowing like hundreds ofwhirlpools, He is called SatAvarta (SrI BhaTTar). In spite of this, He iseasily accessible to His devotees. This corroborates the Mantra of thepara-aspect of the Lord SAntodita vij~nAna prANAya - Unto Him of tranquiland ever-growing knowledge and life.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning "many" for Sata, and cycle (cakra)for Avarta, and gives the explanation that bhagavAn has this nAma because Herotates or cycles the lives through cycles of samsAra. Another way to lookat this nAma is that He controls different kinds of cycles - nakshatracakra, rASi cakra, graha cakra, etc.The aspects of para-vAsudeva with reference to His qualities have beendescribed so far (from the 334th nAma - vAsudeva). Now begins the rUpa orform of para-vAsudeva in SrI BhaTTar's interpretation. 346. padmI He who carries the lotus in His hand.padmam is what He carries in one of His four hands (Sankha, cakra, and gadAare in the other three hands). The lotus signifies the sAttvic qualities ofbhagavAn viz. dharma, j~nAna, vairAgya, and aiSvarya (SrI rAdhAkRshNaSAstri). He refers us to SrImad bhAgavatam - itareNa dhunAnam abjam - withthe other hand He is playing with the lotus (10.23.22). The padmam issuggestive of His always being ready to welcome anyone who comes to Him.SrI cinmayAnanda points out that bhagavAn first blows His conch and invitesus to offer His "knowledge" - signified by His padma, and if they don'tlisten to this, He uses His gadA to give a gentle knock, and if this doesnot yield results, then there is the cakra, which annihilates the evil andrestores order again. One is reminded of sAma, dAna, bheda, and danDa.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning "knowledge" for the word padma, andsuggests that one who gives True Knowledge or one who has True Knowledge ispadmI. 347 - padma-nibhekshaNah One who has eyes which resemble the lotus.om padama-nibhkshaNAya namah.This nAma describes the cool, benevolent, kind, inviting, consoling,appearance of His eyes, which look like the lotus flowers. SrIv.v.rAmAnujan provides references from prabandham - "un mugam maiyyal ERRimayakkum mAya mandiram tAn kolO? ceyya tAmaraik kaNNinAi" - nAcciArtirumozhi 2-4; "uvagaiyAl ne~njam uLLurugi un tAmaraik kaN vizhigaLin agavalaip paDuppAn" - tiruvAi mozhi 6.2.7.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that the sequence of nAma-s anukUlahSatAvartah padmI padma-nibhekshaNah all refer to the quality of bhagavAn'shelping nature when one seeks His help.The dharma cakram writer reminds of the saying "The face is the index of themind". In this case, bhagavAn's lotus-eyes are conveying to us His InnerNature. The equivalent of this nAma in tamizh is "tAmaraik kaNNan". -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 38

348. 349. 350. 351. 352. 353. 354. 355. 356.

padma-nAbhah aravindAkshah padma-garbhah SarIra-bhRt maharddhih Rddhah vRddhAtmA mahAkshah garuDa-dvajah

8 om padma-nAbhAya namahom aravindAkshAya namahom padma-garbhAya namahom SarIra-bhRte namahom maharddhaye namahom RddhAya namahom vRddhAtmane namahom mahAkshAya namahom garuDa-dhvajAya namah 348. padma-nAbhah One with a lotus-like navel.om padmanAbhAya namahThis nAma has occurred twice earlier. In the current context where thebeauty of the celestial form of para-vAsudeva is described, the nAma meansOne with a lotus-like navel. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives references toprabandham to support this interpretation "ayanaip paDaitta ezhil undiazhagu" - amalanAdippirAn; tAmarai undit tanip peru nAyagan -tiruvASiriyam.The other interpretations - One who resides in the center of the heart-lotusof every one, and One from whose navel, the Universe sprung forth in theform of an eight-petalled lotus with the meru mountain as the pericap, havebeen explained previously.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha's vyAkhyAna is again unique in not following theother interpretations. He interprets padma as "flower" or something thatdisplays colorfully, and nabh as something that does not express itself asbrilliantly. Thus, he interprets padmanAbha as one who at the same time isthe two extremes. He is the knowledge in the learned and the lack ofknowledge in the not-learned; the one who reveals Himself to His devoteesand hides Himself from the non-devotees, like the lotus that blossoms in thepresence of the sun and the same lotus that folds its petals when the sundisappears. 349. aravindAkshah

The Lotus-eyed.om aravindAkshAya namah.aravinda sadRSe akshiNi asya iti aravindAkshah. izahai koLSOdic-cendAmaraik kaN pirAn - tiruvAi mozhi 6-5-5; SevvariyODi nINDaapperiavAya kaNgaL - amalanAdi pirAn - 8; and rAmah kamala patrAkshah(sundara kANDa) are given as references by SrI v.v.rAmAnujan. The meaning issimilar to that of puNDarIkAkshah - nAma 40.SrI cinmayAnanda brings the similarity to the lotus in that His eyes open toHis devotees (like the sun opening up in the presence of the bright sun),and closes to the non-devotees (when it gets dark).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning from the word "ar" which meansgati, and vindati - prApnoti or One who has, and thus gives the meaning"candra and sUrya" to aravinda. Thus he derives the meaning "One who hascandra and sUrya as His two eyes" for the nAma aravindAksha. 350. padma-garbhah He who is installed in a lotus.om padma-garbhAya namah.He is meditated upon as being seated on a lotus replete with fragrance anddelicacy suited to Him. The words "sarasijAsana sannivishTah" is all toofamiliar to us. An alternate interpretation is that He is seated in theheart-lotus of those that meditate on Him daharam vipApmam para-veSmabhUtam yat-puNDarIkam - The lotus (i.e., heart) which is subtle, flawless,and which is the seat of the Supreme Being. SrI rAmAnujan gives referenceto tiruvAi mozhi taNDAmarai Sumakkum pAdap-perumAn - 4.5.8.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He is fit to be worshipped in themiddle of the heart-lotus, and so He is called padma-garbhah - padmasyamadhye upAsyatvAt padma-garbhah. 351. SarIra-bhRt The Protector of the bodies of everyone through foodand life-energy.om SarIra-bhRte namah.He is the Sustainer of the bodies of those who meditate on Him, since it isHis guNa-s on which they meditate that sustains them. sva-SArIra-bhUtamupAsakam pushNAti iti SarIra-bhRt - He considers their bodies as His, andprotects them (SrI BhaTTar).Or, He protects all the beings in this Universe through food and life-energyposhayan anna rUpeNa prANa rUpeNa vA SarIriNAm SarIrANi dhArayati itiSarIra-bhRt (SrI Sankara).SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives yet another interpretation - He supports(bears) different bodies in different incarnations for the protection ofdharma and elimination of adharma.Next the magnificence of bhagavAn is described. 352. maharddhih He of immense riches.om maharddhaye namah.mahatI Rddhih vibhUtih asya iti maharddhih - One who has enormousprosperity ( SrI Sankara). SrI cinmayAnanda points out that Rddhi referstot he combination of prosperity and power. He has boundless riches whichcan bring about the well-being and protection of His devotees - tad-yogakshema nissIma vibhUtih (SrI BhaTTar). SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives thereference to tiruvAi mozhi - vIRRirundu Ezh ulagum tanik-kOl Sella ALumammAn (4.5.1).The dharma cakram writer points out that wealth is of two kinds - thematerial wealth (poruL Selvam) and the wealth of benevolence and Mercy (aruLSelvam). Material wealth can be found both in the good and bad; but thewealth of kindness and benevolence is found only in the good. bhagavAn isfull of both kinds of wealth, and so He is maharddhih. Those who meditateon mahA vishNu's nAma of maharddhih will be blessed with these kinds ofwealth. 353. Rddhah One who keeps growing; Prosperous.om RddhAya namah. He grows when His devotees grow. He crowned vibhIshaNa and as a result Hebecame happy and void of any worry; so He grows happy when His devoteesgrow. SrI Sankara points out that He is Rddhah because He is the expansein the form of the

Universe - prapa~nca rUpeNa vardhamAnatvAt Rddhah.The dharma cakram writer points out that He grows beyond the reach of theknowledge of beings. It is only by meditating on His guNa-s that one canreach Him. Thus He is Rddhah. 354. vRddhAtmA One who is full-grown.om vRddhAtmane namah.vRddha means old. Since He is the oldest or the most ancient Self or AtmA,He is called vRddhAtmA. A natural growth cycle for human beings isdescribed by the dharma cakram writer. A cycle of this in samsAra startsfrom the womb, being born, growing up to be a child, a boy/girl, an olderperson, and IF the person meditates on bhagavAn and leads the life thatleads to moksha, and reaching SrI vaikunTham at the time of the death of thebody. This last stage is the cultimnation of the full growth in this cycle.bhagavAn was in the full-grown state before anything existed, without goingthrough this cycle, and so He is vRddhAtmA. He was the Self before allcreation. 355. mahAkshah a) He with a (vehicle of) powerful axle.b) One with Great Eyes.om mahAkshAya namah.aksha means axle. SrI BhaTTar points out that in this case this refers to achariot, by means of a figure of speech where a part is used to refer to thewhole. So mahAkshah means One who has a vehicle worthy of reverence. Thisvehicle is garuDa, the embodiment of veda-s.aksha also means eyes. SrI Sankara uses this meaning in his interpretation- mahatI akshiNI asya iti mahAkshah - One who has great eyes. They aregreat in the sense that they can see not only the external object, but cansee through everything everywhere inside and outside without exception, andnothing is hidden from them. These eyes see through all that is happeningdeep within the bosom of all creatures (SrI cinmayAnanda). SrI Sankaraalso gives an alternate interpretation - mahAntyakshAni asya iti mahAkshah -The possessor of divine senses unattached to objects (SrI anantakRshNaSAstri's translation), or One who has many glorious eyes (SrI T. S.kRshNamUrti's translation).The dharma cakram writer points out that the Greatness of His Eyes refers totheir power to remove the darkness of aj~nAna when they fall on His devotee.Meditating on this nAma of mahA vishNu will give the ability to see thingswith the eye of detachment and affection rather than with the eye of desireand greed, and in opening the eye of j~nAna in the devotee.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning "one who leads" to the word aksha(this is also related to the meaning axle or vehicle), or one that helps inmoving. So mahAkshah is one who shows the path to everyone. 356. garuDa-dvajah One who has garuDa in His banner.om garuDa-dvajAya namah.bhagavAn has the unique symbol of garuDa as His banner, just as He has theunique association with tulasi, with Goddess Lakshmi, etc. In addition tobeing His vAhanam, garuDa is His banner as well. SrI cinmayAnanda pointsout that the eagle soars high in the sky and can see even the minutestobject on the ground and purifies the land by removing the impurities suchas the carrion etc. Similarly, the Lord never allows any negative thoughtsin the heart of His devotees, and hence the eagle is considered as Hissymbol. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers to mahA bhAratam where garuDarequested SrIman nArAyaNa for permission to stand on top of Him when garuDahad to fetch amRta for securing the release of his mother. bhagavAn madehim His banner to grant this request, and He also asked garuDa to be Hisvehicle. This is how garuDa is both the flag and the vehicle. I do nothave a copy of mahA bhAratam with me to further elaborate on this reference.The dharma cakram writer points out that garuDa being the vAhana forbhagavAn symbolizes that the jivAtmA exists for the service of theparamAtmA, and the case of jaTAyu illustrates that when the jIvAtmA devotesits life in the service of the paramAtmA, moksham is the naturalculmination. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points to the powerful eagle movingfast while removing the poisonous serpents at sight, similar to bhagaVanremoving the sins of His devotees.

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 39 357. atulah 358. Sarabhah 359. bhImah 360. samayaj~nah 361. havir-harih 362. sarva-lakshNalakshaNyah 363. lakshmIvAn 364 - samti~njayah

om atulAya namahom SarabhAya namahom bhImAya namahom samayaj~nAya namahom havir-haraye namahsarva-lakshaNa lakshaNyAya namahlakshmIvate namahsamiti~njayAya namah 357. atulah The Incomparable.om atulAya namahReaders may be familiar with the word "tulA", which is used to refer to abalance. atulah is One who has no equal. tulopamAnam asya na vidyata itiatulah - There is nothing known that is comparable to Him. SrI Sankaragives the following references - "na tasya pratimA asti yasya nAma mahadyaSah" - For Him whose name is Great Glory, there is no likeness -SveTasva. upa. 4.19; "na tvat-samo'sti abhyadhikah kuto'nyah" - gItA 11.43- There is no one equal to You, where is the question of someone exceedingYou? SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers to tiruvAi mozhi - tan oppAr il appan -6.3.9.The dharma cakram writer reminds us that the One who should be praised by usis mahA vishNu, and not people around us for the benefit of some favor.Those who do the former raise to the level that they praise Him, and thosewho do the latter fall further from where they are. This is thesignificance of this nAma for real life. 358. Sarabhah a) The Destroyer (of those who transgress the bounds ofethics). b) One who shines as the Inner Self.om SarabhAya namah.a) SRNAti iti Sarabhah (SrI BhaTTar). The interpretation is based on theverb SR to injure, to destroy.b) Sara means body for the following reason - SeeryaMANAt Sarah - That whichis

perishable. BhA means to shine. .Sarabhah thus refers to One who shinesin the body (SrI Sankara, SrI cinmayAnanda etc.). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstrirefers us to Sarabhopanishat (30) - SarA jIvAs-tadan~ngeshu bhAti nityamharih svayam | brahmaiva Sarabha sAkshAt.SrI SAstri also gives an alternate interpretation Sara refers to an arrow,but if this body is aimed at bhagavAn, then even the perishable body shines,because He shines in that body. 359. bhImah The Formidable.om bhImAya namah.bibhyati iti bhImah. The nAma is derived from the verb bhI - to fear. Thewhole world operates in an orderly way in fear of violation of His will.bhIshA'smAt vAtah pavate - The wind does not transgress its bound out offear from Him (taittirIya AraN 8). Also from kaThopanishad we have"bhayAdeva agnistapati bhayAt tapati sUryah | bhayAt indraSca vAyuScamRtyur-dhAvati pa~ncamah || (2.6.3) - Only out of fear from Him the fireburns, the sun blazes, indra and vAyu discharge their duties, and death, asthe fifth, runs (performs its duties). The same idea is expressed in thebrahma sUtra 1.3.40 kampanAt.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to the terror He created in the heart ofhiraNyakaSipu. We have in tiruvAi mozhi 7.6.8 - ari kAN nariyAi arakkarULaiyiTTu anRu ila~ngai kaDandu pilambukkoLippa - He made the rAkshasa-s inlankA run and hide for cover like the wolves on seeing a lion.The dharma cakram writer points out that as long as there are beings who donot have God realization, the only thing that keeps them under control isfear, and once they have realized Him, they do not have anything to fear.SrI Sankara has also considered an alternate pATham - viz. abhIma - One whocauses no fear to those who follow the proper path. 360. samayaj~nah The Knower of the conventions.om samayaj~nAya namah.He is samayaj~na since He establishes the rules e.g., that when the fireburns, the flame goes upwards, and also at the time of creation after thepralaya, He establishes the path of the Sun, the moon and the planets -sUryA-candramaso dhAtA yathApUrvam akalpayat (tai. nArA. 1).SrI Sankara refers to His knowing the methods and timing of the acts ofcreation, preservation, and dissolution of the Universe. Another way he hasinterpreted this nAma is as sama yaj~nah - One who has the yaj~na orobservance of treating everyone equally without showing preferentialtreatment. He gives reference to vishNu purANam - samatvam ArAdhanamacutasya (1.17.90).SrI BhaTTar also offers an alternate interpretation - He knows the propertime when He should offer Himself to the devotees, or the proper time whenHe should fulfil the vow of protection He has taken.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers to the incidence of nRsimha avatAra, wherebhagavAn knew exactly when to appear in the pillar - iraNiyan tUN puDaippaa~ngu appozhudE avan vIyat tOnRiya en Si~ngap-pirAn tiruvAi mozhi - 2.8.9.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri describes six kinds of strategies that a king issupposed to adopt in warfare, including when to fight, when to compromise,when to seek another's help, when to let two adversaries collide with eachother and thus weaken themselves, when to attack, and when to wait for theattack. He points out that Lord kRshNa amply demonstrated these differenttechniques when He guided the pANDava-s in their war with the kaurava-s, andthis is an explanation for this nAma.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is the onlyone who knows the past, present and future, the changes in climate, the pathof the planets, when the beings will be born and in what body, when thisbody will die, etc.The dharma cakram writer adds more dimension to the anubhavam of this nAmaby pointing out that bhagavAn knows when He needs to appear among us in Hisincarnations (dharma samsthApanArthAya sambahavAmi yuge yuge). He also knewwhen to send kunti to karNa to get him to promise that he won't attempt tokill any pANDava other than arjuna, etc. 361. havir-harih

Hari who is the recipient of the havis offered in theyaj~na.om havir-haraye namahThis nAma has been considered as two separate nAma-s by somevyAkhAna-kartA-s. So we will look at the interpretation for havir-harih,havih, and harih.havis is the name given to the offering in a yAga. So one interpretationfor this nAma is Hari or vishNu who is the ultimate acceptor of theofferings - yaj~neshu havir-bhAgam harati iti havir-harih. SrI Sankaragives reference to the gItA - aham hi sarva yaj~nAnAm bhoktA ca prabhurevaca (9.24).The word havis is derived from the root hu, which means both "to accept" and"to offer". He both enjoys His devotees, and is the subject of enjoyment byHis devotees, and thus again He is havir-harih. The word "harih" is derivedfrom the root hR - to obtain. One who is obtained by offering of havis ishavirharih.Also we have in mahA bhArata hrAmyagham ca smartR*NAm havirbhAgam kratushvaham | varNaSca me haridveti tasmAd harir_aham smRtah ||(SAnti parva 330.3) "I destroy the sins of those who remember Me, and also receive theoblations in sacrifices; My complexion also is blue; hence I am namedHari".harih also means one who removes the obstacles - harir harati pApAni.The following nAma-s, up to 379, are interpreted by SrI BhaTTar in thecontext of the lakshmI-patitvam (vishNu as the Consort of Lakshmi) ofbhagavAn para-vAsudeva. 362. sarva-lakshNa-lakshaNyah a) He who is the abode of all the auspiciousqualitiesb) He who is the ultimate definition of all good qualitiesc) He who is pointed to as the Ultimate Truth through allanalysisd) He who reveals Himself through everything around usom sarva-lakshaNa lakshaNyAya namah.SrI BhaTTar gives the following dhyAna Sloka that identifies some of thesedistinguishing marks. "dhyAyet kamala-garbhAbham devam lakshmI-patim tatah | kamalAlaya hetISa vibhUshita kara-dvayam|| "One should meditate on that Deity who is the Consort of Lakshmi,who has the splendor of the inner part of a lotus, and whose two hands areadorned by the lotus which is the abode of Lakshmi and cakra which is thelord of all weapons".He also gives reference to the mantra "puNDarIkAksha! sakala-sukha saubhAgyavAridhe!" - Oh the Lotus-eyed Lord! The Sea of Bliss and Good Fortune!SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to other examples from divya prabandham -alarmEl ma~ngai uRai mArbA! nigar-il pugazhAi! ulagam mUnRu uDaiyAi!;tiruvin maNALan tiruvAi mozhi 1.9.1. He also refers us to vishNu purANam- paSyatAm sarva-devAnAm yayau vakshasthalam hareh - When the nectar byname Lakshmi came out of the Milky Ocean when it was churned, She chose thevaksha-sthalam of mahA vishNu straight out of the Ocean even though all thedeva-s were standing there; such are His lakshaNa-s or attributes.SrI Sankara's interpretation is He is the lakshaNya or end result that isobtained through all lakshaNa-s or pramANa-s. i.e., all means ofinvestigation ultimately lead to Him as the Supreme Knowledge or theUltimate Truth.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that bhagavAn is the ultimate definitionfor each and every lakshaNa or attribute, and so He is sarvalakshaNalakshaNyah.The dharma cakram writer points to four types of pramANa-s which are usedfor recognizing something. These are: prakyaksha pramANa (recognitionthrough our senses, such as taste, touch etc.), yukti pramANa (recognitionthrough indirect evidence - such as recognizing fire through smoke), SAstrapramANa (what is laid down in scriptures, and anubhava pramANa (what weexperience ourselves, e.g., head ache). He gives the example of rAmakRshNaparamahamsa who recognized God as the Only Truth through all thesepramANa-s. He could talk to God, he could not live without the thought ofGod just as we can't live without air, he recognized him through theSAstra-s, and in essence he recognized God as the ultimate Truth through allthe pramANa-s.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha describes this nAma's significance by pointing outthat He is sarva-lakshaNa lakshaNya since everything that we see points toHim as the reason behind it. He defines Himself through everything that wecan see or otherwise recognize. 363. lakshmIvAn He who is always with Lakshmi.om lakshmIvate namahProf. SrInivAsa rAghavan, in his translation of SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAna,adds a personal note that this tattvam, viz. the association betweenbhagavAn and Lakshmi, should be learned through an AcArya. I am stilladding the few words that I am picking up from

the translation.There are two things that are eternal and always existed and will alwaysexist, without beginning or end. One is bhagavAn. The other is prakRti,the Primordial Matter that is the material from which all the things in thisUniverse are created. This Primordial Matter signifies Lakshmi, theUniversal Mother. The Universe is a result of the Union of these two.Neither exists without the other. There is change in the svarUpam of theprakRti depending on the proportion of the three guNa-s viz. sattva, rajsand tamas, but prakRti does not end at the time of pralaya, nor does itbegin at the beginning of the world. The mUla-prakRti which isbeginningless and endless just like bhagavAn, is none other than Lakshmi.SrI BhaTTar has given the following Sloka in support "dvayam devI-pariNaye leelayaiva samarpayan | prakASayan anAditvam AtmanA prakRthe saha || mat-karaih anuviddheyam prakRtih prAkRtaih aham | yato'ham ASritaSca asyA mUrtih mayi etat AtmikA || "At the time of my marriage with Lakshmi, I in a playful mood,revealed the secret to all that the Supreme Reality is a couple, and notnArAyaNa alone, nor Lakshmi alone. Then I also revealed that like MyselfLakshmi is also beginningless (i.e. eternal). This prakRti was embraced byMy hands, and I by Her hands; wherefore I have resorted to Her, and She, inHer turn, has resorted to Me. (So we are always together".SrI cinmayAnanda echoes the same spirit through the following words: "He isthe Spirit (purusha) that thrills the entire world-of-matter (prakRti).Matter thrilled with the spirit is the dynamic world that we see around.Thus, the manifested Lord is ever wedded to Lakshmi". 364 - samti~njayah He who is victorious in battles.om samiti~njayAya namah.One meaning for the word samiti is battle. samitim yuddham jayati itisamiti~njayah - He who conquers the wars or battles (SrI Sankara). He isthe destroyer of all pain in all the devotees. He helps overcome the feelingof independence from Him in the jIvAtmA-s, and thus brings true happiness tothem by winning over their minds (SrI BhaTTar).SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri uses the meaning "gathering" or "assembly" for theword samiti, and gives the meaning that bhagavAn wins over the samiti nomatter how large it is, if it is ganged up against Him. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 40 365. 367. 368. 369. 370. 371. 372. 373. 374. viksharah mArgah hetuh dAmodarah sahah mahIdharah mahI-bhAgah vegavAn amitASanah

om viksharAya namahom rohitAya namahom mArgAya namahom hetave namahom dAmodarAya namahom sahAya namahom mahI-dharAya namahom mahA-bhAgAya namahom vegavate namahom amitASanAya namah 365. viksharah He who never wanes.om viksharAya namahSrI Sankara bhAshyam is "vigatah ksharah (nASo) yasya asau viksharah" - Onewho has no decay. SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that bhagavAn's lovefor His devotees never diminishes, and He is vikshara by this reason.366. rohitah - He who is of red complexion.om rohitAya namah.kamala garbhAbatvAt rohitah - He who has the red color of the inside of alotus. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to tiruvAimozhi - 8.4.7: "tirucceyya kamalak kaNNum Sev-vAyum SevvaDiyum Seyya kaiyum tiruc-ceyya kamalaundiyum Seyya kamala mArbum". Seyya here means reddish colored, kamalameans lotus.rohita also refers to a species of fish, and SrI Sankara has given thealternate interpretation that it can refer to His matsya incarnation, in theform of a reddish hued fish.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning from the root ruh - bIja janmaniprAdurbhAve ca - to grow, to increase, to rise, to reach, and gives theinterpretation "prAdurbhavati iti rohitah - One who expresses Himself or Onewho causes all beings to express themselves is rohitah. 367. mArgah He who is sought after.om mArgAya namah.mArgyate iti mArgah - He is mArgah because He is always sought after by Hisworshippers. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to tiruvAi mozhi nURRandAdi91 - "tAL aDaindAr ta~ngatku tAnE vazhit-tuNaiyAm kALa-megattai" - Heaccompanies and shows the way to those who have surrendered to Him. SrISankara gives an additional intepretation - He is mArga because He shows theway for the attainment of Supreme Bliss. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri givesanother aspect - After the Universe disappears at the time of praLaya, it isHe who is the way for the world's re-appearance. 368. hetuh The Cause.om hetave namah.He is the cause for the realization of the desires of His devotees. SriSankara gives the interpretation that He is both the instrumental andmaterial cause of the Universe.The dharma cakram writer nicely distinguishes between bhagavAn the Cause,and bhagavAn the effects. He points out that in general we see the effects,but we don't see the cause behind the effects as easily. This is true inthe different aspects of life - we use the Universe, but we don't understandbhagavAn who is the Cause of the Universe. We see the body, but we don'tsee the five elements which are the constituents of this body. He isvisible only to the yogi-s and the j~nAni-s as the Cause of the Universe.

369. dAmodarah 1) He who has the worlds in His belly.2) One who was tied around His waist by ropes by YaSodA3) One who has happiness for His devotees4) One who is attained by observances such as damA.om dAmodarAya namah.The word dAma can refer to a rope, the worlds, happiness, etc. The wordudaram means belly. Based on these, there are different interpretations.1) udare dAmAni asya iti dAmodarah - One who has all the worlds in Hisbelly. This interpretation is supported by vyAsa's words: "dAmAni loka nAmAni tAni yasya udara antare | tena dAmodaro devah SrIdharah Sri-samASritah || (attributed tovyAsa but no reference given)2) dAmnA udare baddha iti dAmodarah - One who was tied around His waist witha cord. The support for this interpretation is from brahma purANa: "tayor madhya-gatam baddham dAmnA gADham tayodare | tataSca dAmodaratAm sa yayau dAma bandhanAt || (brahmapuRaNa 76.14)(Note: The reference to the above is given differently in the differentvyAkhyAna-s as stanzas 5.6.20, 184.41, and 76.14. Since I do not have acopy of brahma purANa with me, I could not verify the correct reference. Ifany of our readers have the original source, please verify the correctreference and let me know. I would sincerely appreciate it).SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to divya prabandham - veNNei vizhu~nga veguNDuAicci kaNNik kayiRRinAl kaTTat tAn kaTTuNDirundAn - mUnRAm tiruvantAdi.SrI A. SrInivAsa rAghavAcArya svAmi in his interpretation in tamizh in SrInRsimha priyA points out that the act of bhagavAn willingly getting Himselftied around with a rope just demonstrates that He becomes abhaktapara-tantran i.e., He subjects Himself to His devotees' wishes. Inthis case, He subjected Himself to yaSodA's wish that He be constrained bythe rope. He even shed tears when He was tied in order to please her.3) SrI BhaTTar gives an additional interpretation based on "devAnAm sukhasamSitvAt dAmAt dAmodaram viduh" (udyoga parva 71.9)- They know Him asdAmodara because He has "dAma" or joy, indicating happiness for the gods.4) SrI Sankara has given the additional interpretation - damAdi sAdhanenaudarA (utkRshTA) matih (yA tayA gamyata) iti dAmodarah - One who is knownthrough the mind which is purified (udarA or utkRshTA) by means ofself-control (dama) and other qualities. He gives the support frommahAbhArata - damAt dAmodaro viduh (udyoga parva 5.69.8).The dharma cakram writer very nicely remarks that the One who was tied bythe rope can be known only by "tieing" or controlling the pa~nca indriya-sand directing them towards Him and His service. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstripoints out that this nAma has the greatness that at the same time it showsthe greatness of bhagavAn in having the whole Universe inside Him and thesimplicity of being tied by a rope and contained by His devotee. 370. sahah He who has patience.om sahAya namah.sahate iti sahah. SrI BhaTTar links this nAma to the previous one bypointing that He patiently accepted being tied by the rope as dAmodara.nammAzhvAr sings this patience of Lord kRshNa - ettitRam! uralinODuiNaindirundu E~ngiya eLivE (tiruvAimozhi 1.3.1) - referenced by SrIv.v.rAmAnujan. SrI Sankara vyAkhyAna is that He forgives the lapses of Hisdevotees - sahate sarvAn abhibhavati iti sahah. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstripoints out that He bears the burden of the Universe for the sake of thewelfare of the creatures in the Universe. The dharma cakram writer pointsout that He patiently waits till we attain the maturity needed to reach Himand be united with Him. He also refers to the incident where He put up withSiSupAla's abusive words more than a hundred times and had given word toSiSupAla's mother to that effect. 371. mahIdharah The Supporter of the Earth.om mahIdharAya namah.This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 319. There the meanings given were thatHe supports the earth by ridding it of evil-doers, or that He accepts thepUjA from the devotees.Under the current nAma, SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He bearsthe Earth in the shape of mountains. He gives reference to vishNu purANa -vanAni vishNur girayo diSaSca - 2.12.37) - The forests, mountains, anddirections are all vishNu. He bears the earth by propping it up in the formof

mountains. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers to His bearing the Earth between Histeeth in His varAha incarnation eyiRRu iDai maN koNDa endai - periyAzhvArtirumozhi 5.2.3. 372. mahI-bhAgah He who is extremely Fortunate.om mahA-bhAgAya namah.SrI BhaTTar explains that Lord kRshNa has the good fortune (mahA bhAgya) ofbeing chosen for service as their Lord by the cowherdess nILa, sixteenthousand celestial damsels, rukmiNi, satyabhAmA, jAmbavati, and others. SrIv.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAomozhi - vaDivu iNai illA malar-magaLmaRRum maN-magaL piDikkum mel-aDiyAn - 9.2.10.SrI Sankara gives the vyAkhyAna that He is fortunate in being able to takeany form He likes, or He who gets the best of everything in Hisincarnations.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that He is mahAbhAgah because He gets themajor (mahA)portion (bhAga) of any offering as He likes. He refers us tothe incident of the offering by the gopa-s to the govardhana giri instead ofto indra at the insistance of kRshNa. Lord kRshNa appeared at the top ofthe govaradhana mountain and accepted all the offerings. 373. vegavAn He who is quick.om vegavate namah.SrI BhaTTar points out that even when He was child kRshNa, His actions weredisplaying His irresistible supremacy and Lordship. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanrefers us to theincident of pUtanA, SakaTAsura, lifting of govardhana giri at the tip of thefinger, etc. tiruvAi mozhi 6.4 is full of these incidents. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri points to the incident of rukmiNi svayamvaram as anexample of the quickness of action that He displays. SrI cinmayAnanda givesthe interpretation that He reaches His devotees fast the moment they thinkof Him because He is everywhere and all-pervading.SrI Sankara interprets the nAma in terms of the ISopanishad declaration (4)"anejadekam manso javIyah - He is unmoving, but at the same time faster thanthe mind". The context here is that He is inside us, but no amount ofreasoning with our mind can decipher Him and figure Him out. He cannot beunderstood by reason and logic alone, since even a lifetime of reasoningwith the mind that is faster than anything that is known will not result inrealizing Him. 374. amitASanah a) The voracious Eater.b) He who gives unlimited supply of food to His creations.om amiTaSanAya namah.amitam aSnAti iti amitASanah - One who eats huge quantities. SrI BhaTTarpoints out that Lord kRshNa displayed His greatness, among other acts, byswallowing the unlimited quantity of food offered to govardhana giri, makingthe cowherds exclaim in wonder - "devo vA dAnavo vA tvam" - "Who are you adeva or an asura?" - vishNu purANam 5.13.121. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers usto divya prabandham - aTTukkuruvi SORRup-paruppadamum tayir vAviyumneyyaLarum aDa~ngap poTTattuRRu - One who in a fraction of a second consumeda huge amount of rice heaped like a mountain, a huge amount of curd thatlooked like a canal, ghee that was poured like a big puddle, plenty ofvegetables, etc. (periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 3.5.1), and to "kArEzh kaDalEzhmalai Ezhulagu uNDum ArA vayiRRAn - tiruvAi mozhi 10.9.2. This nAma issimilar to nAma 304 - mahASanah.SrI Sankara interprets the nAma in terms of His swallowing the wholeUniverse at the time of praLaya. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out thatthere is nothing that He cannot digest, since He is the jATarAgni thatdigests the food that every being consumes - aham vaiSvAnaro bhUtvA ....pacAmyannam caturvidham (gItA 15.14). The dharma cakram writer points outthat we can neither live and grow without eating, nor live without digestingthe food we eat, and both are made possible by Him, and this is siginifiedby this nAma.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the above interpretation, as well as analternate interpretation - amitAn prANinah ASayati = bhojayati itiamitASanah - He is amitASanah because He gives unlimited supply of food toHis creation, which is itself immeasurable.

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 41 375. 376. 377. 378. 379. 380. 381. 382. 383. 384. 385. udbhavah khsobhaNah devah SrI-garbhah parameSvarah karaNam kAraNam kartA vikartA gahanah guhah

om udbhavAya namahom kshobaNAya namahom devAya namahom SrI-garbhAya namahom parameSvarAya namahom karaNAya namahom kAraNAya namahom kartre namahom vikartre namahom gahaNAya namahom guhAya namah 375. udbhavah a) He who removes the bondage.b) He who is beyond the bondage of samsAra.c) He who is the origin of the Universe.om udbhavAya namahOne who removes the bondage of samsAra of those who meditate upon Him. SrIBhaTTar points out that those who meditate on the incident of His beingbound by the rope (kaNNinuN Sirut-tAmbinAl kaTTuNNap paNNiya perumAyan) willbe removed from the bondage of samsAra udbhavo bhavah asmAt iti udbhavah.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation is that He is free from the

bondage ofexistence, and so He is udbhavah - udgato bhavAt samsArAt iti udbhavah.SrI Sankara's alternate interpretation is that He is the Origin of theUniverse - prapa~nca utpatti upAdAna kAraNatvAt udbhavah. 376. khsobhaNah The Creator of a commotion.om khshobaNAya namah.The nAma is derived from the root kshub sa~ncalane to cause motion ordisturbance. kshobayati iti kshobaNah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam isbandhArhAn kshobayati iti kshobhaNah - One who creates tumult in the mindsof those who are fit to be bound in samsAra. SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAna isthat He creates vibration and agitation in purursha and prakRti(consciousness or jiva-s and primordial matter) at the time of creation byentering them. He refers us to vishNu purANa in support "prakRtim purusham caiva praviSya AtmeccayA harih | kshobhayAmAsa sarga-kAle vyayAvyayI || (V.P. 1.2.29)An alternate interpretation, supported by SrI satyadevo vAsisshTha, SrIcinmayAnada, etc., is that He is kshobaNah because He keeps the beings inthe Universe vibrant by being their antaryAmi and constantly keeping them inmotion. 377. devah He who sports Himself.om devAya namah.dIvyati krIDati iti devah. He plays with the jiva-s by binding them withmAyA or prakRti. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to divya prabandham - palapala mAya mayakkukkaLAl inburum iv-viLaiyATTuDaiyAn (tiruvAimozhi 3.10.7).A similar concept is expressed in nAma 312 (nahushah), 335 (Adidevah), etc.SrI cinmayAnanda points out that the term dIvyati means "to shine', 'toconquer', ' to praise', etc. SrI Sankara includes the play of creation,the desire to conquer the enemies of gods, functioning in all beings,shining in all beings, being praised by the holy men, pervading all, etc.,as the reasons for His being the only deva. He quotes the SvetAsvatAraupanishad - eko devah sarva bhUteshu gUDhah (6.11) - There is only one Godwho is hidden in all things that exist - in support. 378. SrI-garbhah a) He who has Lakshmi always with Him in His play asdevah.b) He who has Lakshmi in Him in the form of the Universe.c) He who is the abode of all auspicious qualities (SrI).om SrI-garbhAya namah.He is inseparably united with Lakshmi. In His play as the deva He hasLakshmi always as His companion. vishNoh eshA anapAyinI - She is everinseparable from vishNu - vishNu purANa - 1.9.144. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnamis "bhoga-krIDA sahAyatvena vardhanIyA asya SrIh iti SrI-garbhah - He isinseparable from SrI or Lakshmi in His sports. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers todivya prabandham - kOla malarp pAvaikku anbAgiya en appan - tiruvAimozhi10.10.7.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He has Lakshmi or aiSvarya in Hisbelly in the form of the Universe. SrI cinmayAnanda gives theinterpretation that He has all the glories (SrI) in Himself, and so He isSrI-garbhah.The dharma cakram writer points out that just as the wealth that a motherprotects carefully is the child in her womb, a stingy person protects hiswealth, and a j~nAni protects his knowledge, so also mahAvishNu protects theUniverse. Just as the child cannot live independent of the mother, so alsothe Universe can't exist without bhagavAn.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn is the antaryAmi insideeveryone in this Universe (SrI), and this is as if He is in the garbha ofthe Universe, and so He is called SrI-garbhah. 379. parameSvarah The Supreme Ruler.om parameSvarAya namah.aiSvarya means Lordship. BhagavAn is parameSvarah because He is the Lord ofall, including mahA Lakshmi - tiruvukkum tiruvAgiya SelvA - tirumozhi 7.7.1.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri derives the meaning from parA mA - paramA -mahAlakshmi, One who is above all Sakti-s. This paramA voluntarily seeksthe place in His vaksha-sthala and serves Him; thus He is paramAyAh

ISvarah- parameSvarah.The dharma cakram writer indicates that just as a human being does well inruling over himself if he has full control of his indriya-s, BhagavAn is infull control of al the beings as the parameSvarah or Ruler of the Universe.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an interpretation based on mA SobhA.parameSvarah thus indicates One who has Supreme SobhA. One who has SupremeSobhA, who is the Lord of this and also has full control of this, andattracts and controls everything because of this, is parameSvarah - parA mAyasya sa paramah. sa ca asau ISvarah parameSvarah. 380. karaNam The Means. 381. kAraNam The Cause - He who causes others to act.om karaNAya namah.om kAraNAya namah.The two nAma-s are being looked at together here because of their closerelation.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the derivation kriyate anena iti karaNam -That by which or through whom an act is done. BhagavAn is the only meansfor attaining Him. The eyes, ears, etc. which are the means of knowledgeare all aspects of this power of bhagavAn. kAraNam is the Cause that makesthe beings act using the karaNa-s.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points us to pANini's words - sAdhaka-tamam karaNam -karaNam is that which is the best among means or sAdhana-s. He also remindsus of the nAma "hRshIkeSa" in this context - He who is the eeSa or Lord ofthe indriya-s (the eyes, ears, etc. are the j~nAnendriya-s, and the legs,hands, etc. are the karmendriyas).Beyond these indriya-s, there are the antah-karaNa-s which are the citta,the mind, buddhi, and ahamkAra, which are also controlled by bhagavAn. Thedharma cakram writer points out that for us to control the j~nAnemdriya-s,the karmendriya_s, the antah-karaNa-s, etc., meditation on mahA-vishNu isthe means. He also refers us to the gItA to point out that the way toachieve this control is firm determination (vairAgya) and repeated training(abhyAsa).Following SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAna, SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri distinguisheskaraNam from the next nAma - kAraNam, by interpereting karaNam as "primarycause", and kAraNam as the supplementary causes. BhagavAn is both theprimary cause as well as the supplementary causes in the creation. He givesthe example of the creation of a mud pot from clay. Both the clay and someadditional instruments are needed in this process. But these alone will notresult in the mud pot, unless there is the involvement of the maker of thepot. BhagavAn is the reason for not only the primary cause but the othercauses as well. SrI cinmayAnanda explains karaNam as "He from whom theUniverse arises", and kAraNam as "He who causes the Universe to arise". 382. kartA The Agent.om kartre namah.This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 317. There the interpretation by SrIBhaTTar was based on paraSurAma incarnation, as the one who slayed the demonkArta-vIrya. In the current instance his interpretation is that bhagavAn isthe Agent who causes others to act.SrI cinmayAnanda quotes pANini - svatantrah kartA - One who freely andindependently performs the functions of creation, protection anddestruction, is the "Doer". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that He iskartA because without Him, the mere existence of the pa~nca bhUta-s etc.could not have resulted in the Universe, just as the presence of clay etc.without the presence of a pot-maker could not have resulted in the creationof a pot.Even though the jIvAtmA-s may think that they are independent in their acts,nothing functions without His Will - avan anRi Or aNuvum aSaiyAdu. BhagavAnis the only svatantra kartA - One who acts independently of everything else.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAimozhi 5.6.4 -"SeikinRa kidi ellAm yAnE enRum SeivA ninRanagaLum yAnE enRum Seidu mun iRandavum yAnE enRum Seiyap payan uNbEnum yAnE ennum SeivArgaLaic ceivEnum yAnE ennum .....BhagavAn just does not stop with being the Agent, He also feels the effectsof the actions of the jIvAtmA-s as if they were His own. vyasaneshumanushyANAm bhRSam bhavati duhkhitah utsaveshu ca sarveshu pitevaparitushyati - When

the people suffered, RAma suffered more than they did,and when they were happy, He felt happy like a father. After crowningvibhIshNa, Lord rAma felt very fulfilled - kRta kRtyah pramumoda ha 383. vikartA a) He who undergoes modifications.b) He who created the world of varieties.om vikartre namah.a) vikurvANah vikartA. In truth bhagavAn does not undergo anymodifications. He is avikAra. However, since the Universe is an extensionof Him, and since the Universe undergoes modifications constantly, it can besaid that He undergoes modifications. He has no joy or sorrow that resultsfrom His own act; but since He considers others' acts as His own and feelsone with the joys and sorrows of His creations, the resulting vikAra ormodification and feeling of joy and sorrow is for the sake of His creation.Lord rAma did not experience joy when He was to be crowned, no did He feelsorrow the next day when He lost it.b) SrI Sankara's interpretation is that bhagavAn is the creator of thisvaried Universe - vicitram bhuvanam kRtavAn iti vikartA. SrI rAdhakRshNaSAstri points out that His creation is vicitra because it is beyondcomprehension, and He did it out of His leelA. No two things in Hiscreation are identical. The dharma cakram writer points that in addition,no two minds are same, no two faces are the same. We don't know our past,we don't know where we go after we pass away, nor how many more births wewill have to go through. We go through birth after birth, and in each birthwe learn that the external pleasures are not real pleasures, but we don'tcarry this memory and experience to the next birth. Time does not leaveanyone behind, but we ignore this and try to immerse ourselves in thepleasures of our indriya-s. All these are the vicitra-s of His creation. 384. gahanah He who is deep and inscrutable.om gahanAya namah.He is beyond our intellect and reasoning. He is inside all of us, and yetwe don't know Him. yah pRthivyAs tishThan yam pRthivI na veda --He whois in the earth but whom the earth does not know - bRhadAraNya upanishad5.7.3. He is in all the gods but the gods don't know Him - viNNavarkkueNNal ariyAn - tiruvAimozhi 1.9.2 (v.v.rAmAnujan). He is both the eye andthe object to be seen - cakshuSca drashTavyam ca nArAyaNah. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to kaThopanishad - tam durdarSam gUDhamanupravishTam guhAhitam gahvareshTham purANam - 1.21.SrI Sankara points out that He is Unknowable in regard to His Nature,capability or acts.The dharma cakram writer takes us through several instances in young childkRshNa's leelA-s to illustrate this point. The gopikA vastrApaharaNam, theinstance of pUtanA, the lifting of the govardhana giri, the episode of beingtied by yaSodA by a rope, etc., illustrate our inability to understand Himthrough our logic and rationale. The only way to understand Him is throughdevotion. 385. guhah a) The Savior.b) One who hides Himself effectively from non-devotees.om guhAya namah.gUhati rakshati iti guhah. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference totiruvAimozhi - kAkkum iyalvinan kaNNa perumAn - 2.2.9. This is SrIBhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds that this protection islike that of a child protected by the mother when the child is in her womb.SrI Sankara interprets the nAma based on gUhate samvRNoti - He who hidesHis Nature, and gives the reference to gItA - nAham prakASah sarvasyayogamAyA samAvRtah - 7.25. SrI cinmayAnanda gives reference to vishNubhAgavta 10.37.11 gUDho guhASayah sAkshI mahA purusha ISvarah - This Lord,the Great Purusha, the witness who dwells in the vase most secretively.MuNDakopanishad describes Him as "nihitam guhAyAm. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstrirefers us to kaThopanishad 3.12 - esha sarveshu bhUteshu gUDhAtmA naprakASate, and to gItA -avajAnanti mAm mUDhA mAnushIm tanuASritam | param bhAvamajAnanto mama bhUta maheSvaram || 9.11Yet another interpretation, given by SrI R. anantakRshNa SAstri, is that Hereclines in the heart (guhah) of all.

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 42 386. 387. 388. 389. 390. 391. 392. 393. 394. 395. vyavasAyah vyavasthAnah samsthAnah sthAna-dah dhruvah pararddhih parama-spashTah tushTah pushTah SubehshaNah

om vyavaSayAya namahom vyavasthAnAya namahom samsthAnAya namahom sthAnadAya namahom dhruvAya namahom parardhaye namahom paramAya namahom spashTAya namahom tushTAya namahom pushTAya namahom SubhekshaNAya namah SrI BhaTTar interprets the next few nAma-s as referring to the aspect ofbhagavAn as dhruva, the Pole Star. 386. vyavasAyah a) The Pivot (of the planets).b) One with a firm and resolute mind, One with TrueKnowledge about Self.om vyavasAyAya namahatiSayena sIyate (badhyate) asmin jyotiScakram iti vyavasAyah - The circleof planets is tightly bound and closely fastened to bhagavAn, and so He iscalled vyavasAyah. Space which is the support for the stars and planets isthe body of bhagavAn, and so He is tied to them tightly.SrI

cinmayAnanda refers us to two Sloka-s in the gItA where the termvyavasAya occurs. SrI rAmAnuja in his gItA bhAshya (2.41) interprets theword as referring to "unshakable conviction" (about the true nature of theself) - vyavasAyo niScayah. The same interpretation is given in gItA 2.44.So vyavasAyah can refer to One with a resolute mind, or One who has TrueKnowledge of the self. 387. vyavasthAnah The basis.om vyavasthAnAya namah.The basis for the nAma is the root sthA (sthiti). vyavasthAnam karoti itivyavasthAnah, or asmin vyavasthitih sarvasya iti vyavasthAnah. One whoestablishes everything, or One on whom the basis of everything resides; orOne who regulates everything in the Universe and the associated functions.vyavasthA is given the meaning "determination, decision, settlement" inApte's dictionary, and vyavasthit means 'established'. One who determineseverything is thus vyavasthAnah, and One who establishes everything intheir respective places or positions is vyavasthAnah.SrI BhaTTar associates this basis with kAla or time, which is the basis foreverything that happens in this world. This again is determined by themovement of the planets, of which dhruva is the pole or the pivot. SrISankara associates the nAma with bhagavAn being the One who divides andregulates everyone including the different protectors of the world, varioustypes of beings, takes care of their survival and sustenance, etc. 388. samsthAnah The final end.om samsthAnAya namah.sarvam etasmin santhishThate - samApyate iti samsthAnah. One in whom allthings have their ultimate end is samsthAnah. Another interpretation, givenby SrI v.v.rAmAnujan, is samApyate iti samsthAnah - One who terminateseverything at some stage is samsthAnah.SrI Sankara gives an additional interpretation - samIcInam sthAnam asya itisamsthAnah - He who has the supreme place. This is elaborated by SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri as referring to the Milky Ocean, the sUrya maNDala, theheart of the yogis etc., or His position as dhruva in the dhruva maNDala. 389. sthAna-dah The Giver of the Supreme Abode.om sthAnadAya namah.sthAnam dadAti iti sthAna-dah. da is "to give". There are many nAma-s thatend with the affix -da, and all of these can be understood based on thissuffix. Other examples are prANa-dah, mAna-dah, SAnti-dah, SrI-dah,darpa-dah, sarva-kAma-dah, and svasti-dah. sthAna-dah is One who gives thebest of the sthAna-s, paramapadam.SrI Sankara gives a more general interpretation as One who gives status tothe beings as they deserve - dhruvAdInAm karmAnurUpam sthAnam dadAti itisthAna-dah. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that bhagavAn is the One whogave the position to dhruva which is unlike all the other stars viz. dhruvais fixed in position compared to the others who are in constant motion.SrI cinmayAnanda gives references to kathopanishad (yathAkarmam yathASrutam- 2.5.7), and quotes "karma phala dAtA nArAyaNah" to support SrI Sankara'sinterpretation. The dharma cakram writer gives reference to tirukkuraL tosupport the same interpretation "vaguttAn vagutta vagai allAl kODi toguttArkkum tuyttal aridu".SrI satyadevo vAsishTha comments that bhagavAn gives the position to thestars in space, to the devas in the antariksha loka, to the waterlivingcreatures in the Oceans, etc. At a lower level, He has even createdappropriate places in our bodies for the refuse that results from the bodilyfunctions. 390. dhruvah The Stationary (Fixed).om dhruvAya namah.The root dhru means to be steady. He conferred a status on dhruva that isas permanent as SrI vaikunTham. Since He can make any place as permanentas His abode viz. SrIviakunTham, the significance here is that He iseverywhere.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri comments that

bhagavAn conferred on dhruva thatwhich is only His Nature - viz. the indestructible status, and so dhruva isbhagavAn Himself. The dharma cakram writer points out that in the midst ofthe cycle of creation and pralaya where everything that has been createdmerges in Him and then reappears, He is the only permanent or fixed one, andso He is dhruva. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha takes the meaning "certain" fordhruva, and points out that even though everything except Him in thisUniverse is adhruva, by His Nature of dhruvatva He gives a sense ofcertainty to everything - thus the rising of the sun and the setting of thesun are dhruva or certain, birth and death are certain, etc.Next begins the story of SrI rAma. The next 16 nAma-s are interpreted bySrI BhaTTar in the context of rAmAvatAra. SrI BhaTTar titles this sectionas "The story of SrI rAma which resuscitates even the dead". SrIv.v.rAmAnujan points out the "bias" that SrI BhaTTar has for thisincarnation shows in the vryAkhyAnam that he gives for these nAma-s. Thetitle is just the beginning. 391. pararddhih He who is full of noble and auspicious qualities.om paraddhaye namah.Rddhih means vibhUti or manifestation. parA Rddhih yasya sa pararddhih -One who has a super-abundance of auspicious qualities or kalyANa guNa-s.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan comments that it is not an exaggeration to say that in noother incarnation do we find the perfection of auspicious qualities as inthe rAma incarnation. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to rAmAyaNa wheresome of these qualities are described in Sloka-s 1.1.8 to 1.1.18 by sagenArada to vAlmIki. The last two Sloka-s are given here as examples: "samudra iva gAmbhIrye dhairyeNa himavAniva | vishNunA sadRSo vIrye somavat priyadarSanah || kAlAgnisadRSah krodhe kshamayA pRthivI samah | dhanadena samstyAge satye dharma ivAparah || "rAma has gAmbhIrya like an ocean, dhairya of himavAn, vIrya ofvishNu, the sweet appearance of the moon, anger comparable to that ofpralaya agni, patience of Mother Earth, tyAga of kubera, and satya of dharmadevatA".SrI rAmAnujan gives an additional interpretation: pareshAm RddhirevaRddhih yasya - One who considers para samRddhih or the fulfillment ofothers as His own. After crowning vibhIshaNa, Lord rAma felt happy by thesheer act of fulfilling His word - kRta kRtyah tathA rAmah. He alsoquotes "utsaveshu ca sarveshu piteva paritushyati" - When the citizens arehappy, He feels happy like a father who feels pleasure at the happiness ofthe child". 392. parma-spashTah He whose greatness is explicit.om parama-spashTAya namah.spashTa (pratyaksha, dRshTA) pAramyah parama-spashTah. His greatness isexplicitly obvious. SrI BhaTTar refers us to rAmAyaNa vyaktameshamahA-yogI paramAtmA sanAtanah - (yuddha kANDam - 114.4). These aremandodari's words when she sees rAma after He slays rAvaNa in thebattlefield. Similarly, tArA, vAli's wife, recognizes rAma's divine natureas soon as she sees Him - tvam aprameyaSca durAsadaSca.....manushyadehAbhyudam vihAya divyena dehAbhydayena yuktah (rAmAyaNa 4.24.31-32). LordrAma's only goal and firm determination (mahA-yogi) in this incarnation wasprotection of the world, and His greatness can be clearly cognized by meansof direct perception. sumitrA's words are: "sUryasyApi bhavet sUryah" - Heshines even brighter than the Sun, and He is the One who gives brightness tothe Sun. Other references to Lord rAma's explicit greatness are His beingcalled "pumsAm dRshTi cittApahAriNam", "rUpa samhananam lakshmIm tadRSurvismitAkArAh", etc.The dharma cakram writer points out that it is this explicit greatness thatcaused bharata to throw away the kingdom that was offered to him and insteadbe devoted to rAma, lakshmaNa to serve rAma for 14 years without food andsleep, and hanumAn to surrender to rAma as soon as he met him and serve Himfor the rest of his life.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an independent interpretation based on theroot spaS - to bind ( spaSati - badhnAti), and gives the meaning "One whobinds everything in a superb way" for parama-spashTa. The example of thecomplex human body, which retains its beautiful appearance in spite of itsinternal complexity, is given as an example. He gives the following quotesin support: asya spaSo na nimishanti (rg 9.73.4), divah spaSah pracaranti(atharva 4.16.4), etc.

393. tushTah He who is full of happiness.om tushTAya namah.Instead of being in SrIviakunTham where only a chosen few could be with Him,He decided happily to choose dasaratha, a human, as His father, and be bornin this world so that He was within reach of everyone. When the deva-sappeared before Him in His rAma incarnation and praised Him as bhagavAn, Hetold them that He was happy to consider Himself as a human, the son ofdasaratha - AtmAnam mAnusham manye rAmam daSarathAtmajam. As we saw before,He is one who was happy like a father of an accomplished child when Hiscitizens were happy - piteva paritushyati, and who attained unbounded joy byjust fulfilling His word to vibhIshaNa and crowning him as the king of lankApramumoda ha.SrI Sankara interprets the nAma as referring to His being The Supreme Bliss.SrI cinmayAnanda explains that He is tushTa - One who becomes happy evenwith the smallest of offerings. He refers us to"patram pushpam phalam toyam yo me bhaktyA prayacchati | tadaham bhaktyupahRtam aSnAmi prayatAtmanah || "I accept even if one offers some leaf or flower, fruit, or spoon ofwater, happily, if it is offered in love".The dharma cakram writer points out that bhagavAn is tushTa because He isnot subject to the pains and pleasures that other beings are subject to.rAma did not feel instant happiness when He was going to become king, norwas He sad when He was asked to go the forest for 14 years. kRshNa onlysmiled when gAndhAri cursed that the yAdava race should come to an endforever. bhagavAn is only the witness to all events, and is not influencedin any way by any event, which for the outsiders is deemed good or bad,happy or sad etc. This nAma should teach us that the proper way to realizebhagavAn is to be tushTa always, and be witness to the events around us butnot be attached to them, and train to be a yogi - santhushTah satatam yogI. 394. pushTah He who is full of noble qualities.om pushTAya namah.pUrNatvAt pushTah. He is complete in every respect, and so there is no roomfor likes and dislikes, wants and desires. The dharma cakram writer refersus to vaLLuvar referring to bhagavAn as "vENDUdal vENDAmai ilAn".Meditating on the significance of this nAma will lead us to move towardsthis state where we overcome likes and dislikes.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha extends this meaning to also suggest that He ispushTa because He keeps all his creations fulfilled by making available themeans for them to be fulfilled - pushNAti iti pushTah. 395. SubehshaNah He who has auspicious eyes.om SubhekshaNAya namah.We have seen the nAma-s padmanibhekshaNah (346) and aravindAkshah (348)earlier. SrI BhaTTar refers us to ayodhyA kANDam "yaSca rAmam na paSyettu yam ca rAmo na paSyati | ninditah sa vaset loke svAtma'pi enam vigarhate || (ayodhyA 17.14) "Whoever has not seen rAma or whomsoever rAma has not seen, thatperson stands condemned by all people in this world, and even his own selfcondemns him".SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to amalanAdipirAn - kariyavAgip-puDai parandumiLirndu SevvariyODi nINDa ap-perivAya kaNgaL, sung by tiruppANAzhvAr.subhRUh Ayata tAmrAkshah sAkshAt vishNuriva svayam - He with such beautifulbrows and bright long red eyes - He is none other than vishNu, is the praiseof the citizens of ayodhyA. hanumAn describes rAma to sItAdevi as "rAmahkamala patrAkshah sarva sattva manorathah - where he describes the greatnessof seeing His eyes as well as being seen by His eyes. sItA pirATTi herselfdescribes Her Lord rAma thus - tam padma daLa patrAksham .. dhanyAh paSyantime nAtham - Those who are blessed see the beautiful lotus-like eyes of mynAtha.SrI Sankara elaborates on the power of the beauty of His eyes thus: "IkshNam darSanam yasya Subham Subhakaram narANAm, mumukshUNAmmokshdam, bhogArthinAm bhogadam, pApinAm pAvanam, sarva sandeha vicchedakAraNam, hRdaya-granther vicchedakaram, sarvakarmANAm kshpaNam, avidyAyAScanivartakam sah SubekshaNah". "His mere sight is so auspicious and bestows good on all beings; itgives moksham to the spiritually minded, enjoyments to those that desirethem, cleanses sinners, removes all doubts, burns up all the karma-s, andremoves all

ignorance".He quotes the Sruti "bhidhyate hRdaya-granthih chidyante sarva samSayAhkshIyante cAsya karmANi tasmin dRshTe parAvare" (muNDakppanishad 2.2.8) -The knots of the heart are cut....SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives us several references to the Sruti. IkshANamalso refers to the determination by bhagavAn that He will become many fromOne. This samkalpam became the auspicious decision which resulted in thecreation of this Universe. Since He is the One with the Subha IkshaNa orsamkalpa, He is SubhekshaNa. SrI SAstri gives the following quotes tosupport this interpretation: tadaikshata bahu syAm prajAyeyeti (chAndogya6.2); sa Ikshata lokAnnusRjA iti (aitareya 1.1.1); sa IkshAm cakre (praSno6.3); seyam devataikshata hantAhamimAh tisro devatA anena jIvenaAtmA'nupraviSya nAmarUpe vyAkaravANi (chAndogya 6.3).The dharma cakram writer points out several examples of individuals whobenefited by the mere sight of bhagavAn falling on them. arjuna asked LordkRshNa to bless him with His Merciful glance; as soon as this happened, allof arjuna's doubts were cleared, and he realized the true nature of his soulimmediately. guha, hanumAn, paraSurAma, and Sabari are just among some ofthe examples of people who gained immensely from the mere sight of LordrAma. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 43 396. rAmah 397. virAmah 398. virajo-mArgah 399. neyah 400. nayah 401. anayah 402 vIrah 403. SaktimatAm-SreshThah 404. dharmah 405. dharmavid-uttamah

om rAmAya namahom virAmAya namahom viratAya namahom mArgAya namahom neyAya namahom nayAya namahom anayAya namahom vIrAya namahom SaktimatAm-SreshThAya namahom dharmAya namahom dharma-vid-uttamAya namah 396. rAmah a) He who delights others.b) He in whom everyone delights.om rAmAya namahThere are two obvious interpretations for this nAma. One is that all theyogi-s revel in His charm - ramante yoginah asmin iti rAmah. SrI Sankaragives reference to pAdmapurANa - ramante yoginah anante nityAnande cidAtmani- The yogins revel in Him who is Eternal Bliss, Pure Consciousness andEndless.The other is that He who has a compelling charm about Himself and He who ismost Handsome - ramayati itit rAmah. SrI BhaTTar gives several references.rAmo ramayatAm SreshThah - rAma is the foremost among those who delight theminds of all people (rAmAyaNa - ayodhyA 53-1); guNAbhirAmam rAmam ca - rAmawho is filled with kalyANa guNas (mahAbhArata sabhA 58-42); tathAsarva-prajA kAntaih prIti sanjananaih pituh | guNaih viruruce rAmah dIptahsUrya iva amSubhih || - rAma who is liked by His citizens, who bringshappiness to His father, and who is full of klayANa guNa-s, shone like theSun with its intense and bright rays - ayodhyA 1.33. In tiruppAvai, ANDALcalls Him manatukku iniyAn. His form is such that even His enemies getattracted to it. Even though mandodari and vAli's wife are not in thecategories of enemies of rAma, they were both realized His divine Naturewhen they saw Him with their husbands dying or dead. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanrefers to SUrpanakA's description of rAma and lakshmaNa - taruNau rUpasampannau sukumArau - puNDarIka viSAlAkshau....SrI satyadevo vAsishTha and SrI v.v.rAmAnujan both refer to the root ramu -krIDAyAm - He who derives pleasure out of His leelA-s, or He who makeseveryone happy because of His krIDA as part of His krIDA, is rAma.The dharma cakram writer adds that there are two kinds of delight- delightsof this world which have sadness associated with them always as aconsequence, and the delight pertaining to the enjoyment of para brahmamwhich has pure lasting happiness associated with it. rAma is the source ofthe later kind. The writer refers us to Sabari's holding on to life only tohave the darSan of rAma, the Rshi-s who delighted themselves in the sightof rAma, and the gopi-s and gopAla-s who had bhagavad-anubhavam by beingwith kRshNa in AyarpADi.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri reminds us that it is sage vasishTha, the kula guruof daSaratha's family, that gave the name rAma to daSaratha's first son. 397. virAmah a) He before whom all become powerless.b) He who is the final goal of everyone.om virAmAya namah.SrI BhaTTar has explained the nAma as follows: viramyate asmin varapradaihbrahmAdibhih, varaiSca avadhyAdibhih, labdha-varaiSca rAvaNAdibhih itivirAmah - Before rAma all become powerless, including the likes of brahmawho grant the boons, the boons themselves of indestructibility even bydeath, and people like rAvaNa who acquired the boons by their austerities.He quotes rAmAyaNa in this context - brahmA

svayambhUh caturAnano vA ...(Sundara kANDa 51.45), where hanumAn advises rAvaNa to understand rAma'sprowess.SrI Sankara gives the explanation that He is the final resting place or goalof all beings virAmah avasAnam prANinAm asmin iti virAmah. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to rAmAyaNa wherein we find that those whohave seen rAma or have diverted their thoughts on Him do not even try to getout of this mode.na hi tasmAt manah kaScit cakshushI vA narottamAn |narah SaknotyapAkrashTum atikrAnte abhi rAghave || (rAmA 2.18.13)SrI cinmayAnanda explains that He is the final resting place because havingreached Him there is no return into the realm of experiences. He alsopoints out that some vyAkhyAna kartA-s interpret the meaning as "He in whomthe world of plurality merges during the deluge or pralaya".The dharma cakram writer comments that until the soul reaches Him i.e.,attains moksha, there is always re-birth, and He is the final restingplace, attaining which alone one can rest finally. So this nAma shouldremind us that the final goal is mahA vishNu, and teach us to meditate onHim.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha nicely relates the two nAma-s, rAma and virAma.ramante asmin iti rAmah, viramanti asmin iti virAmah - One in whom peopledelight is rAma, and One in whom people find final SAnti is virAma. Thesource of delight is also the end of delight - yatra ramaNam tatra ramaNaavasAnam. He is the Creator and He is also the one who ends the creation.This is the same principle involved in the body being formed from the pa~ncabhUta-s and dissolving back into the pa~nca bhUta-s, the sun rising in timeand settling back in time, etc. He gives numerous references to theSruti-s to support this interpretation: tasmin idam sam ca vicaiti sarvam sa otah protaSca vibhuh prajAsu(yajur 32.8) yo mArayati prANayati yasmAt prANanti bhuvanAni viSvA (atharva13.3.3) kAlenodeti sUryah kAle niviSate punah (atharva 19.54.1) yatrAmRtam ca mRtyuSca purushe'dhi samAhite (atharva 10.5.17) 398. virajo-mArgah One who shows the faultless path.om viratAya namah - The Unattachedom mArgAya namah - He who is sought afterom virajo-mArgAya namah - He who shows the flawless pathThere is some confusion here as to whether this is to be interpreted as onenAma (virajo-mArgah), or as two separate nAma-s. SrI SrInivAsarAghavandiscusses the terms viratah and mArgah separately but lists them under thesame number, and also indicates that virajo-mArgah is the form when the nAmais considered as one nAma. SrI aNNa~ngarAcArya and SrI v.v.rAmAnujan listviratah (virajah) and mArgah as two separate nAma-s. The difference innumbering which started with Slokam 34 (ishTo'viSishTah vs. ishTah andaviSishTah) between these two sets of interpretations continues up to thisnAma, where it synchronizes again.bhagavAn is viratah because the spirit of detachment is natural to Him.vigatam ratam asya vishayasevAyAm iti viratah One in whom the desire forpleasure in objects has ceased. When He lost the kingdom it did not depriveHim of His splendor just as the night cannot take away the loveliness of thecool-rayed of the moon. "na cAsya mahatIm lakshmIm rAjya nASo'pakarshati | loka-kAntasya kAntatvam SItaraSmeriva kshapA ||(ayodhyA 19.32)sItA pirATTi's own words are: "When SrI rAma abandoned the kingdom under theplea of dharma, and led me to the forest where I had to move on foot, therewas neither disappointment nor grief, nor fear in rAma". "dharmApadeSAt tyajataSca rAjyam mAm cApyaraNyam nayatah padAtim || (sundara 36.29)SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points out that another instance of this detachment isthat He did not have the faintest desire to have any part of SrIlankA forHimself which he won in the battle with rAvaNa. He also gives references toprabandham: pArALum paDar Selvam bharata nambikkE aruLi arum kAnamaDaindavan (perumAl tirumozhi 8.5); iru nilattai vENDAdE virainduvenRimaivAyakaLirozhindu tEr ozhindu mAvozhindu vanamE mEviya em irAman(perumAL tirumozhi 9.2).Some versions have this nAma as virajah (rajo-rahitah). SrI cinmayAnandagives the interpretation that He is without the rajas or agitation of themind, and so He is virajah (passionless). He is the embodiment of Puresattava guNa.The dharma cakram writer points out that the difference between us andbhagavAn is this - that we are attached and He is detached. He refers us totirukkuraL: paRRuga paRRaRRAn paRRinai appaRRaippaRRuga paRRu viDaRkku.The significance of this nAma is that we should learn to be detached bymeditating on this nAma of bhagavAn.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha has composed one Slokam for each nAma to explain thenAma's significance, and thus there are 1000 Sloka-s of his own

inexplanation of the 1000 nAma-s. I am including his Slokam for the currentnAma as an example: "rajo na tasmin na tamSca tasmin, sattva-svabhAvo hi sa vishNuruktah| so'sti svabhAvAt amita-prakASo, deve'sti gItah tamasah parastAt||mArgah - He who is sought after.om mArgAya namah. mArgyate iti mArgah. The word is derived from the rootmRjU Suddhau, to cleanse. He is the path for those who lead a life as laiddown in the SAstra-s. SrI BhaTTar remarks that even sages like bharadvAjasought after Him. He is also the mArga because He is the only means (upAya)to attain Him. SrI Sankara quotes the taittirIya upanishad - nAnyah panthAvidyateyanAya (3.13). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives reference tobRhadAraNya upanishad - esha panthA brahmaNA hAnuvittah - 4.4.9). Thdharma cakram writer gives examples of paraSurAma, vAli, rAvaNa, etc.,where bhagavAn was the means for their realization of Him.SrI BhaTTar also remarks that virajo-mArgah is the version when the twowords are combined as one nAma, and the meaning is that He is the One whoshows the flawless path. SrI srInivAsarAghavan uses the nAma asviratomArgah and gives the meaning that He is the path that is sought aftereven though He Himself is unattached. 399. neyah He who lets Himself be governed (by His devotees)om neyAya namah.netA refers to one who leads. neyah is one who is led. SrI BhaTTar givesthe derivation - niyoga arhatvAt neyah. niyogah means order. One who is tofit to be entrusted with the responsibility to command is also neyah. SrIBhaTTar gives the following references:"Ag~nyApyo'ham tapasvinAm" - I am agreeable to be commanded by those whopractice austerities - (rAmAyaNa AraNya 6.22);:niyunkshva cApi mAm kRtye sarvam kartAsmi te vacah - KRshNa's words toyudhisThira - You may ask me to do whatever you want; I shall certainlycarry out your behests (mahAbhArata anuSAsana 33.25);"ayam asmi mahAbAho brUhi yat te vivakshitam| karishyAmIha tat sarvam yattvam vakshyati bhArata! || - O Long-armed scion of the royal dynasty ofbharata! I am here ready to do whatever you want; I shall carry out yourcommands (mahA udyoga 71.5).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning as "One who is fit to be sought"- prApyah prAptum yogyah, or "One who is not attainable through any pramANaexcept by contemplation, meditation, and devotion" - sarva prmANaavishayatvAt sa manasA netum arhah = mantum yogyah mananIyo bhavati. Thekey phrase is netum arhah neyah. 400. nayah He who draws everyone towards Himself.om nayAya namah.nayati iti nayah - One who draws everyone towards Himself; one who leadseveryone in their spiritual illumination. When rAma reached daNDakAraNyam,the Rshi-s there were drawn to Him, and they entrusted their protectionsolely to Him, even though they had their tapo-balam. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanrefers us to bhagavAn's words in His varAha incarnation - nayAmi paramAmgatim - I will lead everyone to the Ultimate, viz. moksham. The dharmacakram writer points out the examples of arjuna being led in the right pathby bhagavAn through the gItopadeSam. Meditation on this nAma of bhagavAnshould reveal to us that the path to moksahm is to be drawn towards Him andto follow His lead. 401. anayah He who cannot be spirited away.om anayAya namah.SrI bhaTTar gives the example of the futile effort of rAvaNa to lift andcarry away lakshmaNa when he was lying on the battleground after beingstruck by the Sakti weapon by rAvaNa. He also gives an alternateinterpretation based on ayah - the means which brings prosperity; an-ayahthen means He without whom there is no prosperity.SrI Sankara's interpretation that He is one who is not led by anyone, unlikeHe who leads everyone in the spiritual path.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the examples of bhagavAn being the oppositessimultaneously. One meaning he gives for nayah is One who moves. anayah isOne who does not move. He gives reference to 'tadejati tanaijati',anejadekam

manaso javIyo (ISAvAsya upanishad), aram kAmAya harayovadhanvire sthirAya hinvan harayo harI turA (Rg veda 10.96), etc.The dharma cakram writer nicely illustrates how rAma always acted in thepath of dharma without anyone having to lead Him. When he had to go theforest, others including sage vasishTha tried to persuade Him to accept thekingdom instead and rule, but rAma did not swerve from the path of dharmaand adopted that path without having to be told by anyone. When He returnedback from the forest and became the king, some citizens commented thatsItAdevi had been in another person's house and should not occupy the thronewith SrI rAma. Because rAma wanted to set an example to His citizens, Hesent her instead to vAlmIki's ASramam, and showed them the path of dharma ofthe king. Thus, He never needed to be led by anyone, anayah. 402 vIrah Valiant (See 664).om vIrAya namah.He is vIra because He destroys at once those who are a source of sufferingto the pious by discharging His wapons which are ever ready to carry out Hiscommands. He is a source of terror to His enemies. SrI Sankara bhAshyam is"vikramaSAlitvAt vIrah - One who is valorous". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points outthat vIra, saurYa, and parAkrama are among the mahA-guNa-s of bhagavAn, andthe reference to vIrya here by bhIshma can be taken to refer to all threeguNa-s. vIrya is the quality of inducing terror in the hearts of theenemies; Saurya is derived from the word SUra - the ability to cause havocamong the enemies' ranks by single-handedly penetrating their ranks; andparAkrama is the ability to cause enormous damage to enemies' side while notbeing even slightly hurt Himself. rAma is referred to as mahAvIra inraghu-vIra-gadyam (The starting line is jaya jaya mahA-vIra!).SrI bhaTTar giveas reference to the following:mArIca tells rAvaNa about rAma "vRkshe vRkshe ca paSyAmi cIra kRshNAjinAmbaram | gRhIta dhanusham rAmam pASa hastamiva antakam || (rAmAAraNya 39.14)" "In every tree I see rAma dressed in tree bark and black deer-skinand His bow drawn as though He is the god of death with the rope in hand". "brahma-daNDa prakASAnAm vidyut-sadRSa varcasAm | smaran rAghava-bANAnAn vivyate rAkshaseSvarah ||(yuddha 60.3)" "rAvaNa, the king of rAkshasa-s, became uneasy whwn he even thoughtof the arrows of rAma, which hasd the luster of the club of brahma and theglitter of the lightning". "mAta~nga iva simhena garuDeneva pannagah | abhibhUto'bhavad-rAjA rAghaveNa mahAtmanA || (yuddha 60.2)" "The king (rAvaNa) was overpowered by the powerful rAma like theelephant by the lion, and the serpent by garuDa".SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives several references to prabandham:- In tiruccanda viruttam, tirumazhiSai sings - "anRu ila~ngai nIRu SeiduSenRu konRu venRi koNDa vIraNAr";- n perumAltirumozhi we have "ve~nkadirOn kulattukkOr viLakkAit-tOnRi viNmuzhudum uyyakkoNDa vIran tannai" (10.1); mazhu vAL Endi vevvari naRcilaivA~ngi venRi koNDu vEl vEndar pagai taDinda vIran tannai (10.3);- pollA arakkanaik kiLLik kaLaindAanai" in tiruppAvai, referring to the easewith which rAma finished rAvaNa whose power was unheard of;- "vennarakam SerA-vagaiyE Silai kunittAn - tiruma~ngai in SiRiya tirumaDalreferring to rAma's act of torturing kara and dUshaNa during their fight tothe point that they did not need a spearate anubhavam of living in narakAm.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives references to the Sruti: SRNve vIro vindamAno vasUni mahad-devAnAm asuratvam ekam (Rg3.55.10) sa ghA vIro na rishyati yamindro brahmaNaspatih somo hinoti martyam(Rg 2.28.4)SrI rAdhAkRsNa SAstri gives a beautiful description of His vIra. Thesource is not identified, but the description is worth repeating here: "yasmat sva-mahimnA sarvAn lokAn sarvAn devAn sarvAn Atmanah sarvANibhUtAni viramati virAmayati ajastram sRjati visRjati vAsayati, yato vIrahkarmaNyah sudRksho yukta-grAvA jAyate deva-kAmah tasmAt ucyate vIram iti".He cannot be opposed, cannot be conquered, and His skills will beself-evident and will subdue His enemies automatically. 403. SaktimatAm-SreshThah The Greatest among the powerful.om SaktimatAm-SreshThAya namah.SaktimatAmapi SaktimattvAt SaktimatAm SreshThah. He is the mostpraiseworthy among the powerful gods and others. He is more

powerful thanthe likes of brahma the Creator. The likes of indra could not destroyrAvaNa, and they surrendered to bhagavAn as a result seeking His protection.rAma with the axe (i.e., paraSurAma) says to SrI rAma: "aakshayyammadhu-hantAram jAnAmi tvAm syreSvaram - I know that you are indestructible;You are the slayer of madhu (the asura), and You are the Lord of all thegods" (rAmAyaNa bAla 76.17). SrI bhaTTar also gives reference to hanumAn'swords to rAvaNa "devASca daityASca niSAcarendra! gandharva vidyAdhara-nAga-yakshAh| rAmasya lokatraya-nAyakasya sthAtum na SaktAh samareshu sarve||(sundara 51.44) "O King of the rAkshasa-s! The gods and the asura-s, gandharva-sand vidyAdhara-s, nAga-s, and yaksha-s - all these cannot stand againstrAma, the Lord of the three worlds, in the battle". 404. dharmah Virtue Incarnate.om dharmAya namah.SrI satyadevo vAsisshTha derives the meaning from the root dhR~nj - dhAraNeto support; dhArayati iti dharmah - that which supports is dharmah, dhAryatevA yena jagat iti dharmah - He by whom this Universe is supported isdharmah.SrI bhaTTar points out that He is Virtue Incarnate because He sustains allbeings by conferring prosperity and salvation on them. In yuddha kANDabrahma says of Lord rAma - lokAnAm tvam paramo dharmah - Thou art theSupreme Dharma in all the worlds. In mahAbhArata we have "sAkshAt devahpurANO'sau sa hi dharmah sanAtanah - He is ancient God Himself and also theeternal dharma incarnate". About kRshNa incarnation "ye ca vedavido viprAh ye ca adhyAtmavido janAh | te vadanti mahAtmAnam kRshNam dharam sanAtanam || "Those brAhmins who are well-versed in veda-s, and those whorealized the Brahman, declare in one voice that the great SrI kRshNa is theeternal dharma incarnate".SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers to mArIca's words about rAma - rAmo vitgrahavAndharmah - rAma is dhrama incarnate. He also points that ANDAL calls Him"dharumam aRiyAk kurumban" in nAcciAr tirumozhi, obviously out of the sheerintense liberty she has towards her Lord, and out of her intense fondness toHim.SrI cinmayAnanda discusses in some detail the significance of this term"dharma". By example, he points out that the dharma of sugar is sweetness,the dhaarma of fire is heat, etc., and thus the dharma of an the individualin this sense is the soul, without which the individual does not exist.Since bhyagavAn is the one Self that supports all the individuals, He is theUltimate Dharma.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri reminds us of "dharmo rakshati rakshitah, dharma evahato hanti" - dharma protects those who protect it, and destroys those whodestroy it. dharma is like the guides on both sides of the road; if wefollow them, we reach our destination safely; if we go outside the limit, orif we collide with the guides, we encounter suffering. bhagavAn is thisguide for those who want to follow it. Those who don't follow it paydearly.The dharma cakram writer gives several examples of where dharma hasprotected those who followed it, and destroyed those who tried to ignore it.In the former category are hariScandra, the pANDava-s, etc. In the lattercategory are rAvaNa, duryodhana, etc. BhIshma tried his very best to adviseduryodhana that no one who follows dharma can be defeated in the end, nomatter how many bhIshma-s try to help duryodhana. But he won't listen, andultimately paid the price for adharma. Same was the case with rAvaNa, whowould not listen to vibhIshaNa-s advice. Meditation on this nAma ofmahAvishNu should teach us the basic lesson that dharma protects those whofollow it, and adharma will have no end other than self-destruction. 405. dharmavid-uttamah The foremost among those who are conscious ofdharma.om dharma-vid-uttamAya namah.No further evidence is needed for this than that sages such as vasishTha,vAmadeva, and mArkaNDeya who were the guru-s for rAma resorted to Him for aknowledge of dharma (SrI BhaTTar). The dharma cakram writer remarks that itis not easy to recognize what is dharma and what is not dharma. bhagavAnhas created the Sruti-s as His commandments to explain to us what is dharma.To realize what is dharma, meditation on mahaAvishNu is the path. For this,a clean mind is necessary. This is what is taught in tirukkuraL -manattuk-kaN mASilan Adal anaittu aRan. SrI Sankara points out that allSruti-s and smRti-s are His

commandments, and hence He is called thegreatest of the knowers of dharma. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives referenceto vishNu dharmottara - Srutis-smRtI mamaivA~gnye (76.31).-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 44 406. 407. 408. 410. 411. 412. 413. 414. 415. 417. vaikunThah purushah prANah praNamah pRthuh hiraNya-garbhah Satru-ghnah vyAptah vAyuh adhokshajah

om vaikunThAya namahom purushAya namahom prANAya namahom prANa-dAya namahom praNamAya namahom pRthave namahom hiraNya-garbhAya namahom Satru-ghnAya namahom vyAptAya namahom vAyave namahom adhokshajAya namah 406. vaikunThah Remover of obstacles (to union).om vaikunThAya namahSrI BhaTTar derives the meaning from the root kuThi gati praghAte -obstructing the path. Thus kunThA signifies the obstacles to union.vaikunTha-s are those whose obstacles have been removed. The obstacles tobhagavAn are sins. He is the remover of sins, and so He is calledvaikunTha.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri explains the nAma as vigatA kunThA tasyAh kartA -One who regulates those that tend to go their own way if left unobstructed.At the beginning of the earth,

when the pa~nca bhUta-s tended to expanduncontrolled without uniting with each other, bhagavAn controlled this andmade them co-exist through union with other.SrI Sankara and SrI BhaTTar both quote the following Sloka from mahAbhAratain support of the concept that bhagavAn brings about the union of seeminglyincompatible things: "mayA samSleshitA bhUmih adbhir-vyoma ca vAyunA | vAyuSca tejasA sArdham viakunThatvam tato mama || (SAnti343-50) "By me the earth was united with water, ether with air, and air withfire. So I am called viakunTha".He is vaikunThah also because He removes all obstacles to attaining Him forHis devotees, and unites them with Him (SrI P.B. aNNa~ngarAcArya).SrI satyadevo vASishTha explains that One for whom all obstacles orobstructions (kunThA) have been removed is vikunTha. Or One who removes allobstacles is vikunTha also.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives yet another explanation. bhagavAn is calledvaikunThah because He was born to Subhra and vikunThA in the fifthmanvantara. He then married ramA and acceded to her request to create aplace for her enjoyment, and this place was called vaikunTha. He Himself isthis vaikunTha. This is supported by vishNu purANa 3.2.41 and bhAgavata8.5.4-5.The dharma cakram writer takes the interpretation to a level where itapplies to lives of individuals for whom He removed the obstacles facingthem from attaining Him and united them with Him. The cases of prahlAda,paraSurAma, karNa, hariScandra, vAli, etc. are given as examples. 407. purushah The Purifier.om purushAya namah.This nAma occurred earlier also (nAma 14), even though it was not identifiedas a recurring nAma at that time. A summary of the vyAkhyAna given for nAma14 is included here. a. puru sanoti iti purushah - One who gives in plenty. b. purA AsIt iti purushah - One who existed before anything else. c. pUrayati itit putushah - One who completes and fulfils existenceeverywhere. d. puri Sete iti purushah - One who is reclining in this body.In support of d) above, SrI Sankara gives the additional support from theSruti-s: sa vA ayam purushah sarvAsu pUrshu puriSayah (BR. Upa. 2.5.18) -He is indeed called purusha who lives in all the bodies. SrI v.v.rAmAnujangives the following support from divya prabhandham in support of a):vENDiRRellAm tarum en vaLLal (tiruvAimozhi 3.9.5); enakkE tannaittandakaRpagam (tiruvAImozhi 2.7.11).To the above four explanations, we now add the following: e. "usha dAhe purUn sarvAn oshati dahati iti vA purushah" - He whooutshines everyone. f. "pApmana oshah tasmAt purushah" - He who burns away all sins. g. piparti pRNAti pAlayati pUrayati iti vA purushah - He who protects -from pR pAlana pUraNayoh - to protect or nourish h. purah + kushan = purushah (from pura agragamane) - pura agragamanepurati agragAmI bhavati iti vA purushah - He who is the Leader or who is inthe forefront. i. pUrvah asmAt viSvAt tat AdikAraNatvAt iti purushah - He who is theoriginal cause of the world. j. purUNi bhuvanAni samhAra samaye syati antam nayatIti purushah - He whotakes the worlds to their end at the time of samhAra or pralaya.Under the current nAma, SrI BhaTTar gives the two new interpretations above- One who burns (purifies) - oshah - all sins by nature: sa yat pUrvahasmAt sarvasmAt pApmana oshah tasmAt purushah. This is close to the Srutipassage that SrI Sankara gives as a support sa yatpUrvo'smAt sarvasmAtsarvAn pApmana aushat tasmAt purushah (Br. Upa. 1.4.1).The nAma can also be derived from the root pR to protect or nourish (g).Also, from the uNAdi sUtra purah kushan and from pura agragamane (pANi nisUtra), the meaning "One who leads or is in the forefront" (h) is derived.SrI P.B. aNNa~ngarAcArya svAmi chooses this meaning in his abridgedcommentary. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan nicely summarizes the guNa-s indicated by thenAma purusha as "rakshaka", phala prada" etc.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha, who gives most of the interpretations that havebeen covered by other vyAkhyAna kartA-s, also adds the last one above. 408. prANah The vital air (Life-breath).om prANAya namah.This nAma occured earlier (nAma 67, 322). There the explanation given wasprANIti iti prANAh - That which gives or sustains life. In addition togiving prANa to everything in this world, He is also the prANa for all thegods and for all His devotees. As prANa, He causes

the movements.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives additional references - en Aviyai, naDuvE vanduuyyak-koLginRa nAthanai (tiruvAimozhi 1.7.5); naRpAl ayOddhiyil vAzhumSarASaram muRRavum naRpAlukku uittanan (tiruvAimozhi 7.5.1); ottAiep-porutkum uyirAi (tiruvAimozhi 2.3.2). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers usto "yadvai prANiti sa prAnah (chAndogya 1.3).409. prANa-dah - The Life-giver.om prANadAya namah.This nAma occurred earlier (66, 323), and will re-occur as nAma 956. Theinterpretations were: a) prANAn dadAti iti prAna-dah - He who gives life(SrI Sankara and SrI BhaTTar); b) prANAn dyati iti prANah - He who takesaway the vital airs at the time of death (SrI Sankara); and c) prANAndIpayati - He who purifies and brightens the vital airs (SrI Sankara).The aspect of His giving life has also been interpreted as His giving theability to the nitya-sUri-s to enjoy Him constantly, which is the sustenanceof their life.The dharma cakram writer points out that when bhagavAn gives life in theform of the sun, the beings that receive this light are more lively than thebeings that do not get exposed to the sun. Similarly, those who identifythemselves with their body are not in an awakened and energized statecompared to those who realize that they are the belongings of bhagavAn.bhagavAn in His mantra svarUpa awakens the spiritual light in those whochant the gAyatri mantra, and this in turn leads to God realization. ThusHe gives life in different ways to the beings of this world. 410. praNamah a) He who makes others bow before Him.b) He who deserves to be worshiped.om praNamAya namah.praNAmayati iti praNamah. By His superior character, He makes others bowbefore Him. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to divya prabandham - "ilai tuNaimaRRen ne~njE! ila~nkaiyai IDazhitta kURamban allAl kuRai (nAnmugantiruvantAdi 8) - Except for Lord rAma, there is no one else fit for us toworship.An alternate version for this nAma is praNavah - He who is praisedimmensely. SrI Sankara quotes sanatkumAra - praNamantIha vai vedAs-tasmAtpraNava ucyate - He for whom prostrations are made in the veda, is praNavah.praNavah refers to the praNava mantra, and this is considered the verbalrepresentation of bhagavAn - mantra svarUpi. 411. pRthuh Well-known.om pRthave namah.The word pRthuh is derived from pratha prakhyAne - to become famous. SrIBhaTTar gives references to the following: pRthu-SrIh pArthivAtmajah (bAlakANDa - 1.8) - The son of king daSaratha is endowed with world-wide renown;teshAm atiyaSe loko rAmah - (bAla 77.28) - Amongst them rAma was the mostreputed. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers to divya prabandham - nigar il pugazhAi (tiruvAi mozhi 6.10.10).SrI Sankara gives the meaning "He who has expanded Himself as Cosmos". SrIsatyadevo vAsishTha gives the explanation for this interpretation - prathvistAre - to spread out, to expand. The viSva rUpa of mahA vishNu is anexample of pRthuh in both senses - He who is well-known through His virAtsvarUpa or He who is spread throughout cosmos in His virAt svarUpa.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives an additional interpretation - His ninthincarnation among His innumerable incarnations is as pRthu mahAraja who isthe father of pRthvI. This is described in SrImad bhAgavtam 1.3.14 -Rshibhir-yAcito bheje navamam pArthivam vapuh - In response to the requestfrom the Rshi-s, He appeared in the form of pRthu. 412. hiraNya-garbhah He who delights everyone's heart.om hiraNya-garbhAya namah.This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 71. The interpretation given was a) Hewho is in a lovely abode viz. parama padam, or b) He who is the originatorof all that is the object of fulfillment or joy. hiraNya refers to gold.The analogy here is that just as gold is pure, very attractive, and highlycoveted, paramapadam is suddha-sattva, and hence the reference to hiraNya.One who generates all that is great is hinraNya garbhah. SrI v.v.rAmAnujangives reference to tiruvAimozhi 10.9.11 - toNDar ALvadu SUzh-pon-viSumbe -SUzh-pon-viSumbu here referring to "niratiSaya

tEjOrUpamAna paramapadam".hiraNya also refers to the vIrya that He had in Him and that resulted in thecreation. This is another explanation for the nAma that is given by SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri.Just as gold is hidden in the heart of the earth, He is hidden in the heartsof His devotees. He is hiraNyagarbha in this sense as well (SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri).SrI radhAkRshNa SAstri gives a connected account of the nAma-s startingwith viakunThah and ending with this nAma in terms of creation. BhagavAnvaikunTha who has unobstructed and enormous energy, descended from His stateof parama purusha and decided to reside in the beings in this Universe inthe form of purusha in this body as if it is vaikunTha. Then He convertedthe prAna Sakti which operates the prakRti into a form which supported thebeings, and thus becme prANa-dah. Thus resulted this Universe, the AkASabeing the first of the bhUta-s (tasmAd-vA etasmAdAtmana AkASassambhUtah).First there resulted the great sound of praNava (pEroli). From this AkASa,there resulted the other bhUta-s (AkASAd-vAyuh, vAyoragnih, agnerApah,adbhyah pRthivI), and thus He expanded into the cosmos (pRthuh). ThispRthu is the Father of this Universe. pRthvI is the daughter of thispRthuh. Starting from the sthUla form, and following through with thebestowing of the SUkshma form, He then gave the prANamaya, manomaya, andvi~jnAna maya koSa-s to His creations as the hiraNyagarbhah. Thus,starting from the nAma viakunThah, and up to the nAma hiraNya garbhah, thesecret of creation is nicely revealed. 413. Satru-ghnah The Slayer of the enemies.om Satru-ghnAya namah.Satrum hanti iti Satru-ghnah. SrI BhaTTar points out that He subdues byHis arrows of wisdom the senses which lead away the people to the enjoymentof earthly pleasures. That is, when one mediates on Him, this is how Heslays the enemies to the devotee's realization of Him. The mind is comparedto rAvaNa and his ten heads to the ten sense-organs.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He is the destroyer of the enemiesof the gods. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the nAma as referring toHis act of punishing those who violate His dictum. 414. vyAptah He who is full (of love and affection)om vyApatAya namah.From nirukti we have - nIca pUjya avisesheNa vyApanAt vyApta ucyate -Because He does not distinguish between young and old, master and servant,friends and foes, when it comes to showering His affection. SrI BhaTTarrefers us to SrImad rAmAyaNa -paurAn svajanavat nityam kuSalam paripRcchati | puteshvagnishu dAreshu preshyaSishya gaNeshu ca || nikhilena AnupUrvyAcca pitA putrAniva aurasAn || ((AraNya2.37,38)Also, "ripUNAmapi vatsalah" - Even towards His enemies rAma is kind" -yuddha 50.56.Another interpretation given is that He pervades everything (SrI Sankara,SrI cinmayAnanda, SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri). 415. vAyuh He who moves (towards His devotees).om vAyave namah.SrI BhaTTar: He is called vAyu because He Himself goes seeking His devoteeswherever they may be. Examples are His going to Sabari seeking her withrespect, His visit to bharadvAja in his ASrama, His friendship with guha,etc.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the derivation - vAti sarvatra gato bhavatiiti vAyuh - vishNuh. He who is spread out everywhere in this Universe.There is not a single place in this Universe where air has not entered ordoes not exist. This is the guNa of bhagavAn.The dharma cakram writer reminds us that this is a nAma that emphasizesbhgavAn's guNa of being all-pervasive. He gives reference to gItA - "puNyogandhah pRthivyAm - I am the principle of sweet fragrance in the earth(7.9). We can survive without food or water for a few days, but withoutvAyu we can't survive even for a few minutes. Without bhagavAn we can'tsurvive, period. This is the concept this nAma should remind us. vAyucomes to us without our seeking; so does bhagavAn - He seeks His devoteesand goes after them (see SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam in the beginning). vAyudoes not distinguish between people in any way; so does bhagavAn mingle witheveryone with equality of disposition.SrI cinmayAnanda points out that He is not just the air but the life-givingforce behind the air.SrI Sankara

derives the meaning from vAti - gandham karoti iti vAyuh - Hewho is the cause of smell. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to theupanishad - vAyurasmai puNyam gandham Avahati - aitareya 1.7. bhagavAn isthe antaryAmi for vAyu, and makes vAyu perform its functions -"yo vAyau tishThan-vAyorantaro yam vAyur-na veda yasya vAyuh SarIram yovAyumantaro yamayati, esha te AtmAntaryAmyamRtah" - bRhadA 3.7.7.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives several passages from the Sruti to bring outthe uniqueness and importance of vAyu among the devatAs. The Sun, moon,fire and water all merge into vAyu when they disappear vAyurvAva samvargoyadA vA agnirudvAyati, vAyumevApyeti, yadA sUryo'stameti vAyumevApyeti, yadAcandro'stameti vAyumevApyeti,yadApa ucchushyantivAyumevApiyantivAyuhyavaitAn-sarvAnsamvRkye (chAndogya 4.3). When theindriya-devatA-s such as the sun and the moon enter the sushupti state, vAyucontinues to be active as the prANa vAyu - mlocanti hyanyA devatAh, navAyuh, saishA'nastamitA devatA vAyuh - bRhadA 1.5.22. bhgavAn vishNu bearsthe earth through His vibhUti as vAyu - kim tad-vishNor-balamAhuh |vAtAt-vishNor-balamAhuh | (taittirIya 1.8.3). vAyu is the thread thatkeeps this world together like a string holding the beads of a chain;without this the world will break apart like a chain with a broken string;bhagavAn is this force - vAyurvai gautama tat-sUtram, vAyunA vai gautamasUtreNAyam ca lokah paraSca lokah sarvANi ca bhutAni sandRbdhAni bhavanti(bRhadA 3.5.2). Thus vAyuh and its vital role in the existence andsurvival of this Universe is the reason for bhagavAn's nAma as vAyuh. 417. adhokshajah He who does not get diminished.om adhokshajAya namah.He is adokshajah because He never gets diminished even though He is enjoyedby His devotees. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives the most appropriate support forthis from nammAzhvAr - "yAnum Etti mUvulagum muRRum Etti pinnaiyum tAnumEttilum tannai Etta Etta engu eidum? tEnum pAlum kannalum amudamumAgit-tittippa" - tiruvAimozhi 4.3.10.He is adhokshajah also because His vitality never diminishes, and He is notdiminished by repeated births and deaths - adho na kshIyate jAtu yasmAttasmAt adhokshajah (mahAbhArata udyoga 4.69.10). adhah means down or below,and kshIyate refers to getting diminished.SrI Sankara gives an alternate interpretation - He who is perceived when thesense organs (aksha gaNa-s) are made inward-looking. He gives reference tothe following verse, whose author or source are not known. adho bhUte hyakshagaNe pratyag-rUpapravAhite | jAyate tasya vai j~nAnam tena adhokshaja ucyate ||Yet another interpretation given by SrI Sankara is "He who manifests Himselfas the virAt between the sky (aksha) and the region below (adhah) i.e., theEarth" - aksham adhah tayor-madhye vairAja rUpeNa ajAyata iti adhkshajah.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds yet another dimension: adhah - j~nAtRtvabhAvAthInam, akshajam j~nAnam yasya sa adhokshajah - He who is not recognized byindriya-s such as the eyes etc., even though He is everywhere, ineverything.-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 45 417. Rtuh 418. sudarSanah 419. kAlah

420. 421. 422. 423. 424. 425. 426.

parameshThI parigrahah ugrah samvatsarah dakshah viSrAmah viSva-dakshiNah

om Rtave namahom sudarSanAya namahom kAlAya namahom parameshThine namahom parigrahAya namahom ugrAya namahom samvatsarAya namahom dakshAya namahom viSrAmAya namahom viSvadakshiNAya namah 417. Rtuh Seasons (The Lord of Time who governs the seasons).om Rtave namah.The nAma is derived from the root Rgati-prApaNayoh to go. Rcchati itiRtuh. The term Rtuh which refers to seasons is based on the fact thatthe seasons push one another and keep coming fresh and lively withoutinterruption. SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as referring to bhagavAn'sauspicious guNa-s which are unique and delightful and which presentthemselves like waves of seasons in the hearts of His devotees and blessesthem. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri: Rtu refers to a two-month period, of whichthere are six in an year. These are called vasanta, grIshma, varsha,Sarad, hemanta, and SiSira. The cycle of time involves these Rtu-ssuccessively moving one after the other without interruption. This nAmaindicates that BhagavAn is in the form of Time which is behind the cycleof seasons. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to aruNa praSnam (9)-Rtur-RtunA nudyamAnah vinnAdAbhidhAvah - One season prods the other outand declares its arrival loudly.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn is called Rtuh becauseHe is everywhere in the form of seasons. 418. sudarSanah a) He of a delightful appearance that induces happiness in those who see Him.b) He whose vision leads to moksham.c) He whose eyes resemble the lotus petals.d) He who is seen easily by His devotees.om sudarsanAya namah.SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that the nAma refers to His guNa thatthe very sight of Him is a source of delight and is auspicious even tothose who may be ignorant of His qualities and greatness. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the term "dRshThi cittApahAri to describe thisguNa of BhagavAn.SrI Sankara has given three interpretations:a) su darSanam asya iti sudarSanah - He who has the good Vision

that leadsto moksham. su - Sobhanam, nirvANa phalam; darSanam - j~nAnam, asya itisudarSanah. b) He who has eyes that resemble the petals of lotus - Subhe darSane -IkshaNe padma-patrAyate asya iti sudarSanah.c) He who is easily seen by His devotees - sukhena dRSyate bhaktaih itisudarSanah.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri relates this nAma to the previous one byinterpreting the current nAma as referring to the devatA for the sudarSanacakra. Just as time is spinning uninterruptedly in the form of the sixRtu-s, the six-pronged sudarSana cakra is revolving powerfully andwithout interruption, and BhagavAn is the devatA for this sudarSanacakram. He gives the following reference in support of thisinterpretation - shaDaram vA etat-sudarSanam mahA-cakram tasmAt shaDarambhavati, shaD-patram cakram bhavati, shaDvA Rtavah Rtubhih sammitambhavati, madhye nAbhir-bhavati, .... (nRsimha pUrva 7.2).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that this nAma refers to bhagavAn'sability to see and know everything in this Universe in and out clearly andwithout blemish through His netra in the form of the Sun, and also throughHis being the antaryAmi in everything. 419. kAlah a) He who draws all towards Himself.b) He who measures and sets a limit to everythingc) He who is Death or annihilation to all His enemiesd) He who measures everyone's karma and doles out the phala.The nAma is derived from the root kala samkhyAne to measure or count. SrIBhaTTar's bhAshyam for this nAma is carAcara sa~nkalanAt kAlah - He whogathers everything - movable and non-movable, into Himself through Hisdelightful qualities (kalanAt kAlah).SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is kalayati sarvam iti kAlah - He who measures andsets a limit to everything is kAlah. He gives reference to gItA - kAlahkalayatAm aham (10.30). SrI rAmAnuja bhAshya for this part in gItA isanartha-prepsutayA gaNayatAm madhye kAlah mRtyuh aham - Of those whoreckon with the desire to cause misfortunes or calamities, I am god ofdeath. tirukkaLLam SrI nRsimharAghavAcArya svAmi has commented that thereference here is to the One who is proficient in keeping track of timefor everyone's end viz. citragupta. It can also mean that He is the Deathor annihilation to all His enemies (SrI cinmayAnanda).SrI cinmayAnanda adds that this nAma signifies that bhagavAn measures themerits and defects in each individual, and doles out the appropriateresults kalayati iti kAlah. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha has also given thissame interpretation - sarveSvaro vishNureva kAlo, yato hi sa kalayatigaNayati samasta-prANi-karmANi, tadanukUla phala-pradAya. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that among those that are used to measureor quantify things, kAla or Time is the most precise; it is not prone toany error and keeps prodding everything to its destined end. This isBhagavAn's act. He gives reference to the following passage - "kAlo hinAma bhagavAn svayambhuh anAdi madhya nidhanah | sa sUkshmAmapi kalAm nalIyate iti kAlah | samkalayati kAlayati vA bhUtAni iti kAlah (suSrutasUtra 6.3). 420. parameshThI a) He who resides in the Supreme Abode, SrIviakunTham.b) He who resides in the Supreme cave of the heart.om parameshThine namah.SrI BhaTTar gives the derivation - parame sthAne tishThati itiparameshThI - He who resides in the Supreme Abode, SrIvaikunTham. Aftercompleting His sport of hunting the rAkshasa-s, BhagavAn goes and stays inthe Supreme Abode, and so He is known as parameshThI. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanrefers us to tiruvAimozhi 6.4.10 - mAya~ngaL Seidu SEnaiaip pAzh paDanURRiTTup pOi viN miSaittana tAmame puga mEvia SOdi (jyoti). SrI cinmayAnanda, who follows SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam, bases his explanationon the kaThopanishad passage "parame vyomni prathisTHitah" - He who iscentered in the Supreme cave of the heart and readily available forexperience. 421. parigrahah a) He who takes all with Himb) He who is grasped on all sides by those who seek refuge in Himc) He who accepts any offering by His devotees when offered with sincerityd) He who has everything in this Universe

under His control.om parigrahAya namah.SrI BhaTTar bhAshyam - atra tatra ca parito grahah asya iti parigrahah -Here, there, and everywhere, He accepts all. Quite appropriately, this isthe last of the nAma-s that SrI BhaTTar interprets as referring to the SrIrAma incarnation. When Lord rAma departed to SrIviakunTham after thepurpose for his incarnation was completed, He took every ayodhyA-vAsi withHim, including the gardens, trees, etc. SrI nammAzhvAr very nicelydescribes this - puRpA mudalAp pul eRumbu Adi onRinRiyE naRpAl ayoddhiyilvAzhum carAcaram muRRavum naRpAlukku uittanan nAnmuganAr peRRa nATTuLE(tiruvAimozhi 7.5.1). SrI BhaTTar concludes his anubhavam of Lord rAma's guNa-s by singling outHis souSIlyam as the most outstanding guNa in SrI rAma avatAra - His guNaof mingling with everyone without distinction regardless of His SupremeSuperiority.Among the interpretations given by SrI Sa~nkara are: a) parito gRhyate -He who is grasped on all sides by those who seek refuge in Him; and b)parigRhNAti iti parigrahah - He who receives (accepts) the offerings ofleaves, flowers, etc. offered by the devotees. Recall "patram pushpamphalam toyam..." in the gItA (9.26). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that bhagavAn isparigrahah - paritah sarvatah grahaNam - He who has everything in thisUniverse under His control through His power. 422. ugrah The Formidable.om ugrAya namah.SrI BhaTTar explains the next few nAma-s in terms of the kalkiincarnation. The nAma is derived from uc - samavAye - to collecttogether. At the end of kali yuga, when all are more inclined to commitsins, and when there is great confusion in the divisions of caste and theseveral stages of life, bhagavAn becomes ugra- furious and wrathful, andtakes the kalki incarnation and destroys the hosts of mleccha-s. SrIv.v.rAmAnujan points out that when bhagavAn is unable to conquer throughHis 'kUDArai vellum Sir" those who are bent on the path of adharma, it isthen that He becomes ugra. 423. samvatsarah a) He who resides (in the pAtAla loka).b) He in whom everything resides.om samvatsarAya namah.The word is derived from the root vasati preceded by the preposition sam.SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn is reclining on the ananta-couchin the pAtAla loka with all His weapons awaiting the time when He has toappear as the kalki incarnation. SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam: samvasanti bhUtAni asmin iti samvatsarah - He inwhom all beings reside. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the meaning "Year" to theword samvatsarah, and interprets this to mean Time, in the context ofwhich all beings exist and gather their experiences. 424. dakshah He who is quick in action.om dakshAya namah.The word is derived from the root daksh - to grow or act quickly. (Notethat the word dakshiNA also results from the same root, since it is meantto grow the welfare of the yajamAna). SrI BhaTTar continues hisinterpretation in terms of the kalki incarnation, and points out that thisnAma refers to bhagavAn's quick action in eliminating the dasyu-s(miscreants, looters) quickly during His incarnation. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanrefers us to nammAzhvAr 4.8.1 - kulam kulamA asurargaLai nIRAgum paDiyAganirumittup-paDai toTTa mARALan. This nAma also occurs later as nAma 917, where SrI BhaTTar interprets theword in terms of bhagavAn's being very fast in coming to the rescue ofgajendra, even though gajendra was just an animal. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanobserves that SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam of this incident is that bhagavAnwas so fast when He came to the help of gajendra that He did not have timeto inform pirATTi, and when He found that the speed of garuDa was notsufficient, He carried garuDa (instead of garuDa carrying Him) and flewand landed on the banks of the pond with utmost speed. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the explanation "He who is Smart", because He isvery prompt, efficient and diligent in His function of creation,protection, and destruction of the Whole Cosmos. He also explains the nAmaas

referring to " bhagavAn's readiness to reach and help all, at alltimes, everywhere, under every circumstance".SrI Sa~nkara observes that daksha refers to one who has the threequalities, immensity, strength, and quick execution (pravRddhah, Saktah,SIghrakArI ca dakshah). This nAma conveys that all these qualities arenatural to the Supreme Being. 425. viSrAmah a) The Place of Rest.b) One who provides rest to all the beings.om viSrAmAya namah.The word viSrAmah is derived from the word Srama. He is the place of restfor those who are extremely tired by the heavy burden of their sins andthe experience of their fruits. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives thederivation - viSrAmyati yasmin sarvam iti viSrAmah. BhagavAn is also theplace of rest for all the jIva-s at the time of pralaya. Another explanation provided by SrI satyadevo vAsishTha is - viSrAmayatisarvam iti viSrAmah. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that BhagavANcreated night after a day's toil for the beings to rest, death after alife of karma-s, fire for those who shiver from cold, shade to rest forthose scorched by the sun's rays, etc., and thus He constantly providesthe comfort of rest for every tApa. When those who suffer the effects oftheir karmA think of Him, He makes this thought itself the shield for themfrom their sufferings, and provides the needed comfort. 426. viSva-dakshiNah a) He who is well-disposed towards all.b) He who offers the whole world as dakshiNA in the aSva-medha yAga.c) He who is proficient in everything.d) He who is more proficient than everyone.om viSva-dakshiNAya namah.The first two interpretations are SrI BhaTTar's, and the next two are SrISa~nkara's.a) viSvasmin ishTa-anishTa kAriNiavisesheNa dakshate iti viSva-dakshiNah -He shows His favor uniformly to all. This was the case in the trivikramaincarnation, where He blessed everyone with His Feet in addition tomahAbali. The word dAkshiNya (derived from the same root as dakshiNah)refers to the guNa of forgiving enemies. b) viSvam dakshiNA asya iti viSva-dakshiNah. In vanaparva in mahAbhArata,we have "Then He will destroy all the robbers and will offer this Earth asdakshiNA in the aSvamedha yAga to the officiating priests". "tataS-cora-kshaya kRtvA dvijebhyah pRthivIm imAm | vAjimegha mahA-yaj~ne vidhivat kalpayishyati ||(bhArata vana 191.1)c) viSveshu karmasu dAkshiNyAt viSva-dakshiNah - One who is proficient ineverything.d) viSvasmAt dakshiNah Saktah - One who is more skilled than everyone.SrI cinmayAnanda elaborates that all the efficiency and skill in theuniverse among the living dynamic creatures is but an expression of Him,since He is the source of the skill and efficiency. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

Sri Vishnu Sahasranama Stotram The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. 427. 428. 429. 430. 431. 432. vistArah sthAvar-sthANuh pramANam bIjam-avyayam arthah anarthah

433. mahA-koSah 434. mahA-bhogah 435. mahA-dhanah

om vistArAya namahom sthAvara-sthANave namahom pramANAya namahom bIjAya-avyayAya namahom arthAya namahom anarthAya namahom mahA-koSAya namahom mahA-dhanAya anamah 427. vistArah a) He who spreads (the veda-s).b) He who is spread out in everything.c) He who expands to contain everything (at the time of pralaya).om vistArAya namahAfter destroying the kali yuga by force in His kalki incarnation, bhagavAnestablishes the kRta yuga and then spreads dharma through the veda-s.SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the mahAbhArata: tatah adharma vinASo vai dharma-vRddhiSca bhArata | bhavishyati kRte prApte kriyavAn ca janas-tathA ||(mahA. vana. 191.7)SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr - kaliyum keDum kaNDu koNmin;tiriyum kali-yugam nI~ngi devargaL tAmum pugundu peria kida yugampaRRip-pErinba veLLam peruga (tiruvAimozhi 5.2.1,2).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn is vistArah because Hespreads Himself out in the form of all the beings He has created and all theobjects in the universe. Then at the time of pralaya, all these merge backinto Him, and He expands Himself to contain all the things. Thus the nAmavisTara applies both to His being spread out in all objects, and Hisspreading out to contain all the objects within Himself. SrI vAsishThagives reference to the yajurveda - tadantarsya sarvasya tadu sarvasyAsyabAhyatah; ISAvAsyam idam sarvam yat-kim ca jagatyAm jagat; etc. He alsogives the example of a seed expanding to a tree, and the tree beingcontained in the seed back again.The dharma cakram writer adds another dimension to the anubhavam of thisnAma. He observes that the viSva-rUpa that bhagavAn showed to arujuna is anillustration of this nAma. This form with infinite faces, infinite eyes,with no beginning or end, with all the beings including all the devascontained in this form, with the Sun and the moon as His eyes, and with notop, middle or bottom, illustrates His nAma "vistArah". svAmi vivekAnandaonce made a statement to the effect that "Life is to expand", meaning thatwe get closer and closer to God by expanding our love to Him and our desireto reach Him. This is what the nAma "vistArah" should remind us. 428. sthAvar-sthANuh a) He who is tranquil after establishing the dharma in kRta yuga.b) He in whom the earth etc. restc) He who is motionless, and in whom the earth etc. rest.om sthAvar-sthANave namah.SrI BhaTTa's vyAkhyAnam is "evam dharme sthAvari_kRte, Same sthAsyati itisthAvara-sthANuh", which supports interpretation a)

above.SrI Sa~nkara interprets the nAma as "sthitiSIlah sthAvarah; sthitiSilAnipRthivyAdIni tishThanti asmin iti sthANuh; sthAvaraSca asau sthANuScasthAvara-sthANuh". This is translated slightly differently by two differentinterpreters. One is that the apparently motionless objects such as theearth etc., rest in Him. The other interpretation is that this nAma refersto "He who is firmly established, and in whom the apparently motionlessentities such as the earth are established, and He is both of these".SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation "He is both Firm (shtAvara) andMotionless (shtANuh)". He is motionless because He is Allpervading.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri explains sthAvara as referring to the pa~nca bhUta-sthat will continue till the time of pralaya, sthANuh as referring to Onewhose state does not change, and interprets sthAvarasthANuh as referring toOne who does not change in His state, and in whom the changeless pa~ncabhUta-s exist. The tamizh word "tAvaram" is related to the samkRt word"sthAvara". SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that just as the road does not move eventhough people keep moving on it, and the mother walks but the child in herwomb does not walk with her, so also bhagavAn has created all that is aroundus but He Himself is sthAvarah. 429. pramANam The Authority.om pramANAya namah.The root from which the nAma is derived is mA mAne to measure, to comparewith. pramANam is that through which everything is ascertained. In thiscase it refers to bhagavAn who is the final proof or authority foreverything. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn created thisUniverse the way He wanted, including the decision on how many speciesshould exist and what attributes they should have, etc., and so He is thepramANam or authority for everything.The nAma occurs again as nAma 959. SrI BhTTar interprets the currentoccurrence as referring to His being the authority to decide what is goodand what is bad for the people in the kRta yuga, after the kalkiincarnation.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri defines pramANam as that ability which helps usdecide between good and bad through data acquired using our sense organs(ears, eyes, etc.). BhagavAn is the One who controls this, and so He isHimself pramANam. 430. bIjam-avyayam The Seed Imperishable.om bIjAya avyayAya namah.The nAma is bIjam (seed) that is avyayam (imperishable). Because dharmagrows again and again from Him after the end of each yuga, He is theImperishable Seed (SrI BhaTTar).SrI Sa~nkara vyAkhyAnam is that He is the cause of everything withoutHimself undergoing any change (anyathA bhAvavyatih ekeNa kAraNam). Thedharma cakram writer gives a slightly different interpretation - Unlike someseeds which may not produce a tree and which may decay in the form of theseed itself, bhagavAn is the undecaying seed from which the Universeresults. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to gItA 9.18 - (aham)bijam-avyayam. SrI rAmAnuja bAshyam for this passage in gItA is "tatra tatravyaya-rahitam yat kAraNam tad aham eva" - "I alone am the imperishable seedthat is the exhaustless cause everywhere". SrI satyadevo vAsishTha refersus to the vedic passage "ajAyamAno bahudA vijAyate", which conveys a similarmessage. He also gives a passage from vaiyAkaraNa defining the term avyayamsadRSam trishu li~ngeshu sarvAsu ca vibhaktishu | vacaneshu ca sarveshu yan-na vyeti tad-avyayam ||which can be approximately translated as "That which is equal andindistinguishable in the three genders and numbers as well as in its variousdeclensions". 431. arthah The Goal - He who is sought after.om arthAya namah.That which is obtained or desired to be obtained is "artha". SrI BhaTTarrefers us to gItA - "j~nAnavAn mAm prapadye vAsudeah sarvam iti" (7.19).SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is "sukha rUpatvAt sarvaih arthyata iti arthah" - Hewho is sought after by all as He is of the nature of bliss. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri remarks that there are many things in this world whichare sought after with a view to deriving happiness, but they all end up inresulting in misery after they are

acquired and enjoyed. Unlike these,bhagavAn is sought after by those who have the j~nAna to know that He is theonly one to be sought for permanent bliss. 432. anarthah a) He who is not the goal for some.b) He who is self-fulfilled and does not have any other end to seek.om anarthAya namah.a) SrI BhaTTar explains that He is not sought after by those who have only alittle merit. They seek Him if at all, only for wealth. These are thosewho want to regain their lost wealth, those who wish to acquire new wealth,and those who seek the enjoyment of their own self (kaivalyam) withoutseeking kaimkaryam to bhagavAn.SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is that bhagavAn is completely fulfilled and so doesnot need any artha (i.e., He does not seek anything), and so He is anarthah.The dharma cakram writer has devoted about one-and-a-half pages to thisnAma, and nicely describes how the current-day human being goes to greatlengths to make himself/herself comfortable, and in the process keeps makinglife miserable. The needs just keep increasing the more new things areinvented. The atom bomb is invented, and instead of protecting man itbecomes a threat to worry about. More and more cosmetics are invented, andmore and more diseases result as a result of their use. More and morethings are invented to satisfy our taste buds, and more and more problemsresult because of over-consumption. This nAma should illustrate to us thatlife that does not keep multiplying our needs is the life that willultimately lead us to the mental state where we can contemplate on bhagavAn. 433. mahA-koSah a) He who has a great treasure.b) He who is a Great Treasure.c) He who is shielded by the five koSa-s or shields.om mahA-koSAya namah.koSa means treasure. mahA-koSa refers to vast, inexhaustible treasure. Eventhough BhagavAn is giving away Himself and His belongings always to Hisdevotees in all ways, still it does not diminish. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refersus to "Unam il Selvam enko?", pointing to the undiminishing Affluence calledBhagavAn.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that from this Great Treasurechest(mahAkoSah) viz. bhagavAn, come out all these different worlds, and thedifferent life-forms in each of these worlds, but the Treasure-chest is notin anyway diminished by this. We see this demonstrated even in day-to-daylife, in that the waters of the ocean never diminish even though the wateris constantly evaporating. So also, the beings are born one from the otherjust because of the mahAkoSa.SrI Sa~nkara's interpretation is based on the meaning "shield" for koSa.This interpretation is that the real nature of the soul is shielded by thefive koSa-s, anna maya koSa, prANa maya koSa, mano maya koSa, vij~nAna mayakoSa, and Ananda maya koSa, and bhagavAn is the mahAkoSa who is shieldedfrom all except the yogi-s. The dharma cakram writer points out that bycontrol of our indriya-s we can cross the anna maya koSa, by control ofbreath we can cross the prANa maya koSa, by control of the mind the manomayakoSa is crossed, by channeling one's intellect and through control ofworldly desires and passions we can cross the vij~nAnamaya koSa, and throughmeditation on the Self we cross the Anandamaya koSa, and ultimately realizebhagavAn. 434. mahA-bhogah He who has objects of great enjoyment.om mahA-bhogAya namah.SrI BhaTTar: He who has objects of great enjoyment. Great sensualgratifications which have got to be acquired by means of wealth, they toocan be had from Him. The objects of desires that are obtained by theworship of indra and other gods is but a blessing of bhagavAn - "labhate catatah kAmAn mayaiva vihitAn hitAn" - gItA 7.22.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr 3.10.3 - muttu il pal-bhOgattorutani-nAyakan - bhagavAn has limitless and unbounded bhoga-s.The dharma cakram writer points out that among the joys that one gets, thereare those which are conducive to desirable benefits, and there are thosewhich lead to misery as a result of the enjoyment. When one eats food forsatisfying hunger, this does not lead to suffering, but when one consumesfood to

satisfy the taste buds, it is of the later kind. The enjoymentinvolving gambling, intoxicating drinks, stealing other's wealth, etc., arebought at the price of misery as a consequence. The term mahAbhogahindicates that bhagavAn is the source of the bliss that is the greatest ofall joys that lead to positive benefits, the one that leads to Selfrealization. 435. mahA-dhanah He of great wealth.om mahA-dhanAya namah.He is endowed with immeasurable and unlimited wealth to be given to thosewho need it. SrI BhaTTar quotes vishNu purANa marIcimiSraih daksheNa tathaiva anyaih anantatah |dharmah prApatah tathA ca anyaih arthah kAmah tathA paraih || vishNupurAna 1.18.23"dharma in an endless manner has been obtained from Him by the reveredmarIci, daksha, and others. Similarly wealth has been obtained from Him byothers. Likewise, by yet others kAma (the sensual enjoyment) has beenacquired".SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that He is the possessor of the greatwealth that can be put in the mahAkoSa - great treasure chest (nAma 433),and that is needed for the mahAbhoga - great enjoyment (nAma 434).The dharma cakram writer discusses three kinds of wealth material wealth,knowledge, and devotion. The first two can be attained by anyoneirrespective of their character etc. Those who have material wealth orknowledge are praised by the people of this world, and as a result getintoxicated with pride. But the third category of wealth is rewarded andpraised by bhagavAn, and does not lead to anything except bhagavAn Himself.Lord rAma during His paTTAbhishekam gave away lots of material gifts to theparticipants, but He did not give any material gift to hanumAn. When siTapirATTi asked rAma about this, He told her that He has already given tohanumAn what nobody else knows, and that she can find out what it is fromhanumAn himself. When asked, hanumAn shows Lord rAma and sItA residing inHis heart. This is what vishNu's nAma of mahAdhanah indicates, viz. thatHe gives away the greatest wealth there is, Himself, to His devotees.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha adds that He is mahAdhanah because He has wealththat leads to absolute bliss, never diminishes, immense, cannot be countedor measured, and is prayed for by everyone else.-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 47 436. 437. 438. 439. 440. 441. 442. 443. 444. 445. anirviNNah sthavishThah bhUh dharma-yUpah mahA-makhah nakshatra-nemih nakshatrI kshamah kshAmah samIhanah

om anirviNNAya namahom sthavishThAya namahom bhuve namahom dharma-yUpAya namahom mahamakhAya namahom nakshatra-nemaye namahom nakshatriNe namahom kshamAya namahom kshAmAya namahom samIhanAya namah 436. anirviNNah He who is never despondent .om a-nirviNNAya namah.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning starting from the root vid -vicAraNe to discuss, to consider. SrI BhaTTar explains this by indicatingthat bhagavAn does not become despondent even though His expectations thatwe will resort to Him for our redemption are not fulfilled. He just goes onwith a new creation in the hope that we will meet His expectations in ournext chance. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr - SOmbAduip-palluruvai ellAm paDarvitta vittA - periya tiruvantAdi 18. SrI Sa~nkaragives the interpretation that He is never despondent because He has nowishes that are not fulfilled.The term a-nirvedah is also used to explain this nAma - One who is notdespondent or in despair.The dharma cakram writer points out that just as the heart ceaselessly keepsbeating in order to keep us alive but takes rest constantly in between thebeats and so never gets tired, bhagavAn ceaselessly creates this world andrests also continuously in between and never gets tired. If we do ourkarma-s with a sattvic attitude we also will never get despondent, but if wedo our karma-s either with the rAjasic or tAmasic disposition, we will geteasily depressed. This is the lesson we should take from this nAma. 437. sthavishThah He who is Immense.Om stahvishThAya namah.The author of nirukti explains this nAma as "sthoulyAt sthavishThah. SthUlameans large, immense, huge. SrI BhaTTar explains this sthoulya in terms ofthe huge grouping of stars referred to SiSumAra in vishNu purANa 2.9.1 -tArA-mayam bhagavatah SiSumArAkRtih prabhoh - The form of the mighty Hariwhich is present in heaven, consisting of the constellations, is that of aporpoise, with dhruva situated in the tail, etc. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan observesthat this constellation is revolving constantly like a cakra, and is beingconstantly drenched by the Ganges flowing from the satya loka to this earth,and is a reminder that bhagavAn is constantly striving to rejuvenate andsustain the beings of this Universe. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri givesreference to taitttirIya AraNyaka 2.19, which also describes bhagavAn inthis great form of SiSumAra, the Gangetic porpoise, with all the deva-s aspart of His body - tasmai namas-tac-chiro dharmo mUrdhAnam brahmottarAvishNur-hRdayam.....sa vA esha divyah SAkvarah SiSumArah. SrI Sastri alsorefers us to the description of the huge form of bhagavAn in SrImadbhAgavatam, 2.1.24 - 2.1.38, starting with viSeshas-tasya deho'yamsthavishThaSca sthavIyasAm. Here He is described as sthUlasyAm sthUlah -the most huge among those that are huge (Slokam 24), and sthavishThe vapushi(Slokam 38) - He with the form that is huge.SrI Sa~nkara gives reference to another

vedic passage - agnir-mUrdhAcakshushI candra-sUryau - muNDakopanishad 2.1.4 - Agni is His head, the moonand sun are His eyes. 438. bhUh The All-supporter.om bhuve namah.bhu bhav - to be - He who exists, without any other support. Thus oneinterpretation is that this refers to One who truly exists, unlike all otherbeings which have only temporary existence in a bodily form.bhu also refers to Earth, or in this case the support for all the stars inSiSumAra referred to in the previous nAma. The vishNu purANa passage quotedin the previous paragraph says that dhruva is in the tail of the SiSumAragroup of stars, and as dhruva spins, all the other stars spin with it, andis thus the supporter of the SiSumAra constellation. Since dhruva is a formof bhagavAn, bhagavAn is thus the supporter of all the stars of SiSumAra.This is SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam. SrI rAmAnujan refers to nammAzhvAr -tiRambAmal maN kAkkinREn yAnE (tiruvAimozhi 5.6.5), and to tirumazhiSaiAzhvAr - nAgamEndu maNNinai...kAttu (tiruccandaviruttam 6) - He who supportsthe AdiSesha who supports the Earth.SrI Sa~nkara uses an alternate pATham as his primary text here, leading tothe nAma as a-bhuh- He who is not born, though he also refers to thepossible alternate pATham - bhuh, Existence. 439. dharma-yUpah He who is united with dharma.om dharma-yUpAya namah.yu - miSraNe to join. yUpa refers to a post, e.g., the sacrificial post towhich sacrificial animal is tied. Here it refers to His being the peg forall dharma-s.SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is - dharma-tattvam Sirah avayavatayA yauti itidharma-yUpah - He in whom dharma is united as part of His body viz. head.The taittirIya AraNyakam passage referred to in nAma 437 starts with "tasmainamas-tac-chiro dharmah" - He whose Head is dharma. SrI BhaTTar quotes"dharmo mUrdhanam ASritah - dharma has resorted to His head". dharma isHis most important responsibility (v.n.vedAnta deSikan).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a different anubhavam of this nAma. dharma isthat which sustains - dhArayati iti dharmah. yUpa as was pointed outearlier is derived from yu - miSraNe to join. The pa~nca bhUta-s serve thepurpose of sustaining life in this world. Since bhagavAn unites the pa~ncabhUta-s which sustain the life in this world, He is dharma-yUpah.The dharma cakram writer observes that dharma and bhagavAn are not distinct.This nAma should remind us that those who follow dharma are always protectedby bhagavAn. This was the advice given to duryodhana by bhIshma whenbhIshma had to fight on the side of duryodhana, viz. that there is no waythat the pANDava-s can be defeated because they are on the side of dharma. 440. mahA-makhah The Great ya~jna-svarUpi.om mahA-makhAya namah.makhah refers to yaj~na, sacrifice, or sacrificial oblation. SrIv.v.rAmAnujan points out that bhagavAn is ya~jna-svarUpan. This can bebest understood from SrI satyadevo vAsishTha's explanation that ya~jna issomething that gives whatever is desired on successful completion.BhagavAn is the mahA-makhah since He bestows everything desired on Hisdevotees. The Universe and all the things He has created for the enjoymentand benefit of the beings of this Universe are examples of things thatresulted from this 'mahA-mahkah'.Another explanation is that dharma is the greatest ya~jna (ya~jno dharmaScavi~jneyah), and since dharma is His head, He is Himself the great sacrificepersonified (mahA-makhah).SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is that He is mahA-makhah (The Great sacrificialoblation?) because sacrifices or offerings to bhagavAn lead to moksha, thegreatest of the benefits. 441. nakshatra-nemih

He who makes the stars move.om nakshatra-nemaye namah.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the derivation for nakshatra as "na ksharatikshIyate vA". The word nemih is derived from the root nI to lead or carry.SrI BhaTTar vyAkhyAnam is "jyotiS-cakram nayati iti nakshatra-nemih". Herefers to the continuation of the vishNu purANam passage referred to in nAma438. "evam bhraman bhrAmayati candrAdityakAn grahAn | bhramantamanu tam yAnti nakshatrANi ca cakravat ||* vishNu purANam 2.9.2."As He (in the form of dhruva) goes round, He makes the sun, the moon andother planets revolve. All the stars also follow Him like a wheel as Hemoves in a circle".VishNu purANam continues with "SiSumArAkRti proktam yadrUpam jyotishAm divi | nArAyaNah param dhAmnAm tasyAdhArah svayam hRdi || (2.9.4) "The porpoise-like figure of the celestial sphere is upheld bynArAyaNa, who Himself, in planetary radiance, is seated in its heart".Reference to vishNu being in the heart or center of the SiSumAra cakra andbeing responsible for its movement is also made in the the svAdhyAyabrAhmaNa of taittirIya Sakha referred to under nAma 437. SrI Sa~nkara usesthis reference to explain that bhagavAn is nakshatra-nemih because He is inthe center of the SiSumAra collection of stars, and is the one who supportsit like a nave at the center of the wheel.The dharma cakram writer reminds us how important this function of mahAvishNu is. If only one of the millions of stars goes out of its pathprescribed by Him, the consequences will be disastrous for us. This nAmashould remind us that just as order in the macro level is important for oursurvival, there is need for order at the thought level as well for thelong-term survival of all of us. If the thoughts are not good, and if theyare not devoted to the welfare of the world as a whole but areself-centered, the consequence is the long-term destruction of the whole. 442. nakshatrI He who has (supports) the stars.om nakshatriNe namah.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha explains that just as one who has kshetra is calleda kshetri, or one who has SarIra is called a SarIri, one who has the starsis nakshatrI. SrI BhaTTar explains that His being the Lord and drivingforce behind SiSumAra is the reference here. SrI Sa~nkara gives theinterpretation that nakshatrI refers to His being the Moon, the Lord of allthe stars (nakshatrANAm aham SaSI - Among the stars, I am the Moon - gItA10.21). 443. kshamah a) He who is competent.b) He who has great patience.om kshamAya namah.a) This interpretation is based on ksham - sahane to allow, to suffer. SrIBhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is - akhila bhuvana bhAram anAyAsena kshamate - vahatiiti kshamah; He is known as kshamah because He bears the burden of theentire Universe with ease. SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is "sarva kAryeshusamarthah kshamah - He who is clever and competent in everything.b) SrI Sa~nkara gives an additional interpretation based on ksham - sahaneto endure. He refers to SrImad rAmAyaNa - kshamayA pRthivI samah - SrIrAma is like the earth in patience bAla kANDa 1.18.The dharma cakram writer links the two interpretations nicely by pointingout that in order to be competent and efficient, you have to act withpatience. And when we act with patience and thus become efficient in ouracts, the feeling we should have is that this is the kRpA of bhagavAn.This nAma conveys the idea that in order to be efficient and proficient, weneed to be patient and then dedicate the results of this efficientperformance to bhagavAn and grow our devotion to Him. This in turn will getus closer to realization of Him.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that when the jIva-s leave the vedic pathand pursue other paths, He does not lose His patience, but instead gives thefruits that are consistent with these actions and thus makes them pure andkeeps giving them more opportunities to correct themselves. In a sense,bhagavAn's guNa of kshamA is reflected in everything in this Universeinherently. The individual soul puts up with the body for the duration thatis prescribed for it irrespective of all the actions of the body, everycreation of His puts up with the heat and cold to which they are exposed,etc. 444. kshAmah

a) He who is in a diminished form.b) He in whom all forms diminish.om kshAmAya namah.The root from which this nAma is derived is kshau - kshaye to waste. SrIBhaTTar explains this nAma by pointing out that bhagavAn stands in the formof dhruva in a diminished form at the time of the dissolution of the Earthinclusive of the five elements. All the luminaries up to dhruva disappear,and dhruva alone remains shining in his place, as stated in vishNu purANa "yAvan-mAtre pradeSe tu maitreyAvasthito dhruvah | kshayamAyAti tAvat-tu bhumerAbhUtasamplave || 2.8.92SrI Sa~nkara's vyAkhyAnam is that He is kshAmah - The Remainder, since Healone remains when everything else has disappeared in pralaya.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the explanation that bhagavAn is kshAmahbecause He is hidden in everything in this Universe. 445. samIhanah a) He who establishes all others (indra etc.) in their respective posts.b) Well-wisher - He who works towards the welfare of His creation.om samIhanAya namah.The nAma is derived from the root Iha ceshTAyAm - to aim at, to desire, tostrive for. There are two aspects to striving for something. One is tostrive by oneself, and the other is to make others work. Thus there are twodifferent interpretations given for this nAma.SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn after the deluge, at the time ofcreation, makes all the other devas do their work in their respectiveposts. samIhayati iti samIhanah. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference totivuvaImozhi - iRukkum iRai iRuttuNNa ev-vulagukkum tan mUrti niRuttinAndeiva~ngaLaga ad-deiva nAyakan tAnE (5.2.8).SrI Sa~nkara's vyAkhyAnam is that He is one who wishes well for His creationSRtyAdi artham samyagIhata iti samIhanah - Well-wisher.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives several references from Sruti-s to support theinterpretation of this nAma, among which is the following from Rg veda "sUryA-candram-asau dhAtA yathA pUrva-akalpayat | divam ca pRthvIm ca antariksham atho svah ||- Rg 10.190.3.-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 48 446. 447. 448. 449. 450. 451. 452. 453. 454. 455. yaj~nah ijyAyah mahejyah kratuh satram satAm gatih sarva-darSI nivRttAtmA sarvaj~nah j~nAnam-uttamam

om yaj~nAya namahom ijyAya namahom mahejyAya namahom kratave namahom satrAya namahom satAm-gataye namahom sarva-darSine namahom nivRttAtmane namahom sarvaj~nAya namahom uttamAya j~nAnAya namah 446. yaj~nah The Sacrifice.om yaj~nAya namah.This nAma occurs again as nAma 971.The spirit of the nAma is that He is yaj~na-svarUpi Himself, i.e., Hepractices yaj~na of the Highest Order. The term yaj~na is nicely explainedby the dharma cakram writer. karma binds us to the phala-s deriving fromthese karma-s; yaj~na releases us from the bondage of karma. In otherwords, any act that is done without a selfish goal, for the benefit ofothers and for the benefit of the world, with a spirit of sacrifice,performed without the feeling of "I" associated with it, and acts done asbhagavad-ArAdhana, these qualify as yaj~na. There is divinity associatedwith acts which are performed with this spirit.This writer goes on to describe the different types of yaj~na. dravyayaj~na (expending one's earnings for the public good), tapo yaj~na(contemplating and meditating on bhagavAn and diverting all thoughts towardsHim), yoga yagj~na (practicing utmost selfcontrol and controlling all fivesenses and leading a life consistant with conduct guided by this principle),and lastly the greatest of all yaj~na-s - dedicating oneself and one'sbelongings towards the service of bhagavAn.When we have transformed all our acts so that they are not karma-s devotedto our selfish goals, we have transformed the karma-s to yaj~na. Theultimate yaj~na is when we have offered ourselves as the Ahuti in thisyaj~na, i.e., we do everything for His benefit, not for our benefit.Since every one of bhagavAn's acts is for the benefit of His devotees andnothing is for His own benefit, He is the incarnation of yaj~na.Several references are provided in support of this nAma. SrI BhaTTar refersus to the Sruti - yaj~no vai vishNuh. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives severalreferences to prabandham - SeiginRa kidi ellAm yAne ennum (tiruvAimozhi5.6.4), vEdamum vELviyum Adiyum AnAn (tirumozhi 9.4.9), paNDai nAnmaRaiyumvELviyum tAnAi ninRa emperumAn (tirumozhi 5.7.1), viLa~ngum SuDarc-cOdiyaivELviyai (tirumozhi 7.10.9), etc.SrI Sa~nkara extends this interpretation to include bhagavAn's nurturing allthe other gods. As yaj~na-svarUpi or sacrifice-bodied, He provides offeringsto all gods, thus causing their satisfaction and happiness sarveshAmdevAnAm tushTi-kArako yaj~na AkAreNa pravartata iti. 447. ijyAyah He who is the (only) object of worship.om ijyAya namah.ijyAm arhati iti ijyah. Those who worship anyadevatAs seeking temporarybenefits of a lower order, in reality worship only vishNu who is theantaryAmi or Inner Soul of all beings. This is revealed in gItA ye tu anya-devatA bhaktA yajante SraddhayA anvitAh | te'pi mAmeva kaunteya yajanti a-vidhi-pUrvakam || (gItA9.23)SrI BhaTTar also refers us to mahAbhArata ye yajanti pitR*n devAn brAhamNan sahutASanAn | sarva bhUtAntarAtmAnam vishNumeva yajanti te || (SAnti355.24) "Those who worship the spirits of their forefathers, the

gods, thebrahmins as well as agni - they in reality worship only vishNu who is theInner Soul of all beings".SrI Sa~nkara quote the harivamSa to support the same interpretation ye yajanti makhaih puNyair_devaTAdIn pitR*napi | AtMAnam AtmanA nityam vishNumeva yajanti te || (3.40.27) "Holy sacrifices to divinities and pitR-s are verily adoration ofvishNu Himself, who is the Self of all". 448. mahejyah He who is the best among the objects of worship.om mahejyAya namah.He is the best object of worship because He alone can give the finalliberation from the cycle of samsAra, whereas the other objects of worshipcan only give the lesser fruits. SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is "sarvAsu devatAsumoksha-phaladAtRtvAt iti mahejyah". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan emphasizes thesignificance of this nAma - mahA vishNu is the parama purusha, and we shouldworship the mahejyah directly instead of offering worship to Him through theother deities for whom He is the antarAtmA. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastriobserves in this context that agni is the nearest of the devatA-s to us, andvishNu is the farthest (agniravamo devatAnAm vishNuh paramah (taittirIyasamhitA 5.5.1). 449. kratuh a) Object of worship through the sacrifices called kratu-s.b) He who is behind the actions of everybody or He by whom everything is done.om kratave namah.SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that among the different types of yAga-s,the type where one uses one's resources to perform a yAga with a definiteobjective and within a prescribed duration, is called a kratu. Thisrequires firm dedication, sincere effort, and the firm belief that thedesired result will be obtained. Since He is the one worshipped by allthese, He is kratuh. Or since He is the personification of all these, He iskratuh.The term yaj~na we came across as nAma 446 is different from the term kratuhwe have here, based on the Sloka from gItA aham kratuh aham yaj~nah svadhA aham aham aushdham | mantrah aham ahameva Ajyam aham agnih aham hutam || 9.16SrImad rAmAnuja in his gItA bhAshyam interprets kratuh as referring to thevedic sacrifices such as the jyotishToma, and the term yaj~na ( nAma 446) asreferring to the mahA yaj~na, which is interpreted by SrI BhaTTar asreferring to the pa~nca mahA yaj~na-s, the seven pAka yaj~na-s, etc.Prof. A. SrInivAsarAghavan explains the pa~nca mahA yaj~na-s further: brahma yaj~na involving teaching and reciting veda-s, pitRyaj~na - offering of libations of water to the deceased ancestors daily(tarpaNa), deva yaj~na - a sacrifice made to the gods through oblations tothe fire, bhUta yaj~na involving offering a portion of the daily meal to allcreatures, and manushya yaj~na - sacrifice offered to other people(hospitable reception of guests).The seven pAka yaj~na-s are:aupAsana homa, vaiSva-deva, pArvaNa - sthAlI-pAka, ashtakA-SrAddha,mAsa-SrAddha, sarpa-bali - oblation to the serpents, and ESAna-bali(oblation to the gods).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a different explanation. He gives theinterpretation that He by whom everything is done is kratuh - kriyata itikratuh. Or, that intellect through which everything is done, is kratuh,i.e., jnAna. 450. satram a) He who is worshipped by the sacrifice called satram.b) He who protects the good peoplec) He who makes everything go.om satrAya namah.satram is another type of sacrifice, this one done on an unlimited timescale, devoted to world-welfare, with participation from multitude ofpeople. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "dIrgha-kAla bahu-yajamAnakamAsacodanA-lakshaNam satram".SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that the activity that is commonlyundertaken to feed the pilgrims in large numbers in choultries (calledSattiram in tamizh) is an example of this kind of selfless activity wheremany good people participate for the welfare of a larger community ofpeople. Again bhagavAn is the object of worship of these activities, and soHe is satra-svarUpi.SrI Sa~nkara gives an additional interpretation - He who protects the good -satah trAyati iti sat-tram.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning from the root sad - sIdatisignifying movement.

sIdati gacchati sarvatra - One who goes everywhere -sattram. Alternatively, satrayate vistArayati viSvam iti sattram - He whomakes the world go. Everything in His creation also has His guNa ofmovement, including the human heart which goes constantly and yet whichstays in one place. 451. satAm gatih The Goal of the pious.om satAm-gataye namah.This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 186 - Slokam 20.SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is "satAm - mumukshUNAm na-anyA gatih iti satAm-gatih"- The sole support for those who seek liberation.SrI BhTTar comments that whereas in previous nAma-s, bhagavAn is describedas the goal of those who follow the pravRtti-dharma, i.e., dealing with thepleasures and business of the world, this nAma signifies that He is also thegoal of those who follow the nivRtti-dharma, i.e., discontinuance ofworldly acts or emotions.SrI BhaTTar gives reference to vishNu purANam nirdhUta dosha-pa~nkAnAm yatInAm samyatAtmanAm | sthAnam tat paramam vipra! puNya-pApa parikshaye || 2.8.94 "O brAhmin! That is the sublime place for yati-s (i.e., yogins) whohave washed off the mire of sins and who control their minds when all theirmerits and sins have been annihilated".SrI cinmayAnanda comments that the term gatih in samskRt means both thepath and the goal. SrIman nArAyaNa is both the means and the end for thesAdhu-s, and it is only by surrendering to Him that they reach Him. 452. sarva-darSI The All-Seer.om sarva-darsine namah.One who, by His innate insight, is able to see all the good and evil actionsof living beings. Since He is the antaryAmi in everything, He seeseverything even without the awareness of the beings. SrI cinmayAnandaobserves that as the Sun is known as the "eye of the Universe", bhagavAn isthe Illuminator of everything. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that Heobserves everything irrespective of whether we perform what are supposed toperform, we perform what we are not supposed to perform, or we don't performwhat we are supposed to perform. The dharma cakram writer summarizes thepurport of this nAma by pointing out that when we act with the fullrealization that He is our Inner Consciousness, and when we act consistentwith that, we have understood the meaning of this nAma. This is behind theconcept that we should do every act of ours by dedicating it to Him, and notperform any act that is not towards His Will. (AnukUlaya sa~nkalpam,prAtikUlya varjanam).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha summarizes the nAma as "j~nAna cakshur bhagavAnvishNuh". He gives references to the well-known sruti: sahasra-SirshApurushah sahasrAkshah sahasrapAt; viSvataS-cakshuruta viSvato mukho viSvatobAhuruta viSvataspAt; hiraNyayena saviTa rathenA devo yAti bhuvanAni paSyan;etc.The gItA Slokam 13.13, with a reference that is easy to remember, alsoconveys this idea: sarvatah pANi pAdam tat sarvato'kshi Siro mukham | sarvatah SrutimAn loke sarvam AvRtya tishThati ||SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri refers us to the related nAma-s sarva-darSanah(Slokam 10), sarva-dRk (Slokam 22). 453. nivRttAtmA a) He whose mind is turned away from worldly desires.b) He who is the AtmA of those who follow the nivRtti dharma.om nivRttAtmane namah.The nAma nivRttAtmA occurred earlier in Slokam 25 (nAma 231), and willre-occur as nAma-s 604, and 780.Sa~nkara pATham in this instance is vimuktAtmA. In another place (Slokam83) he uses the pATham a-nivRttAtmA. We will deal with his alternateinterpretations under nAma 780.SrI BhaTTar vyAkhyAnam: a) This nAma illustrates that bhagavAn appeared asnara and nArAyaNa to teach the nivRtti dharma to the world (as nArAyaNa),and to show how to practice it with extreme detachment (in the form ofnara). To indicate His profound detachment (parama vairAgya) to materialobjects of pleasure, He has His mind withdrawn from them. Thenara-nArAyaNa avatAra as well as the nivRtti dharma are embedded in thisnAma. The avatAara emphasized nivRtti-dharma and propagated the sacredashtAkshara. The essence of nivRtti dharma is the realization that nothingis done for our benefit or by us, and everything is for the benefit ofnArAyaNa and happens because of Him. We are not for us or

for someone else,but only for nArAyaNa. b) Under nAma 604, SrI BhaTTar gives the vyAkhyAnam that He isnivRttAtmA also because He is the AtmA of those who practice the nivRttidharma. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan observes that another name for these practitionersof nivRtti dharmA is j~nAnI, whom bhagavAn considers as His own soul.Under nAma 780 SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is yet another variant of thenivRtti concept. BhagavAn is also nivRttAtmA because, even though Hecreated this whole Universe, He remains totally detached from the worldlyaffairs. He is associated with the Universe in that He created out of Hissheer Mercy, but His mind itself is not in any way affected by the worldlythings - svatastu tat a-sammata manAh.SrI Sa~nkara pATham, vimuktAtmA, is interpreted as He who has the Soul whichis ever-free. BhagavAn is untouched by the effects of karma, since all Hisactions are for the benefit of others, His creations. SrI satyadevovAsishTha observes that bhagavAn is inside everything in the Universe astheir antaryAmi, and yet is not bound by them, and thus He is nivRttAtmA. 454. sarvaj~nah The Omniscient.om sarvaj~nAya namah.This nAma occurs again as nAma 821. Sri BhaTTar explains that He knows thatHe is the antaryAmi in everything, and thus He is sarvaj~nah. He knows Heis the best dharma, the best means, and the best goal. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanquotes peria tirumozhi in support - ulagattu ellAm aRivIr - 4.9.6.SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is "sarvaSca asau j~naSca iti - He who is all and whoknows all. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri has given several references to theSruti - yah sarvaj~nah sarvavit (muNDakopanishad 1.1.9); sa sarvaj~nah sarvobhavati (praSna 4.10); esha sarveSvara esha sarvaj~nah (mANDUkya 6); saviSvakRt siSvavid Atmayonih j~nah kAlakAlo guNI sarvavidyah (SvetASva2.6.2,16). 455. j~nAnam-uttamam The Greatest Knowledge.om uttamAya j~nAnAya namah or j~nAnAya uttamAya namah.SrI BhaTTar points out that BhagavAn is the one who revealed the vaishNavadharma which is the most superior of all the dharma-s - sarvah paroviashNavo dharmah j~nAyate asmin iti j~nAnam-uttamam. He also refers to therevelation of the pA~ncarAtra by bhagavAn as another instance that He is theuttama j~nAnam paThantam aniSam Sastram pA~ncarAtra puras-saram. SrIv.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr - mikka j~nAnamUrtiyAgia vEdaviLakku - tiruvAimozhi 4.7.10.SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam for this nAma is prakRshTam ajanyam anavacchinnamsarvasya-sAdhakam iti j~nAnam-uttamam - Superior to all, birthless,continuous and permanent (unlimited by Time and Space), and the best meansof achieving everything. He gives reference to "satyam j~nAnam, anantambrahma" - Brahman is Truth, Knowledge, and Infinitude - taittirIyaupanishad.SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri contrasts the "limited" knowledge with the"Superior" knowledge. An example of the former is the sight an observersees, with the limitation of the observer's eyes, the light that shines onthe object, the limitation of the observer (e.g., the state of mind of theobserver), as well as the limitations of the observed object (e.g., therelative size of the object etc.). Not limited by constraints like these isthe knowledge that is revealed by the Self about the Self, which isunlimited by the sense organs. This is the knowledge of bhagavAn.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives reference to the atharva vedic passage "sUtramsUtrasya yo veda, sa veda brahmANam mahat" - He who has knowledge of theSupreme Knowledge, knows the greatest there is to know. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by

Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 49 456. 457. 458. 459. 460. 461. 462. 463. 464. 465. su-vratah su-mukhah sUkshmah su-ghoshah sukha-dah su-hRt mano-harah jita-krodhah vIra-bAhuh vidAraNah

om su-vratAya namahom su-mukhAya namahom sUkshmAya namahom su-ghoshAya namahom sukhadAya namahom su-hRde namahom mano-harAya namahom jita-krodhAya namahom vIra-bAhave namahom vidAraNAya namah 456. su-vratah a) He of good vows - to protect anyone who surrenders.b) He who did intense tapas in His nara-nArAyaNa incarnation.c) He who has good control of the offerings He accepts - e.g., from the likes of kucela only.d) He who observes nitya-karma-s in His incarnations just to set an example to us.om su-vrtAya namah.This nAma occurs later as nAma 824.Under nAma 824 SrI BhaTTar gives the vyAkhyAnam that is most familiar to allof us - Lord rAma's vrata expressed during vibhIshNa SaraNAgati through sakRdeva prapannAya tavAsmIti ca yAcate | abhayam sarva-bhUtebhyo dadAmyetat vratam mama || yuddha18.34 "To him who seeks my protection even once and begs of mesaying "I am Thine", to him I give protection from all beings. This is myvow". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives the equivalent reference fromnammAzhvAr's SrIsUkti - SaraNamAgum tanatAL aDaindArgatkellAm - tiruvAimozhi9.10.5. SrI Sa~nkara gives this interpretation under the currentnAma, but gives a different anubhavam for the nAma when it occurs later inSlokam 88. There he interprets vratayati as enjoys, and su-vrata asreferring to His enjoying the offerings of bhakta-s such as kucela. vratamis control of the food one eats and other controls. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastriobserves that bhagavAn had good control of His habits when He wasnaranArAyaNa. SrI cinmayAnanda gives another dimension of thenara-nArAyaNa incarnation as its applies to the nAmna su-vrata - He who didintense tapas (su-vrata) for a long number of years in the nara-

nArAyaNamount in BadrinAth.For the current nAma, SrI BhaTTar gives another aspect of bhgavAn's suvrata- good deeds. BhagavAn has nothing to gain by observance of any karma suchas the prescribed kula dharma-s. Even so, bhagavAn observes all theanushTAna-s during His incarnations without any compromise. Thus He is asu-vrata. He says in the gItA na me pArtha asti kartavyam trishu lokeshu ki~ncana | na anavAptam avAptavyam varta eva ca karmaNi || 3.22 "For me, arjuna! There is nothing in all the three worlds whichought to be done, nor is anything that is not acquired that ought to beacquired. Yet I go on working".BhagavAn continues to work purely for the benefit of His creation. This isthe significance of His nAma as su-vrata. He says in the very next Sloka inthe gItA that if He did not do this, He will set a bad example for others,and they will not perform their prescribed duties and suffer for this lapse.The dharma cakram writer gives some examples of the power of su-vrata.BhIshma practised the su-vrata of brahmacarya, which gave him his enormousgreatness. hariScandra's story is an example of the greatness ofsatya-vrata.The nAma-s from 457 to 463 that follow are interpreted by SrI BhaTTar firstbased on the nara-nArAyaNa incarnation, and then he gives an alternateinterpretation based on the mohini incarnation. 457. su-mukhah He with a charming face.om su-mukhAya namah.su - Sobhanam mukham asya iti su-mukhah.This can be taken as a reference to His having a sweet countenance even whenHe was chanting the mantra-s and meditating as nArAyaNa maharshi in Hisnara-nArAyaNa incarnation. SrI BhaTTar refers us to the mantra aboutkRshNa - kRshNAya kamala-dala amala netrAya - To SrI kRshNa Who has aface with eyes pure and spotless like a lotus petal. SrI v.v.rAmAnujangives reference to nAcciyAr tirumozhi - "engaLai maiyal ERRi mayakka unmugam mAya-mandiram tAn kolO" 2.4; amalanAdipirAn - ap-perivAya kaNgaLennaip-pEdaimai SeidanavE - 8; prasanna vadanam dhyAyet etc.SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri explains the significance of the nAma very nicely bypointing out that normally with practice one overcomes the strain of severepenance, and so the countenance will not reflect any strain. But inbhagavAn's case we see cheerfulness instead of just the lack of strain. WhenHe was told to go to the forest just at the time He was decorated forpaTTAbhishekam,His face didn't have the slightest indication of disappointment or sadness,but instead displayed the peace and satisfaction typical of the greatest ofthose who have renounced the worldly things (ayodhyA kANDa 19.30-33).kamban's description of rAma's face is "meit-tiruppadam mEvu enRa pOdilum,it-tirut-tuRandu Egu enRa pOdilum, cittirattil alarnda Sen-tAmaraiyaiottirukkum mugattinai unnuvAL" - Lord rAma's face resembled apicture-perfect lotus-flower no matter whether He was asked to ascend thethrone or to forsake all and go to the forest.SrI Sa~nkara gives reference to vishNu purANam and to several passages fromSrImad rAmAyaNa. In vishNu purANam we have - prasanna vadanam cArupadma-patrAyatekshaNam (6.7.79)- His face is pleasing, handsome, possessedof large eyes resembling the lotus-petal. In rAmAyaNa, SrI Sa~nkara givesreferences to sundara kAndam 33.24 - sa pitur-vacanam SrImAn abhishekAtparam priyam | manasA pUrvam AsAdya vAcA prati-gRhItavAn; ayodhyA kANDam24.17 - imAni tu mahAraNye vihRtya nava-pa~nca ca | varshANiprama-prItah sthAsyAmi vacanam tava ||; and ayodhyA kANDam 19.33 - na vanamgantu-kAmasya tyajataSca vasundarAm | sarvalokAtigasyeva mano rAmasyavivyate ||An alternate interpretation given by SrI Sa~nkara based on the Sruti passage- yo brahmANam vidadhAti pUrvam - SvetA. upa. 6.18, is that He has a verysatisfied countenance because He has imparted all the knowledge to brahmA. 458. sUkshmah Subtle, delicate and difficult to comprehend.om sUkhsmAya namah.He is sUkshmah because He can be realized only by deep contemplation andmeditation which is performed without expecting any benefit. He can't becomprehended through the physical organs such as the eyes and ears, andcan't be realized through the mind, but can only be experienced.SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri nicely explains the power behind the concept ofsUkshma. The subtler the object, the more power it has. We all know theultimate power of

the atom. If we start from the macro level of our body,and go through the different subtler levels such as the sense-organs, themind, the buddhi, and finally the soul, the power increases as the subtletyincreases. MahAvishNu is subtler than the subtlest of things, sUkshmah.SrI Sa~nkara gives reference to the Sruti sarva-gatam susUkshmam -muNDakopanishad 1.1.6 - He who is very subtle and has entered intoeverything.SrI cinmayAnanda points out that in vedAnta terminology, sUkshma or subtletyimplies pervasiveness, and bhagavAn's nAma of sUkshma refers to HisAll-pervasiveness.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a different perspective to the anubhavam ofthis nAma by tracing the nAma to the root sUc - paiSunye - to point out, toindicate by gesture. He gives the explanation thatbhagavAn is suKshmah because, even though He does not manifest Himselfexpressly, He expresses Himself to us through everything around us all thetime. This is the sUkshma behind vishNu the Sukshmah, viz. that He is allaround us and has never really hidden Himself from us in any way.Just as the sound made by the cow identifies the cow even if the cow is notseen, or the sound (voice) created by a person identifies the person eventhough the person is not seen, so also everything around us that is createdby bhagavAn identifies Him to us (e.g., the AkASa, the sound from the AkASa,etc). 459. su-ghoshah a) He whose voice is itself the great veda-s.b) He who is praised by the delightful voice of the veda-s.c) He who has a very sweet, deep, and sonorous voice.om su-ghoshAya namah.SrI BhaTTar vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn is su-ghoshah because He isproclaimed by the vedic voice of the upanishads. bhagavAn is vedasvarUpiHimself. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAimozhi - nAraNan, muzhuEzhulagukkum nAthan, vEda mayan (2.7.2), and to peria tirumozhi 5.5.9, wheretiruma~ngai AzhvAr called bhagavAn "SandOgan, pauzhiyan, ain-tazhal Ombutaittiriyan, Sama-vedI". SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is "su-Sobhano ghoshovedAtmako asya iti su-ghoshah" - One whose auspicious sound is the veda-s.He also gives a more direct alternate interpretation - He who has a voicedeep and sonorous like that of the cloud - meghagambhIra ghoshatvAt.The dharma cakram writer points out that when veda is chanted with theproper intonations, the sound originates from the region of the diaphragm,and this sound has the ability to cleanse and purify our mind. The sweetsound of Nature, the sound arising from the trees and the birds, is soothingand comforting to the mind. BhAratiyAr sings "kETkum oliyil ellAm nandalAlAundan gItam iSaikkudaDA nandalAlA". All the musical instruments werediscovered as a result of listening to the sweet sound of Nature. This nAmashould remind us that all the mantra-s sung in praise of bhagavAn and thatsing His greatness are su-ghosha-s.SrI satyadevo vAsishsTha looks at the nAma from its root - hushir viSabdaneto proclaim, to declare. The nAma su-ghoshah is formed by prefixing theupasarga su- which means "Sobhana". su-ghoshah is thus the sound whichproclaims Him well repeatedly or loudly viz. the veda-s. Since the name andthe One who is referred to by that name are same, He becomes su-ghoshah.BhagavAn manaifests Himself through su-ghoshah in real life constantlyeverywhere. The knowledge of the rain, that of the running water as well aswater that is obstructed from its natural flow, all these can be known fromthe sound emanating from these. Just as a great artist is revealed by theart he/she creates, bhagavAn is constantly revealed through the sweet soundsof Nature that He has created. 460. sukha-dah He who Bestows Bliss.om sukha-dAya namah.BhagavAn bestows Supreme Bliss on those who practice sadAcAra (good conduct)and deep meditation (samAdhi). SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is - sadAcArasamAdhi anushThApanena tan-nishThebhyah phalam parama-sukham dadAti itisukha-dah. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan observes that bhagavAn just does not stop withgiving the fruits to those who observe sadAcAra, but He Himself observesthese anushTHAna-s to set an example to us so that we can follow His pathand get the parama-sukham. This is revealed by Lord kRshNa in the gItA inSlokam 3.23 which we referred to earlier under nAma 456. SrI rAmAnujanrefers us to nammAazhvAr - "inbam payakka iniduDan vIRRirundu ivezhulagaiAlginRa e~ngaL pirAn - tiruvAimozhi 7.10.1.The dharma cakram writer points out that even

though bhagavAn is the One whobestows even the ordinary benefits such as wealth, health etc., based onkarma-s, the significance of the current nAma is that He alone can bestowthe Ultimate sukham viz. moksham.SrI Sa~nkara gives an additional interpretation which means that bhagavAndestroys the sukham of those who are wicked and evil. asad-vRttAnAm sukhamdyati khaNDayati iti vA sukhadah.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha analyzes the word into three part su, kha, and da,and gives an interpretation different from the above. He starts with khanu- avadhAraNe - to dig, and equates su-kha with the SarIra with its outletsthat allow us to lead a life without sickness, disease etc. One who givesthis sukha sarIra is su-kha-dah - sukham khAtam tad-dah sukhadah vishNuh. 461. su-hRt The good-hearted, a True Friend.om su-hRde namah.BhagavAn is always on the lookout for ways to help even His adversaries, andthis is His Nature of being a su-hRt. SrI BhaTTar vyAkhyAnam is -anupakAriNi api "kim asya bhavishyati? kim karavANi" iti SubhASamsi SobhanahRdayatvam su-hRtvam. su-hRtvam or friendliness is that quality of abenevolent person who wishes good even for those who have not helped him inany way, and who, being apprehensive of any evil that may befall them,always thinks "How shall I help them?".SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to SrImad rAmAyaNam - ripUNAmapi vatsalah - Afriend even to His enemies.The dharma cakram writer observes that the heart which suffers when sorrowhits, or rejoices when a favorable event occurs, is not the "good heart"referred to here, but the heart that bleeds when others suffer is the goodheart. Lord rAma was not affected one way or the other when He was about tobe crowned or when He was asked to leave for exile in the forest. He wasneutral in both circumstances. But the pure heart is one which anguisheswhen someone else suffers, and rushes to help those who need help.Meditating on the significance of this nAma will lead to the purification ofthe heart of the devotee. 462. mano-harah He who captivates the heart.om mano-harAya namah.Because of the innate benevolence noted above, He captivates everyone'sheart. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr - maiyal Seidu ennaimanam kavarndAnE - tiruvAimozhi 7.2.6. SrI cinmayAnanda has appropriatelytranslated this nAma as "One who is the looter of the mind". His vyAkhyAnamis "Not only is the Lord Beauty Incarnate, but He compels the attention ofthe devotee to come away from all other sense objects to dwell upon Hisenchanting form. Thus vishNu is one who generates an irresistible joy inthe mind of His devotees and compels them to spend their time in constantworship".SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn has created all things withthis mano-haratva attribute built into everything He created. Now we seeal these beautiful things around us, and our mind is captivated by thisingenuity of the Creator, and we wonder aloud - "Who could it be thatcreated this marvel?" So He is mano-harah.The dharma cakram writer generalizes the interpretation of this nAma tosuggest that bhagavAn gravitates the minds of people either towards Him ortowards the worldly objects depending on what they want. Those who wantmaterialistic pleasures, He gravitates their mind deeper towards the life ofshort-term enjoyment; and those who have controlled their mind and senses,He gravitates these devotees closer and closer towards Him. So bhagavAn ismano-harah for both categories of people. 463. jita-krodhah He who has overcome anger.om jita-krodhAya namah.Because BhagavAn has conquered all bad qualities including anger, He isjita-krodhah. He gets angry only if He chooses to get angry by His ownwill. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives the following reference: In the beginningof SrImad rAmAyaNa SrI vAlmIki asks the question "Who is the jita-krodhah"among people, and nArada responds that it is rAma - ucyamAno'pi parusham nauttaram pratipadyate - Even when others utter harsh words towards Him, Hedoes not respond with similar harsh words.SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri distinguishes between three types of anger, all ofwhich

have been mastered by BhagavAn. manyu is the type of anger which isin the mind but which does not find expression in words or in action. Whenthe anger spills out in the form of reddening of the eyes, expression in theface, etc., this is called kopam. When anger finds expression in harshwords, shaking of the body, deeds which reflect harshness as a result of theanger, etc., then this is called krodham. It is to be noted that bhagavAnhas not eliminated anger completely, but just has conquered it, and will getangry when He feels the need for it. SrI vAlmIki nicely expresses thisthrough the words "krodham AhArayat tIvram" 3.24.33 - He brought Himselfto be angry. When His devotee hanumAn is hurt by rAvaNa, Lord rAma madeHimself angry. (yuddha 59.147). SrI Sa~nkara points out that if He killsan asura, it is not because of anger but only to establish the vedic orderof life.SrI cinmayAnanda extends the anubhavam to include not just krodha, but allthe six types of afflictions that a man can suffer from - kAma, krodha,lobha, moha, mada, and mAtsarya. This nAma indicates that bhagavAn hasconquered all of these.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha, who in addition to his great mastery of samskRt,was a great ayurvedic expert as well as a great astrologer, comments thatkrodham is a result of some defects of the body, and is caused by animbalance in the bodily juices. Since bhagavAn is not subject to thesedeficiencies, He is not subject to kAma, krodha etc.The interpretations by SrI BhaTTar for nAma-s 457 to 463 that were given sofar were based on bhagavAn's nara-nArAyaNa incarnation. He has also givena set of alternate interpretations for these nAmas based on the mohiniincarnation, which are covered below. 457. su-mukhah He who has a charming face - He who shines with a facewhich is delightful like the moon and which is replete with the nectar ofBliss very much like the pot of nectar held in the hand.458. sUkshmah - The Subtle - He is subtle because His thoughts were hiddenfrom the asura-s.459. su-ghoshah - He who is the object of loud and delectable praise - Hisact of churning was delectable and was praised loudly both by the gods andthe asura-s.460. sukha-dah - The Giver of Joy - He gives joy to the gods by distributingthe nectar to them.461. su-hRt - The friend - because of His love for the deva-s.462. mano-harah - The heart-ravishing - His form bewitched the minds of theasura-s.463. jita-krodhah - He who conquered the anger - On seeing His form theminds of the asura-s became confounded with confusion and thereby Heovercame the anger of the asura-s against the gods.nAma-s 464 to 470 which follow are also interpreted by SrI BhaTTar on thebasis of the mohini incarnation. 464. vIra-bAhuh He of mighty arms.om vIra-bAhave namah.SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam of this nAma is that bhagavAn has a thousand armswhich are all vying with each other in the wonderful act of churning theMilk-Ocean - arms which are shining with effulgent bracelets, armlets, andgarlands. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to peria tirunozhi 5.7.4 -"Seyiru viSumbum ti~ngaLum SuDarum dEvarum tAmuDan tiSaippa Ayiram tOLAlalai kaDal kaDaindAn ara~nga mAnagar amarndAnE". We also have intiruvAimozhi - aSurarauit-tagarkkum tOLUm nAngu - 10.1.1.SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is that bhagavAn is vIra-bAhuh because he destroyedthe foes and established the moral law of the scriptures (veda-s).SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri observes that a vIra is one who engages in his actwith intensity in a prescribed way without backing down. BhagavAn's fourhands with four different weapons in them simultaneously go into actionindependently of each other, and accomplish the desired action flawlessly,each one of them displaying the quality of the vIra independently.The dharma cakram writer observes that a vIra is one who uses the might ofhis arms to help the cause of dharma and not for any selfish purpose.rAvaNa was also one of mighty arms, not just two but twenty of them for thatmatter. He cannot be considered a vIra, since all he could use his mightfor was to nurture his kAma. This nAma of mahA vishNu should remind us thatour abilities should be put to use to protect dharma, and not for selfishpurposes. 465. vidAraNah

a) He who cut (rAhu, hirNyakaSipu and others).b) He who cuts the sins of His devotees.om vidAraNAya namah.He who destroys (tears away) those who live contrary to dharma. He cut offrAhu with His divya Ayudha during the distribution of the nectar to thedeva-s in the presence of the asura-s. He is also known as vidAraNahbecause He cuts off the greatest of fears in His devotees - "samagra ugrabhaya vidAraNAya" is the mantra about bhagavAn. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refersus to tiruvAimozhi 9.10.6 - Sem-ponAgattavuNan uDal kINDAvan - He who toreapart hiraNyakaSipu's body to help His devotee.The dharma cakram writer gives the interpretation that bhagavAn tears awaythe association (bandham) between the AtmA or the soul and the body orprakRti. BhagavAn is the one who separates or tears away the unchangingsoul from the ever-changing body.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out this guNa of separating - vidAraNa, inall aspects of His creation. Thus man and woman, day and night, uttarAyaNaand dakshINayana, pRthivI and antariksha, agni and soma, etc. are alldemonstrations or reminders of this guNa of mahAvishNu - vidAraNah. He isthe one who "tears away" or separates the child from the mother at the timeof birth so that the two live separately.-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 50 466. 467. 468. 469. 470. 471. 472. 473. 474. 475. svApanah sva-vaSah vyApI naikAtmA naika-karma-kRt vatsarah vatsalah vatsI ratna-garbhah dhaneSvarah

om svApanAya namahom sva-vasAya namahom vyApine namahom naikAtmane namahom naika-karmakRte namahom vatsarAya namahom vatsalAya namahom vatsine namahom ratna-garbhAya namahom dhaneSvarAya namah 466. svApanah He who lulls people into sleep.om svApanAya namah.SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn in His mohini incarnation lulledinto sleep the asura-s who had not been put away as described in theprevious nAma, using His beautiful smile, sweet glances and the play of Hiseyebrows, and thus made them forget that He was distributing the nectar tothe deva-s exclusively.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha's anubhavam of this nAma is "svApayati nidrApayatipralayakAle sarvam prakRtAviti svApanah" - He puts everyone to sleep at thetime of pralaya. Even though He makes everyone sleep, He Himself is wideawake. This svApanatva guNa of bhagavAn is reflected again in everything Hecreates after the pralaya also. The Sun puts everyone to sleep when thenight comes, but the sun itself does not sleep.SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri refers to gItA 7.25 "nAham prakASah sarvasyayoga-mAyA-samAvRtah, mUDho'yam nAbhijAnAti" - His paratva has beenconcealed to the non-devotee in bhagavAn's incarnations because He appearslike all of us in His body, appearance, and talk etc., and so they don'trecognize Him as paramAtmA. He who does not see what is in front of Him isas good as a person who is sleeping.The dharma cakram writer gives the analogy of the animal life vs. the humanlife. Humans are "awake" in the world of intelligent reasoning, in whichthe animals are "asleep", i.e., they are not capable of operating in thisdomain as well as humans can do. Similarly the ordinary human is asleep tothe world of the j~nAni. The path for the ordinary human to become awakein the world of the j~nAni is to chant the nArAyaNa mantra - "nalam tarumSollai nAn kaNDu koNDEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam" is AzhvAr aruLic-ceyal. Thisis the lesson we should take from this nAma. 467. sva-vaSah He who is under His own control.om sva-vaSAya namah.Continuing on his anubhavam of the mohini incarnation, SrI BhaTTar explainsthat after bhagavAn put the asura-s to sleep, He plays as He likes with thedeva-s, consistent with His absolute independence.The bhAvam here is that bhagavAn is not under the control of anyone oranything else, and He is only under His own control. He does not needanyone's help or

support for whatever He does. Everything else is under Hiscontrol. He does His acts of creation etc. as He wishes. He does not alsohave any desire that is out of His reach (based on vaS - kAntau to wish, todesire SrI satyadevo vAsishTha). BhagavAn is sva-vaSah because He haseverything that He desires within Himself, does not have any desire outsideof Him, and rejoices with His own Self.SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is that bhagavAn is Independent, being the cause ofcreation, preservation and withdrawal of the Universe svatantrah.The dharma cakram writer points out that it is only when one does not haveany need that one can be totally independent. tiruvaLLUvar refers tobhagavAn as "vENDudal vENDAmai ilAn". ANDAL's words are "kuRaivu onRumillAda gOvindA". When we are under the control of our mind, we lose ourindependence, and do whatever our mind dictates. Then we become dependenton others. This nAma teaches us that we should learn to control our mindand get it under our control instead of being controlled by our mind.Meditating on this nAma of bhagavAn will give us this discipline. The morewe are able to devote ourselves to bhagavAn, the more our mind will getunder our control. 468. vyApI The Pervader.om vyApine namah.SrI BhaTTar-s vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn pervades everyone with His ownPower and gives energy to them. At the time of churning the Mik-Ocean, Hepervaded the deva-s, the asura-s, the mandAra mountain, vAsuki and others,and gave them the energy to churn the ocean. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us tonammAzhvAr 1.1.10 - "paranda taN paravai uL nIr torum paranduLan....karandue~ngum paranduLan ivai uNDa karanE". (paravai here refers to an expanse ofwater Ocean).SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri gives reference to the Sruti - avyaktAt-tu parahpurusho vyApakah ( muNDaka 2.3.8). SrI cinmayAnanda points out that inphilosophy pervasiveness indicates subtlety. BhagavAn is all-pervasive, andso is subtler than the subtlest. Since the cause pervades the effect (e.g.,gold pervades all gold ornaments), so also bhagavAn who pervades everythingis thus the Cause of everything.The dharma cakram writer observes that All-pervasiveness also implieslimitlessness, since whatever there is and wherever it is, BhagavAn pervadesit, and so there is no limit to Him. This limitless emperumAn just projectsHimself such that we see whatever little we see based on our limitations.Meditating on this nAma of bhagavAn will broaden our ability to see thisLimitless vyApI.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives several references from the Sruti - parItyabhUtAni parItya lokAn parItya sarvAh pradiSo diSaSca (yajur), pRshTo divipRshTo agnih pRthivyAm pRshTo viSvA oshadhIrAviveSa (Rg), yo agnau rudroyo apsv-antarya oshadhIr-vIrudha AviveSa (atharva); etc. 469. naikAtmA He of diverse forms.om naikAtmane namah.SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam is that bhagavAn assumed several forms at the timeof churning - as vishNu to help the gods and the asura-s to churn, as thetortoise to support the mandAra mountain, and as mohini to distribute thenectar.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri reminds us of the similarity between this nAma andnAma 139 - caturAtmA. A more general interpretation is that bhagavAnexpresses Himself through all the forms of His creation. The dharma cakramwriter points out that the different forms of gods that the followers ofdifferent religions worship are all an expression of bhagavAn, and it isbecause of their ignorance of bhagavAn being a naikAtmA that they think theyare worshipping different deities and fighting within themselves.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the root of the word AtmA as ata -sAtatyagamane - to go constantly, which nicely explains the nature of theAtmA. BhagavAn is everywhere in the form of the father, the mother, theson, the disciple, the teacher, the husband, the wife, the friend, etc.,since He is the antaryAmi in everything. SrI vAsishTha gives severalreferences to the Sruti in support of the interpretation of this nAma, amongwhich are the following tadev-Agnis-tad-Adityas-tadu vAyus-tadu-candramAh| tadeva Sukram tad-brahma tA Apah sa prajApatih || (yajur. 32-1); tvam hinah pitA vaso tvam mAtA Satakrato babhUvitha (Rg 8.98.11) 470. naika-karma-kRt

He who performs diverse acts.om naika-karma-kRte namah.SrI BhaTTar explains the nAma by giving the example of His churning theocean, supporting the mountain, overcoming the enemies, distributing thenectar, etc. SrI v.v.v rAmAnujan gives the quotes from nammAzhvAr - kUDinIraik-kaDaindavArum amudam dEvar uNNa asurargaLai vIDum vaNNa~ngaL SeidupOna vittagamum (tiruvAimozhi 5.10.10), and from tirumaZhiSai AzhvAr - malaiAmai mEl vaittu vASugiyaic-cuRRi talai Amai tAn oru kai paRRi alaiyAmalpIrak-kaDainda perumAn (nAnmugan 49). SrI Sa~nkara points to diverseactions such as creation, sustenance, etc. as a way of interpreting thisnAma. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points to His actions in the form of candra,sUrya, agni, etc. and helping to serve us.The dharma cakram writer gives a view which summarizes all the above bypointing out that everything that ever takes place is His action and nothingelse. Examples of this abound. We are instruments in His creation, but weare not creators. From one mango tree, only another mango tree can come,and we can't create something else from a mango seed. We are theinstruments and He is the kartA. If we have this realization, the benefits(karma phalam) of none of the actions for which we are the instruments willaccrue to us.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha continues his interpretation based on his previousinterpretation of naikAtmA. BhagavAn who is in many forms (father, mother,son...), performs many actions in the form of the father, mother, son, etc. 471. vatsarah a) He who lives within all beings.b) He in whom everything resides.c) He who is the Infinite Time.d) He who restored the calves to the gopa-s.om vatsarAya namah.a) The word is derived from the root vas - to dwell. BhagavAn resides inall beings as a way of administering His dharma - for bestowing fruits in ajust way for the acts of all. He also lives as anrtaryAmi in everyone inorder to guide them towards the path of dharma according to their merits andqualifications. SrI BhaTTar refers us to the following mantra aboutbhagavAn which brings out this point - sarvAntaScAriNe dharmAtmane - UntoHim Who is the embodiment of dharma and Who lives in all beings. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to toNDaraDippoDi AzhvAr in tirumAlai uLLuvAruLLiRRellAm uDanirundu aRidi enRu (34).b) SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is 'vasati atra akhilam iti vatsarah' - He in whomeverything resides - The Abode of All.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives several references to the Sruti-s illustratingthe vyAkhyAna-s above. ISAvAsyamidam sarvam yat-ki~ncit jagatyAm jagat(IsaVAsya); samvatsaro'si parivatsaro'sIdAvatsro'sIdvatsaro'si vatsaro'si(yajur. 27.45); tvayi rAtri vasAmasi svapishyAmasi jAgRhu (atharva19.47.9); etc.c) vatsarah also refers to time - the period of one year. BhagavAn is thecontinuum of space and time, in which all creatures live - in the sense ofb) above. So He is the endless space and infinite time - vatsarah.d) SrI cinmayAnanda decomposes the word as vatsAn rAti iti vatsarah. In HiskRshNAvatAra, He restored the calves to the gopa-s when they had been takenaway by the enemies - So He is vatsarah because He gave away the calves(vatsa here is interpreted as calf). 472. vatsalah The Affectionate.om vatsalAya namah.This nAma is formed from the word vatsa by adding the lach pratyayasignifying loving, tender (based on 5.2.98 ashTAdhyAyI of PANini - vatsaamsAbhyAm kAma bale). The nAma signifies that He has extreme love for Hisdevotees. SrI cinmayananda translates the word as "Supreme Love", andpoints out the significance of this nAma - BhagavAn SrIman nArAyaNa is LoveIncarnate.SrI BhaTTar points out that this nAma explains why bhagavAn wants to guideeveryone by being their antaryAmi as expressed in the previous nAma - it isbecause of His extreme kindness towards His devotees. This affection islike that of a cow to its calf - kanaittu iLam kaRRerumai kanRukku ira~ngininaittu mulai vazhiyE ninRu pAl Sora. sItA pirATTi's words of advice torAvaNa were - vihitah sa hi dharmaj~nah SaraNAgata-vatsalah - It iswell-known that rAma knows this great virtue, and that He is veryaffectionate towards those who have sought refuge in Him.The dharma cakram writer gives several examples of bhagavAn's guNa ofvAtsalya. guha became a close friend of rAma. bhagavAn also gave Himselfcompletely to hanumAn (which was revealed when hanumAn opened his heart andshowed rAma

residing there). sugrIva SaraNAgati, vibhIshaNa SaraNAgati,etc. are other examples of His extreme love for His devotees. 473. vatsI a) He who possesses lots of calvesb) He who possesses lots of children whom He protects like a cow protects its calves.om vatsine namah.The first of these interpretations is a reference to His gopAla incarnation,where He protected the calves during the episode involving indra. SrIv.v.rAmAnujan refers us to kanRu mEittu inidu uganda kALAi (16).The second interpretation refers to the innumerable hosts of souls who areto be always tended by Him, like a cow tends to its calves with affection.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that bhgavAn's guNa of being the Protectorexhibits itself throughout life. Even before the child is born to a mother,He makes sure the mother has the milk to feed to the child as soon as it isborn, the mother bird and the child bird know how to transfer food throughtheir beak, etc. 474. ratna-garbhah a) He who is in possession of abundant wealth.b) He who is the source of everything that can give happiness.om ratna-garbhAya namah.Among BhagavAn's devotees there are those who are after wealth, and He hasimmense wealth to take care of their needs. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan givesreference to nammAzhvAr 6.7.11 - vaitta mA-nidhiyAm madhusUdananai -BhagavAn is like a treasure in deposit, available in times of need infuture.SrI Sa~nkara's vyAkhyAnam is based on the ratna-s or gems being treasured inthe depth of the oceans, and since bhagavAn is Himself in the form of theOceans, He is called ratna-garbhah. SrI cinmayAnanda refers us to gItA 10.24- sarasAm asmi sAgarah, and observes that bhagavAn is ratnagarbhah like theOcean and has all the treasures within His control, and can bestow anywealth quickly to any devotee as He desires. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastriextends this to the presence of ratna in the hood of the serpent and in theknots of the bamboo shoots, which are caused by none other than bhagavAn.The name also suggests that bhagavAn protects His devotees like gems, andassists them towards the path of realization of the Self. Meditating onbhagavAn constantly instead of succumbing to the rAjasic and tAmasic aspectsdormant in us will elevate us so that we can realize Him.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning of ratna starting from the rootram - krIDAyAm to play, to rejoice at. Thus, the word ratna denoteseverything that gives happiness. Since bhagavAn has the whole world in Hisgarbha, He has everything that can give happiness in Himself, and so He isratna-garbhah. He gives several examples from the Sruti: hiraNyagarbhahsamavartatAgre bhUtasya jAtah patireka AsIt; arcAmi satyasavam ratnadhAmabhipriyam matim; hiraNyAkshah savitA deva AgAt dadhat ratnA dASushe vAryANi,etc. 475. dhaneSvarah The quick giver of wealth.om dhaneSvarAya namah.dhanAnAm ISvarah dhaneSvarah - He who is the Lord of all wealth, is theinterpretation given by SrI Sa~nkarAcArya, who interpreted the previous nAmaas referring to bhagavAn's vibhUti as the Ocean which bears the gems.Since SrI BhaTTar interpreted the previous nAma in a broader sense, viz.,that He is the source of all wealth, he interprets the current nAma asreferring to bhagvAn's generosity in giving away this wealth quickly to Hisdevotee who wishes for it. He supports his interpretation based on theuNAdi sUtra 738 - aSnoter-AsukarmaNi varat ca - The affix varat comes afterthe root aS - to pervade, when the word formed from it refers to 'having thepower of granting success soon' - the emphasis being that bhagavAn is quickin giving the benefit to His devotees. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference tonammAzhvAr 3.9.7 - SErum koDai pugazh ellai ilAnai. SrI anantakRshNaSastri gives the example of bhagavAn giving instantaneous wealth to Hisdevotee kucela. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri gives an alternate interpretationthat this nAma refers to bhagavAn's vibhUti of being in the form of kubera,the god of wealth. Note gItA 10.23 - vitteSo yaksha rakshasAm - wherevitteSah refers of bhagavAn's vibhUti as kubera.SrI cinmayAnanda comments that the term wealth here refers to all

thingsthat cause happiness. He is lakshmI-pati, the Lord of Goddess Lakshmi, andso He is ever the Masterof-Wealth. The greatest of wealths is moksha, andLord nArAyaNa is Isvara of this great wealth, and is the Giver of thiswealth to the prapanna-s readily.-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 51 476. 477. 478. 479. 480. 481. 482. 483. 484. 485. 486. dharma-gup dharma-kRt dharmI sat aksharam (sat) a-sat asat-ksharam avij~nAtA sahasrAmSuh vidhAtA kRta-lakshaNah

om dharma-gupe namahom dharma-kRte namahom dharmiNe namahom sate namahom akshara-sate namahom asate namahom asat-ksharAya namahom avij~nAtre namahom sahasrAmSave namahom vidhAtre namahon kRta-lakshaNAya namah 476. dharma-gup He who protects dharma.om dharma-gupe namah.dharmam gopAyati rakshati iti dharma-gup. SrI Sa~nkara gives reference tothe gItA 4.8- dharma sampsthAnaparthAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge. SrI satyadevovAsishTha observes that bhagavAn is dharma-gup because He protects thebeings through

dharma systematically from the time of creation to the timeof destruction. An illustration of this is the rule that the seed comesfrom the tree and the tree gives back the seed, thus continuing the processof the existence and survival of life forms. He gives reference to theSruti - trINi padA vicakrame vishNur-gopA adAbhyah | ato dharmANi dhArayan|| (yajur. 34.43).The dharma cakram writer elaborates on this nAma by pointing out thatbhagavAn maintains dharma by rewarding those who observe dharma (withwealth, health etc.), and punishing those who violate dharma (throughdisease, suffering, etc.). so that they can be returned to the path ofdharma. Peace in the society, rain, good crops, and general prosperityresult when the society as a whole follows the path of dharma; disease,earth quakes, war, looting, famine, etc. result when the society fails tofollow the path of dharma. Thus, this nAma should remind us that ouradherence to the path of righteousness in everything we do (our relationswith our wives/husbands, our treatment of our parents, the behavior of thepeople who are involved in public projects on how they treat their publicresponsibility, how a person who has renounced the worldly life treats thewealth that he may be able to collect, etc.)., all reflect in bhagavAn'sadministration of His dharma as the dharma-gup. 477. dharma-kRt a) He who induces His devotees to follow dharma.b) He who practices dharma.om dharma-kRte namah.a) Those who follow dharma do so because of His anugraha. SrI BhaTTarquotes - dharmam sAmAnyam amalam anAdinidhanam vibhum | durlabham yatprabuddhAnAm tat-prasAdayitA vinA || - Ordinary flawless dharma, which iswithout beginning or end and all-pervasive, cannot be attained without HisGrace even by those who have great knowledge. BhagavAn induces peopletowards the path of dharma for their own benefit, and without any benefitfor Him, out of His sheer Mercy. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr 5.6.4 - SeivArgaLaic-ceivEnumyAnE.b) Even though He is Himself above dharma and adharma, He rigorouslyobserves the path of dharma so that He sets an example to the others -dharma maryAdA sthApanArtham dharmameva karoti iti dharma-kRt - SrISa~nkara. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out the importance of dharma in our lives.The jIvAtmA is caged into this body as a result of the previous karmA-s.BhagavAn has shown us the path of dharma in order for the jIva to getrelease from this cage. BhagavAn does not have any such need to observedharma etc. because karma does not touch Him. Even so, He observes all thedharma-s consistent with His avatAra. Lord kRshNa's words in the gItA ch.3.22-24 refer to this. na me pArtha asti kartavyam trishu lokeshu ki~ncana | na anvAptam avAptavyam varta eva ca karmaNi || yadi hyayam na varteyam jAtu karmaNyatandritah | mama vartma anuvartante manushyAh pArtha sarvaSah || utsIdeyur_ime lokA na kuryAm karma cedaham | s~ankarasya ca kartA syAm upahanyAm imAh prajAh || 478. dharmI He who has dharma as an instrument.om dharmiNe namah.dharmah asya asti iti dharmI. BhagavAn is known as dharmI because Heprotects dharma, and uses it as a common means to protect His devoteees.nammAzhvAr refers to Him as "neRi ellAm eDuttu uraitta niRai j~nAnattu orumUrti (4.8.6) - SrI v.v.rAmAnujan. dharma is eternal and endless just as BhagavAn is eternal and endless. Heis dharmasvarUpi. Those who follow the path of dharma reach the fame thatis ever-lasting, and those who destroy dharma end up destroying themselves.All this is illustrated by the case of the pANDava-s and the kauravasrespectively. BhagavAn constantly keeps imparting the path of dharma to Hisdevotees, in addition to setting an example to us by following dharmaHimself. When BhIshma was about to leave his material body, bhagavAn tookyudhisThira to his bedside and asked bhIshma to impart all his knowledge ofdharma to his deserving grandson. This nAma of mahAvishNu should constantlyremind us that bhagavAn is there always striving to show us the path ofdharma in every way. (dharma cakram).The fact that bhagavAn is reflecting dharma all the time constantly to us isevident when we see the sun, the moon etc. always following their prescribeddharma without fail. The sun always rising in the east and setting in thewest, the cycle of the moon, etc, are constant reminders to us of this fact(SrI satyadevo vAsishTha).The next four

words are sat, aksharam, asat and ksharam, which are combinedin different sequence by SrI BhaTTar and by SrI Sa~nkara. SrI BhaTTar usesthe sequence "sad-aksharam asad-ksharam", and SrI Sa~nkara uses the sequence"sat asat ksharam aksharam". The nAma-s they derive out of this sequenceare similar, except that SrI BhatTTar treats the word aksharam as anadjective for sat, and the word ksharam as the adjective for asat. Thus thenAma-s according to his vyAkhyAna are sat, sad-aksharam, asat, andasad-ksharam. The nAma-s per SrI Sa~nkara are sat, asat, ksharam, andaksharam.The nAma-s sat and a-sat can be treated as a pair of opposites, and thenAma-s sad-aksharam and asad-ksharam can similarly be treated as a pair. 479. sat a) He who is commendable.b) He who is ever existent.c) He who is in the form of good and meritorious acts.om sate namah.In SrImad bhagavad gItA, bhagavAn instructs arjuna on the significance ofthe three terms "om, tat, and sat" in chapter 17. Sloka-s 17.26-27 dealwith the word sat. sat refers to existence (sad-bhAva), goodness(sAdhu-bhAva), and auspicious or commendable action (praSaste karmaNi). TheSloka in gItA is sadbhAve sAdhubhAve ca sad-ityetat prayucyate | praSaste karmaNi tathA sac-chabdhah pArtha yujyate || SrI BhaTTar points out that bhagavAn is sat because He is unconditionallyauspicious and commendable, and He is also eternal in existence.(nirupAdhikAt sad-bhAvAt, sAd-guNyacca). SrI P.B. aNNa~ngarAcArya svAmigives reference to AzhvAr pASuram - uLan kaNDAi nanne~njE uttaman enRu uLankaNDAi, in support of the second of the above meanings. In advaitic interpretation, the meaning for this word is given as "Truth".SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri points out that in truth, there are two kinds - oneis pAramArthika sat - that which is true in all three time frames (past,present, and future). The other is vyAvahArika sat - like this world, whichoriginates in the pAramArthika sat and merges back into the pAramArthika satat the time of pralaya. BhagavAn is the pAramArthika sat or nitya sat. 480. aksharam (sat) a) He whose existence is never diminished or destroyed in any way.b) sad-aksharam - He who never forsakes the good.om akshara-sate namah.SrI BhaTTar points out that aksharam is an adjective for sat (the previousnAma), and thus gives the current nAma as sad-aksharam or aksharam-sat.ksharam is that which decays or diminishes, or something that does not stayassociated with something else, and aksharam is that which is neverdiminished or decays. His sat or Existence, does not undergo any decreaseor diminution. This is also true of His svarUpa and His kalyANa guNa-s. Sothe meaning of this nAma is - He who is ever existent without decrease ordestruction. SrI BhaTTar gives reference to vishNu purANam and to ChAndogyaupanishad - apakshaya vinASAbhyAm pariNAmardhi-janmabhih | varjitah Sakyate vaktum yah sadAstIti kevalam || VP1.2.11 "He is free from decrease, destruction, modification, growth andbirth. He can only be spoken of as That which always is".In ChAndogya upanishad 6.2.1we have - sadeva somya! idamagra AsIt - "Existence alone, My dear child, this was in the beginning, one only withouta second." b)The root from which the word ksharam is derived is kshar - sa~ncalane toflow, to distil (SrI satyadevo vAsishTha). In the context of SrI BhaTTar'svyAkhyAnam for nAma 482, sad-aksharam could also mean He who never partswith or forsakes the good. 481. a-sat a) That which does not exist now, but existed in the past as well as will exist in the future.b) He who is the cause of misery to those who do sinful acts.c) He who is non-existent for those who do not follow the path of dharma.om a-sate namah.a. In gItA 9.19, bhagavAn says "amRtam caiva mRtyuSca sat asat ca ahamarjuna - "I am immortality as well as death, O arjuna. I am the being aswell as the non-being". SrI rAmAnujna bhAshyam for this stanza is: sat isthat which exists now (sad yad vartate), and asat is that which does notexist now but which existed before and which may exist in the future (asadyad atItam ca anAgatam ca). Thus bhagavAn is a-sat (non-being) in the senseof sat meaning existence as we saw in the

gItA Slokam 17.26, and a-sat beingthe things that don't exist now, but existed in the past and will exist inthe future.b. In the sense of sad referring to good acts (sAdhu-bhAve in gItA Slokam17.26), bhagavAn is a-sat in the sense of being the cause of distress tothose who do sinful acts (SrI BhaTTar). This is in the form of the greatmisery of endless samsAra (birth and death).c. He is also non-existent (asat) with respect to those who do not followthe path of dharma. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tirumAlai 15 meyyarkkEmeyyanAgum vidi ilA ennaipOla poyyarkkE poyyanAgum puT-koDi uDaiya kOmAn,and to nammAzhvAr - meyyanAgum virumbit-tozhuvArkkellAm poyyanAgum puRametozhuvArkkellAm (tiruvAimozhi 9.10.7). 482. asat-ksharam He who moves away from the bad.om asat-ksharAya namah.ksharam refers to something perishable or impermanent. ksharam also meanssomething which flows away ( kshar sa~ncalane to flow, to distil). BhagavAndoes not associate with the bad, and so He is ksharam with respect to theasat (SrI BhaTTar). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets ksharam as referring to this Universe(the dynamism associated with it), and to aksharam as referring to theantaryAmi in everything, which is responsible for all the movement in theUniverse. Thus, bhagavAn is simultaneously ksharam (moving) and aksharam(the cause of this movement). He nicely illustrates this demonstration ofthe ksharam and aksharam aspects of bhagavAn by a simple day-to-day example- when we walk, one leg is moving while the other leg is stationary.Similarly, bhagVaN is both kshara in the form of all things moving in theUniverse, and akshara in the form of the antaryAmi supporting this movement.The author gives several examples from the Sruti, one of which is theISAvasya upanishad verse tadejati tan-naijati tad-dUre tadv-antike | tadantrasya sarvasya tadu sarvasya bAhyatah ||SrI cinmayAnanda gives an example of the concept of bhagavAn being ksharamand a-ksharam at the same time - the waves of the ocean rise and decay, butthey are nothing but the ocean that is non-decaying. So they are both partof the same thing. 483. avij~nAtA The Non-cognizant.om avij~nAtre namah.SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that He is non-cognizant of the faults of Hisdevotees. He observes that it is a great commendable quality of bhagavAnthat He is willing to forget and forgive the sins of those who havesurrendered to Him unconditionally. It is said of Lord rAma that He nevereven responds back to those who speak harsh words towards Him - ucyamAno'piparusham nottaram pratipadyate (ayodhyA 1.10). SrI BhaTTar quotes hisrevered father, SrI kUrattAzhvAn - "Oh Lord! We refute the statement thatyou are a sarvaj~nA! It is obvious You are totally ignorant of the faultsof your devotees!" - sarvaj~natAm evam upAlabhAmahe, tvam hi aj~na evaAsrita-dosha-joshaNah. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to periAzhvAr's outpouring - en aDiyAr aduSeyyAr seidArEl nanRu seidAr enbar (4.9.2) - My devotee would not havecommitted this sin, and if he did, then as far as I am concerned, it is agood deed. He also gives reference to the gItA (9.30)- api cet sudurAcArobhajate mAm ananya-bhAk | sAdhureva sa mantavyah ... || (Even if someonedoes not follow the AcAra for his jAti etc., as long as he worships me withsingular devotion and without expecting any other benefit, he is a paramaviahsNava to Me).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning by looking at the word as avi +j~nAtA instead of the traditional a+vij~nAtA. Then he derives the meaningfrom av rakshaNAdau - to protect, to do good, and j~nAtA - One who knows.Thus his meaning for avij~nAtA is One who knows how to protect, or He whoprotects everyone. Thus it refers to His being antaryAmi in everything, Hisbeing the Protector of those who surrender to Him, etc. SrI satyadevovAsishTha gives reference to the atharva-vedic mantra "avirve nAmadevatartenAste parIvRtA" (10.8.31) to support this interpretation. SrI Sa~nkara interrpets vij~nAtA as referring to jIva with the distortedknowledge of being responsible for its own actions etc. (Atmani kartRtvAdikalpa vij~nAnam kalpitam iti jIvo vij~nAtA). He who is above this distortedknowledge is avij~nAtA (tad-vilakshaNo vishNuh a-vij~nAtA).

484. sahasrAmSuh He who has a thousand rays (of knowledge).om sahasrAmSave namah.amSu means ray. sahasra here refers to infinite or countless. SrI BhaTTarinterprets amSu as referring to radiating knowledge, and thus sahasrAmSuhrefers to One who is possessed of infinite knowledge. nammAzhvAr says -mikka j~nAna mUrtiyAya veda viLakkinai (4.7.10) - BhagavAn is pure andunalloyed radiating knowledge, who revealed the veda-s to us, and who isrevealed to us by the veda-s.SrI Sa~nkara interprets the nAma as referring to His being the Sun withcountless rays. yena sUryas-tapati tejaseddhah - (tai.brA. 3.12.9) -Lighted by His effulgence, the sun shines. SrI Sa~nkara also givesreference to the gItA to support his interpretation - yadAditya gatam tejah... yac-candramasi yac-cAgnau tat-tejo viddhi mAmakam - 15.12 - O arjuna!know that the tejas of the sun, the moon, agni, etc. is mine viz. I am theOne who bestowed this tejas on them. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha's interpretation is that BhagavAn radiates Hisknowledge and His tejas everywhere, and so He is sahasrAmSuh (anata j~nAnaananta prabhaSca vushNuh ata sahasrAmSuh). nAma 485: vidhAtA. om vidhAtre namaH. i) He Who specially protected the seed He sowed for brahmA till the seed fully developed into brahmAs creation. j) The Ordainer of the laws of conduct for all, including the likes of yama. k) The Dispenser of the fruits of action and the inducer of action. l) The Supporter of all supports such as AdiSesha. m) He Who lays down the code of conduct and the fruits to be attained from them. n) He Who protects the beings of this world in diverse ways (vi-dhAtA; vi = vividhaiH). o) He Who bestows the desires of His devotees. p) He Who is borne by garuDa, His vehicle (vi-dhAtA; vi = garuDa). We studied this nAma earlier in Slokam 5 (nAma 44). Interpretation (a) by Sri BhaTTar and SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN are described there. The other interpretations are discussed below. The meaning for the nAma can be understood based on the following meanings given in the dictionary, and the derivation given by SrI vAsishTha, among others: - vidhAtR A maker, a creator. Grantor, giver, bestower. vidhA in the dictionary is given the meaning "division, part, portion", and based on this, vidhAtA means one who apportions, controls, distributes, creates, etc. li~ngayasUri defines the meaning as "vidhatta iti vidhAtA" in his amarapadavivRti. - vidhAnam arranging, disposing. - VidhAnam - a rule, precept, ordinance, sacred rule or precept, sacred injunction.

- vidhAtA vidhAnasya kartA; a) See the write-up for nAma 44. b) For the current instance of the nAma, SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma in terms bhagavAn being The Supreme Controller and the Ordainer of the laws of conduct for all - (vidhAnam arranging, disposing; a rule, precept, ordinance, sacred rule or precept, sacred injunction. Also see vAsishTha - vidhAtA vidhAnasya kartA). He explains the nAma in the context of the meaning of avij~nAtA that he gave earlier bhagavAn ignores the faults of His devotees. Then one can ask the question "what happens if someone else, like yama for instance, who is impartial in his treatment of everyone for their sins as well as good deeds, punishes the devotees of vishNu for their sins?". This nAma says that bhagavAn controls yama and all other gods, and so they won't punish a vishNu-bhakta, and they will inform their servants not to punish a vishNu-bhakta in any way. Thus, SrI BhaTTar picks an example of bhagavAns guNa of ordaining or laying down the rules that brings out bhagavAns eternal mercy towards those who are devoted to Him. Even though yama is authorized by bhagavAn to be impartial in punishing the jIva-s for their karma-s, at the same time, using His powers as the Ordainer, bhagavAn has ordained yama to be lenient and gentle when it comes to punishing His devotees. Since yama is under the total control of bhagavAn, he follows the orders of bhagavAn, and instructs his servants to keep away from vishNu bhakta-s at the time of their death. This mRdutvam of bhagavAn in exercising His Control (as vidhAtA, the Controller) such that it benefits the jIva-s that follow the path that leads to Him, is declared in several places: vishNu purANa, brahma purANa, vAmana purANa, nArasimha purANa, lainga purANa, vaishNava dharma, SrI vishNu tattva, and SrImad bhAgavatam. In vishNu purANam, we have: parihara madhu sUdana prapannAn prabhur-aham anya nRNAm na vaishNavAnAm (VP 3.7.14) hari guru vaSagosmi na svatantraH prabhavati samyamane mamApi vishNuH | (VP 3.7.15) Keep clear of the worshippers of madhusUdana. I am the lord of all except the vaishNava-s (yamas word to his servants). He Who obeys Hari, as his spiritual guide, is independent of me; for, vishNu is of power to govern and control me. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives references to divya prabandham, again referring to this soft side of bhagavAns role of ultimate Controllership: tiRambEnmin kaNDIr; tiruvaDi tan nAmam maRandum puram tozhA mAndar iRainjiyum SAduvarAip pOdumingaL enRAn namanum tan tamaraik kUvic cevikku - (nAnmugan tiruvantAdi 68) yama instructs his servants through message given secretly in their ears: Dont forget my orders. When you approach anyone who does not worship anyone other than Lord vishNu even by oversight or

forgetfulness, just worship them, and peacefully move away from them. Do not in any way use any force against them. avan tamar ev-vinaiyar Agilum em kOn avan tamarE enRu ozhivadu allAl- naman tamarAl ArAyappaTTu aRiyAr kaNDIr aravu aNai mEl pEr Ayarkku ATpaTTOr pEr. (mudal tiruvanTAdi 55) When the servants of yama encounter a devotee of kaNNan who rests in the Milky Ocean, they do not go further and enquire anything more about these devotees, but praise them and get away from them. They realize that their leader yama, is also a devotee and servant of the same kaNNan, and do not in any way harm the vishNu bhakta-s. talaip-pei kAlam naman tamar pASam viTTAl alippUN uNNum av-allal ellAm agala kalai-pal j~nAlattu en kaNNanaik kaNDu koNDu nilaip peRRu en nenjam peRRadu nIDuyirE (tiruvAi. 3.2.10) When the last breath is to leave the body, merciless messengers from yama release their death-rope and drag you, and you experience the excruciating agony. This is all described in elaborate detail in several places. But this is not what happens in the case of bhgavAns devotees. For them, bhagavAn appears in front of them at this crucial moment, and suddenly all the shivering and fear is gone, and their soul gets fresh and eternal hope and energy. c) SrI Sankaras interpretation for the nAma in Slokam 5 is karmaNAm tat-phalAnAm ca kartA vidhAtA He Who specifies the various karma-s and their benefits; The dispenser of the fruit of actions and the inducer of actions. d) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 51, SrI Sankara interprets the nAma as One Who supports the earth in the form of AdiSesha, the eight elephants, etc., which in turn bear all other things viSesheNa Sesha dig-gaja bhU dharAn dhAtRRn dadhAti it vidhAtA. In other words, bhagavAn is the Support of all other supports. e) SrI vAsishTha gives the interpretation: vede manushyasya kRte kartavyANam vidhAnakartRtvena vidhAtA, i.e., vidhAnasya kartA vidhAtA - He who lays down the rules for the vedic rites to be observed by people. BhagavAn is also called vidhAtA because He specifies the karma-s to be observed and the fruits to be attained - karmaNAm phalAnAm yathArthatvena vidhAtRtvAt vidhAtA sa vishNuH He is also the One who bestows the benefits for the karma-s that are observed. SrI vAsishTha gives a quote from the ISAvAsya Upanishad for an example of one of the rules laid down by bhagavAn (vidhAnam etat This is the Ordained rule):

kurvanneveha karmANi jijIvishet Satam samAH | evam tvayi nAnyathetosti na karma lipyate nare || (ISAvAsya. 2) One should desire to live a hundred years just performing nishkAmya karma-s (accessory to upAsana). For an aspirant (of moksha) there is no other way. Karma will not cling to such a person (who is a knower of Brahman). This laying down of the rules is one aspect of bhagavAn being vidhAtA vidhAnasya kartA. The other aspect of His being vidhAtA is that He is the Bestower of the fruits of any action karmaNAm phalAnAm yathArthatvena vidhAtRtvAcca vidhAtA sa vishurasti iti vidhAtA. Again, SrI vAsishTha gives another reference from the Sruti: sa paryagAt Sukram akAyam avraNam asnAviram Suddham apApaviddham | kavir-manIshI paribhUH svayambhUH yAthAtathyatorthAn vyadadhAt SasvatIbhyaH samAbhyaH || (ISA. 8) He the Seer, the Controller of the mind, the Conquerer of enemies like desire etc., the self-existent, attains the effulgent, the one with no body associated with karma, the soreless, the one without sinews, the one ever pure, the one never tainted by sin. The seer has borne in his mind all things as they are (such as the end of life, way, the obstacles, etc.) for numberless years. In other words, for one who has led a life of nishkAya karma as laid down by the vidhAtA vishNu, Lord vishNu in turn gives the benefit (vidhAtA) in the form of the realization of Himself to such a practitioner of this dictum from Him. f) SrI vAsishTha gives another interpretation based on the root dhA dhAraNa poshaNayoH to support, to nurture. In this interpretation, vi- is a prefix that indicates "in a number of different ways - vividha". VidhAtA thus refers to One who protects the beings in a variety of ways. A simple illustration of this is the protection by the Lord, of both the mother and the child in the womb of a pregnant mother, simultaneously, but in different ways. g) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj explains the nAma as vidadhAti kAmAn sva-janAnAm iti vidhAtA He Who bestows the desires of His devotees. He gives support from the Upanishad-s: - nityo nityAnAm cetanaS-cetanAnAm eko bahUnAm yo vidadhAti kAmAn (SvetAS. 6.13; kaTho. 5.13) The One Eternal Sentient who bestows the desires of the many eternal sentients (is to be known in order to be liberated). h) One of SrI satya sandha tIrthas interpretation is: viH garuDo dhAtA yasya iti vi-dhAtA - He Who is carried by garuDa 486. kRta-lakshaNah - a) He who has prescribed the distinguishingcharacteristics for the pious. b) He who has created distinguishing marks forHimself. c) He who has created the veda-s. d) He who distinguished the different species byexternal and internal attributes.om kRta-lakshanAya namah.This nAma means "He who has laid down the lakshaNa-s or distinctions". SrISa~nkara and SrI

BhaTTar give different anubhavam-s of this aspect ofbhagavAn's guNa. Meaning (a) is from SrI BhaTTar and (b) to (d) are fromSrI Sa~nkara.a) SrI BhaTTar had interpreted nAma 483 - avij~nAtA, as indicative ofbhagavAn overlooking the defects of His devotees. Here it is indicated thatbhagavAn does not ignore everyone's faults, but only the faults of those whohave certain distinguishing characteristics, which He Himself has laid out -kRtalakshaNah. SrI BhaTTar gives the following references where bhagavAnhas identified these attributes: - mitrabhAvena samprAptam - yuddha kANDa 18.3 - "He who has come to Meas a friend"; - samyag vyavasito hi sah - gItA 9.30 - "He who has rightly resolved inhis mind that bhagavAn is everything", and does not look for any otherbenefit - ananya bhAk (same Slokam in gItA); cakrA~nkitAh praveshTavyAh (harivamSa 21.24) - "They who bear the markof the discus on their bodies". This mark is to be cherished by a vishNubhakta just as a chaste woman cherishes her mangala sUtra and otherornaments when her husband is alive (vishNu tattva). SrI v.v.rAmAnujan addsfurther support from divya prabandham - tIyil poliginRa Se~ncuDarAzhi tigazhtirucc-cakkarattin kOyil poRiyAlE oRRuNDu ninRu kuDi kuDi AtceyginROm -tiruppallANDu. In addition to the above lakshaNa-s that SrI BhaTTar has identified, SrIv.v.rAmAnujan adds the following as the most important lakshNa: maRandumpuRam tozhA mAndar (nAn~gAm tiruvantAdi 68) - "He who does not worship anyadevatA-s even absent-mindedly". The dharma cakram writer points us to gItAchapter 12, Sloka-s 13 to 20, where Lord KRshNa has laid down thelakshaNas of His bhakta, starting with adveshTA sarvabhUtAnAm..., andending with SraddadhAnA mat-paramA bhaktAste atIva mama priyAh.SrI Sa~nkara gives different alternative interpretations: b) He created(kRt) the veda-s (lakshaNah). c) He has also distinguished Himself withthe SrIvatsa mark on His vakshasthalam. d) He has created the differentspecies with distinguishing marks that identify the species uniquely throughexternal as well as internal distinguishing marks. He is kRta-lakshNahfrom all these aspects.SrI cinmayAnanda points out that bhagavAn is kRta-lakshaNah since Hedistinguishes Himself through the six attributes - aiSvarya dharmah yaSaScaSrIh j~nAnam vairAgyam (glory, righteousness, fame, wealth, knowledge, anddetachment). SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri observes that bhagavAn hasdistinguished Himself through His unique attributes of being sat, cit, andAnanda svarUpa, and other aspects such as His AdiSesha Sayanam, garuDavAhanam, megha SyAmam, San~kha and cakra Ayudha-s, pItAmbara vastra, etc. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 52 487. gabhasti-nemih 488. sattva-sthah 489. simhah 490. bhUta-maheSvarah 491. Adi-devah 492.mahA-devah 493.deveSah 494.deva-bhr*t 495.guruh

om om om om om om om om om

gabhastinemaye namah sattvasthAya namah simhAya namah bhUta-maheSvarAya namah Adi-devAya namah mahA-devAya namah deveSaya namah deva-bhr*te namah gurave namah

487. gabhasti-nemih a) He who has the effulgent cakra as His weapon. b) He who enlightens everything by His effulgence. c) He who is the Center of the planetary system (viz. the Sun) om gabhasti-nemaye namah. a) SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "gabhastih dIpyate jyotir-mayam,nemi-lakshitam cakram yasya iti gabhasti-nemih - He who possesses the effulgentcakra. His cakra is bhAsvara-sahasrAra-cakrah - the effulgent cakra with a thousand spokes. yama and yama-dhUta-s don't even come anywhere close to those who bear the mark of cakra on their bodies (see SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam for the previous nAma), since their savior is gabhasti-nemih who has as His weaponthe thousand-spoked effulgent cakra. Note the words from tiruppallANDu - tIyil poliginRa Se~n-cuDarAzhi tigazh tiruc-cakkarattan (SrI v.v.rAmAnujan). The dharma cakram writer comments that this cakram in bhagavAn's Hand denotes the dharma cakram which controls, guides and directs everyone towards the path of dharma, and is the kAla cakram which shows the never-ending nature of time which is His manifestation. b) SrI satyadevo vAsisTha derives the meaning of the nAma from the roots bhasdIptyoh to shine, and nI prApaNe to lead. The word gabhasti is derived from the root bhas bhartsana dIptyoh - to censure or to shine. The latter meaningis relevant for this nAma. The word nemi is derived from the root nI prApaNe - to lead. nemi is given the meaning "the circumference or rim of awheel". Thus gabhasti-nemih means He who by His Effulgence enlightens everything. We all know that the Sun gives light to everything. But it is bhagavAn thegabhasti-nemih, who gives light to the Sun. He is br*hadbhAnu or "manysuns all in one".

c) SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is that bhagavAn is the Center of the planetary systems - gabhasti-cakrasya madhye sUryAtmanA sthita iti gabhastinemih. SrIrAdhAkr*shNa Sastri refers us to the Sruti - Adityo vA esha etan-maNDalam, ya esha etasmin maNDale'rcidIpyate | ya esha etan-maNDale'rcishi purushah ||(tait. AraN. 10.14), and also to "dhyeyas-sadA savitr*-maNDalamadhyavartI nArAyaNah" - He who is meditated upon as Lord sUryanArAyaNa at thecentre of and controlling the sUryamaNDala". 488. sattva-sthah a) He who is in the hearts of the devotees. b) He who abides in sattva-guNa. c) He who resides in all beings. om sattva-sthAya namah. The dictionary gives the meanings entity, mind, goodness, etc. for the wordsattvam. The three interpretations below are based on these different meanings. a) SrI BhaTTar points out that when bhagavAn is in the heart of the devotees,there is no karma in them since darkness does not exist where there is sun. The nirukti description for this nAma is "sattve hr*di sthitatvAt sa sattvasthah samudIritah - As He stays in the heart of beings, He is known assattvasthah. "When Lord Hari, who is imperishable and eternal, and whowields the discus and the mace, abides in the heart of a person, how can sin existthere?" - sphatika maNi SilAmalah kva vishNuh | manasi nr*Nam kvamatsarAdi doshah? - vishNu purANam 3.7.22. He stays in the hearts of the devotee withHis cakra and thus makes sure that yama and yama-paTa-s dont come nearthis devotee - "ki~nkarA daNDa pASau vA na yamo na ca yAtanAh | samarthAhtasya yasyAtmA keSavAlambanah sadA || " (vishNu purA. 2.2.28). b) SrI Sa~nkara interprets sattva here as referring to the sattva-guNa, and gives the meaning that bhagavAn abides in the sattva guNa - sattvam guNamprakASakam prAdhAnyena adhitishThati iti - He who chiefly presides over the quality of sattva guNa which is radiant. dharma cakram: Of the three guNa-s that are reflected in everyone, sattvaguNa is the one that results in the clarity of mind that is necessary forrealizing the Absolute Truth. The food we eat, the thoughts we think, etc., shouldall be directed towards development of this sattva guNa in us. Habits like gettingup in the brahma muhUrta (~ 4 a.m.), observing japa, dhyAna, etc. at this time, performing one's prescribed duties with the welfare of the fellow-beings inmind, never harming anything else, etc, are habits that will foster the development of sattava guNa in us. This nAma teaches us that leading our lifewith sattava guNa is the path to the realization of bhagavAn. c) SrI Sa~nkara's alternate interpretation is that sattva-s refers to all beings, stha means residing, and sattva-sthah can mean that He resides in allbeings. 489. simhah a) He who punishes (those who harm His devotees). b) He who took the nr*simha form. c) He who is most powerful.

om simhAya namah. This nAma has occurred earlier (nAma 202). There SrI BhaTTar had interpreted the nAma as referring to bhagavAn's nr*simha incarnation. For the currentnAma, he continues his interpretation in terms of bhagavAn protecting His devotees by punishing if necessary anyone who even tries to harm His devotee. Thus He punishes yama and his servants if they approach a vaishNava with the intent of harming him without realizing that he is vishNu's devotee. SrIBhaTTar gives examples from vishNu tattva, vhshNu dharma, and lai~nga purANa to illustrate this. SrI Sa~nkara's earlier interpretation was that bhagavAn is the Destroyer of sins. His vyAkhyAnam for the current nAma is that bhagavAn is like the lionwhen it comes to His Power, and so He is referred to as simha. SrI rAdhAkr*shNa Sastri suggests that bhagavAn is the lion that gets rid of thedeer in the form of asura-s. Alternatively, SrI Sa~nkara points out that simhah may considered a short form for His full nAma -nr*simha. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning from the root sic - ksharaNe tosprinkle, to impregnate, and interprets simhah as He who bestows the karma-phala to everyone impartially. His alternate interpretation is thatbhagavAn is of infinite Power, which is indicated by His nAma of simhah. He takes away the life of everything in their due time, including themanvantara-s, the kalpa-s, and the mahA-kalpa-s, and merges them all into Himself. Just as we refer to a great medical doctor as vaidyakesari, bhagavAn is the kesari of all kesari-s or lions. 490. bhUta-maheSvarah The Supreme Lord of all beings. om bhUta-maheSvarAya namah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that BhagavAn is the Supreme Lord of all beings, asevidenced by His being the Lord of the likes of brahma, yama etc. who are themselves the lords of beings. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to divyaprabandham in support - - niruttinAn deiva~ngaLAga ad-deiva nAyakan tAnE - He, the Lord of all theother gods, established these other gods (tiruvAimozhi 5.2.8); - mUvar mudalvan Or mUvulagALi - The foremost among the trinity, and theSupreme ruler of all the three worlds - tiruvAimozhi 8.9.8; - peria appanai, piraman appanai, uruttiran appanai, munivarkku uriyaappanai, amarar appanai, ulagukkOr tani appan tannai - He is the Father and Lord ofall including brahma, rudra, the sages, all the gods, ane everything in all the worlds - tiruvaimozhi 8.1.11. SrI Sa~nkara interprets the nAma as bhUtAnAm mahAn-Isvarah - He who is the Great Lord of all beings. His alternate interpretation is bhUta - truly,maheSvarah - nArAyaNa is the Supreme Lord. bhUtena - satyena, sa eva paramAtmA mahAn Isvara iti bhUta-maheSvarah. SrI rAdhAkr*shNa Sastri refers us to thegItA where bhagavAn points out that sadly the foolish people do not recognize His glory as the bhUta-maheSvara because they think He is just a human eventhough He has assumed the human form out of sheer Mercy towards to them so that He is easily accessible to them (gItA 9.11). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives several references to the Sruti-s: - bhavASavau mr*Datam mAbhi yAtam bhUtapatI paSupatI namo vAm (atharva 21.2.1). - ya Ise asya dvipadaS-catuspadah kasmai devAya havishA videma (yaju. 23.3) - yo bhUtAnAm adhipatir yasmin loke adhiSritAh | ya Ise mahato mahAns-tena gr*hNAmi tvAm aham(yaju.

20.32). - hiraNyagarbhah samavartatAgre bhUtasya jAtah patireka AsIt - r*g. 1.121.1. 491. Adi-devah a) He who is the first cause and is endowed with effulgence. b) The Foremost Deity. c) He who swallows the three worlds at the time of pralaya, and releases at the time of creation. om Adi-devAya namah. This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 335 (Slokam 36). SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is Adih dyotamAnaSca Adi-devah. Adi - The cause, and deva - ever-shining. He is the cause of all the other gods, and is possessed of great splendor that subjugates them. SrI BhaTTar gives one example of this - bhIshA'smAt vAtah pavate (taittirIya - Ananda valli 8.1) - The wind blows out of fear from Him. SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is - sarva bhUtAni AdIyante anena iti Adih; AdiSca asu devaSca iti Adi-devah. He is the first through whom all beings come to exist, and He is divine as well. Unlike SrI BhaTTar and SrI Sa~nkara who both have treated Adi and deva as two separate aspects of bhagavAn's guNa, SrI cinmayAnanda treats Adi as the qualifier for deva, and gives the meaning that bhagavAn is the First Deity. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is Adi - Adatte grasati jagat-pralaya kAle sa Adih - He who swallows the worlds at the time of pralaya, and deva - datte visr*jati ca bahih sarga kAle sa devah - He who releases the beings from Him at the time of creation, and so He is Adi-devah. The dharma cakram writer remarks that this nAma indicates that bhagavAn is not governed by nature as we know it, where everything has an origin - e.g., the tree comes from the seed, and the seed comes from the seed, the deva-s come from bhagavAn, but He is Adi-deva who has no origin. Everything that is created has an end, but He has no end. Even the gods can't comprehend Him fully. We who have an origin and an end can't fully comprehend Him who has neither origin nor end, and the more we meditate on the significance of the nAma Adi-devah, the more we are closer to realizing Him. 492. mahA-devah The great Player. om mahA-devAya namah. As we have seen earlier, the word devah is derived from the root div- krIDAyAm to play. He is superior to all the gods and for Him they are like playthings (SrI BhaTTar). This indicates His Lordship over all the other gods. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr - inbuRum iv-viLaiyATTuDaiyAn (tiruvAimozhi 3.10.7). In his vyAkhyAnam for this pASuram, SrI V. N. vedAnta deSikan points out that the inbam or leelA here is that He gives us all the means to reach Him (such as His arcA rUpa which is close to us, His bestowing on us the caitanyam, the ability to think and understand what is good for us, etc.), and still we decide not to use any of these means that He has given us and go astray. This amuses Him, and this is the krIDA or leelA that is implied here. Or, since He performs His great leelA of creation etc., using all the gods that He has created such as brahma, He is mahA-devah (SrI P. B. aNNa~ngarAcArya).

SrI cinmAyananda explains that since all the other gods came from Him, He is the mahA-deva or Supreme Lord or Great Deity. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning mah - pUjAyAm - to honor, and interprets the nAma s meaning "He who is fit to be worshipped to the exclusion of others". He gives examples of the stars losing their importance as soon as the Sun appears, or the AtmA being of supreme importance in the context of the indirya-s which are like the deva-s. 493. deveSah The Ruler of Gods. om deveSAya namah. devAnAm Isah deveSah. SrI cinmayAnanda explains "He is the very Consciousness in all the other gods". Consciousness here can be interpreted to mean "antarAtmA". He is the God of all the gods, and of course everything else that exists. "vAnOr perumAn mAmAyan vaikunThan emperumAn" are nammAzhvArs's words (tiruvAimozhi 1.5.4) - v.v. rAmAnujan. SrI P. B. aNNa~ngarAcArya svAmi elaborates that since bhagavAn is the one who assigns the other deva-s such as brahma in their respective functions, He is the Isa or Lord for all the deva-s. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives several supporting quotes from the Sruti: yo deveshu adhi-deva eka AsIt kasmai devAya havishA vidhema - r*g. 10.121.8. yo jAta eva prathamo manasvAn devo devAn r*tunA paryabhUshat - athar. 20.34.1. sa devAnAm adhipatir babhUva so asmAsu draviNamAdadhAtu - athar. 7.5.2. tam ISAnam jagats-tasthushaspatim dhiyam jinvamase hUmahe vayam - yajur. 25.18.

494. deva-bhr*t The Supporter of gods. om deva-bhr*te namah. SrI BhaTTar points out that bhagavAn assigns the different deva-s to their duties based on their abilities, and thus protects them. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr 8.1.5 - maniSarkku dEvar pOla dEvarkkum dEvan. SrI Sa~nkara and those who base their interpretations on him (e.g., SrI cinmayAnanda etc.)., combine the current nAma and the next as one nAma - deava-bhr*t-guruh - and gives the meaning that bhagavAn is the guru (One who taught the veda-s) to deva-bhr*t (the king of all deva-s, indra). Their alternative interpretation is still to consider the nAma as deva-bhr*t-guruh, but treating the nAma as referring to two different attributes in one nAma - deva-bhr*t - He who nourishes all the deva-s, and guruh - He who promulgates all knowledge. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam to the next nAma, guruh, essentially corresponds to bhagavAn being the source of all knowledge in the form of the veda-s. 495. guruh The Preceptor. om gurave namah.

SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation mentioned earlier viz. bhagavAn is guruh because He gaves the veda-s to the deva-s. In vishNu purANam, brahma is quoted as saying: hari-guru-vaSago'smi (3.7.15) - I am under the control of my Guru - bhagavAn Hari. We have from the Sruti - yo vai vedamSca prahiNoti tasmai - (Sve. 6.18) - He who teaches him (i.e., brahma) the veda-s. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan reminds us that bhagavAn is the prathama AcAryan in our guru-paramparA. -dAsan kr*shNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 53 496. 497. 498. 499. 500. 501. 502. 503. 504. uttarah go-patih goptA j~nAna-gamyah purAtanah SarIra-bhUta-bhr*t bhoktA kapIndrah bhUri-dakshiNah

om om om om om om om om om

uttarAya namah go-pataye namah goptre namah j~nAna-gamyAya namah purAtanAya namah sarIra-bhUta-bhr*te namah bhoktre namah kapIndrAya namah bhUri-dakshiNAya namah

496. uttarah

a) The Rescuer (of brahma and others from the asura-s) b) The Savior (of devotees from samsAra) c) He who transcends the bounds of birth and transmigration. om uttarAya namah uttAraNat uttarah - He who rescues. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAnis the Rescuer of brahma and others from the asura-s. SrISa~nkara givesthe interpretation "janma samsAra bandhanAt uttarati itiuttarah" - TheSavior from the ocean of samsAra. SrI T. S.Kr*shNamUrti has translated this as"He who transcends the bounds ofbirth". SrI satyadevo vAsishThasupports the last two of these interpretations by deriving the meaning from thewords ap -waters, and tara to cross, to swim across.Alternatively, ut can refer to utkarshaor atiSaya extraordinary, exalted,etc., and tara referring to crossing, and uttara can thus refer to bhagavAnbeing the best means (the only means!) for crossing the ocean of samsAra. The dharma cakram writer gives thesignificance of this nAma in our day-to-day life. Our mind is normally torn byall kinds of desires, bondage, etc., and these are trying to puncture holes inour mind which is the boat we need to safely cross this ocean of birth. Rocks inthe form of aha~nkAra, mamakAra, etc. are trying to wreck this boat. Till wecross this life span, we need to have this boat intact without being wrecked orpunctured. Meditation on bhagavAn is essential in order for us to accomplishthis. The following from tiruvaLLUvar is relevant in this context "piRavip-perum kaDal nInduvar, nIndAr iRaivan aDiSerAdAr". 497. go-patih a) The Master of all words (veda-s as well asall languages). b) The Protector of His own word. c) The Protector of His bhakta's words. d) Protector of the cows in His kr*shNAvatAra. e) Protector of all that moves around. f) The Lord of Mother Earth. g) The Lord of the (celestial) world. This nAma re-occurs as nAma 599. om go-pataye namah. The word go means cow, words, veda-s, earth,etc. Thus there are several interpretations for this nAma. SrI satyadevovAsishTha nicely summarizes many of these meanings through the followingwords: "gAvovAco, gAvah paSavo, gaur-bhUmiSca viSvanirmANe kAraNam iti bhAvArthah|eva~nca - gopatih catushpadAm gavAm vAcAm bhUmeSca rakshaka ityarthah|". The concept that bhagavAn is the Master of all words is interpreted by SrIBhaTTar as referring to His being the One who gave the veda-s as well as all thelanguages to us. The dharma cakram writer interprets this as meaning thatbhagavAn keeps His word to His devotees, as well as meaning that He ensures thatHis bhakta's words come true. We know of bhagavAn's promise to protect those whosurrender to Him unconditionally, and we know that He ensured that bhIshma'spromise tomake Him take to weapons in the war against His own promise come true.He also made the words of prahlAda come true that BhagavAn will be in the pillarwhen hiraNyakaSipu challenged the young prahlAda.

The roots of interest in understanding themeanings for this nAma are:gam - gatau to go, and pA- rakshaNe to protect. Inthis sense, go can also refer to indriya-s since they wander towards materialobjects, to mind since mind wanders on all kinds of thoughts, to AtmA since AtmAmoves from one body to another, to body since the body moves from one place toanother, and on and on. BhagavAn is the patih for all these. Among His creationsfor which He is the patih, veda is the one that isheard, and the Universe is theone that is seen. Veda-s expound the way of life of the world, and the world isan expression of the veda-s, and He is the pati for all of these. 498. goptA a) The Savior. b) He who hides Himself from non-devotees. om goptre namah. This nAma re-occurs as nAma 600. The nAma is derived from the root gup -rakshaNeto protect. SrIBhaTTar interprets the nAma as referring to bhagavAn being theprotector of all knowledge, thus extending the interpretation offered in theprevious nAma (a). SrI Sa~nkara gives the interpretation thatbhagavAn is theprotector of all beings and all the worlds. SrIrAdhAkr*shNa Sastri gives thereference from atharvaSiras 5 - samsr*jyaviSvA bhuvanAni goptA. Among thesupporting quotes given by SrIsatyadevo vAsishTha is the Sruti - trINi padAvicakrame vishNurgopAadAbhyah - yajur. 34.43. He points out that bhagavAn'sguNa of protection of all that is on this land, in the sea or in the air, isHisdharma. SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam for nAma 600, the second occurrence of this nAmalater, is that He is the Protector and Administrator of the wheel of karma -bestowing the fruits of karma to the beings for their acts, good and bad, thecycle of birth and rebirth etc. Another meaning for the word gup is to hide,to conceal. Based onthis, SrI Sa~nkara interprets the second occurrence of thisnAma as meaning that He hides Himself (from non-devotees) through His mAyA.SrIrAdhAkr*shNa Sastri uses both the meanings of gup (hide and protect), and givesthe interpretation that bhagavAn is goptA because He protects His devotees byhiding them from their enemies, and from all obstacles. The dharma cakram writer observes that thisnAma should remind us that bhagavAn is the one who is constantly protectingeverything He has created. Those who think they are protecting themselves or arebeing protected by some other human being have this thought because oftheirsheer ignorance. This nAma should remind us of this simple fact. 499. j~nAna-gamyah He who is to be realized by knowledge. om j~nAna-gamyAya namah. SrI cinmayAnanda points out that the knowledgereferred to here is not the mere knowledge of things. SrI M. V. rAmAnujAcAryaremarks that the knowledge referred to here is para vidyA - The knowledge of theSupreme Self, which is attained only by absolute meditational unison -samAdhinishThA. The dharma cakram writer elaborates on this further.

Knowledge can be considered to be of two kinds- that which is obtained by external indriya-s like the eyes, ears, etc., or bymind - aparavidyA, and that which is beyond the reach of the indriya-s -paravidyA. Among the means that aid in attaining this para knowledge arej~nAna,bhakti, karma, and yoga. Practices on a continuing basis suchas nAma samkIrtanam(chanting bhagavAn's nAma), SravaNam (listening to bhagavAn's nAma, purAna,itihAsa, ...), kaimkaryam (performing duties in support of temple services,making garlands, cleaning the temple-premises, ...), etc., facilitate inpurifying our mind and developing bhakti. Bearing with patience any difficultiesthat arise in our life,not rejoicing at any good things that happen in our lifebut dedicatingthem to bhagavAn, etc., will also help in directing our mindtowards Him. j~nAnam in our context is the realization of the relationshipandassociation between us and our Creator. This j~nAnam will materialize for usonly by His Grace. This nAma conveys to us that BhagavAn is realizable onlythrough the j~nAnam, and He is the only One who can bless us with this j~nAnam,but what we can do is prepare ourselves toreceive this j~nAnam when He decidesto bless us with it. 500. purAtanah - The Ancient. om purAtanAya namah. SrI BhaTTar explains the significance of thenAma in terms of the previous nAma-s, indicating that He is Ancient in that Hehas been giving us knowledge and protecting it not only in this kalpa, but inall previous kalpa-s as well. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us tonammAzhvAr -UzhitORUzhi vaiyam kAkkum Azhi nIr vaNNan (tiruvAimozhi7.3.11). SrI Sa~nkara'sbhAshyam is "He who is not limited by Time and who existed before anythingelse". The dharma cakram writer observes that this nAma also conveysseveral other thoughts - viz. that bhagavAn is beginning-less, not born, notgoverned by Time, not comprehended by the mind, the Origin of everything thatexists, etc. SrI cinmayAnanda points out that "Ancient" here refers tothat from which the concept oftime itself originated, and thus He is the Truththat cannot bemeasured in terms of Time. 501.SarIra-bhUta-bhr*t a) He who supports all the tattva-s whichconstitute the SarIra. b) He who supports all beings which are part of His body. c) He who protects the devatA-s who are associated with different parts of thebody. om SarIra-bhUta-bhr*te namah. The term bhUta can refer to the pa~nca mahAbhUta-s, the 24 tattva-sor Reals of which the pa~nca mahA bhUta-s are a subset,or to the entire universe of all beings. Thus there are differentinterpretations for the nAma. SrI BhaTTar uses the meaning of bhUtaas referringto the 24 tattva-s or Reals that are the elements involved in creation - prakr*ti,mahat, ahankAra, sound, ether, touch, air, sight, light, taste, water, smell,earth, mind, eye, ear, nose, mouth, skin, tounge, hand, leg, anus, and the organof reproduction. Theseare the SarIra-bhuta-s are the elements of creation.BhagavAn supportsthese tattva-s through His body, i.e., they are part of Him.SrIBhaTTar gives reference to mahAbhArata - tasya mUrdhA samabhavatdyauhsa-nakshatra devatA - His head was the sky along with the stars and thedeities - SAnti parva 348.49. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers totiruvAimozhi 10.7.10where nammAzhvAr refers to these 24 tattva-s:"po~ngaimpulanum poRi aindumkarumEndiriyam aim-bUtam I~ngiv-vuyirEipirakiruti mAnA~ngAra mana~ngaLE" -the five senses such as sound, the five sense-organs, the five action-orientedlimbs, the five elements ike earth, prakr*ti, mahat, ahamkAra, and manas ormind.

A more general meaning for the word bhUta isanything that exists (from bhU - satyAyAm - all that is true or exists - SrIv.v.rAmAnujan). Since all these beings are His body, and since He supports(bhr*t)these bhUta-s which are part of His SarIra, He is SarIra-bhUta-bhr*t. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan and SrI P. B. aNNa~ngarAcAryasvAmi have given this interpretation. SrIv.v. rAmAnujan gives the support again from tiruvAimozhi 10.7.2 - "tAnEyAginirAindu ellA ulagumuyirum tAnEyAi ninRozhindAn". SrI Sa~nkara gives the interpretation thatsince bhagavAn nourishesthe elements of the body, and since He Himself is theprANa (the vital air), He is SarIra-bhUta-bhr*t. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an alternateinterpretation. Different devatA-s are associated with different parts of ourbody - the Sun with the eyes, the moon with the mind, the skin with vAyu, thecolor orvArNa with ISA etc. BhagavAn is the Protector of these SarIra-bhUta-sordevatA-s, and so He is called SarIra-bhUtabhr*t. 502. bhoktA The Enjoyer. om bhoktre namah. This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 145. Therethe nAma was explained as referring to bhagavAn's guNa ofenjoying even thesimplest offerings from His devotee. "patram,pushpam, phalam, toyam..."from the gItA (9.26) was referenced. He isalso the Ultimate Enjoyer of theofferings to all the gods (bhoktAramyaj~na tapasAm sarvaloka maheSvaram gItA5.29). Under the currentnAma SrI BhaTTar extends this guNa of bhokta toinclude not only theofferings to the gods (havya), but also to the kavya, theoffering toour pitr*-s or the deceased ancestors havya kavya bhujo vishNohudak-pUrve mahodadhau (mahAbhArata Santi parva 348.3) -bhagavAn is stationed in the north-east ocean and consumes the havya and kavyathat are offered with sincerity. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives several references tosupport the interpretation: - tiruvAimozhi 5.6.4 - Seigaip-payan uNbEnumyAnE ennum (5.6.4); - ahamannamahamannamahamannamahamannAdo'hamannAdo'hamannAdah taittirIya upanishad I am the food or the object of enjoyment for My devotees, and I am the Enjoyeror consumer of the offerings of My devotees as well; - nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi 9.6.10 vArik-koNDu ennai vizhun~guvankANil enRu. ennil munnam pArittu tAn ennai muRRap paruginAn AzhvAr and bhagavAn are competing with each other to enjoy each other, andbhagavAn succeeds in the competition! - tiruvAimozhi pASuram 10.10.11 - avAaRac-cUzh ariyai He who mingles with His devotees intimately and to His heart's content. The obvious examples of kaNNan accepting withgreat delight the handful of puffed rice from kucela, and His accepting the foodoffered by vidura over that offered by duryodhana are well-known.

SrI cinmayAnanda gives two derivations for themeaning for bhoktA-bhunakti iti bhoktA - The Protector, and bhunkte iti bhoktA -TheEnjoyer. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha nicely expresses this - rakshakobhakshaNaSca.He creates, protects, and then swallows at the time ofpralaya. The dharma cakram writer explains the functionof bhagavAn as bhoktA ina way that applies to our day-today life. BhagavAn isin all of us -in some cases He is the observer, in others He is the guide, inyetothers He is the Enjoyer, etc. (gItA 13.22). For those who spend theirtime inworldly pursuits, He is just the observer. For those whoobserve the path ofdharma, He is the bhartA in times of need - as inthe case of pANDava-s. Forthose who offer to bhagavAn the worldlygains that they get, such as the fameetc. that come to them, He is thebhoktA, i.e, He accepts these as offerings, andHe bestows on them Hisanubhavam instead. The more we dedicate our actions andthe benefitsof these actions to Him, and thus make Him the bhoktA, the moreHereveals to us what true happiness is, and the more we are relievedofundesirable attributes such as ahamkAram, mamakAram, etc. Thesignificance ofthis nAma thus is for us to realize that we shoulddedicate all our actions andtheir effects to bhagavAn as the bhoktA,and we should instead enjoy Him andattain eternal bliss. SrI BhaTTar interprets the next few nAma-s interms of the guNAnubhavamof the incarnation of bhagavAn as SrI rAma. Earlier,nAma-s 390 to421had been interpreted also in terms of SrI rAmAvatAra. 503. kapIndrah a) The Lord of the monkeys. b) The Great Boar - varAha. c) He who controls all movement in everything. om kapIndrAya namah. kapInAm indrah kapIndrah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is: BhagavAnassumedthe human form which was very different from His Nature inorder to propagate theperformance of sacrificial acts laid down in theveda-s which He had Himselfpromulgated earlier in the form ofhayagrIva, and the deva-s assumed the form ofmonkeys which are evenmore different from their nature. He was the indra or theLord for thegods who were his servitors, and hence He is called kapIndra. Thisissupported by the following Sloka from vAlmIki rAmAyaNa -sarvalokeSvarahsAkshAt lokAnAm hita-kAmyayA |sarvaih parivr*to devaih vAnaratvam upAgataih || (yuddha114.16) loka here means the world, the people of theword, and also the veda-s.So His incarnation is for the protection of the worldand its people, but also for the protection of the veda-s. SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri observes that for Onewho could controlthousands and thousands monkeys, it is a trivial task tocontrol theindriya-s of mortals like us. The dharma cakram writer pointssoulthat our mind which is like a monkey can be controlled if we seek thehelp ofbhagavAn and meditate on Him, and then we can win over theaj~nAna just as thecontrolled monkeys won over rAvaNa in the battle.Our soul is caged andimprisoned by the aj~nAna, just as sItA pirATTiwas imprisoned by rAvaNa, and itis only by controlling the mind whichis like a monkey that we can get rid ofthis aj~nAna and release thesoul from its bondage. This nAma should teach usthat it is possibleto achieve this with the help of bhagavAn, kapIndrah.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the wordkapi based on kapisa~ncalane - anything that moves about, and applies this tothe sun,the moon, and all other objects that move. He thus interprets the nAmatomean "He who gives the power of movement to everything thatmoves".This can then be extended to even the movement of the pure bloodandimpure blood simultaneously inside the body without getting mixed up,the AtmAmoving from one body to another, etc., and thus He iskapIndrah, the Controllerof movement in everything and everywhere.SrI Sa~nkara points out that kapi canalso refer to a boar (varAha),and so kapIndrah can also refer to His varAhaincarnation. The termkapih was interpreted earlier in nAma 102 vr*shAkapih -in thissense. 504. bhUri-dakshiNah a) The giver of liberal gifts. b) He who makes things grow fast and move fast. c) He who is extremely dextrous. om bhUri-dakshiNAya namah. bhUri means "much, abundant, numerous,copius". dakshiNah has beeninterpreted as one who gives dakshiNA. vyAkhyAnakartA-s haveinterpreted the nAma as a reference to the incarnations inwhichbhagavAn has performed numerous sacrifices to uphold dharma and to setanexample to the rest of the world, and in these He has made largegifts to theparticipants to set an example to others. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan points out that this example shouldextend to the vaidikakarmA-s such as SrAddha, in which the dakshiNA should beliberal to theparticipants. He gives the example of Lord kr*shNa's guru dakshiNA-that of bringing back sAndIpani's dead son to life again - maRi kaDalvAimANDAnai Oduvitta takkaNaiyA uruvuruvE koDuttAn (periAzhvArtirumozhi 4.8.1). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives hisinterpretation based on dakshvr*ddhau SighrArthe - to grow, to go in speed, andgives the meaningthat bhagavAn makes things that He creates grow very fast, asalso moveabout with speed as soon as they are born. A bird starts eatingthingsas soon as it is born without worrying about whether something is raworripe, and starts growing. A human child starts drinking milk themoment it isborn, and a young animal starts walking as soon as it isborn as well. Thisaspect of bhagavAn where He makes everything growfast and move around fast issuggested by the nAma bhUridakshiNahaccording to this interpretation. The word dakshiNa is also given the meaning dextrous,able, clever(pANini 1.1.34). Thus the nAma could mean that bhagavAn isextremelydextrous. This interpretation is mentioned in passing by SrIrAdhAkr*shNaSastri. -dAsan kr*shNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 54

505. somapah 506 - amr*tapah 507. somah 508 - puru-jit 509. puru-sattamah 510. vinayah 511. jayah 512. satya-sandhah 513. dASArhah 514. sAttvatAm-patih

om om om om om om om om om om

somapAya namah amr*tapAya namah somAya namah puru-jite namah puru-sattamAya namah vinayAya namah jayAya namah satya-sandhAya namah dASArhAya namah sAttvatAm-pataye namah

505. somapah a) He who drank the soma juice afterperforming sacrificial offerings in His rAma incarnation. b) He who, in the form of the deity being invoked in a yaj~na, accepts the somajuice by the householder performing the yaj~na. om somapAya namah. soma juice is the extract from a plant, and isthe most important ingredient in ancient sacrificial offerings. SrIBhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that the nAma signifies that Lord rAma performed severalyaj~na-s,and drank the juice from the soma plant after performing thesesacrificial offerings. SrI Sa~nkara gives the additionalinterpretation that bhagavAn accepts the offering of the soma juice in allsacrifices in the form of the deities to whom the sacrifice is addressed.

The dharma cakram writer points out that thejuice of the soma plant is comprised of a constituent that gives long life -like nectar. This isoffered first to the deva-s to whom the yaj~na is dedicated,and then the yajamAna partakes of this prasAdam. 506 - amr*tapah The drinker of ambrosia. om amr*tapAya namah. amr*ta refers to ambrosia or nectar. SrIBhaTTar gives two interpretations for this nAma depending on -pah in the nAmabeingi nterpreted as pibati - drinks, or pAti -protects. The oblations offeredin sacrifices as prescribed in the veda-s along with therecitation of mantra-sare transformed by the god of fire into ambrosia and given to vishNu "yat ki~ncit hUyate vahnauhavir-mantrair-vidhAnatah | tat sarvam amr*tam kr*tvA vishNavesamprayacchati || . Thus bhagavAn is the drinker of the nectar -amr*tapah. The alternate interpretation is that bhagavAnHimself is the amr*ta, and He protects it for the benefit of His devotees sothat they canenjoy Him in the Transcendental World after following the path ofdharma shown by Him in the discharge of daily duties in this world. The Sruti-squoted in support are: amr*tasya esha setuh(muNDakopanishad 2.2.5) - He is thebridge for the amr*ta i.e., the procurer of the nectar; yasya chAyA amr*tam(tai. yaju. 4.1) - He whose shadow is ambrosia i.e., He whose protection is amr*tamitself. SrI Sa~nkara refers to the incident of mohini incarnation in the contextof this nAma, where bhagavAn restored the amr*ta stolen by theasura-s, protectedit, made the deva-s drink it, and also drank Himself. SrI rAdhAkr*shNaSAstri suggests that since bhagavAn is in the form of deva-s who drink thenectar, He is amr*tapah, the drinker of ambrosia. SrI cinmayAnanda comments that as the InfiniteTruth bhagavAn enjoys blissful immortality (amr*tatvam) at all times, and inthis sense He is One who has partaken of amr*tam 507. somah a) The Nectar. b) The moon. om somAya namah. BhagavAn is called soma (nectar) here becauseHe is sweet like nectar to the bhakta-s who enjoy Him. SrI BhaTTar givesreference to SrImadrAmAyaNam - rAj~nA daSarathenAsi labdho'mr*tamiva amaraih (AraNya.kANDam)- daSaratha obtained rAma like the necatar by the gods. He also refers us to theSruti Santi samr*ddham amr*tam (tai. SIKshA. 6) -Brahman is replete withtranquility and immortality (amr*tam).BhagavAn's tirunAmam ArAvamudan expressesthe same idea - The Insatiate Nectar. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives references todivya prabandham -ANDAL - manattukku iniyAnai pADAvum nI vAi tiravAi intiruppAvai; The outpouring by nammAzhvAr in tiruvAimozhi 10.7.2 enakkut tEnE!pAlE! kannalE! amudE! - He is everything to me, like honey, milk,sugar candy, nectar, etc. nammAzhvAr again in tiruvAimozhi 2.5.4 eppozhudum nAL ti~ngaL ANDuUzhi torum appozhudukku appozhudu en ArA amudamE! -You are Insatiate

Nectar to me always, no matter how much I enjoy you - fordays, months,years, yuga-s. You are the fresh nectar every time, even if I haveyour anubhavam continuously. soma also refers to the moon. SrI Sa~nkarauses this meaning in one of his interpretations for this nAma. SrI rAdhAkr*shNaSAstri and SrIcinmayAnanda give reference to gItA 15.13 in support pushNAmicaushadhIh sarvAh somo bhUtvA rasAtmakah - Becoming the moon radiatingthe life-giving rays, I nourish all herbs. The interpretation of soma here asreferring to the moon is given by tirukkaLLam SrI nr*simhAcAryasvAmi in his gItAvyAkhyAnam. 508 - puru-jit The Conquerer of all. om puru-jite namah. SrI Sa~nkara gives the vyAkhyAnam purUn - bahUn jayati iti puru-jit -He who conquers many. SrI BhaTTarrefers to SrImad rAmAyaNam in support of his vyAkhyAnam giving this meaning.King daSaratha pleads with kaikeyi to spare him from the torture of separationfrom rAma who is the personification of everything that is good. In thiscontext, he tells kaikeyi - rAma has conquered the world through truth, the poorby charity, the teacher by his dedicated service, and the enemies by His mightybow, i.e., He has conquered many or all. satyena lokAn jayati dInAn dAnena rAghavah | gurUn SuSrUshayA vIro dhanushA yudhi SatravAn || (ayodhyA. 12.29) This same guNa of bhagavAn viz. puru-jit, isreferred to by tiruma~ngaiAzhvAr in periya tirumozhi 1.10.2 and 4.3.5 (SrI v.v.rAmAnujan): ila~ngaip patikku anRu iRaiyAya arakkar kulam keTTu avar mALakkoDip-puL tirittAi!(1.10.2), and tI-manttu arakkar tiRal azhittavanE(4.3.5). SrI rAmAnujan also observes that Lord rAma has the distinction of winning overthree from the same family rAvaNa was won over by His valor, vibhIshaNa by Hisdharma and character, and SUrpanakhA by His appearance. Thus again He hasconquered many throughmany means. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha extends theinterpretation to cover the whole Universe which is under the control ofbhagavAn asa~nkhyAta tArAgrahaupagraha sahitam tathA vana-upavana samudrAdi sahitam kha-gola bhUgolaAtmakam sarvam viSvam yena vaSikr*tam sa puru-jid vishNuhHe who has under His control all the constellations, the lands, the oceans,thedifferent worlds, all the souls, and everything there is, is puru-jit. Thedharma cakram writer observes that the same attributes that helped rAma win overeveryone viz. dharma, truth, humility, etc., are the same attributes that weneed in life to overcome obstacles in life. When obstacles arise for those whopractice these traits, these should be only taken as temporary incidences thatare meant to reinforce their faith in following the good traits that ensureultimate success. This was true in the case of hariScandra and the pANDava-s.This nAma of bhagavAn should teach us to follow the traits that will ensuresuccess in life in the long run. 509. puru-sattamah a) He who remains with the great. b) He whose form is of cosmic dimensions, and who is the best of all

om puru-sattamAya namah. There are many different interpretations forthis nAma. SrI BhaTTar'svyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn remains with manygreat ones such as Hanuman who are always desirous of drinking the ocean ofHisnectarlike qualities. He gives the following words of HanumAn in support: sneho me paramo rAjan! tvayi nityamapratishThitah | bhaktiSca niyatA vIra! bhAvo nAnyatra gacchati || (uttara.40.15) "O King! My love for Thee is very greatand it is firmly planted in Thee. O Warrior! My devotion to Thee is even moresteady. I can not think of going anywhere else (leaving this world where Thouhastenslaved me)". SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to tiruma~ngaiAzhvAr Sindai tannuLnI~ngAdirunda tiruvE! maruviniya maindA! (tirumozhi 4.9.2); and EttuvAr tam manattuLLAn - tirumozhi 1.8.4. SrI Sa~nkara interprets the nAma as consistingof two attributes, puruhand sattamah, the first referring to the multi-faced,multi-headed, multi-eyed, multi-dimensioned, viSva-rUpa form, and the secondreferring to His being the best of all, sattama. viSvarUpatvAt puruh, utkr*shTatvAtsattamah. SrI ChinmayAnanda gives the meaning "great" to the word puru,and interprets the nAma as bhagavAn being the Greatest among the great. Heopines that the pATham purushottamah is used in some versions for this nAma, andthe meaning then is given in terms of purushah and uttamah -Omnipresent andBest.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the nAma in terms of three constituentsof the nAma - puru, sat, tama. Taking sat to mean existence here, He is farsuperior to anything that exists, since everything except Him is impermanent oranityam, and He is the onlynityam. A trivial example for lack of a better one isthe relative impermanence of a pot compared to the maker of the pot. Thus theinterpretation given is that of the amr*tatvam of bhagavAn. The dharma cakram writer gives the meaning"He who shines through many great forms", and refers to the vibhUtiyoga in SrImad bhagavad gItA. He is the Sun and the moon in those that shine,sAma veda among veda-s,indra among the deva-s, etc. 510. vinayah a) The Subduer. b) He who leads well. om vinayAya namah. SrI BhaTTar vyAkhyAnam is vinIyante damyanteiti vinayah - He who subdues. He gives the example of the subduing of mArIca byLord rAma through His valor. Or because He causes the evil-doers to have modesty(vinayam) by punishing them, He is vinayah. SrI ChinmayAnanda observes that the directmeaning of the word vinayah is "He who shows supreme humility". Hereit means "He who humiliates those who are unrighteous". He also givesan alternate interpretation- vi-nayah, where nayah refers to He who leads (netAetc.)., and vi-nayah refers to the Lord who leads well the seekers steadilythrough the path of truth and righteousness. 511. jayah

a) He who is conquered. b) He who is victorious. om jayAya namah. SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is samastAni bhUtAnijayati iti jayah - He who is victorious over all beings. SrI BhaTTar gives the first interpretation.The nirukti descriptionfor SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is Asritaih jIthate yasmAtvidheyokriyatejayah - One who has been conquered by the devotees and who actsaccording to their wishes. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan comments that even thoughthe interpretation that He is one who has jaya SrI with Him can be given, SrIBhaTTar's choice of his interpretation is to bring out the dominant guNa-s ofbhagavAn such as souSIlyam. SrI BhaTTar gives examples of this quality ofLord rAma from SrImad rAmAyaNa "Aj~nApyo'ham tapsvinAm" - "I am to be commanded by the sages -i.e., I am at their disposal" (bAla. 3.37); tato nArAyaNo vishNuh niyuktaihsura-sattamaih - Then nArAyaNa was directed bythe great gods (bAla.16.1). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that jayahconnotes bhagavAn being everywhere, in everything, controlling everything,having conquered everything and everyone, being unconquerable ever by anything,etc. The dharma cakram writer explains the context of being victorious for ourday-to-day life - the lesson we should learn from this nAma. There are alwaystwo aspects to our character - acquiring and practicing qualitiesthat are conducive to our realization of bhagavAn, or indulging in activitiesthat are contrary to this. Being subservient to wealth, committing even heinouscrimes in order to acquire and accumulate wealth, going after name and fameinstead of devoting ourlife in kaimkaryam to bhagavAn, etc. are some examples ofthe latter. rAvaNa, duryodhana, etc. were examples of characters who fellprey to their inferior instincts in their lives. The victory that we should aimfor is over the base instincts that will result in our defeat in our effort tocross the ocean of samsAra. For real victory in this life, we should develop andpractice characters such as kindnesstowards others, sacrifice for the welfare ofothers, vairAgyam, bhakti,etc. 512. satya-sandhah a) He whose promises are always true. b) He of firm resolve. om satya-sandhAya namah. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the meaningpratij~nA or promise to the word sandhA. Thus satya sandhah means He whosepromises are alway strue. SrI BhaTTar quotes Lord rAma's words to sItA pirATTiabout this aspect of bhagavAn's guNa apyaham jIvitam jahyAm tvAm vA sItesa-lakshmaNam | na tu pratij~nAm samSrutya brAhmaNebhyo viSeshatah || (AraNya.10.19) "O sItA! I would rather give up my life,or even you and lakshmaNa, than break my promise especially that which has beenmade to brahmins".

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference tonammAzhvAr in tiruvAimozhi 9.10.6nALum tan meyyarkku meyyanE - always true to His true devotees. SrIrAmAnujan comments that bhagavAn was not only true to His devotee PrahlAda,but He became true (i.e., made His appearance) to even His adversaryhiraNyakaSipu in the process (poyyanukkum meyyan!). BhagavAn's own words to SrIrAmAnuja as conveyed in SaraNAgati gadyam rAmo dvir-nAbhibhAshate, and anr*tam nokta pUrvam me na ca vakshyekadAcanacome to mind. Instances of daSaratha keeping his word to kaikeyi, dharmaputragoing to the forest and undergoing aj~nAtavAsam just for the sake of fulfillinghis word, the story of hariScandra, etc. are examples of great people caring tokeep their words. This is why they are great, and dear to bhagavAn. SrI Sa~nkara gives the derivation satyA sandhA(samkalpah orpriatij~nA) asya iti satya-samkalpah - He who has firm resolve anddetermination that always becomes true. Both SrI R. anantakr*shNaSasti and SrIcinmayAnanda quote the following from purANa, but I am unable to locate thereference: "Heavens might fall, earth might crumbledown, the Himalayas might be crushed, the ocean might become dry, but My worduttered shall never become vain". 513. dASArhah a) He who is worthy of gifts. b) He is worthy to be possessed as a gift. c) He who was born in the race of daSArhah i.e., the yAdava race. om dASArhAya namah. The nAma is derived from the root dASr* dAne -to give away, and arhah meaning deserving. Thus there are two interpretationsgiven. The first is that He is fit to be worshipped through offerings of gifts,and the second is that He is fit to be aimed for as the ultimate gift. SrI Sa~nkara has given the interpretations aand c, and SrI BhaTTar has given all three interpretations. SrI BhaTTar explainsthat He is fit for us to offer our selves to Him, or alternately, He considersHis Supreme Self fit to be offered to His devotees. Along the lines ofinterpretation (a), SrI cinmayAnanda observes that bhagavAn is fully competentto receive all the offerings made with devotion in the ritualistic sacrifices.The third interpretation is based on bhagavAnkr*shNa being born in the daSarhaclan or tribe of the yAdava race. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvArenadu AviyuL kalanda perunal udavikkuk kaimmARu enadu Avi tandu ozhindEn ini mILvadenbadu uNDE(tiruvAimozhi 2.3.4) in support of SrI BhaTTar's interpretation along the lines of (a) referring toHis being fit for our Atma samarpaNam. An example of where bhagavAn sees it fitto give His gift to the devotees is the mohini incarnation where He bestowed thenectar that He Himself churned out of the milky ocean to the deva-s who wantedit. BhagavAnis "perumakkaL uLLuvar tam perumAn" (tiruvAimozhi 3.7.4) -He who resides inside the great people who chant His name, where He is sought asthe gift by these great people. In support of the interpretation a), thedharma cakram writer observes that bhagavAn is fit for our offerings over anyoneelse, since He accepts all our offerings including our sins, and if we offer ourkarma-phalan to Him, He relieves us of all the effects of our karma and bestowsmoksha on us. 514. sAttvatAm-patih

The Lord of the sAttvata-s. om sAttvatAm-pataye namah. SrI BhaTTar gives a detailed derivation of theword sAttvata starting from the word sat meaning either Supreme Brahman or thequality of sattva. sattvAn is one who knows brahman or one who is possessed ofthe quality of sattva. sAttvata signifies the act of a sattvAn in knowingbrahman or in acquiring the quality of sattva or the scriptures followed by asattvAn. sAttvata-s are thus bhAgavata-s. Since bhagavAn is the Lord of thesAttvata-s or bhAgavta-s, He is sAttvatAm-patih. The yAdava race is also called the sAttvatarace. Since Lord kr*shNa is the Lord of the yAdava-s, He is calledsAttvatAm-patih. Another interpretation, given by SrI Sa~nkara and those thatfollow his vyAkhyAnam, is that bhagavAn is sAttvatAm-patih since He is theLeader of those who follow the tantram called sAttvatam, the scriptures whichare essentially sAttvic in nature. SrI cinmayAnanda observes that the path ofthe sAAttvata-s is single-pointed meditation upon the form of Lord vishNu withabsolute devotion. For this reason, the pA~ncarAtrins are also called sAttvata-s.SrI P. B. aNNa~ngarAcArya svAmi explains that this nAma refers to bhagavAn beingthe Originator of the pA~ncarAtra system and thereby being the Protector of thesAttvata-s or bhAgavata-s. The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 55 516. 517. 518. 519. 520. 521. 522. 523. vinayitA sAkshI mukundah amita-vikramah ambho-nidhih anantAtmA mahodadhi-Sayah antakah

om om om om om om om om om

jIvAya namah vinayitre namah sAkshiNe namah mukundAya namah amita-vikramAya namah ambho-nidhaye namah anantAtmane namah mahodadhi-SayAya namah antakAya namah

515. jIvah He who gives true life to His devotees. om jIvAya namah. jIvayati iti jIvah (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). He helps bhAgavata-s keep away from committing sinful acts and thereby bringingabout their ruin, and instead makes them lead a life of Bliss by doing serviceto Him. SrI rAmAnujan corroborates this interpretation of SrI BhaTTar byreference to periAzhvAr - eyiRRiDai maN koNDa endai irAp-pagal Oduvittuennaip-payiRRip-paNi koNDAn (5.2.3). He even made the squirrels do service toHim and thus enjoy the bliss of kaimkaryam to Him. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha givesthe more general interpretation viz. that bhagavAn is the cause of sustenance ofeverything - jIvayati prANAn dhArayati iti jIvah 516. vinayitA a) The Savior. b) He who shows the path to everyone. om vinayitre namah. SrI BhaTTar derives the interpretation fromthe root nay, which has teo meanings - gatau rakshaNe ca - to go or to protect.SrI BhaTTar uses the second of the two meanings. In fact he states that bhagavAnprotects His devotee-s with love and affection and treats them like princes -rAjakumAra lAlanena rakshati. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the moving example ofLord rAma's words of concern to sugrIva after his first fight with vAli, wherehe was defeated and had to come back. rAma says "tvayi ki~ncit samApannekim kAryam sitayA mama" (yuddha kANDam) - "Of what use is it to me toget sItA if even the slightest harm has been caused to you?" - such was theconcern and love that he had for a mere monkey-king. We have nammAzhvAr's wordsin tiruvAimozhi - j~nAlattUDE naDandum ninRum kiDandirundum SAlap pala nALugandOr uyirgaL kAppAnE (6.9.3) - You show your standing pose, your recliningbeauty, your sitting posture on different occasions to sustain the lives ofthose who seek Your protection. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha bases hisinterpretation using the first meaning given above for nay viz. to go. Hisinterpretation is - sarvasya jagato gatim prAyayitA gater-dAtA ityarthah - Heshows the path to everyone, or gives direction to everyone. 517. sAkshI The Observer.

om sAkshiNe namah. BhagavAn is the Observer within every one ofus. uLLuvAr uLLiRRellAm uDan irundu aRidi - tirumAlai 34 (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan).SrI BhaTTar's interpretation is that bhagavAn is so concerned about the welfareof His devotees that He constantly observes them to make sure no harm comes tothem. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives theinterpretation - sAkshAt drashTA sAkshI - He Who sees things as they truly are,or it can also mean He who sees things for Himself. Since bhagavAn is inside us,outside of us, and is everywhere and in everything, He is the the sAkshI ofeverything that happens inside us and outside of us. SrI vAsishTha has composedthe following Slokam as his interpretation for this nAma sAkshI sa vishNuh sa hi darSano vA drashTA svayam sa hi sUrya cakshuh | j~nAnam hi cakshuh r*tamAtrabodhah so'ntargatah paSyati viSvamAtram || SrI Sa~nkara and others who follow hisvyAkhyAnam have interpreted nAma-s 516 and 517 together as one nAma -vinayitA_sAkshI - He who witnesses or observes the humility of His devotees. 518. mukundah He who gives moksha. om mukundAya namah. Both SrI Sa~nkara and SrI BhaTTar give thesame vyAkhyAnam - muktim dadAti iti mukundah. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives severalreferences to divya prabandham: pul eRumbu Adi onRu inRiyE naRpAl ayoddhiyil vAzhum arASaram muRRavum naRpAlukku uyttanan (tiruvAimozhi 7.5.1); anRu SarASara~ngaLai viakundattERRi (perumAL tirumozhi 10.10); viNNulagam taruvAnAi viraiginRAn (tiruvAimozhi 10.6.3), etc. Both SrI Sa~nkara and SrI BhaTTar have givenreference to the pANini sUtra 6.3.109 - pr*shodarAdIni yathopadishTam to supportthe derivation of the word mukunda from muktim dadAti - "The elision,augment and mutation of letters to be seen in pr*shodara etc., while not foundtaught in treatises of grammar, are valid, to that extent and in the mode, astaught by the sages". 519. amita-vikramah a) He of boundless valor. b) He of the three great strides (tri-vikrama). om amita-vikramAya namah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn isthe Supporter of all Realities such as prakr*ti. He is known by the name AdhAraSakti - AdhAra Sakti samj~nasya amUrtasya ca vai vibhoh (SrI paushkara). SrI V.N. vedAnta deSikan's English translation of of the vyAkhyAnam for this nAma bySrI M. V. rAmAnujAcArya is "The Lord is of inestimable capacity tobear". SrI Sa~nkara gives two interpretations for thenAma. One is based on vikrama referring to Saurya, which means strength, power,might -

amitam vikramaNam Sauryam asya iti amita-vikramah. The nAma occurs in SrImad bhagavad-gItA in Slokam 11.40 anantavIryAmitavikramastvam ., which is translated by SrI tirukkaLLam nr*simharAghavAcAryasvAmi as immeasurable parAkramam, which stands for heroism, prowess, courage,valor. The second interpretation SrI Sa~nkara givesfor the nAma is based on the meaning "stride, step, pace" for vikramah,or vikramaNa - amitA aparicchinnA vikramAstrayah pAdavikshepA asya - He whosethree strides, or steps, were immeasurable. The reference here is to the tri-vikramaincarnation. The Lord's steps were so vast, they were indeed immeasurable. The root kram - pAdavikshepe - to walk, tostep, is the basis for the derivation of the interpretation by SrI satyadevovAsishTha, which is the same basis on which SrI Sa~nkara's second interpretationabove rests. However SrI vAsishTha interprets the nAma as meaning that bhagavAnhas innumerable or countless strides in His manifestations. This diversity orextensive manifestation is also reflected in everything around us the Earth,the sky, and the region in between; rajas, tamas and sattva guNa-s; sun rise,mid-day, and the sunset; etc. SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma-s 520 to 528which follow in terms of the kUrmAvatara. 520. ambho-nidhih a) He who has the waters as His abode (kUrmaincarnation) b) He who is in the form of the Oceans c) He who sustains the ambhA-s (devas, men, manes, and asura-s) om ambho-nidhaye namah. SrI BhaTTar gives the first interpretationpAtAlAmbhasi akhila-jagadAdhAra-pITha nidhIyate iti ambhonidhih He has kept His form as a Tortoise in the waters of the pAtAla loka as the baseplank to support the Universe. The mantra quoted by SrI BhaTTar in support is: "ananta bala Saktaye bhuvanabhr*te kacchapAtmane" Unto Him of unlimited power and strength Who supports the worlds in the form ofa Tortoise. nidhi means reservoir, abode,receptacle. SrI Sa~nkara gives the second and third interpretations bhagavAnis the Ocean or the reservoir of water. He quotes the gItA - sarasAm asmiSagarah - 10.24. His alternateinterpretation is based on the term ambhA as representing the deva-s, the asuras,the people of this world, and the pitr*-s, as defined in the tait. brAhmaNa2.3.8 "tAni vA etAni catvAryambhAsi | devo manushyAh pitaro'surAh ||". Thus the nAma can be interpreted to mean that bhagavAn is the abode or restingplace of all the ambhA-s. The dharma cakram writer points out that while theseambhA-s are the ones who control the rest of the life forms, bhagavAn controlsthe ambhA-s, and thus He controls everything. BhagavAn also supports the lifeforms as kUrma mUrti when everything gets submerged under the water duringpralaya. Thus, this nAma signifies that bhagavAn is the Support of all lifeforms at all times. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the nAma asmeaning that bhagavAn establishes (nidhAnam) water in various forms and withvarious attributes and sustains life - the blood stream running in several lifeforms, the water that seeps through the root from the earth to sustain the treesand other plant forms, etc. Water is one of the essentials in sustenance oflife. He gives the quote from atharva veda - apAm retAmsi jinvati.

521. anantAtmA The Inner Soul of ananta. on anantAtmane namah. SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as referringto bhagavAn being the Inner Soul of ananta, who bears the Universe standing ontop of the kUrma. SrI Sa~nkara's interpretation is that bhagavAnis the Indefinable Soul (AtmA), not limited by Time, Space, or Substance (ananta).SrI rAdhAkr*shNa SAstri elaborates on this further by observing that for allobjects in this Universe, if they are in one place they can't be in anotherplace, and if they are in one form they can't be in another form at the sametime. BhagavAn is not subject to these constraints, signified by the nAmaanantAtmA. 522. mahodadhi-Sayah He Who is reclining in the vast ocean. om mahodadhi-SayAya namah. The words comprising the nAma are mahA, udadhi,and Sayah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that BhagavAn lies on the couch-likeserpent-body of ananta in the Milk-Ocean at the time of the final deluge. Thisis expressed by periAzhvAr in periAzhvAr tirumozhi 5.1.7 - veLLai veLLattin mEloru pAmbai meddaiyAga virittu adan mElE kaLLa nittirai koLginRa mArgam kANa, andby nammAzhvAr in tiruvAimozhi 3.4.9 acyutanai anantan mEl naNNi nanguuRaiginRAnai (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). SrI Sa~nkara gives the interpretation thatduring pralaya bhagavAn disintegrates everything and reduces them all into oneocean and reclines in those primeval waters. SrI cinmayAnanda suggests that the nAma canalso be interpreted as referring to bhagavAn reclining on a fig-leaf on thewaters after the deluge (Alilai mEl paLLI koNDAn). 523. antakah He Who beings out the end of all. om antakAya namah. SrI Sa~nkara gives the derivation "antamkaroti bhUtAnAm itit antakah". SrI BhaTTar gives several supporting quotes.ante pr*thivyAm salile dr*Syase tvam mahoragah (SrImad rAmAyaNa, yuddha. 120.23)"At the time of the end of this world, Thou art seen on the AdiSesha inthe waters of the deep"; "kalpAnte yasya vaktrebhyo vishAnala Sikhojvalah | samkarshaNAtmako rudro nishkramya atti jagat-trayam || "From His mouths, at the end of the kalpa, proceeds the venomed fire that,impersonated as rudra, who is one with balarAma, devours the three worlds"(vishNu purANam 2.5.19).

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan quotes nammAzhvar yAvarum yAvaiyum ellAp-poruLum kavarvinRit tannuL oDu~nga ninRa Azhi am-paLLiyAr - tiruvAimozhi 2.2.6. SrI cinmayAnanda adds that as Time He brings an end to allthings thus creating constant changes in this world, without which no evolutionor creative development is ever possible, and in this sense bhagavAn is theantakah. -dAsan kr*shNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 56 524. 525. 526. 527. 528. 529. 530. 531. 532. 533. ajah mahArhah svAbhAvyah jitAmitrah pramodanah Anandah nandanah nandah satya-dharmA tri-vikramah

om om om om om om om om

ajAya namah mahArhAya namah svAbhAvyAya namah jitAmitrAya namah pramodanAya namah AnandAya namah nandanAya namah nandAya namah

om satya-dharmaNe namah om tri-vikramAya namah 524. ajah a) He who is signified by the letter 'a'. b) He who is not born. c) He who drives away the darkness in the mind of the devotee. d) He who goes where the devotee is. e) He who is the cause of motion in the heart. f) He who is ever active in bestowing the effects of karma. g) The collections of things that exist. h) He who is everywhere and in everything. om ajAya namah. This nAma occurred earlier twice (96, 206).Based on the root aja - gati kshepaNayoh - which signifies motion or throwingaway, SrI BhaTTar interpreted the first of these occurrences as referring toBhagavAn being the remover of obstacles (kshipati iti ajah). He dispels thedarkness of ignorance by means of the luminous lamp of knowledge. The secondoccurrence was interpreted based on na jAyate iti ajah - He who is not born. Thecurrent nAma is interpreted as "akAra vAcyatayA jAtah" - He who issignified by the sound a or the letter a. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri explains thatwhen the world comes to an end, after the world submerges into earth, earth intowater, water into air, etc., ultimately what is left behind is the sound ofpraNava, and then its root or origin or base, the sound 'a' (akAram), whichsymbolizes bhagavAn. The other interpretations which have beengiven by other vyAkhyAna kartA-s are summarized under the discussion relating tothe nAma-s 96 and 206. Briefly, SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation thatbhagavAn is the Mover in the heart of the devotee - ajati gacchati kshipati vAajah. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the interpretation that bhagavAn reaches out(gacchati) to where His devotees are, or He is ever active in ensuring thateveryone gets the effects of their karma without discrimination. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning(g) above starting with 'a' referring to vishNu, and ja referring to everythingthat is born from vishNu when combine with 'a'. He relies on mahAbhArata Santi parva 341.74 in support of theinterpretation (b): na hi jAto na jAye'ham na janishye kadAcana | kshetraj~nah sarva-bhUtAnAm tasmat aham ajah smr*tah || 525. mahArhah He who is worthy of worship. om mahArhAya namah. maham - pUjanam arhati iti mahArhah. mahammeans worship. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan adds that the pUjA referred to here isAtma-samarpaNam or prapatti. This principle of nyAsam or bhara samarpaNam isrevealed to us in the upanishad. SrI BhaTTar refers us to taittirIya nArAyanIyam21 -

brahmaNe tvA mahasa om iti AtmAnam yu'njIta etad-vai mahopanishadam devAnAm guhyam || "The great secret which the gods arekeeping, and which is revealed to us by the great upanishad, is that the jIva isto be offered to bhagavAn, the Supreme Brahman, by means of the praNava, thefirst letter of which, 'a', signifies the paramAtmA, and the last letter, 'm'signifies the jIvAtmA. "To Thee, the Brahman of great effulgence, I offermyself through the mantra 'Om' ". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds that of all theworships offered to bhagavAn, the worship offering our own selves, which isnothing but prapatti, is the greatest and the most supreme. This nAma indicatesthat He is One who is deserving of prapatti. 526. svAbhAvyah a) He who is to be meditated upon by those whobelong to Him. b) He who is by nature fit to be the Master. c) He who is naturally without a beginning. d) He who is present everywhere and in everything without exception. om svAbhAvyAya namah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "svabhUtaih (Atmabhih)bhAvanIyatvAt svAbhAvyah" - He who is fit to be meditated upon by theindividual souls who are His property. Alternatively, svAbhAvikatvena bhAvyatvAtsvAbhAvyah - He who is naturally accepted (as the Master) because everythingelse His property, He being the Creator. SrI Sa'nkara's vyAkhyAnam is "svabhAvenaabhAvyah" - He who is naturally without a beginning, because He iseternally perfect. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the meaning based on sva +bhU + vyat, where he uses the meaning bhU - bhav to be, and the pANini sUtraorAvaSyake - the affix vyat comes after a root ending in short or long u whenthe sense is that of necessity. Thus, the meaning he gives is that bhagavAnexists everywhere and in everything as a matter of inevitability i.e.,svAbhAvyah means that bhagavan is One who is present everywhere and ineverything naturally and without exception. 527. jitAmitrah a) He who helps His devotees conquer enemiessuch as anger, kAmam, ahamkAram, mamakAram, etc. b) He who has conquered anger, kAmam, etc. c) He who has conquered His enemies such as rAvana etc. om jitAmitrAya namah. amitrAh jitAh anena iti jitAmitrah - He bywhom the foes have been conquered. SrI BhaTTar indicates that the foes referredto here are kAmam, aham-kAram and mama-kAram in the devotees. kAmam is thedesire in the devotee for material objects, ahma-karam is egotism, and mama-kAramis the feeling that all things that one possesses are one's own (and notbhagavAn's). One translator has translated the later two as Iness andmine-ness. These are the enemies that prevent us from having the svarUpa j~nAnam,and bhagavAn helps His devotees by removing them in His devotees. Lord kRshNareveals the powerful negative nature of these enemies (desire, anger, etc.)., inbhagavad-gItA 3.37 to 3.43

(kAma esah krodha esha rajod-guNa samudbhavah | ..jahi Satrum mahAbAho! kAmarUpam durAsadam ||). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives severalreferences from the Sruti-s for bhagavAn's nAma of jita amitrah: dyumAgm amitradambhanah (Rg 4.15.4), amitra senAm maghavan (atharva. 3.1.3); etc. He alsopoints out that those who follow bhagavAn and dharma come out victorious inwhatever they undertake, whereas those who forsake dharma are guaranteed to failin the end as well. This guNa of bhagavAn in removing the foes ofself-realization in His devotees is also described in the prabandham (v.v.rAmAnujan) - "en peru vinaiyaik kiTTik kizha'ngoDu tan aruL ennum oL vAluruvi veTTik kaLaindavan"; SeyyEl tIvnai enRu aruL Seyyum en kaiyArcakkarak kaNNa pirAnE (tiruvAimozhi 2.9.3). SrI Sa'nkara also adds the aspect ofbhagavAn's conquering the enemies such as rAvaNa, SiSupAla, etc. There is alsothe interpretation that He has conquered these enemies such as kAma, krodha,etc., Himself; thus, He has conquered the enemies within as well as outside. 528. pramodanah a) He who delights His devotees. b) He who is always joyful. om pramodanAya namah. pramodam karoti iti pramodanah - He who fillswith joy the minds of those who meditate on Him. The nAma is derived from the root mud - harshe- to rejoice, to be glad. SrI BhaTTar connects the interpretation of this nAmato the previous one by indicating that when the devotees realize that bhagavAnhas removed the foes such as anger, desire, etc., they feel delighted, and He ispramodanah in this sense. SrI Sa'nkara also gives an alternate explanation -pramodate iti pramodanah - He is ever joyful. SrI PBA, SrI v.v. rAmAnujan etc. connect bothinterpretations a and b nicely through the following anubhavam - The devoteesfeel delighted that enemies such as ahamkAram, mamakAram, fear, anger, etc.,have been removed from them by bhagavAn; bhagavAn in turn feels delighted whenHe finds that His devotee is delighted. This is like the parents feelingdelighted when their child is happy. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that whilemodah refers to the pleasures associated with day-to-day life, pramodanam is thedelight that is associated with the realization of the true nature of the self. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha remarks that theextent to which bhagavAn keeps His creations happy can be seen by the fact thateveryone wants to cling to this material body and no one really wants to leavethis body that they get because of their prior karma! 529. Anandah He Who is Bliss. om AnandAya namah.

SrI BhaTTar interprets the next few nAma-s interms of bhagavAn's kapila incarnation (The nAma kapilAcAryah is embedded in thenext Slokam). He is called Anandah because He is endowed with a Bliss that isbeyond description or imagination (vA'ng manasa dur-graho mahA Anandah asya astiiti Anandah). SrI BhaTTar reminds us of the discussion of the nature of HisBliss in Anandavalli in taittirIya upanishad. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan explains thatthe choice of the attribute of Anandah to describe kapila is because kapila wasdevoid of all attachments. The Sruti is "Srotriyasya ca a-kAmahatasya"- where the reference is to one who has overcome kAma or desire (kAmahata refersto one who is afflicted with kAma, and a-kAmahata is one who has overcome kAma).brahmAnandam is Bliss or Joy that is beyond description and imagination. kapilawas a brahmin who had overcome all desire, and the Bliss of such a one is thestate of brhamAnandam. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives references to theSruti referring to bhagvAn being Ananda-svarUpan AnandarUpam amRtam yadvibhAti (muNDaka. 2.2.7); Ananda AtmA (taitt.2.5); Anando brahma (taitt. 3.6). 530. nandanah The Bliss-Giver. om nandanAya namah. nandayati iti nandanah. BhagavAn gives thisbrahmAnandam (described in the previous nAma) to the liberated souls (mukta-s)when He confers moksham to them, and as a result He Himself rejoices. Theprevious nAma signified that He is the embodiment of Bliss, and the current nAmaindicates that He gives this happiness to the mukta-s. This happiness is in noway different from the happiness that He Himself enjoys. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstripoints out that the mukta-s derive this Bliss by His mere nearness to them, justas the mere presence of a child near them makes the parents happy. 531. nandah He Who is full of things that are Blissful. om nandAya namah. He has with Himself, in full, the enjoyablematerials, the instruments for enjoyment, the modes of enjoyment, the people whoenjoy, etc., at all times. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan elaborates on this further bypointing out that since BhagavAn is unattached to anything, and does not haveany need or desire, He has everything that is needed for Absolute Bliss. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the nAma as- nandanti samardhante asmin viSvarUpe purusha iti nando vishNuh - BhagavAnvishNu is called nandah because all jIva-s derive their final happiness in HimWho is the pUrNa purusha. SrI Sa'nkara also gives an alternate nAma -anandah - instead of nandah, and gives the meaning that BhagavAn is devoid ofall worldly pleasures which result from sense-contacts. 532. satya-dharmA

a) He Who performs His dharma truthfully. b) He Who protects those who have surrendered to Him without exception. c) He Who truly has all the kalyANa guNa-s in perfection om satya-dharmaNe namah. SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation thatBhagavAn is called satya-dharmA because He is noted for His uprightness towardsHis devotees right from the time they begin to approach Him up to the time oftheir attainment of Him (a). His dharma is well-known to be sAdhu-paritrANam andSaraNAgata -paritrANam. SrI P. B. aNNa'ngarAcArya svAmi and SrI M. V.rAmAnujAcArya svAmi interpret the nAma as expressing the guNa of bhagavAn thatHe protects those who have surrendered to Him without exception (b). BhagavAn's own words to Bhagavad rAmAnuja inSaraNAgati gadyam explain the dharma of bhagavAn: anRtam nokta pUrvam me na ca vakshye kadAcana| rAmo dvir-nAbhibhAshate || sakRdeva prapannAya tavAsmIti ca yAcate | abhayam sarva-bhUtebhyo dadAmyetad vratam mama || sarvadharmAn parityajya mAm ekam SaraNam vraja| aham tvA sarva-pApebhyo mokshayishyAmi mA Sucah || He is true to what He has declared as Hisdharma, and so He is called satya-dharmA. SrI Sa'nkara interprets the term dharmA torefer to guNa-s such as j~nAna, and SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri elaborates furtherand explains the nAma as indicating that bhagavAn is the Abode in Perfection forthe six guNa-s - j~nAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakti and tejas SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation thatBhagavAn has all the true dharma-s such as kindness, charity, etc., toperfection, and so He is satya-dharmA. He also gives the alternateinterpretation that bhagavAn is the embodiment of yoga, and supports it with theupanishad declaration "aym hi paramo dharmah yad-yogena Atma-darSanam"- "That alone is Supreme Dharma which is to experience the Self throughyoga". 533. tri-vikramah a) He Who pervades the three veda-s. b) He Who measured the three worlds with three strides. c) He Who pervades all the three worlds completely. d) He Who has transcended the waking, sleep, and deep-sleep states. om tri-vikramAya namah. SrI BhaTTar interprets "tri" here asreferring to the three veda-s (Rk, sAma, and yajur veda-s). The terms trayI andtri are used for the three veda-s, and tri-vikramah has been interpreted asreferring to His pervading the three veda-s, viz. He is the object of the threeveda-s . SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the following:

trirityevam trayo vedAh kIrtitAhmuni-sattamaih | kramate tAn tathA sarvAn tri-vikrama iti smRtah || SrI BhaTTar uses the meaning "veda"for the word "loka" in this reference, whereas SrI Sankara uses themeaning "world" for this same word in his interpretation (b) whichfollows. b) SrI Sankara gives the interpretation interms of the trivikrama incarnation - trayo vikramAs-trishu lokeshu krAntA yasyasah tri-vikramah (b). He gives supporting quotes from Sruti - "trINi padAvicakrame (tait. brA. 2.4.6); and from harivamSa (279.50) - "trirityevam" which we saw in the previous interpretation. c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the thirdinterpretation in addition to the first two viz. that bhagavAn is trivikramahin the sense of pervading everything in all the three worlds. d) SrI ChinmayAnanda uses the same harivamSareference and interprets the word loka to mean the three "fields ofexperience - the waking, dream, and deep-sleep conditions", and gives themeaning that bhagavAn is One Who has trancended these three states and reachedthe Infinite Consciousness, ie., He is the paramAtman. Thus, this nAmaillustrates that the spiritual seeker has to just to take the three steps viz.cross the waking, dream, and deep-sleep states, to realize the centre of self inhimself. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamachari for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 57 534. 535. 536. 537. 538. 539. 540. 541. maharshih kapilAcAryah kRtaj~nah medinI-patih tri-padah tridaSAdhyakshah mahA-SR'ngah kRtAnta-kRt

om maharshaye namah omkapilAcAryAya namah om kRtaj~nAya namah om medinI-pataye namah om tri-padAya namah om tri-daSAdhyakshAya namah om mahA-SR'ngAya namah om kRtAnta-kRte namah. 534. maharshih The Great Seer. om maharshaye namah. BhagavAn is maharshih because, in Hisincarnation as kapila, He realized the three veda-s by intuitive perception (Rshir-darSanAt- niru. 2.11 - satyadevo vAsishTha). He is known for chanting all the vedaswithout a break - SrutIh RgAdyAh vaktrebhyah prodgirantam atah smaret. SrIBhaTTar gives reference to SvetASvataropanishad 5.2 - Rshim prasUtam kapilammahAntam (kapila, who was a seer from his birth). He is also a maharshi for hispropounding the sAnkhya system - sAnkhyasya vaktA kapilah paramrshih sa ucyate(source of quotation unidentified). SrI Sa'nkara gives reference to the gItA,where bhagavAn kRshNa declares that "Of the perfected ones, I am the sagekapila" - siddhAnAm kapilo munih (gItA 10.26). SrI Sa'nkara comments that those whoenvisioned part of the veda are referred to as Rshi-s, and those who envisionedthe entire veda are referred as the "Great Rshi-s (maharshi-s)". Ofthese, Lord kRshNa ranks kapila as the foremost (the gItA reference above). SrISa'nkara combines this nAma and the next one as one nAma - maharshihkapilAcAryah - kapilAcArya, the great sage. We already saw why kapila is calleda maharshi. He is also an AcArya because he propounded the sAnkhya system. 535. kapilAcAryah He Who is of brown complexion and also an AcArya. om kapilAcAryAya namah.

kapilaScAsau AcAryaSca iti kapilAcAryah.kapilam refers to the color of the inside of a tree; Sage kapila's namesignifies his complexion which resembles that of smokeless fire. The mantra tomeditate on him is "nirdhUmA'ngAra varNAbham Sa'nkha padmAksha sUtriNam"- He who is possessed of a luster like the burning and smokeless ember, and hasSan'kha and padma beads in his hand. The reference to kapila being like thesmokeless and burning ember also can be taken to refer to his character which isflawless like the smokeless fire, and the similarity to the burning fire areference to his extra-ordinary j~nAnam. The mantra referring to this attributeis "samvit prakASanAya" - To Him Who spread the knowledge of Hissystem. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a nice and crisp definition of an AcArya -Acarati svayam, SishyebhyaSca AcAram grAhayati iti AcAryah - An AcArya is onewho observes the sad-dharma himself, and also imparts the knowledge of thissad-dharma to his disciples. 536. kRtaj~nah a) He Who remembers the good deed done. b) He Who is both the Created and the Creator. c) He Who knows everything about His Creation. om kRtaj~nAya namah. This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 83 (Slokam9). Please refer to the earlier explanation or additional guNAnubhavam. sukRtameva j~nAtavAn iti kRtaj~nah He Who remembers only the good actsdone. SrI BhaTTar explains this nAma in the contextof sage kapila and the sons and grandson of sagara, a descendant of the ikhsvAkurace. The sons of king sagara offended sage kapila and he reduced them to ashes.But later on, amSumAn, the grandson of sagara, came before kapila and bowed withrespect, and pleaded on behalf of his ancestors. kapila remembered only thisgood act, and immediately conferred a boon to amSuman to ask whatever he wants. SrI Sa'nkara interprets kRtam as referring tothe Universe which is created, and j~nah as referring to the Knower or the AtmAwhich is not created. Since bhagavAn is both the Created and the Creator, He iskRtam and j~nah (SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives theinterpretation - kRtam jAnAti iti kRtaj~nah - He Who knows precisely everythingthere is to know about His creation. He knows the why, when, how, where, what,and precisely for how long, of everything He has created. 537. medinI-patih The Lord or Protector of the Earth. om medinI-pataye namah. At the time of creation, when the Earth sankunder water, at the request of brahmA, bhagavAn took the yaj~navarAhaincarnation, and supported the Earth and brought it out. In the form of kapilain the pAtALa loka, bhagavAn is supporting the Earth through His yoga-Sakti. InSrImad rAmAyaNam, we have

yasyeyam vasudA sarvA vAsudevasya dhImatah | kapilam rUpamAsthAya dhArayatyaniSam dharAm || (bAla. 1.40.2) "All the Earth belongs to the omniscientvAsudeva; taking the form ofkapila, He always bears the Earth". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives the reference totiruvAimozhi which conveys the same thought: peria appan, piraman appan,uruttiran appan, munivarkku uriya appan, amarar appan, ulagukkOr taniyappan(8.1.11). 538. tri-padah a) The Propounder of the three tattva-s. b) He Who is in the form of praNava mantra with three letters. c) He Who assumed the form of a Boar with three humps. d) He Who triumphed over the worlds with three steps. e) He Who is the Lord of the past, present, and future. om tri-padAya namah. Thethree tattva-s referred to here by SrI BhaTTar are: pradhAna (nonsentientmatter), purusha (the individual soul), and paramAtmA. These are also referredto as bhoktA (the individual self), bhogya (the objects of enjoyment or thenon-sentient matter), and niyantR (Ruler). SrI BhaTTar gives reference to vishNudharma 63.59: sattvAnAm upakArAya pradhAnam purusham param | darSayishyAmi lokeshu kApilam rUpam Asthitah || "For the benefit of all beings in theworld, having assumed the form of kapila, I am going to reveal the threeRealities viz. pradhAna, purusha, and paramAtmA". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri explains that the threetattva-s refer to the three states in which bhagavAn manifests Himself - as Onewho protects the world, as one who protects the devatA-s who protect the world,and as SrIvaikunTha nAthan disassociated with this world. SrI BhaTTar gives twoother alternate interpretations. b) tri-padah can also mean that He isrepresented by the three words or syllables of the praNava - A U M. c) In His varAha incarnation, BhagavAn assumedthe form of a boar with three humps (tri-padah) tavaivAsam trika-kudo vArAhamrUpamAsthitah (mahA. moksha. 343.63) - "I assumed the form of varAha (Boar)with three humps". d) SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma in terms of the tri-vikramaincarnation, and supports it with the quote from taitt. brAhmaNa 2.4.6 - trINipadA vicakrame - "He who triumphed over the three worlds by His threestrides". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the following interpretation to thetrivikrama incarnation: bhagavAn measured this world with one step and coveredall the sthUla belongings of mahAbali, with the second step He measured all thesUkshma belongings of bali such as svarga which he would have achieved in hisfuture births through His current good deeds, and through His third step Heremoved the ahamkAra mamakAra-s of bali and sent him to the eternal parama padam. e) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri also gives analternate explanation that bhagavAn has His Feet (i.e., His Adhipatyam) in thepast, present, and future, and so He is called tri-padah. 539. tridaSAdhyakshah

a) The Savior of the thirty-three gods. b) The Master of the three states. c) The Master of the three guNa-s. om tridaSAdhyakshAya namah. SrI BhaTTar interprets the term tri-daSa torefer to the thirty three gods and explains the nAma as signifying that bhagavAnis their adhyaksha and helps brahma and others when they encounter difficultiesin their functions after the pralaya (brahmAdeh pralaya Apat sakhatvAt). Prof.SrInivAsa rAghavan adds that the term tri-daSa, which means three times ten orthirty, is a rounded number which refers to the thirty-three gods (eight vasu-s,eleven rudra-s, 12 Aditya-s, and the two aSvin-s). In tiruppAvai (20) we havereference to the thirty three deva-s - muppatti mOvar amarkku mun SenRu kappamtavirkkum kali (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). SrI rAmAnujan explains how bhagavAn hasbeen the Savior of the gods during the creation soon after pralaya. When theworld was submerged under water, and brahma could not proceed with creation,bhagavAn took the form of the big boar and lifted the earth out of water andthus helped brahma in his task. SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma as tri-daSAadhyakshah, where the term tridaSA refers to the three states waking, dream,and deep-sleep states. SrI cinmayAnanda extrapolates the term to mean the rajas,tamas, and sattva guNa-s. Thus bhagavAn is the Lord of the three states, or Onewho has mastery over the three guNa-s. 540. mahA-SR'ngah a) The Big-tuskedvarAha. b) He who took the matsya rUpam with the big horn. om mahA-SR'ngAya namah. SR'nga refers to the horn of an animal. SrIBhaTTar gives interpretation (a), and quotes the reference from SrImad rAmAyaNam- ekaSR'ngo varAhastvam (yuddha. 120.14) in support of his interpretation. Helifted the Earth from the waters with the tip of His tusk, and the Earthappeared like the leaf of a lotus besmeared with mud on the tusk of an elephantthat has entered a lotus-pond (vishNu purANam 1.4.36). SrI v.v. rAmAnujanexplains that the horn or tooth of this varAha rUpam was so huge (mahASR'nga)that the Earth looked like a small particle of food stuck at the tip of thetooth of this huge form ( SrImad bhAgavatam). SrI Sa'nkara gives interpretation (b) - thatthe nAma refers to matsya incarnation, where bhagavAn towed the boat tied to Hisbig horn with satyavrata in it and sported Himself in the pralaya waters. 541. kRtAnta-kRt a) The Slayer of hiraNyAksha. b) He who kills death himself. c) He who proclaimed the kRtAnta (siddhanta). d) He who brings about the end to the manifested condition of the Universe. a) and b): kRtAntam kRttavAn iti kRtAntakRt (SrI BhaTTar); kRtAntam mRtyum kRntati iti kRtAntakRt (SrI Sa'nkara). Both the interpretations have the same meaning. kRtAnta refers to yama. SrISa'nkara takes the literal meaning of kRtAnta, and gives the second meaningabove, viz. when bhagavAn brings an end to everything,

this includes yama also.SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation (a), that bhagavAn is the Slayer ofhiraNyAksha who was like yama. c) SrI BhaTTar gives an alternateinterpretation as well. kRtAnta refers to sidhhAnta, and bhagavAn is kRtAntakRtsince He has promulgated His doctrine of protecting those who seek refuge inHim. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to peria tirumozhi of tiruma'ngai AzhvAr(2.6.3) where the varAha avatAram is described as the personification of j~nAnam- Enattin uruvAgi nilama'ngai ezhil koNDAn j~nAnattin oLi uruvai ninaivAr ennAyagarE. d) SrI Sa'nkara also gives an alternateinterpretation kRta anta kRt - kRtasya antam samhAram karoti iti kRta anta kRt, meaning He brings about the destruction of kRta or manifested condition of theUniverse. The dharma cakram writer adds that just as the farmer whosows the crop also destroys it for the ultimate benefit of His creatures,bhagavAn creates and then destroys what He created, for the ultimate benefit ofthe jIva-s. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamacharifor the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 58 542. mahA-varAhah 543.govindah 544. susheNah 545.kanakA`ngadI 546. guyhah 547.gabhIrah 548. gahanah 549.guptah 550. cakra-gadA-dharah

om om om om om om om om om

mahA-varAhAya namah govindAya namah susheNAya namah kanakA'ngadine namah guhyAya namah gabhIrAya namah gahanAya namah guptAya namah cakra-gadA-dharAya namah

542.mahA-varAhah He Who appeared in the form of the Great Boar. om mahA-varAhAya namah. This nAma refers to the varAha incarnation.SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the description in vishNu purANam - tatahsamutkshipya dharAm sva-damshtrayA mahA-varAhah sphuta-padma-locanah | rasAtalAtutpala-patra-sannibhah samutthito nIla ivAcalo mahAn || (1.4.26) "The Great varAha bhagavAn, Who has eyeslike full-blown lotuses and the complexion like that of blue lotus-petal, liftedthe Earth from the rasAtala (nether-world) by His tusk and emerged as a greatblue mountain". Similar description of the beauty of the eyesof varAha mUrti is found in tiruc-canda viruttam 45 - "perum kEzhalAr tanperum kaN malarp-puNDarIkam nam mEl oru'ngE pizhara vaittAr (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan).SrI cinmayAnanda comments that the varAha rUpa was taken to heave up the worldfrom the slush that formed naturally when the waters of the deluge receded. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives theinterpretation based on mahA + vara + Aha = He who bestows great blessings onothers. 543. govindah a) One who is praised by the gods (for Hishelp). b) One who dug out the Earth from the depths of the Ocean. c) The protector of cows. d) One who confers the veda-s e) He who rescued the Earth. f) He who is known by vedic sentences. g) He who is responsible for all things that move. om govindAya namah. This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 189. Pleasesee the detailed explanation in Slokam 20 also. Explanations a) to d) were givenunder Slokam 20. SrI BhaTTar gives interpretation e - avariation of explanation b - under the current nAma viz. bhagavAn is govindahbecause He rescued the Earth from the rAkshasa.

SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation f) underthe current nAma: "gobhih - vANibhih vindate" - He Who is known (vid)through words i.e., vedic sentences. SrI Sa'nkara gives the reference fromvishNutilaka gobhireva yato vedyo govindah samudAhRtah - "You are namedgovinda as You are to be known through scriptual texts". SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives hisinterpretation starting from the root gam - gatau - to go (gacchati iti gauh),and gives the meaning "to possess" to the word vid (vid - lAbhe - toget), and thus derives the interpretation g above. His explanation is thatanything that moves, including our mind, our indriya-s, the Sun, etc., are Hispossession, and so He is called govindah. He gives this interpretation for thenAma "govidAm patih" also. He supports his interpretation based on"gacchati iti jagat" - BhagavAn is present everywhere as seen by themovement of everything in this world. The life in all things that live isassociated with movement, and He is the One who is behind this movement -govindah. 544. susheNah a) He who is equipped with a body with Suddhasattva Sakti-s that are like an army. b) He Who has an army of auspicious associates. om susheNAya namah. a) SrI v.n. vedAntadeSikan comments that fromthis nAma onwards, certain abstruse or rather esoteric meanings are implied,which are only to be learned through the AcArya-s, and are not communicated inprint. Thus the explanations found in print are cryptic. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan addsthat the current nAma and the following few nAma-s are in the category of whatsage viSvAmitra refers to when he says "aham vedmi" etc. to daSarathawhen he persuades daSaratha to send rAma with him. He reassures daSaratha thathe, and not daSaratha, can understand the greatness of young rAma because he isa king of Rshi-s, whereas daSaratha is only a king of men. susheNah is interpreted as su-senah (One whohas a good army) by SrI BhaTTar. He explains that bhagavAn has a body which ispure suddha-sattva, and the constituents of this suddha sattva body are like anarmy that can win over the baddha-s, mukta-s and nitya-s and make them join Himin mutual enjoyment of Bliss. The constituents of bhagavAn's body are the pa'ncamahA Sakti-s, parameshThi, pumAn, viSvah, nivRttah, and sarvah, just as ourhuman body is constituted of the pa'nca bhUta-s. The pa'nca mahA Sakti-s are allsuddha sattva dravya-s, and they can be realized and understood properly onlythrough the upanishads. Therefore they are also referred to as the pa'ncaupanishad mayam. These pa'nca mahA Sakti-s or the pa'nca-mahopanishad-mayadravya-s constitute the senA referred to in this nAma. SrI P. B. aNNa`ngarAcArya svAmi summarizes theabove as indicating that bhagavAn has the multitude of means that are useful inhaving His devotees under His sway. nammAzhvAr refers to bhagavAn's guNa-s beingHis Strength or army in the following reference given by SrI v.v. rAmAnujan -"mazhu'ngAda j~nAnamE paDaiyAga" - (tiruvAimozhi 3.1.9). b) SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation thatbhagavAn is susheNah because He has a distinguished army at His command. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri elaborates that this includes the following 9 gaNa-s: 12Aditya-s, 10 viSvedeva-s, the ashTha vasu-s, 26 tushita-s, 64 AbhAsvara-s, 49marut-s, 30 mahArAjika-s, 12 sAdhya-s, and 11 rudra-s.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the nAma fromthe root si - bandhane - to bind. He gives the interpretation that bhagavAn isOne who binds everything well (His devotees to Him, His army of deva-s, sages,etc. together well, He Who holds all the beings of the world together well, HeWho binds all the constellations together well, holds this frail body of ourstogether well even after the jIva departs from the body, etc. He givesreferences to the Sruti for this nAma in yajurveda - ayamuparvAg-vasus-tasyasenajiica susheNaSca (yajur. 15.19), satyajicca senajicca susheNaSca (yajur.17.83). 545.kanakA`ngadI He Who is adorned by armlets of gold. om kanakA`ngadaye namah. kanaka literally means gold, but here is notto be taken literally as the material gold that we are used to. The term"gold" used in the current context just refers to the superiority ofHis bhUshNa-s. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan points out that in antarAditya, bhagavAn isdescribed as resembling gold in appearance antarAditye hiraNmayah purushahdRSyate. nammAzhvAr calls bhagavAn by the names "mANikkamE! en marakatame!maRRoppAraiyillA Anip ponnE!" in tiruviruttam 85. What is referred to hereis the extraordinary brilliance of His appearance and the extreme attractivenessof His tirumeni. Thus, the reference in this nAma to kanaka isto the non-material, suddha-sattva. The ornaments referred to here are not theones composed of the material of this world and made of up of the three guNa-s -sattva, rajas, and tamas, but are ones composed of celestial matter (Suddhasattva), which set off the beauty of His celestial body described earlier. a`ngadam means armlet. Again, the reference isnot only to the armlet, but all the tiru AbharaNa-s of bhagavAn. The armlets areone example of these ornaments that adorn His body. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstriobserves that the armlets, kirITam, keyUram, etc., are the ornaments of vIra-s. SrI BhaTTar points out that the ending ini inthis nAma refers to the constant and permanent association of the brilliancereferred to in this nAma with His tirumeni (nityayoge inih). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the nAma interms kanaka, a`nga, and da, meaning The Giver (dah) of brightness (kanaka) toeverything and the One who keeps things moving (a`nga from a`ng - to go). Theassociation or connection between the kanaka and a`nga aspects can be seen bynoting that as long as the body keeps moving, it has the brightness in the eyes,and the brightness ceases when the body ceases to move. 546. guyhah He who is concealed. om guhyAya namah. SrI BhaTTar points out that He is concealed bythe possession of a body which is made of the celestial matter (Suddha sattva),which fact is revealed by the great upanishads. Thus His divya Atma-svarUpacannot be comprehended by us. nammAzhvAr declares: j~nAlam uNDu umizhnda mAlaieNNumARu aRiya mATTEn (tiruvAimozhi 3.4.9) - "I can't comprehend thisemperumAn who swallowed the whole world and then recreated it". SrISa'nkara gives two interpretations: 1. rahasya upanishad vedyatvAt - One who isto be

known only by the esoteric knowledge conveyed by the upanishad-s; and 2.guhAyAm hRadayAkASe nihita iti vA, guhyah - He who is hidden in the guha or theheart. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri elaborates on this further and points out that theidea here is that He is not realized through the ordinary senses or thereasoning by the mind, but only by deep inward meditation and contemplation. Hecannot be revealed by someone else to us, but only by our own inward search.Thus He is guhya or concealed. 547. gabhIrah He who is deep or mysterious. om gabhIrAya namah. He is gabhIrah because of His gAmbhIrya - HisMajesty which is deep and cannot be completely comprehended. BhagavAn is calleddeep because His Nature is not easily understandable; His majesty can only beapproximately conceived. If the bound souls which are tainted by deepbeginningless Nescience can become pure by merely coming into contact with Him,this can give an approximate idea of His greatness. This is like the muddy waterwhich becomes clean by coming in contact with the kataka seed. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds that BhagavAn ismysterious because He has the simultaneous co-existence in perfection of all thesix guNa-s - j~nAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakti, and tejas. Just as the bottomof a very deep lake with very clear water looks like it is very near in spite ofits depth, BhagavAn's depth is impossible to find even though it appears that Hecan be easily comprehended. He is very far though He appears to be very near forthe ordinary beings. 548. gahanah a) He who is deep, Impenetrable, Inexplicable. b) He who is the witness in everyone om gahanAya namah. gahanam refers to a forest, a fortress etc. Wecannot see or figure out what is inside a dense forest or in a well-builtfortress. BhagavAn's Nature is similar (SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri). In hiscommentary on amarakOSam, appayArya gives the explanation "gahanamdushpraveSa sthAnam" - A place which is difficult to access. SrI BhaTTarexplains the nAma as dur-avagAhah, and SrI Sa'nkara gives the description "dushpraveSatvAtgahanah", both of which convey the above idea. Even though we can see thebottom of the Ocean when the water is clear, it is very difficult to access thebottom of the Ocean floor. So also, even though bhagavAn may seem easy torealize because of what is revealed in the upanishad-s, all the same it isdifficult to grasp His Nature. The Sruti declares Him as "aprApya manasAsaha - Inaccessible to the mind" (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). b) The alternate interpretation for gahanah isbased on its derivation from the root gAhU - viloDane - to dive into. BhagavAnis called gahanah because He is inside everyone and everything, and is thewitness of everything in its waking, dream and sleep states (SrI Sa'nkara).Through these three states we get an understanding of what is within our abilityto comprehend. But through these three states, we cannot get an idea of One whois the Witness of these three states in all of us (SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri). 549. guptah

He who is hidden. om guptAya namah. This nAma is formed from the root gup -rakshaNe to protect, to conceal. SrI BhaTTar explains that BhagavAn's Greatnessis guarded and protected well by the pUrvAcArya-s who knew His Greatness by HisGrace. One cannot hope to learn of the Lord's mahimA except by being guided bythese AcArya-s of our sampradAyam. Even the upanishads cannot completely revealBhagavAn to us. He is known only to the likes viSvAmitra who declares "ahamvedmi mahAtmAnam - I know the greatness of young rAma". It is only byfollowing the sampradAyam of the AcArya-s and following their instructions withsincerity that one can realize Him who is hidden to us otherwise. He is also One who is protected with greatcare by the likes of anantAzhvAn, garuDa, vishvaksena, etc. Even in paramapadamwhere it is not easy for anyone to go, He is protected by ananta who is spittingpoisonous fire - "a'ngu AravAram adu kETTu azhal umizhum pU'ngAraravaNaiyAn pon mEni" - (nAnmugan tiru antAdi 10) - SrI v.v. rAmAnujan. SrI Sa'nkara explains that BhagavAn is hiddenbecause He is not accessible through words, thought etc. va'ng manasaagocararvAt guptah. Even though He is in every being, He is not manifested -esha sarveshu bhUteshu gUDhah AtmA na prakASate - kaTha upanishad 3.12. We alsohave "yato vAco nivartante aprApya manasA saha" - brah. valli 4 oftaitt. upa. 550.cakra-gadA-dharah The bearer of the discus and the mace. om cakra-gadA-dharAya namah. This nAma of bhagavAn is referenced in yuddhakANDam 114 - tamasah paramo dhAtA Sa'nkha cakra gadA dharah. SrI nammAzhvArrefers to Him as "nAngu tOLan, kuni Sar'ngan, oN Sa'ngu gadai vAL AzhiyAn"(tiruvAimozhi 8.8.1) - SrI v.v. rAmAnujan. While the superficial reference inthis nAma is that BhagavAn is the bearer of cakra, gadhA, etc., SrI M. V.rAmAnujAcArya explains that the reference to the pa'nca mahAyudha-s (Sankha,cakra, gadA, Sar'nga, and nandaka) has deeper signifcance. These are also theincarnations or personifications of the pa'nca Sakti-s viz. sRshTi, sthiti,samhAra, nigraha, and anugraha. These pa'nca mahAyudha-s are an integral part ofbhagavAn's SarIram which is of Suddha-sattva made of these five mahA Sakti-s,and are like His instruments in His five functions of creation, protection,destruction, giving punishment, and giving benefits. The pa'nca mahA Sakti-shave been referred to earlier (in nAma 544). SrI v.v. rAmAnujan adds that inaddition, the pa'nca Ayudha-s are also none other than the nitya sUri-s e.g.,sudarSana AzhvAn, pA'ncajanya AzhvAn, etc. Note that the five paramAtma Sakti-sare here associated with the five functions (sRshTi, sthiti etc.), the fiveAyudha-s of bhagavAn, the nitya sUri-s, etc. in a simple way and clearly. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri quotes passages from SrI vishNupurANam (1.22.69-74) to identify the five Ayudha-s as representations of thedifferent tattva-s: BhagavAn supports egotism (rAjasa ahamkAram and mAnasaahamkAram, into the five elements and the five organs of sense), in the emblemsof His conch-shell and His bow; In the form of His discus, He supports the mind(manas), whose thoughts, like the weapon, fly swifter than the winds; The brightsword of vishNu is the holy wisdom (vidyA); Intellect (buddhi) abides in mAdhavain the form of the mace (gadA). This nAma refers to His form where He holds themanas tattva and the buddhi tattva in His two hands in the forms of the cakraand gadA respectively. The broader meaning of

the whole passage in SrI vishNupurANam is that BhagavAn is the source and repository of everything there is -soul, nature, intellect, egotism, the elements, the senses, mind, ignorance, andwisdom. All that is wisdom, all that is ignorance, all that is, all that is not,all that is everlasting, is centered in Him. He is time, He is earth, He is sky,He is heaven, etc. Those interested should read the section of SrI vishNu purANafor a continuation of this beautiful description of His "viSva rUpa".Thus the nAma also signifies that bhagavAn is the source and controller ofeverything there is, was and will be. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamacharifor the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 59 551. vedhAh 552.svA'ngah 553. ajitah 554.kRshNah 555. dRDhah 556.sankarshaNah 557. acyutah 558. varuNah 559. vAruNah 560.vRkshah 561. pushkarAkshah 562.mahA-manAh

om om om om om om

vedhase namah svA'ngAya namah ajitAya namah kRshNAya namah dhRDAya namah sa'nkarshaNAya namah

om om om om om om

acyutAya namah varuNAya namah vAruNAya namah vRkshAya namah pushkarAkshAya namah mahA-manase namah

551. vedhAh a) The Provider. b) The Doer (of auspicious happenings). c) The Creator. om vedhase namah. SrI BhaTTar derives the meaning from "vidadhAtiiti vedhAh" - He is the Giver or Provider of unlimited and varied objectsof splendor. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the derivation "vidadhAtikAmAn svajanAnAm iti vedhAh". He also gives the reference to kaThopanishad- "eko bahUnAm vidadhAti kAmAn" (2.2.13). SrI P. B. aNNa'ngarAcArya svAmi gives thesecond interpretation - "anbargaLukku ma'ngalamAna vibhava'ngaLiac ceibavar". SrI Sa'nkara bhAshyam is vidadhAti sRjati itividhAtA vedhAh - The Creator. In amarakoSa we have srashTA prajApatir vedhAvidhAtA viSvasRT vidhih (1.17), and the explanation vidadhAti karoti iti vedhAh,offered by li'ngAyasUrin. 552. svA'ngah a) He who has the marks of sovereigntywhichare His own. b) He who is both the Instrumental Cause and the Material Cause of the Universe. c) He who has beautiful, well-proportioned limbs. d) He who, in the form of the Universe, moves by Himself. The term a'nga here refers to the celestialmarks of sovereignty such as the chatra (umbrella), cAmara and other thingswhich are His own and unique (sva a'ngah). He is the Supreme King of all theworlds, and has the unique marks associated with this. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAjgives the following explanation: "svanyante Sabdyante sUktibhiriti svAni;tAdRSAni a'ngAni yasya iti svA'ngah". SrI Sa'nkara bhAshyam is "svayamevakAryasya karaNe a'ngam sahakaroti iti svA'ngah" - He is Himself theinstrument in accomplishing His works. The idea communicated is that bhagavAn isthe Material Cause as well as the Instrumental Cause of this Universe (SrIcinmayAnanda). SrI cinmayAnanda also indicates that the nAma can be interpretedto mean that bhagavAn has beautiful, well-proportioned a'nga-s or limbs. SrIsatyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning a'ng - to go (agi - gatyarthaka dhAtu), andgives the interpretation that bhagavan has His movement by Himself, unlike allthe other life forms which move only because He is present in them as theantaryAmi. When the self leaves the body, the body loses the ability to move.Unlike these, e.g., in the form of the Sun, bhagavAn moves by Himself withoutthe need for any other external source.

The dharma cakram writer gives the meaningthat He is One who helps Himself. He observes that meditation on this nAma ofmahAvishNu should reveal to us that when we worship Him, there is no need forany external help for us from anyone or anything in this world, since all thethings we need will be met from within ourselves. It is only when we go aftermaterial pursuit that we need the support of others. BhagavAn is in the ultimatestate where He needs nothing from anyone or anything. 553. ajitah a) He who is unconquered, and unconquerable. b) He who is the Chief of the Unconquerable place called ajita or SrIvaikunTha. c) He who took the amSAvatara in the 6th manvantara as ajitah to help inchurning the Milk Ocean. d) He who is unconquered in His vow to protect those who have surrendered toHim. (SrI BhaTTar): ajitA, aparAjitA, etc. are alsonames for paramapadam, and He is the Chief of SrIvaikunTham, and so also He iscalled ajitah. He and His abode SrI vaikunTham and everything therein arecomposed of celestial matter called Suddha sattva, which is not under the swayof birth and death. He is thus unconquered by the sway of birth, aging, decay,and death which are characteristic of those that pertain to the world of prakRti.SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to SrI rAmAyaNam yuddha kANDam wherebhagavAn's nAma ajita occurs (120.16 -ajitah khaDgadhRg vishNuh kRshNaScaivabRhad balah). Here ajitah is interpreted by SrI P. S. kRshNasvAmi iye'ngAr asreferring bhagavAn being undefeated in His ASrita samrakshNam or His vow toprotect those who have surrendered to Him even once). (SrI Sa'nkara): na jita iti ajitah - One whohas never been conquered, and can never be conquered, is ajitah. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation - na jitah kenApi tribhuvane itiajaitah - One who has never been conquered by anyone ever in all the threeworlds. He has never been conquered by anyone in any of His incarnations, and soalso He is ajitah. He is satya svarUpi and dharma svarupi, and soalso He is unconquered and unconquerable (dharma cakram) - satyameva jayate. Thedharma cakram author gives innumerable examples to illustrate that satya anddharma are unconquerable, including those involving prahlAda, hariScandra, thepANDavas, etc. The lesson to take from meditating on this nAma is the greatnessof dharma and satya, and the life led conforming to these values. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives yet anotherinterpretation based on SrImad bhAgavtam. BhagavAn SrIman nArAyaNa appeared asajitah in the sixth manvantara as the son of sambhUti and helped in the churningof the Milk Ocean to get the amRta for the deva-s. He also took the kUrmAvatArato support the mandara mountain in the process tatrApi devah sambhUtyAm vairAjasya abhavatsutah | ajito nAma bhgavAn amSena jagatah patih || (SrImad bhAgavatam 8.5.9). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that thereis a question of one being conquered by another only when they can be comparedto each other. In the case of mahAvishNu, there is no one else to compare toHim, and so there is no question of His being conquered by any other, and so Heis ajitah or unconquerable and unconquered. 554. kRshNah

a) One who is always in a state of Bliss (withHis sport of creation etc.). b) The Dark-hued. c) He who irresistibly attracts His devotees to Him through His infinite kalyANaguNa-s. d) He who cultivates the Earth like a plough and makes it suitable for lifeforms to form and nourish. e) He who appeared as veda vyAsa or kRshNa dvaipAyana. f) He who cultivates the minds of devotees by providing the veda-s in Hisincarnation as kRshNa dvaipAyana. g) The Dark, Mysterious, and Unknowable except by deep devotion. This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 58. Pleaserefer to the detailed interpretation provided there as well. The first fourinterpretations were covered there. Some additional details are provided here.In support of interpretation (a), SrI v.v. rAmAnujan observes that unlike inrAma incarnation where bhagavAn went through enormous difficulties - nATTilpiRandu paDAdana paTTu - nammAzhvAr tiruvAimozhi 7.5.2, in kRshNa incarnation itwas "inbuRum iv-viLaiyATTuDaiyAnaip peRRu (tiruvAimozhi 3.10.7)","kanRinai vAlOlai kaTTi (periAzhvAr tirumozhi 2.4.8)", etc. Anotheranubhavam of SrI v.v. rAmAnujan is that bhagavAn is laughing at us mockingly,seeing that we are not putting to good use the hands and legs and all theindriya-s He gave us to help us attain Him, but instead we are misusing theseand getting into the cycle of birth and rebirth. Under the current nAma, SrI ParASara BhaTTargives one more of his anubhava-s of this nAma, and indicates that the Suddhasattva material which His body is made of has a fascinating complexion dark likethe blue cloud. One of the grammar rules (uNAdi sutra 3.4) states that when theroot kRsh - to plough is followed by affix nak, it means one of the colors -kRsher varNe. It is interesting to note that one name for grapes is kRshNAbecause of this connotation of color. So also, iron is called kRshNA because ofits black color. This latter meaning is used to explain the significance ofbhagavAn's nAma as kRshNa in mahAbhArata SAnti parva 143.49 kRshAmi medinIm pArtha! bhUtvA kRshNAyasomahAn| kRshNo varNaSca me yasmAt tena kRshNoham arjuna|| This is a slight variation of the Sloka alsoquoted from mahAbhArata under the explanation given under nAma 58. The two Sloka-sare too similar to each other to suggest that these are variants of the samereference. I do not have the original version of mahAbhArata to check theauthenticity of the references. In support of interpretation (b), SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives references to the following: kaNNan enum karum daivam (nAcciyArtirumozhi 3.1), kariyAn oru kALai (tirumozhi 3.7.), etc. SrI kRshNa dattabhAradvAj gives the following explanation along the lines of interpretation :karshati bhagavAn AtmAnam prati vayovarNa rUpaa lAvaNya madhurI rasotkarsheNaiti kRshNah, or kRshate AtmAnam prati bhaktAn sa-soundaryeNa iti kRshNah, basedon (kRsha vilekhanam AkarshNam ca). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha and others alsosupport this interpretation along with the other two. SrI Sa'nkara interprets this instance of thenAma of kRshNah as referring to veda vyAsa (e), who is none other than anincarnation of bhagavaAn according to SrI vishNupurANa - kRshNadvaipAyanamvyAsam viddhi nArAyaNam prabhum | ko hyanayh puNDarIkAkshAn mahAbhAratakRtbhavet (VP 3.4.5). The dharma cakram writer uses the concept ofbhagavAn being like a plough (the basis of interpretation d), combines this withSrI Sa'nkara's interpretation (e), and offers a new interpretation (f). Hisanubhavam is

that in the form of veda vyAsa, bhagavAn cultivates the minds ofpeople by providing to us the veda-s, and so vyAsa, who is none other thannArAyaNa, is referred to by the nAma kRshNa here. SrI cinmayAnanda uses the meaning"dark" for the word kRshNa, and suggests that this nAma of bhagavAnsignifies the "unknown factor" that expresses through us - whosemanifestations are all our physical, mental, and intellectual capabilities.Except by deep and sincere devotion, He cannot be comprehended, and so He iskRshNah - Dark and Mysterious. 555. dRDhah a) He Who assumes firm, concrete vyUha formsfor the benefit of His devotees. b) He Who is firm and determined in His thoughts, words and deeds. c) He Who is firmly established and cannot benegated as the Supreme Deity bycounter-arguments. d) He Who is huge and strong. om dRDhAya namah. dRDha literally means solid, firm, strong,massive, etc. The root word from which the nAma dRDhah is formed is dRh -vRddhau - to be fixed or firm, to grow. SrI v.n. vedAnta deSikan gives theinterpretation in English as: Para vAsudeva takes the vyUha forms which are firmand concrete and are not merely of a nebulous, imaginative level. In otherwords, the term dRDhah here refers to forms that can be more easily comprehendedand meditated upon. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to the nRsimhaincarnation tiNNiyadOr ari uru, where ari means lion. b) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri interprets the nAmaas referring to bhagavAn being firm in His actions - one meaning for acyutahwhich we will encounter later in this write-up. SrI cinmayAnanda observes thateven though bhagavAn is firm in His Infinite Justice, this Justice becomes a-dRDhahwhen a great sinner surrenders to Him, and bhagavAn immediately reaches out tohelp the sinner. c) SrI PBA gives the interpretation thatbhagavAn s dRDhah because He if firmly established as the Supreme Deity by vedicpramANa-s, and no amount of false arguments by the "bAhya ku-dRshTi-s"can negate that. d) dRDhah also means huge, mighty, strong, etc. - dRDhau sthUlobalavAn vA. Since bhagavAn assumes huge and strong forms when He takes Hisincarnations to destroy His enemies, this nAma can be interpreted as a referenceto this guNa of His. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the explanation dRDahu sthUlobalavAn vA. He also gives another view - everything that bhagavAn createsreflects His guNa of firmness. The Oceans have always been firm in keeping themassive amount of water in their bounds without exception, and the skeleton thatholds the body together is firm from birth to death and never collapses from itsshape, and the earth holds all its subjects and contents firmly. BhagavAn who isgiving all of these their firmness, is thus also called dRDhah. 556.sankarshaNah He Who draws others near Him. om sankarshaNAya namah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "samsAre cit-acitohAtmani samam karshaNAt samam karsham nayati" - In this world, He drawstowards Himself both the cit and acit in the same way and unites them - Hispower of

attraction is uniform, and so He is called samkarshaNa. SrI Sankaraspecifically refers to this attraction as referring to the time of cosmicdissolution, when bhagavAn draws everything towards Himself. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj gives theinterpretation - samyak karshati iti sankarshaNah; SrI bhagavAn svajanAn AtmAnamprati svakIyaih vAtsalya mAdhuryAdi guNaih karshati - He who draws His devoteestowards Him through His infinite guNa-s such as vAtsalyam, His exquisite beauty,etc. SrI Sankara combines this nAma with the nextone, acyutah, and interprets sankarshNocyutah as one nAma, meaning that bhagavAndraws everything at the time of dissolution towards Himself (samkarshNah), whileHimself not slipping from His Real Nature (acyutah). SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastrigives yet another anubhavam for the sequence dRDhah, sankarshNah, and acyutah:dRDhah - He is one who is firm in His Nature, sankarshNah - He who draws thosewho are caught in the ocean of samsAra towards Him with firm determination andMercy, and acyutah - He Who is firm and does not slip while drawing the entiregroup of these cetana-s towards Him. The dharma cakram writer gives a simpleanalogy to illustrate the above. To drag someone who has fallen into a forcefulriver to safety, the savior should be strong enough not to be drawn by the riverhimself, but also should have the strength to drag the other individual againstthe force of the river. BhagavAn is the acyutah who has the firmness, resolve,and the power to save the samsAri-s from the ocean current of samsAra. 557. acyutah a) One who never slips from His glory. b) One who never lets His devotees slip. c) One who undergoes no modifications such as birth, growth, decay, disease,etc. om acyutAya namah. We came across this nAma twice before (nAma-s101 and 320). The contents of the previous explanations have been included inthe following summary. a) cyuti means "fall" and cyuta means"fallen". acyuta means "One who has never fallen from His truenature". Different anubhava-s are given to further expand this guNa of theLord. Sri Bhattar points out that He does not ever fall from His position ofoverlordship unlike Brahma, Indra, etc. who are subject to loss of position, andtherefore He is called acyuta. In support of the interpretation that bhagavAndoes not undergo transformations like others, SrI BhaTTar quotes the following: cyavanotpattiukteshu brahmendra varuNAdishu | yasmAn na cyavase sthAnAt tasmat samkIrtyase acyutah || The source of this reference has not beenprovided in Prof. SrInivAsa rAghavan's text. The meaning is: "Whereasbrahma, varuNa, and others are subject to birth and death and fall down fromtheir position, Thou dost not fall down like that. So Thou art called acyuta". Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri points out that He alsodoes not slip from His position by being influenced by kAma etc. unlike Brahma,Indra etc. In mahAbhArata we have "yasmAt na cyuta pUrvo'ham acyutastenakarmaNA" - SAnti parva 12.330.16. Sri Sankara interprets the above asmeaning "svarUpasAmarthyAt na cyuto na cyavate na cyavishyata iti acyutah"- He has not lapsed, is not lapsing, and will not lapse from His own glory;hence the name acyuta.

The dharma cakram writer points to the passagein muNDakopanishad which describes the two birds sitting in different branchesof the tree, one tasting the fruit and the other just watching the bird that istasting the fruit (of karma). This has been described in a previous write-up.BhagavAn is the acyuta, from His superior position, watching the jIvAtmA whichis tasting the fruits of karma in this case. b) Sri Bhattar also gives the alternatevyAkhyAna: "I have never abandoned (my bhaktas). Because of this act ofmine, I am known as acyuta". His words are "tebyah prapannebhyah naapagatah acyutah - He is never away from those who have sought refuge inHim". Sri tirukkaLLam nrsimharAghavAchAryar in his bhagavadgItA bhAshya hasgiven the explanation na cyAvayati iti acyutah - One who does not let Hisdevotees slip. arjuna calls Lord kRshNa as acyuta since He has taken it uponHimself to be his charioteer and will ensure that arjuna will not slip. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan adds the followingreference from rAmAyaNa in support of the interpretation "He who does notlet His devotee slip" - na cyAvayati - "mitra-bhAvena samprAptam natyajeyam kathancana dosho yadyapi tasya syAt " - "No matter what flawsa person has, if he has come to Me seeking My friendship, there is no way that Iwill abandon him under any circumstance". SrI rAmAnujan also gives thereference to divya prabandham - "kArtigaiyAnum kari-mugattAnum kanalummukkaN-mUrtiyum mODiyum veppum mudugiTTu" - the reference here is to thestory of bANAsura who was abandoned by the other devatA-s when he approachedthem for protection. Not so with bhagavAn - na me bhaktah praNaSyati - "Mydevotee will never perish" - gItA. c) cyutam means modification. The upanishadsays of BhagavAn - "SASvatam Sivam acyutam" - Eternal, Auspicious, andChangeless" - taittirIya AraNyakam - 10.11). Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri pointsout that BhagavAn is acyuta because He does not slip from stage to stage in thesequence of events such as birth, living, growth, change in appearance, decay,and finally disappearance from the body. 558. varuNah He Who envelops. om varuNAya namah. The word is derived from the root vr~nj varaNeto envelop. SrI BhaTTar gives the example of "yena AvRtam kham ca divammahIm ca - He by Whom are covered the Ether, the svarga, and the Earth" -taittirIya upanishad 1.1. In other words, He surrounds all the three worlds (SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri). varuNa is also the term used for the eveningsun. Like the sun who withdrawing his scorching rays unto himself in theevening, the Lord withdraws all the pluralistic world unto Himself. The EternalReality , functioning through the sun as the sun's energy and light, isdescribed in the upanishads as the "Golden One", and hence theappropriateness of using this term varuNa for nArAyaNa (e.g., the designationsUrya nArAyaNa (SrI cinmayAnanda). The dharma cakram writer lists the followinganubhava-s related to this mantram (note how the learned people view the nAma-sof the Lord that occur in sahasranAmam): varuNa is the the Lord of the waters;He is also the setting sun in the evening; He is also the Lord of the westerndirection. Just as darkness envelops us when the sun sets, those who do not havethe thought of bhagavAn fall into darkness. As long as they have the thought ofbhagavAn in their mind, there is the brightness of j~nAna guiding them. 559. vAruNah

a) He Who is with those who have sought Him astheir Lord or svAmi. b) The Son of varuNa. c) He Who removes the adversities of His devotees om vAruNAya namah a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as: tamsvAmitvena vRNute iti varuNah; tatra bhavo vAruNah - varuNa refers to one whoseeks Him as his master; bhagavAn is called vAruNa since He is always with thisseeker. The nirukti author gives the following interpretation of SrI BhaTTar'svyAkhyAnam - svAmitvena vRNAneshu sthito vAruNa Iritah. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan givesreferences to the following from divya prabandham which convey the thoughtconsistent with this interpretation - "vandAi en manam pugundAi mannininRAi" tirumozhi 1.10.9; "unnaik koNDu ennuL vaittEn" -periAzhvAr tirumozhi 5.4.5). b) SrI Sa'nkara bhAshyam is "varuNasyaApatyam vasiThah agastyo vA vAruNah - vAruNa refers to the son of varuNa, viz.vasishTha or agastya, who are both incarnations of bhagavAn c) SrI kRshNa dattabharadvAj gives the interpretation c above: vArayati nivArayati vipadamsvajanAnAm iti vAruNah. 560. vRkshah a) He Who provides shade like a tree (i.e., Heis the Resort) for the wise. b) He Who is firm like a tree. om vRkshAya namah. a) vRksha is derived from the root vRj varaNeto seek or resort to (SrI BhaTTar). SrI BhaTTar points out that like a shadytree, bhagavAn is possessed of all things required by those who resort to Him,and He gives shade to even those who insult Him, just as a tree gives shade toeven those who cut it. SrI P. B. aNNa'ngarAcArya svAmi points out that bhagavAnis waiting for the devotee to come to Him with His protection always availableto them. So He is called vRksha. SrI BhaTTar gives the following references insupport of his interpretation - nivAsa vRkshah sAdhUnAm ApannAnAm parA gatih -He is the one Resort for the good and the supreme refuge in distress (rAmA.kishkindA. 15.19); vRksha iva stabdho divi tishThatyekah - Like an unmoving andfirm tree He stands in the Heavens - mahA nArA. u. 10.4). SrI v.v. rAmAnujanobserves that there are several who get saved by this "vAsudeva taruc chAyA"or the shade from the tree by name vAsudeva. He also refers us the prabandham -"tan oppAr illppan tandanan tana tAL nizhalE" (tiruvAimozhi 6.3.9). b) SrI Sa'nkara uses the same upanishadpassage we referred to above (vRksha iva stavdho divi tishThatyekah) andinterprets it to mean that bhagavAn is referred to vRksha because He is firmlike a tree. SrI T. S. kRshNamUrti elaborates on this and suggests that thefirmness here refers to bhagavAn being firmly established in the spiritualrealm. SrI cinmayAnanda explains the nAma in terms of the world itself emergingout of bhagavAn being described as a "tree" in the upanishads - UrdhvamUlam adhah SakhAm Asvattham prAhuravyayam (gItA 15.1); Urdhva mUla avAk Sakhaesha Asvatthah sanAtanah (kaTho. 2.6.1). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives differentexamples from the Sruti-s where the term vRksha is used to refer to a tree (vRkshona pakvah - Rg. 4.20.5), to the sun (kah svid vRksho nishThito madhye arNasah -Rg. 1.182.7), a woman (maryo na yoshAmabhi manyamAnah - Rg. 4.20.5), prakRti (dvAsuparNA sayujA sakhAyA samAnam vRksham parishasvajAte (Rg. 1.164.20),paramAtmA (yasmin vRkshe madhvadah suparNAh niviSante stuvate cAdhi viSve (Rg.1.164.22) etc. Since bhagavAn appears in all these forms of vRksha, His nAma isvRksha.

SrI vAsishTha also gives another anubhavam forthis nAma. vRksha could also mean tearing apart, separating - based on vraSc -chedane - to cut, to tear. The jIvAtmA separates the bodies, bhagavAn separatesthe different jIva-s in His creation, He keeps the starts and the planetsseparated, the sun tears apart the darkness, the tree separates out the fruitsfrom the leaves and the branches, etc. So these are all vRksha-s viz. those thatseparate out different things. BhagavAn has thus manifested Himself in HisvRksha aspect and expanded this world in its variety. SrI vAsishTha proceeds tocomment that one who understands this secret behind bhagavAn who is a vRksha,will succeed in tearing apart from the tree of desire and reach bhagavAn thevRksha from all aspects and dimensions. The dharma cakram writer points out that thelesson to take from this nAma is not to just seek the shade alone from this Treeas duryodhana did, but to really benefit from the fruit from this Tree as arjunadid. If one only wants the temporary shade, then the shade of the tree keepsshifting with time relative to the sun's position, and so seeking the shade inthe form of temporary benefits is not what will lead to permanent Godrealization. Instead of asking for the kRshNa's army and rejecting kRshNa asduryodhana did, one should seek Him as arjuna did, which will then take care ofall the other needs. 561.pushkarAkshah a)He Who has nourishing eyes. b) He Who has beautiful lotus-like eyes. c) He Who pervades all space. d) He Who has the Sun and the Moon as His eyes. e) He Who shines as the light of consciousness when meditated upon in the lotusof the heart. om pushkarAkshAya namah. a) SRI BhaTTar derives the interpretationbased on the root push - pushTau - to nourish. svAmi deSikan describes His eyesin SrI bhagavd dhyAna sopAnam as "svAgata udAra netram" - Lordra'nganAtha's Merciful and welcoming eyes always look at the devotee who isapproaching Him. The beauty of His eyes are again described in SrI daSAvatArastotram as resembling a forest of beautiful lotus flowers - aravinda gahanAnitanvan iva datta kshaNair vIkshaNaih (Slokam 2). b) pushkara refers to a lotus, and aksha meanseyes. So pushkarAkashah refers to One with lotus-like eyes. SrI kRshNadattabhAradvAj gives the SrI rAmAnuja-fame quote "tasya yathA kapyAsampuNDarIkam eva akshiNi" from chAndogyopanishad 1.6.7. c) pushkara also means Universal Space, andakshu means pervading, and SrI cinmayAnanda follows SrI Sa'nkara in interpretingthe nAma as "He Who pervades all space". d) In addition to c), SrI satyadevo vAsishThauses a variant of the above, and also gives the interpretation that bhagavAn hasthe two eyes in space, viz. the sun and the moon (yasya sUryaS cakshuScandramASca punarNavah - atharva. 10.7.33). e) When pushkara is interpreted as theheart-lotus, pushkarAksha can be interpreted as referring to One who illuminesthe heart-lotus when meditated upon (SrI Sa'nkara). The dharma cakram writer,whose name is not given but who is a sanyAsin of the SrI rAmakRshNa tapovanamOrder, observes that for a beginner who wants to practise meditation,concentrating on the heart-lotus is easier than concentrating on the spacebetween the two eye-brows etc. (The later can cause a head-ache for a novice whois not used to meditation!).

562. mahA-manAh a) The Broad-minded. b) He Who has a great (highly capable) mind. c) He Who has a mind (intellect) with unlimited capability om mahA-manase namah a) SrI BhaTTar: Since bhagavAn has a generous,deep, and broad mind towards His devotees, He is called mahA-manAh. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to peria tiru antAdi 53 - un aDiyArkku en Seyvan enrEirutti nI (note the emphasis in enrE isntead of just enru!), and also totiruvAimozhi 9.4.10 - aDiyAn ivan enRu enakku Ar aRuL Seyyum neDiyAn. Theinstance of His feeling forever that He had not done enough to help draupadiafter she cried out for Him and He saved her from being defamed by duryodhanaalso comes to mind. His Nature is that He forgives even the worst of sinnerswhen they surrender to Him - such is His broad-mindedness. b) SrI Sa'nkara: By His mind alone, Heperforms the creation, preservation, and withdrawal of the world such is thecapability of His mind. The karmendriya-s are not involved in this process. SrISa'nkara quotes the vishNu purANa in support - manasaiva jagat-sRshTim samhAramca karoti yah (5.22.15). c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha: BhagavAn is mahAmanAh because He has knowledge which supercedes anyone else's knowledge in thisUniverse, and also as antaryAmI in everything that exists, He knows everythingthere is to know. All great ones pray to Him for knowledge - yAm medhAmdevagaNAh pitarSca upAsate | tayA mAm adya medhayA agne medhAvinam kuru || (yajur.32.14). The dharma cakram writer observes that in the sequence"body, indriya-s, and mind", body is the sthUla or bigger one, andmind is the subtle one or sUkshma. The subtler one is the more capable in thissequence, and without the mind the indriya-s don't function, and without theindriya-s the body does not function. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamacharifor the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 60 563.bhagavAn 564.bhagahA 565.nandI or AnandI 566.vanamAlI 567.halAyudhah 568.Adityah 569.jyotir-Adityah 570. sahishNuh 570.gati-sattamah

om bhagavate namah om bhagaghne namah om nandine namah om vanamAline namah om halAyudhAya namah m AdityAya namah om jyotir-AdityAya namah om sahishNave namah om gati-sattamAya namah 563. bhagavAn a) He Who is worthy of worship. b) He Who is full of the six attributes c) He Who knows the origin and the end of all beings. om bhagavate namah. a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma asreferring to His being worthy of worship because of His essential nature whichis antagonistic to all defects and which is endowed with all auspiciousqualities. The word bhaga has a special meaning which refers to the sixattributes, but SrI BhaTTar does not use this meaning here to interpret thisnAma, which the other vyAkhyAna kartA-s use. Instead, he gives theinterpretation "He Who is worthy of worship". In amarakOSa vyAkhyAnam,there is a reference to "bhajyata iti bhagah", which seems to fit SrIBhaTTar's interpretation for the current nAma. He uses the reference to the sixattributes in interpreting the next nAma "bhagahA". In support of SrIBhaTTar's interpretation for the current nAma, SrI v.v. rAmAnujan givesreference to AzhvAr aruLicceyal: uyarvaRa uyar nalam uDaiyavan (tiruvAimozhi1.1.1), tIdu il SIr nalam tigazh nAraNan; andam il Adiyam bhagavan (tiruvAimozhi1.3.5). b) SrI Sa'nkara and other vyAkhyAna kartA-sinterpret the current nAma based on the word bhaga referring to the sixattributes. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the derivation - bhago j~nAnAdishaTkam vidyate niratiSayam yasmin iti bhagavAn - He in whom the six attributes(j~nAna etc.), which are called bhaga-s, are present in perfection and fullnessis called bhagavAn. SrI Sa'nkara gives reference to vishNu purANam supportinghis interpretation: aiSvaryasya samagrasya vIryasya yaSasah Sriyah| j~nAna vairAgya yogaScaiva shaNNAm bhaga itI'nganA || (V.P.6.5.74)

"He Who possesses the attributes ofaiSvaryam or Lordship, dharma, fame, wealth, j~nAna and vairAgya in full iscalled bhagavAn". There are differing versions of the Sloka, with dharmasyareplacing vIryasya, "j~nAna vairAgyayoScaiva" replaced by "vairAgyasyAthamokshasya", etc. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the followingbrief explanation of the six attributes referred to above: aiSvarya - Thequality of being the Lord of all - He can control and rule over all things atall times, and thus He is the Supreme over all. (na tasya ISe kaScana - tait.AraN. 10.10) - vIrya - The ability to be victorious over any enemy (ugram vIrammahAvishNum) - yaSah - kIrti; Worthy of praise by all without exception (tasyanAma mahad-yaSah - (tait. AraN. 10.1) - SrI - Wealth; He is One Who hasmahAlakshmi always residing as part of Him (Sriyam lakshmIm aupalAm ambikAm gAm)- j~nAna - Because He is the Knower of the past, present, and future and theLord of the three - bhUta bhavya bhavan-nAthah (yah savaj~nah sarvavit yaysj~nAnamayam tapah - muNDako. 1.1.9) - vairAgya - Being unattached to anything (savA ayamAtmA brahma akAma mayah - bRhadA. 4.4.5) c) SrI Sa'nkara gives an alternateinterpretation as well, also based on another Slokam from SrI vishNu purANam:utpattim pralayam caiva bhUtAnAm Agatim gatim | vetti vidyAm avidyAm ca sa vAcyobhagavAn iti || (V.P. 6.5.78) "He is named bhagavAn who knows the originand the end, the arrival and the exit, of all beings, and also vidyA and avidyA". 564. bhagahA a) He Who is possessed of auspiciousqualities. b) He Who gets rid of the wealth etc. from everyone during praLaya. om bhagaghnenamah. a) As was pointed out in the last para, SrIBhaTTar's interpretation for bhagahA uses the meaning of bhaga referring to thesix attributes, and here he quotes the same vishNu purANam reference that SrISamkara uses for the last nAma (VP 6.5.74). The literal interpretation is "bhagaSabdyAn sa kalyANa guNAn hanti tu gacchati" - He Who goes to (i.e., has)all the six attributes referred to by the term bhaga. The usual meaning for hAis "to kill, to destroy" - e.g., vIrahA. But SrI BhaTTar uses themeaning "hanti - goes" in his interpretation. SrI kRshNa dattabhAradvAj also adopts the same interpretation - bhagam mAhAtmyam jihIte gacchatiprApnoti iti bhagahA. b) SrI Samkara uses the meaning of hA - tokill, and interprets the nAma as meaning that He is the Remover of all thingssuch as wealth from everyone at the time of pralaya - aiSvaryAdikam samhArasamaye hanti iti bhagahA. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a different elaborationof this idea - bhaga represents the vastness of things, and hA represents thecontraction of this vastness. Thus He is called bhaga-hA because He reduces thevastness of His creation by contracting it all into Himself at the time ofpralaya. svAmi cinmayAnanda points out that in this sense, it is not"destruction" of things, but an absorption of things back into Himselfthat initially came from Him. The dharma cakram writer observes that theimpermanence of things like wealth, fame, etc. is what is being imparted to ushere, and the more we understand this and remove our attachment to these, thecloser we would have understood the significance of this nAma. 565. nandIor AnandI a) He Who has nanda as His father. b) He Who is ever blissful by Nature, and also because of His prosperity and thesix guNa-s. c) He Who is ever happy by association with His devotees. d) He Who gives Bliss to His devotees.

om nandine namah om Anandine namah. SrI BhaTTar gives both the above nAma-s, andSrI Samkara gives the latter nAma. In both the interpretations, SrI BhaTTarinterprets the nAma as referring to balarAma as the samkarshaNa form of bhagavAn,and SrI Samkara interprets the nAma as AnandI, referring to bhagavAn in HiskRshNa incarnation. Others interpret the nAma as nandI or AnandI, both referringto Lord kRshNa. a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma nandI asreferring to balarAma whose father is nandagopa. BhagavAn who was samkarshaNa inthe vyUha form took incarnation as balarAma in the vibhava form with nanadagopaas His father. SrI cinmayAnanda chooses to interpret the same as referring toLord kRshNa, who was brought up by nandagopa (nandagopan kumaran nArAyaNan). b) SrI Samkara interprets the nAma as AnandI,signifying that He is ever prosperous because He is rich in everything, orbecause His Nature is Bliss - sukha svarUpatvAt AnandI, or sarvAbhih sampadbhihsamRddahtvAt AnandI. c) SrI BhaTTar interprets the term AnandI torefer to balarAma who made Himself and all around Him happy in AyarpADi. Thedharma cakram writer uses the same sense and interprets the nAma to refer tokRshNa who made Himself and all around Him happy in AyarpADi. d) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives theintepretation - nandati samRdhyati iti nandI - He Who gives delight to Hisdevotees. SrI cinmayAnanda observes that those who move towards Him in puresurrender come to share His divine nature of All-Bliss. The term AnandI can alsobe interpreted to mean this same idea. The dharma cakram writer points out thesignificance of the nAma AnandI - that we are inherently blissful, but just asthose who have eyes can choose to close their eyes and suffer in darkness, weclose our eyes to j~nAna and suffer in misery and distress. The means to get outof this state of suffering is to realize bhagavAn's and our true svarUpam. Thisrealization can be attained only through His grace, and so worshipping Him withdevotion is the only means for everlasting happiness. The gopi-s of AyarpADiwere happy always because they did not have any other thought except the thoughtof Him, and so they were devoid of any worldly thought. The significance of thisnAma is to teach us that the means to true happiness is to immerse ourselves inHis thought rather than divert ourselves into worldly thoughts. 566. vanamAlI He Who has the vanamAlA garland. om vanamAline namah. He is known s vanamAlI because He is adornedby the vyjayantI Garland, which is the presiding deity over the pa'nca bhUta-sand the pa'nca-tanmAtra-s (the five elements in their gross and subtle form),and also over the quality of fragrance. The pa'nca tanmAtra-s or the five subtleelements are Sabda, sparSa, rasa, rUpa, and gandha - sound, touch, taste, sight,smell. The pa'nca bhUta-s associated with these tanmAtra-s are: AkAsa or ether,air, fire, water, and earth. vana mAlai literally refers to a garland made offlowers that grow in the forest. For the purpose of making it, five differentcolors are used to string the garland, representing the five tanmAtra-s. Thesymbolic meaning is that He wears this Universe with its diverse variety like agarland around His neck. The dharma cakram writer observes that we experiencethe five tanmAtra-s through the five j~nAnendriya-s or sense organs. This nAmateaches us that we should

surrender or dedicate the five senses to Him andworship Him with devotion, instead of diverting them to the sensuous enjoymentof this world. 567. halAyudhah One Who has the plough in His hand. om halAydhAya namah. SrI Samkara gives the explanation - halamAyudham asya iti halAyudhah. This thus refers to the incarnation as balarAma.SrI BhaTTar points out that bhagavAn works like an agriculturist with a ploughin His hand for the prosperous growth of the pa`nca mahA bhUta-s (earth, water,air, etc.). 568. Adityah a) Son of devaki who was aditi in her previousbirth b) Son of aditi (and kaSyapa) in His vAmana incarnation c) BhagavAn samkarshaNa, who is attained through the bIja mantra "A" d) He from Whom moksha is obtained. a) SrI BhaTTar gives reference to vaishNavadharma in support of the first interpretation: dAkshAyaNi tvam aditih sambhUtA vasudhAtale | nityaiva tvam jagad-dhAtrI prasAdam te karomyaham || (vishNu dharma 93.44 ) " You are dAkshAyaNi (the daughter ofdaksha) born as aditi in this world. You are the mother eternal of the world. Iconfer favors on you". b) SrI Samkara interprets the nAma asreferring to bhagavAn's vAmana incarnation as aditi's son - adityAm kaSyapAtvAmana rUpeNa jAta Adityah. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj gives reference to thefollowing, but the source is not identified: "bhAdramAse site pakshe dvAdaSyAmSubhavAsare | kaSyapAt aditer-mAtuh bhagavAn vAmanah abhavat || c) SrI BhaTTar gives the alternateinterpretation: "A" varNAt Atah ityah - prApyah iti Adityah - He Whois realized by the mystic letter "A" which is the bIja mantra forsamkarshaNa. d) SrI cinmayAnanda uses the same basis as c,and interprets At to mean "from vishNu", and ityah to mean "to beattained", and interpreta Adityah to mean "He from Whom moksha isobtained". The next segment is interpreted by SrI BhaTTar as pertaining tothe incarnation of bhagavAn as nArAyaNa. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan points out thatwhile the nAma "nArAyaNa" is very special, it also refers to one ofthe incarnations He took (nara and nArAyaNa forms) in badri. 569.jyotir-Adityah a) The Resplendent Aditya. b) He Who resides in the disc of the sun. c) He Who glows like the sun

om jyotir-AdityAya namah. a) His tejas is such that it makes the sunlook like a dark spot by comparison. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "divyAScaryajyotir-mayatvAt apUrvah jyotir-Adityah. He gives reference to mahAbhArata:"nishprabhANi ca tejAmsi brahmA caiva AsanAt cyutah" (SAnti. 344.90)"When nara and nArAyaNa began to fight with bhava (rudra), all theluminaries became void of their luminosity, and brahma too slipped from hisseat". SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the references todivya prabandham: nandAda kozhum SuDar (tirumozhi 1.10.9), umbar vAnavar Adiyamjyoti. b) He is the cause of the brilliance of thesun (dhyeyah sadA savitRmaNDala madhyavartI nArAyaNah sarasijAsana sannivishTah).He is jyoti of the Aditya or the sun - the antaryAmi of the sun. SrI Samkara'svyAkhyAnam is: jyotishi savitRmaNdale sthitah, jyotir-Adityah. c) SrI kRshNa bhAradvAj gives theinterpretation - dyotate dIpyati iti jyotih | jyotih Aditya iva itijyotirAdityah - He Who shines like the sun. He gives the following support:"vedAhametam purusham mahAntam | Aditya varNam tamasah parastAt || (SvetAS.Upa. 3.8), and "sarvasya dhAtAram acintya rUpam Aditya varNam tamasahparastAt (gItA 8.9). 570 sahishNuh a) He Who is endowed with enormous patience. b) He Who forgives. c) He Who suffers patiently for us with perfect detachment. d) He Who conquers His foes. e) He Who willingly accepts the offerings of His devotees. f) He Who can bear the opposites - like heat and cold. om sahishNave namah. This nAma has occurred before as nAma 146. Seethe write-up under that nAma as well. a) SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "aparAdhasahanAt sahishNuh" - Because He puts up with all kinds of aparAdha-s. SrIBhaTTar refers to the "fight that bhagavAn had with Siva", andbhagavAn's putting up with Siva's aparAdham and forgiving him after he wasdefeated. It appears that the reference here is to the yuddha where Siva triedto support bANAsura against bhagavAn. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives other instanceswhere bhagavAn has displayed His enormous patience. He put up with the enormousabusive language from SiSupAla - kETpAr Sevi Sudu kIzhmai vaSavugaLE vaiyumpazham pagaivan SiSupAlan tATpAl aDainda tanmaiyan (tiruvAimozhi 7.5.3); palapala nAzha'ngaL Sollip pazhitta SiSupAlan tannai alaivalaimai tavirtta azhagan (periAzh.4.3.5). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives reference toSrImad rAmAyaNam - kshmayA pRthivI samah - Lord rAma's patience is like that ofMother Earth herself, who puts up with all our abuses and still does notretaliate. Another of his very interesting observations is that He was born tothe likes of devaki, aditi, kausalyA etc., and so inherited the patience fromthem (recall the life histories of the three!), and displayed it in each of Hisincarnations. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha notes that patience isbhagavAn's Nature, His dharma, His conduct - sahate tat Silah, tad-dharmah, tad-sAdhuh.His dharma of patience is inculcated in every aspect of His creation,

includingthe structure of the body which is provided with a skeleton that bears theweight and structure of the rest of the body without collapsing etc. b) Under the vyAkhyAna for nAma 146, SrIBhaTTar eloquently describes bhagavAn's guNa of forgiving the apacAra of Hisdevotees when they surrender to Him: "prAk, Urdhvam ca, sa'ncitAnAm, buddhyA,abuddhyA, sakalakaraNaih, sarvadA, sarvathA ca, pracIyamAnAnAm, vidhi-nisheda Sasana atila'nghanAtmanAm, sAdhAraNAnAm, asAdhAraNAnAm ca, svAvaj~nA-nindAnInAm, sarvamsahena svenApi dus-sahAnAm, sva-bhakta vishayANAm ca, anavadhikAnAm aparAdhAnAm, sahishNuh" "He forgives the accumulated sins thatwere committed in the past or to be committed in the future, sins committedconsciously or unconsciously by all the organs of sense at all times and in allways, sins committed by not observing the SAstric injunctions or by doing actsforbidden by the SAstra-s, sins that are common and uncommon, sins committed byinsulting Him and abusing Him, as well as the sins against His owndevotees". In SaraNAgati gadyam, SrI bhagavad rAmAnujalists some of the enormous apacAra-s that we all commit, and asks Hisforgiveness on our behalf. "mano vAk kAyaih anAdikAla pravRtta anantaakRtyakaraNa akaraNa bhagavad-apacAra bhAgavata-apacAra asahya-apacAra-rUpanAnA-vidha-asahya apacArAn Arabdha kAryAn anArabdha kAryAn kRtAn kRiyamANAnkarishyamANAnSca sarvAn aSeshatah kshamasva" - "apacAra-s performedthrough thought, word and deed, sins committed through the infinite number ofbirths, the infinite sins accrued from performing acts that are forbidden andfrom not performing karma-s that are prescribed, the apacAra-s committed towardsHim and towards His devotees (bhAgavata-s), all the varieties and shades of sinsthat we commit that can't possibly be tolerated and forgiven, those that havealready begun to fructify and those are still to take their effects, the sinsthat we have committed in the past, those that we are actively committing now,and those that we will commit in the future" bhagavAn forgives all thesewithout any left-over IF WE UNCONDITIONALLY SURRENDER TO HIM. This is the basicconcept of prapatti. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to divyaprabandham - "tan aDiyAr tiRattagattut tAmariyAL Agilum Sidagu uraikkumElen aDiyAr adu SeyyAr SeidArEl nanRu SeidAt enbar pOlum (periAzh. 4.9.2)",to show the magnanimity of His forgiving nature. Interpretations b, c, and d arecovered in the earlier write-up for nAma 146. e) SrI kRshnadatta bhAradvAj gives theinterpretation - "sahitum tRptim anubhavitum bhakta upahRtaih phalAdibhihSilam yasya iti sahishNuh", and "sodhum tRptim anubhavitum svajasevayASilam asya iti sahishNuh", which signify that He willingly accepts and issatisfied by even the simple offerings such as fruits by His devotees, and bythe services that they offer. Recall "patram pushpam phalam toyam"in SrImad bhagavadgItA (9.26). f) SrI Samkara's vyAkhyAnam for the currentinstance of this nAma is that He is capable of putting up with opposites likeheat and cold - dvandvAni SitoshNAdIni sahata iti sahishNuh. For bhagavAn, thereis no difference between these opposites, since He is unaffected by any of thesesuch as happiness vs. sorrow. SrI anantakRshNa SAstri observes that this wasvividly demonstrated by bhagavAn in His intense penance as nara nArAyaNa inbadari. 570.gati-sattamah

a) The best instructor in the path of dharma. b) The Best among the refuges to be sought. c) The Ultimate Support and the Greatest of all beings. om gati-sttamAya namah. The several ways in which this nAma has beeninterpreted correspond to: sad-gatih tamah; gatih sattamah ca; sat tamahgatih; etc. a) SrI BhaTTar gives the vyAkhyAnam - sa evaparama dharmAdhvadesikatvena gati-sattamah - gatau pratyayita tamah - He is theBest Instructor there is for dharma (He gave us the gItA, the veda-s, etc.). SrIv.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to tiruvAimozhi which conveys the same idea: ARRanalla vagai kATTum ammAn (4.5.5); "nambanE! navinREtta vallavargaL nAthanE!(periAzhvAr tiru. 5.1.9); neRi vASal tAnEyAi ninRAn (mudal tiru. 4) - where neRimeans the path of dharma. b) SrI Samkara interprets this nAma asrepresenting the two attributes of bhagavAn - gatih and sattamah He is thepath and He is the Best - gatiSca asau sattamaSca iti gati-sattamah. He is theultimate resort and support of all (gatih), and He is the greatest of all beings(sat-tamah). c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the interpretation that Heis the best among the objects/places that are to be sought. This is because Heis forgiving and patient (previous two nAma-s), and so He will not ignore thosewho have sinned, and so He is the easiest path and therefore the best path inthis sense also. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation: "gantavyasthAne gatiprayogah - The term gatih is used in the sense of the place worthy ofreaching". He further adds: "SrIman nArAyaNa caraNAvinda sAnnidhyamevasavottamam gantavyam". SrI satyadevo vAsishTha also echoes the sameinterpretation gati Sabdena iha gatirASrayah gRhyate, tena gatirASritAnAmSreshThatamo gatisattamah. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamacharifor the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 61

572.su-dhanvA 573.khaNDa-paraSuh 574.dAruNah 575.draviNa-pradah 576.divi-spRk 577.sarva-dRk 578.vyAsah 579:vAcas-patih 580.a-yonijah

om om om om om om om om om

su-dhanvane namah khaNDa-paraSave namah dAruNAya namah draviNa-pradAya namah divi-spRSe namah sarva-dRSe namah om vyAsAya namah om vAcaspataye namah a-yonijAya namah

572. su-dhanvA He Who has a splendid bow. om su-dhanvane namah The literal meaning is "One who has a splendidbow". The vyAkhyAna kartA-shave different anubhavam-s in interpreting the nAma based on this meaning. SrI BhaTTar gives the instance of the fight that ensued between the deva-s and the asura-s as a result of the distribution of the nectar, and the resulting demonstration of the splendor of His bow in bringing about the end to that conflict. SrI Samkara's interpretation is: Sobhanam indriyAdi-mayam SAr'nga dhanuh asya asti iti su-dhanvA - the great bow in His hand represents His being the controller and supporter of the indriya-s. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to SrI vishNu purANam 1.22.69, wherein reference is made to the significance of the dhanus in His hand bhUtAdim indiryAdim ca dvidhA aha'mkAram ISvarah | bibharti Samkha rUpeNa Sar'ngarUpeNa ca sthitam || BhagavAn's dhanus symbolizes the senses (the eyes and the rest), and He supports the ego or awareness due to the senses (indriya ahamkAra), represented by the SAr'nga bow in His hand. (The other verses inSrI vishNu purANam continueto describe how bhagavAn is the source and supporter of everything in the Universe as represented by the different Ayudha-s and aspects of His Form, and thus gives one mode or representation of a way of meditating upon Him in the forms that are more easy for the mind to grasp than to meditate on anabstract truth).

References in divya prabandham that convey the sense of this nAma are (from SrI v.v. rAmAnujan): tadavarai tOL cakrapANi SAra'nga vil SevaganE! (periAzhvAr 5.4.4), paramETTi, pavittiran, SAr'ngam ennum vil ANDAn (tiruppallANDu). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the analogy of the function of bhagavAn inprotecting the world from the asura-s with His dhanus, just as the bow-shapedeye-brow protects the eye of everyone from unwanted foreign objects. 573. khaNDa-paraSuh He with the broken axe. Om khaNDa-paraSave namah. Khanu - bhedana = avadhAraNa (khaDi - bhedane- to break), and param SRNAti itiparaSuh Satram, together make the nAma khaNDa paraSuh - One with the broken axe(SrI satyadevo vAsishTha). Alternatively, one can look at it as khaNDayatiSatrUn iti khaNDah, khaNDah paraSuh yasya iti khaNDa paraSuh - He whose axepunishes or destroys the enemies (SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj) . SrI BhaTTar quotes the incident involving bhagavAn's fight with rudra, where He discharged the axe which became broken. So bhagavAn saysHe is known as "One with thebroken axe". atha rudra vighAtArtham ishIkAm nara uddharan | mantraiSca samyuyojASu so'bhavat paraSur-mahAn || kshipataSca sahasA rudre khaNDanam prApavAnstathA | tato'ham khaNDa-paraSuh tatah paraSu-kahNDanAt || (mahAbhA. Santi. 362.49) "Then for the destruction of rudra, nara took a reed and by the recitation of mantras gave new power to it. At once it became an immense axe. It was thrown on rudra with great force. Butthen it broke. Becauseof the breaking of the axe, from that time I came to be known as "khaNDa paraSuh - the Lord with the broken axe". SrI Samkara interprets the nAma in terms of the paraSurAma incarnation - where, as Jamadagni's son, He punished His foes. Alternatively,SrI Samkara suggeststhat the nAma can be taken as a-khaNDa paraSuh, He who wields an invincible axe - the nAma being given as a-kahaNDA-paraSuh in this case. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan quotes irAmAnuSa nURRantAdi-56 which supports theinterpretation in terms of the paraSurAma incarnation - kOkkula mannaraimUvezhukAl oru kUr mazhuvAl pOkkiya dEvanaip pORRum punitan, in referring tobhagavad rAmAnuja. Another reference is to tiruvAimozhi 6.2.10: ninRila'ngu muDiyinAi irupattOr kAl araSu kaLai kaTTa venRi nIr mazhuvA. 574. dAruNah a) The Splitter. b) He who is merciless to those who deviate from the path of virtue. Om dAruNAya namah.

SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "bAhyAbhyantara ari dAraNAt dAruNah - As indicated above, He splits into pieces (destroys) the enemies both internal and external. So He is called dAruNah. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference totiruvAimozhi 9.9.2 - igal iDattu aSurargaL kURRam, and to Siriya tiru maDal 41 - avaTku mUttOnai ven-narakam SerA vagaiyE Silai kunittAn. SrI Samkara vyAkhyAnam is san-mArga virodhinAm dAruNatvAt dAruNah - He who is harsh and merciless towards those who follow the evil path. SrI cinmayAnanda gives a niceexplanation that when He punishes anyone, it is for the ultimate good of the one who is being punished. "Up to a point the Lord is All-Mercy, but when He finds out that noother method can save theindividual, like a surgeon at the operation theater, He appears to be relentless - merciless". The next few nAma-s are being interpreted by SrI BhaTTar in terms of bhagavAn'svyAsa incarnation. 575. draviNa-pradah The Bestower of wealth. Om draviNa-pradAya namah. Here SrI BhaTTar refers to the wealth in the form of the SAstra-s - He gave the substance of all the SAstra-s and their meaning. ThedhyAna Sloka on vyAsa is: vahan vai vAma hastena sarva SastrArtha samcayam | dakshiNena ca SAstrArthAn AdiSamScayathA sthithAn || "vyAsa holds in his left hand the collection of all the SAstra-s and their purport, and propounds by his right hand (the upadeSa mudrA) the true import of all the SAstra-s". nammAzhvAr calls bhagavAn"paNbuDai vEdamparanda payan" in tiruvAimozhi 6.6.5. SrI Samkara interprets the nAma more generically - "The Bestower of thewealth as desired by the devotee". SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastriexplains that draviNam derives from the concept that it is wealth that is fluid- drava - that can be used right away as needed. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derivesthe meaning for draviNa as wealth from dravati -gacchati iti draviNam dhanam -that which never stays in one place. He gives the following references from theSruti in support of the interpretation for the nAma: dadhAti ratnam draviNam ca dASushe agne sakhye mA rishamA vayam tava (Rg. 1.94.14) yatkAmAs te juhumas tanno astu vayam syAma patayo rayINAm (yajur. 40.16) The dharma cakram writer has written his explanation for this nAma in Vol. 45.5of dharma cakram, the beauty of which is lost somewhat in translation. Hedescribes wealth as of two kinds: preyas and Sreyas. Preyas is that which causes priyam or worldly satisfaction. Sreyasis that which gives spiritual satisfaction. To the first category belongthe material wealth, the official position, the wife, the husband, children,etc. preyas gives problems at one stage or the other. Sreyas removes all problems and sufferings, and leads to mokshamultimately. After getting the wealth of Sreyas, there is nothing more toget. Preyas is transient wealth, and Sreyas is permanent wealth. BhagavAn is ever ready to give either of the wealths one seeks, and mostgo after the transient worldly pleasures, and very few seek Sreyas.

There is the vedic story of naciketa, who requested the wealth of Sreyas from yama, and yama offered to give him the preyas instead. naciketa told yama that he did not need yama's help for preyas, because he could get that by his own effort; yama's help was needed onlyfor Sreyas, since this is somethingthat cannot be obtained by one's own effortalone. The lesson to take for us is that we should pray to bhagavAn for Sreyas, since this is the wealth that we cannot attain by our own effort and without His Grace. This is the tAtparyam behind this nAma. 576. divi-spRk He Who touches the skies. a) through His knowledge b) by His being not only in the form of this Universe, but also far beyond it. c) By His vAmana incarnation. d) By His viSva rUpa revealed to arjuna. e) By His being the antaryAmi for sUrya and the other planets. Om divi-spRSe namah. a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as referring to the unbounded extentof Hisknowledge. By His para vidyA (brAhmic or Supreme knowledge), Hetouches themystic nature of His Reality as it is in the paramapada. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to tiruvAimozhi 3.1.9 - mazhu~ngAdaj~nAnamE paDaiyAgatozhumbAyArkkaLittAn. b) It can also mean that He resides in His para form in the regions farbeyondthe skies. The Sruti declares that one-fourth of His form is inthe form ofthis Universe, and three-fourths is beyond the Universe(tripAdsyAmRtam divi -chAndogyopanishad 3.12.6) (SrI rAdhAkRshNaSAstri). c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the nAma as divah spRk, andexplains that inthe vAmana incarnation, bhagavAn touches the skieswhile measuring the three feetof land that were promised to Him bymahAbali vAmanAvatAre SrI bhagavAn svacaraNa kamalena vardhamAnenadivam pasparSa. d) SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that He revealed His Universal formto arjuna as divah spRk. e) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives references to the Sruti to interpret theassociation with divi as referring to the sun. vAtasya nu mahimAnam rathasya rujanneti stanayannasya ghoshah | divi-spRgyAtyaruNAni kRNvannuto eti pRthivyA reNumasyan || (Rg. 10.168.1) He points out that the terms divi-kshayam, divi-kshitA, divi-carAh,divi-jAh,divi-yajah, divi-yonih, divi-Sritah, divishadah, divi-sadam,etc., are usedrepeatedly in the veda-s to refer to the sun. So heinterprets the nAmadivi-spRk as referring to bhagavAn as the antaryAmiof the sun and all the graha-sthat are in the skies. 577. sarva-dRk The All-seer.

a) He who sees everything - the totality of para tattvam.. b) He who is in the form of knowledge of all forms. c) He who is the Creator of all forms that can see under different conditions. Om sarva-dRSe namah. a) sarvasya drashTA sarva-drk - He who has realized the totality ofthepara tattvam. The nirukti description is "sarva darSanAtsarva-dRk". sarva-dRk means He who is Omniscient - He who seeseverything, He who is the eyeof all. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan givesreference to tiruvAimozhi 3.10.10 -taLarvinRiyE enRum e~ngum parandatani mudal j~nAnam. b) sarva-dRk can mean "j~nAnam, knowledge". He who is in theform of knowledge of all forms ( P. SamkaranArAyaNan - BhavAn's Publications). c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha elaborates on His being able to seeeverything, fromanother viewpoint. He points out that bhagavAn hascreated all thedifferent creations that can see in water, in air, inspace, and even indarkness. He has spread Himself in the Universe indiverse forms which areendowed with bodies to suit these differentconditions, and equipped with indirya-swhich make them function wellunder these different circumstances. Ants cansmell from very faraway, there are birds that can hear from a long distanceaway, thecamel can drink water and store it for a long time, etc. 578. vyAsah The Arranger. a) He who arranged the veda-s into its four divisions, the purANa-s into 18, etc. b) He who divided time as well as His creation into its varioussub-divisions(e.g., day and night, Sukla paksha and kRshNa paksha, manfrom woman, sUrya fromcandra, etc.) c) He whose ornaments (like kaustubha) shine distinctly. Om vyAsAya namah. SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that because bhagavAn divided theveda thatwas originally in a single form into its four divisions (Rg,yajus, sAma, andatharva), He has the name vyAsa - vibhajanstu caturdhAvai vedamekam trikAlavititi vyAsah. This was done by bhagavAn in Hisincarnation as vyAsa just tomake it easier for people whose knowledgediminishes in accordance with thechanges of the four yuga-s. SrI Samkara gives the interpretation in terms of the division of theveda-s,and also refers to the division of the purANa-s - anyAni capurANAni vyastAnianena iti vyAsah. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the derviation "vyasyante - pRthakkriyanteanena iti vyAsah - He by whom things are separated or dividedis vyAsa. He then suggests that the nAma can be interpreted based bhagavAn being the Onewho separates day from night, dakshiNAyana fromuttarAyaNa, Sukla paksha fromkRshNa paksha etc. He also separatessUrya from candra, and for that mattermakes this world function by itsvarious divisions. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives yet another dimension to theinterpretation - (yasyakaustubhAdIni

AbharaNAni viSeshena asantidIpyanti sa vyAsah) - He whoseornaments like the kaustubha shinedistinctively is known as vyAsah. SrI Samkara and the others who follow his vyAkhyAna have interpretedthe abovetwo nAma-s together as one nAma - sarva-dRk vyAsah. It cansimply mean"The omniscient vyAsa". SrI cinmayAnanda has given perhapsthebest interpretation for the single nAma- He who creates manyomniscient men ofwisdom. One who encourages the spread of knowledgeand thus turns out many men ofwisdom and clearer understanding of lifeand the world. 579 : vAcas-patih The Master of words. (See also 218) Om vAcaspataye namah. This nAma has occurred earlier as nAma 218. Please refer to Slokam 23forthe interpretation provided therein. SrI BhaTTar interpretsthecurrent occurrence as referring to vyAsa's authorship of themahAbhArata - Heis the Master of words which are in the form of thefifth veda - i.e.,mahAbhArata. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference totiruvAimozhi 5.6.8 -"uraikkinRa munivarum yAnE". SrI Samkara interprets the nAma as "vAco vidyAyAh patih vAcaspatih"-The Master of all learning. He interprets this nAma along withthenext one together as one nAma - vAcaspatir-ayonijah - He who is theMaster ofall learning, and who is not born in a mother's womb. SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri comments that one who has mastered the wordsalso does notwaste words, and is precise. This certainly applies tobhagavAn giving usall the instructions for all aspects of lifeconcisely in the form of the veda-s,the brahma sUtra-s etc. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that the nAma means "One whoiseloquent in championing the Supreme Law of life". It almost seemslikehe had gItAcAryan in his mind. Some people have interpreted the term vAcah to refer to sarasvati, andthusconclude that vAcaspatih refers to brahma, the pati of sarasvati. BhagavAn beingthe antaryAmi of brahma will justify thisinterpretation. 580. a-yonijah The Unborn. Om ayonijAya namah. In SrI BhaTTar's interpretation of the current group of nAma-s asreferring tothe vyAsa incarnation, he explains the current nAma asreferring to vyAsa beingcreated out of sound by bhagavAn as sArasvataatha bhUyo jagat sRshTvA "bho" Sabdena anuvAdayan | sArasvatIm uccacAra tatra sArasvato'bhavat || (mahAbhA.Santi.350.37) SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the support from peria tirumozhi 4.3.2 piRappoDu mUppu onRillavan. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that bhagavAn created the sun, and wecan easilyperceive that the sun

was not born like the normal humans,and so it is easy toperceive that bhagavAn is a-yonijah. SrI Samkara and others following his interpretation have interpretedthe abovetwo nAma-s as one nAma vAcaspatir-ayonijah - He who is theMaster of words andwho is unborn. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan

The Thousand Names of the Supreme by Sri N. Krishnamacharifor the Sri Vaishnava Home Page. Slokam 62

581. 582. 583. 584. 585. 586. 587. 588. 589. 590. 591. 592.

tri-sAmA sAma-gah sAma nirvANam bheshajam bhishak sannyAsa-kRt Samah SAntah nishThA SAntih parAyaNam

om om om om om

tri-sAmne namah sAmagAya namah sAmne namah nirvANAya namah bheshajAya namah

om om om om om om om

bhishaje namah sanyAsa-kRte namah SamAya namah SAntAya namah nishThAyai namah SAntaye namah parAyaNAya namah

581. tri-sAmA - He who is propounded by the three-fold sAma veda. om tri-sAmne namah. There are three important kinds of sAma veda - bRhat, rathantara, and vAma-devya, all of which sing His praise. This nAma signifies this aspect of bhagavAn. These three branches are together called deva-vrata. Of the four veda-s (rG, yajus, sAma, and atharva), sAma veda is the one that has the praise of the various deities as its principal theme. It is musical to hear when it is chanted with the proper intonations. BhagavAn declares in SrImad bhagavad gItA - vedAnAm sAmavedo'smi (10.22) - Among the veda-s, I am the sAma veda. Thus it is a vibhUti of bhagavAn Himself. SrI cinmayAnanda gives a slightly different interpretation - He indicates that among the singers who praise Him through the sAma gAna are three who are well-known- deva-s, vrata-s and sAman-s. 582. sAma-gah a) The singer of sAma. b) He who is praised by the sAma. a) Om sAma-gAya namah.

BhagavAn Himself sings the sAma in His svAnubhavam and so He is called sAma-gah. The mukta-s in paramapadam sing the sAma in bhagavad-anubhavam - etat sAma gAyannAste (taiitirIya.). SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri gives the following reference which sings the greatness of the sAma veda He who knows the sAma veda, is the knower of brahman Rco ha yo veda sa veda devAn yajUgumshi yo veda sa veda sarvAn | sAmAni yo veda sa veda sarvam || A couple of writers have emphasized the role of the music in the power of sAma veda in bringing about the brahmAnubhavam. b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the second explanation - sAmabhih mantraih gIyate iti sAma-gah. 583. sAma a) He who removes the sins of those who sing about Him. b) He who is in the form of the sAma veda Himself.

c) He who is soft and sweet. Om sAmne namah. a) SrI BhaTTar derives the meaning from the root sho (so) -anta-karmaNi - to destroy, to bring an end to. (pApam) syati iti sAma - He who brings an end to the sins of those who sing about Him. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives references to tiruvAimozhi 3.6.2 - Savam uLLana nIkkuvAnai, pAva nASanai, pa~ngayat taDak kaNNanaip paravuminO; naraga nASan (periAzhvAr tirumozhi 4.4.4). b) SrI P. B. aNNa'ngarAcArya svAmi interprets the nAma as referring to His being the sAma veda Himself vedAnAm sAma vedo'smi (gItA 10.22). SrI cinmayAnanda observes that this is to express the very sacredness of the veda itself. c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa Sastri uses the meaning of sAma in the sense of sAma, dAna, bheda, and daNDa, and interprets the word sAma as referring to His being soft and sweet. The means which He used to try to urge duryodhana to follow the path of dharma is the sAma mArga - that of being soft and gentle in His persuasion. He gives the support from the Sruti - yat khalu sAdhu tat sAmetyAcakshase (chAndogya. 2.1.1). The dharma cakram writer observes that sAma vedam is so called because of its sweetness and softness. 584. nirvANam The Bliss. a) He who is the cause of Bliss to His devotees b) He who is the embodiment of Bliss Himself Om nirvANAya namah. nirvANam refers to Absolute Bliss. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that vANam refers to body, and the state of being beyond the 'I' and "mine" feeling associated with the body, is nir-VANam. SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is called nirvANa because He is the cause of attainment of the state of Bliss by those whose sins have been eliminated as stated in the previous nAma. The state when even the wind that blows is not felt by the body is the state of nirvANa, where there is total disassociation with the identity of the body with the self. The dharma cakram writer points out that suffering is of three kinds - bodily, mental, and that associated with a~jnAna. Animals have bodily suffering, most humans have bodily and mental sufferings, and those among humans who try to realize the self also have the suffering from aj~nAna. Thus, the more evolved a being, the more the causes for suffering. One who transcends all these sufferings is the one who realizes Absolute Bliss. As long as the animals have no hunger and no disease, they are happy. But a human who is free from hunger and disease, all the same makes himself unhappy by pursuit of misery in the form of worldly pleasures. These include the inability to dominate others, the inability to get whatever they want for their materials pleasures, the desire for material wealth, the desire for success in everything they undertake, and on and on. It is when humans try to satisfy the five indirya-s through external means that they invite and incur suffering and sorrow. It is by getting to the state of nirvANa (the total disassociation of the identify of the body with the self) that one starts to overcome this kind of suffering. This can only happen by meditating on bhagavAn who is the embodiment of nirvANa. This is the lesson to take from this

nAma. 585. bheshajam The Remedy. Om bheshajAya namah. He is the only remedy for the otherwise incurable disease of samsAra. SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the bhIshma stava rAja (mahAbhArata): nArAyaNAt Rshi-gaNAh tathA siddhA mahoragAh | devA devarshayaScaiva yam viduh duhkha bheshajam || "The groups of Rshi-s, siddha-s, the serpent-gods, and godly seers came to know of this medicine for the disease of samsAra from nArAyaNa". SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to mUnRAm tiruvantAdi (4) marundum poruLum amudamum tAnE; and to peria tiruvantAdi 62 - na~ngaL piNikkAm peru marundu. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri's anubhavam is that He is the medicine that leads to nirvANa, the tender and soothing medicine for the disease of samsAra. The dharma cakram writer observes that for self -realization one needs good bodily health but more importantly good mental health. For both of these, one should lead a life of control of the senses and control of the mind. Just as we take medicine for rectifying the illness of the body, we should resort to the medicine of meditating on Him so that we can avoid the disease of the mind. Health of the mind is something that most of us don't worry about, but this is very important for attaining Bliss. Chanting His nAma and meditating on Him are the means to maintain the health of the mind; hence He is the Medicine. This is the lesson to take from this nAma. 586. bhishak The Physician. Om bhishaje namah. BhagavAn is the expert Physician who treats the disease of the fear of samsAra in His devotees through the teaching of the brahma vidyA in the form of the gItA and other upanishads. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to the divya prabandham - maruttuvanAi ninRa mA-maNi vaNNA.

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that the mantra "nirvANam bheshajam bhishak" should be recited by those who seek relief from diseases. That bhagavAn is the first and foremost of the physicians is supported in the taittirIya upanishad - prathamo daivyo bhishak (4.5.1). The dharma cakram draws analogy between the physician who treats the diseases of the body, and bhagavAn who treats the diseases of the mind. Unlike the bodily cure which is transient and temporary, the treatment that bhagavAn gives by removing the aj~nAna or ignorance is permanent. This is the spirit with

which one should meditate on this nAma. SrI cinmayAnanda gives an alternate explanation - that this nAma can refer to bhagavAn in His form as dhanvantari, the Deity of Medicine in the Indian system of Medicine. Since He appeared in this form as the Lord of Physicians, He is called "The Physician - bhishak". 587. sannyAsa-kRt a) He Who cuts asunder the bonds when desires are renounced. b) The Institutor of the samnyAsa ASrama for the attainment of moksha. c) He Who shows the path of SaraNAgati to His devotee. Om sannyAsa-kRte namah.

a) SrI BhaTTar interprets this nAma in relation to the previous nAma, and explains how bhagavAn treats those with the affliction of the bondage of samsAra. "sAttvikena sanyAsena rajas-tamasau kRtanti iti sannyAsa-kRt - He who cuts the bonds in the form of rajo and tamo guNa-s in those who perform all their acts in a disinterested manner with a spirit of renunciation of desire for the fruit. Another name for this is also sAttvika-tyAga - The abandonment of all the fruits of any action we perform, and assignment of these benefits to Him and Him alone; in other words, every act that we perform should be for His benefit and His pleasure. This is the gist of karma yoga that is enunciated in the gItA. The word san-nYasa here signifies surrender of the burden to the Master, and this surrender alone is the remedy for samsAra. SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the Sruti "vedAna vij~nAna suniScitArthAs-sanyAsa yogAt parimucyanti sarve | te brahma loke tu parAntakAle parAmRtat parimucyanti sarve |" Those who have acquired the true knowledge of tattva, hita and purushArtha through the study of the upanishads, do yoga by doing acts renouncing the desire for fruits and giving up the idea that they are the chief agents of the acts. By this process their minds become pure and they practice bhakti yoga. At the end of their last body they attain the brahman and become free from all karma. b) SrI Samkara vyAkhyAnam is "mokshArtham caturtham ASramam kRtavAn iti snanyAsa-kRt" - He Who instituted the fourth ASrama of samnyAsa for the attainment of moksha. c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri brings out the point that while samnyAsa - the surrendering of the burden for our acts and the fruits thereof to Him - is the only means for relieve from samsAra, it is also He alone who shows this path of samnyAsa to His devotee; in other words, He is the One who leads His devotee to perform samnyAsa. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj echoes this when he gives the following interpretation for the nAma "samyak nyAso nikshepah samnyAsah shad-vidha SaraNAgateh ekatamam a~ngam Atma nikshepaNAm adheyam | tam karoti draDhayati bhakta-hRdaye iti samnyAsa-kRt.

Thus, bhagavAn is samnyAsa-kRt in the sense that He is the One who blesses His devotee so that He performs the act of surrender or saraNAgati. He is also the One who gives the needed qualifications to those who undertake the samnyAsa ASrama - SrI cinmayAnanda. d) The dharma cakram writer brings out the importance of leading a life devoid of attachment caused by the indriya-s. He gives the analogy of a child forming in the mother's womb, which has to give up the mother's womb at the appropriate time if it were to live. Similarly, the jIva has to give up the life dominated and controlled by the indriya-s if it is to evolve to a higher level than to be part of the cycle of samsAra. This act of being relieved from the negative guNa-s of prakRti viz. rajas and tamas is samnyAsa. The current nAma emphasizes the importance of leading a life of detachment and renunciation. 588. Samah a) He Who instructs on how to control anger etc. b) He who instructs that control of mind is the principal dharma for samnyAsin. c) He who controls all beings, including during pralaya. d) He Who has absolute control of mind - He Whose nature is Calmness. e) He who puts an end to the darkness in His devotees' mind. Om SamAya namah.

The root from which the word is derived is Samu - upaSame - to grow calm, to put an end, to stop (note the link to SAnti). So the meaning is - One who puts an end to, One who quiets down or calms down, etc. Thus, the interpretations are related to: He puts an end to qualities like tamas in His devotees, He puts an end to all things at the time of pralaya, He gives instructions on how to calm down the mind, He controls all beings, etc. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that by meditating on this quality of bhagavAn, the person who meditates will himself become quieted down in his mind, and attain SAnti.

a) SrI BhaTTar continues the link with his interpretation for the previous nAma, and interprets this nAma as referring to bhagavAn being the Instructor of how to control the desire, anger, fear etc. He gives reference to the gItA 5.29, where bhagavAn tells us that He is the real enjoyer of the fruits of all sacrifices and austerities bhoktAram yaj~na tapasAm sarvaloka maheSvaram | suhRdam sarvabhUtAnAm j~nAtvA mAm Santim Rcchati || b) SrI Samkara ties the interpretation to his interpretation of the previous nAma as referring to the samnyAsa ASrama, and indicates that bhagavAn is the instructor of the rule of Sama or control of the mind for the samnyAsin, and he quotes the smRti yatInAm praSamo dharmo niyamo vanavAsinAm | dAnameva gRhastAnAm SuSrUshA brahmacAriNAm || c) He also gives the alternate interpretation sarva bhUtAnAm Samayitaiti Samah He controls all the beings.

SrI anantakRshNa Sastry interprets this as referring to His quieting or calming down everything during the pralaya. d) SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that bhagavAn Himself is the embodiment of calmness, and so He is called Sama Himself.

The dharma cakram writer elaborates on how the ancient traditional system ensured that this control of the mind was built into the duties of all the four ASrama-s. In the brahmacarya stage, practices such as getting up early in the morning, taking a cold bath, chanting veda-s, performing the mantra japam, serving the guru, and being kept active throughout the course of the day, was part of the training, and so the control of the mind was constantly inculcated. Similarly, the gRhasta was supposed to involve himself actively in performing religious rites such as yaj~na-s etc., which kept him involved in mind control through involvement in these activities. Similar discipline applies to the vAnaprastha and samnyAsa ASrama-s. The current nAma reveals to us that control of the mind and channeling of the mind towards acts that please Him should be our goal in life. e) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets Samah to mean that bhagavAn puts an end to the darkness in us tamobhavAni kAryANi Samayati niSAcarANAm. 589. SAntah He whose mind is always tranquil. Om SAntAya namah. SrI BhaTTar comments that even though bhagavAn's greatness is such that it can express itself like a rising ocean, He chooses to be tranquil like a calm and waveless ocean. A poet has said of sage vyAsa: His tranquillity is such that even the wild animals become tranquil at his very sight. It can also be said that in spite of all the oceans of apacAra-s that all of us commit, which can justifiably make Him boil with anger at our deeds, He still keep Himself tranquil and always willing to forgive us. SrI Samkara's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn is peaceful because He is completely unattached to the sense world - "nishkalam, nishkriyam, Santam" - SvetAsvatara. 6.19. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the additional reference to praSna upanishad 7.5 - SAntam ajaram amRtam. The dharma cakram writer observes that the more one gets involves in the desire for material objects, the more one gets lack of peace of mind. The more one draws one's interests inward, the more one finds peace. Thus control of the mind is the path to attaining peace. The more one meditates on this mantra which represents the guNa of tranquillity in bhagavAn, the more our mind will become tranquil. 590. nishThA a) The object of concentration. b) The stable Abode of all during pralaya. Om nishThAyai namah. a) nishThA essentially means a pivot, firm support. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam for the nAma is "vyutthita

cittaih SubhASrayabhUte asmin nishThIyate iti nishThA" - Those who have achieved a deep level of concentration have Him and His body as the object of their meditation. The root from which the word is derived is shThA (sthA) - gati nvRttau - to stand, to wait, to be at hand etc. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj gives the derivation of this nAma as - niyatam sthAnam ni-shThAnam svajanakAmAnAm iti nishThA - He is the firmly established abode as the object of desire of the devotees. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives refers to peria tirumozhi 4.9.2 - Sindai tannuL nI~ngAdu irunda tiru. b) SrI Samkara gives the interpretation that He is the stable final Abode for all the beings during pralaya pralaye nitarAm tatraiva tishThanti bhUtAni iti nishThA.

c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha comments that while bhagavAn has permeated everything in this world and makes everything else go, He Himself is fixed. Just as a worm inside a stone cannot move the stone while the worm itself keeps moving, the rest of the world keeps moving within Him and because of Him, but He is fixed - nishThA. The dharma cakram writer observes that the significance of the nAma lies in realizing the importance of having our thoughts centered and anchored on bhagavan-nAma-dhyAnam. The more we let it wander in search of worldly objects, the more we will be plagued by needless and meaningless fears and confusion on the real purpose of our existence, and the more we will slip and fall from that great Object whom we should attain in order to be relieved of the cycle of samsAra. We should meditate on Him with "nishThA" or firmness. 591. SAntih a) Peace. b) The object of meditation c) The Ultimate Support. Om SAntaye namah. The root from which the nAma is derived is Samu upaSame to grow calm, to put an end to, to stop.Use of the pANini sUtra 3.3.94 striyAm ktin adds the affix ktin to the root. The paNini sUtra 6.4.15 leads to the lengthening of the vowel associated with Sa to SA. He Who is calm, and in Whom everything else becomes calm, is called SAntaH SAmyati yatra sarvam iti SAntiH, Samanam vA.

a) When a devotee has attained the perfect calm in the final state of meditation, this state is called samAdhi. At that stage, the Lord makes the devotee enjoy Him and Him alone, and forget all else including the self, other activities, interests, etc. This quietening of all the person's interests and activities is called SAnti, which is granted only by the Lord. Those who have abandoned everything else find peace in Him who is the Ultimate Peace. So He is called SAntih. This is the final stage of perfect meditation. SrI BhaTTar explains the nAma as: tatra parama-samAdhau vismRta-sarvAdhikArAH SAmyanti iti SAntiH In the final stage of perfect meditation they (the meditators) forget all other activities and become tranquil, (and this occurs because He grants them this peace, and so he is called SAntiH). SrI kRshNan indicates that when one is meditating on Him through the yoga mArga, nothing else distracts them, and there are in continuous and direct communication with Him, and there is absolute tranquility in

their mind. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan quotes from the Sruti - yatra nAnyat paSyati nAnyat SruNoti tad bhUmA - when you enjoy Him and His greatness, nothing else is seen or heard or enjoyed. He also quotes from the prabandham ippAl kai vaLaiyum mEgalaiyum kANEn, kaNDEn ghana magarak kuzhai iraNDum nAngu tOLum (tiru neDuntANDagam 22) When tiruma~ngai AzhvAr had Him in his mind, he did not remember anything about himself; he only saw bhagavAn and His beauty, His AbharaNams, etc. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives reference to kaThopanishad 2.2.13 - teshAm SAntih SAsvatI na itareshAm Permanent Peace is to be found in Him and nowhere else. SrI Sankara vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn is devoid of all avidyA-s, and so He is the personification of the peace that results from the total absence of avidyA in Him. SrI cinmayAnanda substitutes avidyA with desire. Agitations are caused by desire, and since bhagavAn is All-Full and has no desire to be fulfilled, there is no agitation in Him and He is thus Peace itself. SrI cinmyAnanda explains the nAma as One Whose very nature is peace (SAnti). He elaborates: Agitations are caused by desires and the consequent temptations to strive form acquire and indulge in them. In the All-Full, there is no desire, hence He ned not seek His fulfillment among the perishable objects of the universe, and so He is Peace. b) SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj explains the meaning based on the root Sama - Alocane - to look at, and explains the nAma as indicating that He is the object of meditation of the devotees - bhaktAnAm Alocana vishayatvAt SAntih. c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation based on Sam- upaSame - to grow calm, to put an end to, to stop - and interprets the nAma on the basis of the Sruti - dyauH SAntiH antariksham SAntiH pRthivI SAntiH Apah SAntiH. Here the word SAnti can be interpreted as each level supporting the previous level. Everything else is ultimately supported by Him and ends in Him, and so He is called SAntih. SAntaH, SAntiH, SAnti-daH The later means that when we meditate on Him, we forget everything else disappears from our mind, and so He is SAnti Himself. kai vaLaiyum mekalaiyum kANEn . (tirumangai) 592. parAyaNam a) The Ultimate Means. b) The Best Goal. c) He Who has the Best Abode to seek. Om parAyaNAya namah. The first interpretation is that He is the Means, and the second one is that He is the End. Both are

appropriate since bhagavAn is really both the upAya and upeya.

a) Param ayanam parAyaNam. The root from which the word "ayanam" is derived here is ay- gatau - to go. He is the best means for attaining Him, since the highest bhakti that is needed for attaining Him is acquired from Him alone. SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the gItA, 18.53-54, in support of the interpretation: nir-mamah SAnto brahma-bhUtAya kalpate || brahma-bhUtah prasannAtmA na Socati na kAnkshati | samah sarveshu bhUteshu mad-bhaktim labhate parAm || , Also we have in Slokam 11.54 bhaktyA tu ananyayA Sakya aham evamvidho arjuna | j~nAtum drashTum ca tattvena praveshTum ca parantapa || In amarakOSam, ayanam is given as a term that is equivalent in meaning to mArga, or path -ayante anena iti ayanam. b) SrI Samkara gives the interpretation that He is the best goal to aim for, since this way one is assured that there is no return to samsAra. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to the words "paramam yah parAyANam" which occur in the introductory part of sahasranAmam. SrI cinmayAnanda give the quote from gItA 15-6 yad gatvA na nivartante tad dhAma paramam mama He is the Supreme Goal, and there is no return to samsAra after reaching Him. SrI BhaTTar has interpreted the word parAyaNam in the introduction involving the question from yudhishThira - "kim ekam daivtam loke, kim vA'pyekam parAyaNam" - as referring to the end (upeya) in his vyaAkhyAnam to the introduction. (paramam upeyam pRccati - kim vA'pi ekam parAyaNam iti; ayanam - prApyam; evam upeyam dvidhA pRshTam etc. are extracts from his vyAkhyAnam to the Slokam kim ekam daivatam loke). c) SrI P. B. aNNa'ngarAcArya svAmi points out there an alternate pATham is parAyaNah, which means that He is the One who has the best sthAnam - the best place to offer - param ayanam yasya sah parAyaNam. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that the japa on "sannyAsa kRt Samah SAnto nishThA SAntih parAyaNam" will bring peace to a disturbed and agitated mind .

The dharma cakram writer nicely contrasts the state we achieve when we control our indriya-s and our mind, and the state we achieve when we let the indriya-s and mind control us. In the former case we reach the state of no more birth in this world, and in the later we are back to the cycle of samsAra. When we perform any action, we should remember that He is the doer and we are only His instrument. This is how we can elevate ourselves through karma yoga. When we convert our desire for worldly pleasures into a desire for Him instead, we elevate ourselves through bhakti yoga. When we realize the true nature of the self and the distinction of the body and the mind, and realize that we are subservient to Him and Him alone, we elevate ourselves through j~nAna yoga. Thus, it can be seen easily that He is the means for attaining Him.

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan The Thousand Names of