Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

-

.. -, ..

lezah@mail.ru, akrivtsov@bk.ru

-. (Hartmann W.K., Davis D.R., 1975; Cameron A.G.W., Ward W., 1976; Canup R.M., 2004),
( .., 1995; Galimov E.M., 2004). , , - ( ..
., 2005).
. ,
.
- (Barnes J., Hut P., 1986) .
. .

1.
(Hartmann W.K., Davis D.R., 1975; Cameron A.G.W., Ward W., 1976;
Canup R.M., 2004), ,
( .., 1995; Galimov E.M., 2004).
( .., 1995), , ( .. .,
2005). . , , . , , ( ..
., 2005; .., 2011). , , , , .
. , . -


( .., .., ., 2011).
, ,
, , .

2. -
( .. ., 2005) N , :

ri = vi , mv i = Fi ,

(1)

Fi , i - . Fi

Fi = f r , v
j

r =| r j ri |, v =

r j ri
| r j ri |

( v j v i )(r j ri )
| r j ri |

(2)

, i = 1 N ,

m , ri i - .
:

v i0 = v i (t = 0) ri0 = ri (t = 0)

(3)


. , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
.

.
,
, .
r v . A1 ,
A2 A3 . (4):

f ( r , v) =

A1 A2 A3

v.
r2 r p rq

(4)

A1 , A2 A3 .
, A1
A1 = m2 , . ,
,
, a , f (a,0) = 0 .
(4) A2 = A1a p2 . a
. , ,
, q = p 1 .
p = 13 ,
( . ., 1992;
.., .. .., 1958). (4)
:

m2
f (r , r) = 2
a

a 13
1
r

2
r a
.
r r

(5)

(5)
. /* .
* ,
, (5), ,

* = 2 11

a3
.
m

(6)

, ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
. ,
. ,
,

(4).
, , ,

N
A
U k = Qrkn , rkn U k ; Qr , r = p31 r 2 ; k = 1,2,..., N ;
r
n =1

(7)

U k k ; Qr , r ,
; ,

, , ;
A3 = m2 a p 2 ( (4), (5)).
,
(7). , (7) ,

.

= 0.1* , * =

m
a3

(8)


.
.

. , .

.
,
.
,

. ,
. ,
. , , , , , ( .. ., 2005). , ,
. , ,
,
, ,
.


, (9):

x2 y 2 z 2
2 1 .
R02
h0

(9)

x y z , R0 , h0
. z . ,
.
hR h0 R0 . d 0 . , : d 0 , N hR . R0 h0
:

4
V R02 h0 Nd03
3
R0

3
1 d0
N
a
4 hR a

d
h0 hR 0 a
a

(10)

(11)

. 0 0 r , r .
, , , vrand , , vz . , 0 , vrand , vz .
d 0 , 0 , vrand a , s vs s R0 . a
, (5). s :

3 M

4 R03

M Nm

(12)

M . ( h0 R0 ),

3
2

(r ) 1 (r R0 )2

(13)

(r ) (, ), , R0 , s ,
( .., .., 1976)
. , s
.

Ts . :

16 R03
Ts =
=
.
s
3 M

(14)

(11) (14)
:
3

Ts =

11

hR

1
2

d0 2
T0 ,
a

(15)

T0 (5):

T0 =

2 a 3
.
11 m

(16)

3.
-
,
.
.

,
.
.
(Hockney R. W., Eastwood J. W., 1981).
.
. O( N 2 ) . ,
. ,
.
, , . ,
( - (Barnes J., Hut P., 1986)

).

(. 1).
.
.
. , , . , , . , . , ( 2-).

. 1. .

, , -,
, . ,
, . , . , - , , , ,
.
, , ,
.

)
. 2. -. .

. ,
() .
:
, s/r<q, q , r , s .

. 3. .

. , , (. 3). . 4 1, 2, 3, 4.
/ . / .

. 4. .

- . , , .
. ,
. , .

, . ,
-, .
-. .
,
. , .

. 5. - .
-100

, (
)
(. 5).

- , .
30%
( 0.01% ).

,
.
,
. ,
. . , , , .
. . 6. , . , -, , , -,
, .

. 6. .


. , , , , .


,
.
,
, - ,
. . 7 . , , , .

,
,

. 7. -
. 2009 -100.
(Ahn C., Lee S.H., 2008; Belleman R.G., Bedorf J., Zwart S.F.P., 2008; Hamada T. and others, 2009; Li
P., Johnston H., Krasny R., 2009; Makino J., 2004; Stock M., Gharakhani A., 2008).

80% 64 1 . 56% 128 1


. . . , 10 . , 1 256 6.7 .
-100 2009 .

4. -


d 0 , N , h R , 0 , vrand , vz .
, , ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, .

,
, , ' (
)
.

.
, ,
' ,
.
, ,
.
,
.

,
, . ,

``'' .
, , `` ''
0 vrand d 0 N .
0
. ``''
,
, .
-

.
,
.

( .., .., 1976).
(.
(13) (12)),
,
.
.
( .., .., 1976). -
,

.

. ,
h R , 0 , vz d 0 , N .

,
h R ( ),
``'' ,
.
, vrand , , ,
.

< 0.12, vz = 1.0,


hR

(17)

, ,
.
, , ,
(. 8-).

. . 8- ,
(
).
,
(. 8-).
, ,
(. 8-). ,
.
.
(
).

.

vz . ,
(. 8-), -, ,
,
.
. 8-,
,
.
, d 0 ,

.
,
, .
( 0 vrand ), , ,
. ,
0 0.5s s ,
,

.
, 0.1vs
vs ,
,
.

. 8. .

3.2
,
0 , vrand , N .
,
, , ,
. .
,
. ,
,
. , ,
.

.


0 , vrand , N
. ,
.
, .
N .

. , ,
,
. , ,
.
.
. .
, , , ,
. , , , ,
.

. 9. .

,
. ,
.

.

``'', .
.
- .
,
, .



, , . ,
,
- (. 10).
. 11,
.

. 10.

210 4 .

.
.
, .
.
, .
.
, .
.

. , ,
. ,
,
.
, .

, .
.
, . 11,
, ( .. .,
2005), vrand = 0.68vs

0 0.76s . ,
( vrand ) ( .. ., 2005) . ,
. 11
( .., ..,
.., 1990; .., .., 2009; .., 1969),
- ( -
,
, - , ,
) ( .. ., 2005).

. 11. ( 400 20000 ).


, . 10 .


. . 12
.
() . , ,
. ,
.

. ""
, .
, ,
.

. 12. ( )
. M z , O z .

T0 .

. 12 .
,
. . 13
.
, ,
. , , ,
.

. 13. ()
. T0 .


,
. ,
. .
.
.

. 14. .

,
.
. ,

(. 14).
,
,
,
. ,
,

. ,
( ) ,
(. 15).

. 15. .


,
. ,
,
, .
. ,
.

. 16. , (

210 4 () 2105 ).

,
. . 16 ( 2104
2105 ) .

.
,
.
,
, .
. 35 2 0.5 . .
0 vrand (
100% . 11). ,
, .
, , ,
10 4 . . 16 ,

, . 17. . 16
. 17 . -, ,
,
. -,
.

.
, ,
.

, ,
. -,
, , . ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

. 17. 0.5 . .

.


. ,
.
. , ,
, .
, , .

. 18. ( , ).


(. 19).

( .. ., 2005).
,

( .. ., 2005),
.

19: .
373K .

,
.
150
, 350 .
, -
. (
6400 ), .
, -

.
, ,
,

,
.
,
Nm
. , Pm =
, m
M
, N , M . ,
Na 3
PV =
,
R3
R , a . h = hR R
. , Pv ,
. PV Pm
,
.
Pm = 0.00134 Pv 1012 1015 . PV
a
PR = 3 PV = 3 N .
R

Pm

Pr

/*

0.01

0.144

0.02

0.01

0.108

0.02

0.0005

0.144

0.02

0.01

0.144

0.01

1.
.


, ,
,
(
.3). .
. : R
, h1 0.167 R h2 0.036R .
Pm PR .
500 .
,
.
, .

. 20
( 1 4 .3). . 20- 20-
( ,
),
.

a)

. 20. . 1 ()
, 4, .

. 21 Pm Pr
. . 21-, 21- 21- 1
1, 2 3 . . 21- PR ,
, . 39-. ,
,
. . 21-a 21-
Pm . ,
, ,
. -
.

. 21.
. 1 () , 2
() , 3 ().

5.
.
,

.

.
, ,
-
,
.



.
(
,
),

2105 , .
. . , . 25
( 11-01-00809-).


.., .. ..
// , 1958 . 34 . 4 .
.886-893.
.., .., ..
// ,
2011 . 45 . 4 . . 1-10.
.., .., .. :
, .: , - , 1990.
.. . .: ,
(. . .. ), . , 1995, .8-45.
.., .., .., .., ..
-, , 11, 2005.
.. - // , 2011 . 6 . . 563669.
.., .., .. . : ,1992, 296.
.., .., .
// .: , 2009 .--- 632.
.., .. , .:
,1976.
.. // .: ,
1969 .--- 244c.
.., .. , , . XV, 2, 3, 1981.
.. , , .27, 3, 1993.
Ananth Grama, Vipin Kumar, Ahmed Sameh. Scalable Parallel Formulations of Barnes-Hut method
for n-Body Simulations. Proceedings of the 1994 conference on Supercomputing, pp. 439448,
1994.
Ahn C., Lee S.H., A new treecode for long-range force calculation // Computer Physics
Communications, 2008 .--- vol.178 .--- issue 2 .--- pp.121-127
Atsuchi Kawai, Toshiyuki Fukushige, Junichiro Makino, Makoto Taiji. GRAPE-5: A SpecialPurpose Computer for N-body Simulations, Astron. Soc. Japan 52, 659-676, 2000.
Barnes J., Hut P., A Hierarchical O(n log n) Force Calculation Algorithm, Nature, 324, 1986.
Belleman R.G., Bedorf J., Zwart S.F.P., High performance direct gravitational N-body simulations
on graphics processing units II: An implementation in CUDA // New Astronomy, 2008 .--- 13 .--pp.103-112.

Cameron A.G.W., Ward W. The origin of the Moon, Science, 7, 120-122, 1976.
Canup, R. M. Formation of the Moon. Ann. Revs. Astron. Astrophy., 42, 441-475, 2004.
Canup, R. M. Simulations of a Late Lunar Forming Impact. Icarus, 168, 433-456, 2004.
Capuzzo-Dolcetta R., Miocchi P. A comparison between Fast Multipole Algorithm and TreeCode
to evaluate gravitational forces in 3-D, astro-ph/9703122 v1 19 Mar 1997.
Galimov E.M. On the origin of lunar material, Geochem. Intern., 42(7), 595-609, 2004
John Dubinski. A Parallel Tree Code, astro-ph/9603097, 1996.
Junichiro Makino. A Fast Parallel Treecode with GRAPE, Astron. Soc. Japan 56, 521-531, June
2004.
Hamada T., Narumi T., Yokota R., Yasuoka K., Nitadori K., Taiji M., 42 TFlops hierarchical Nbody simulations on GPUs with applications in both astrophysics and turbulence // Proceedings of
the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, Storage and Analysis, 2009 .--Article 62 .--- pp.1-12.
Hartmann W.K., Davis D.R. Satellite-sized planetesimals and lunar origin, Icarus, 24, 504-515,
1975.
Hernquist L. Performance characteristics of tree codes. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series,
64, 715734, 1987.
Hideki Yahagi, Masao Mori, Yuzuru Yoshii The Forest Method as a New Parallel Tree Method with
the Sectional Voronoi Tessellation}. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, volume 124,
part 1, pages 19, 1999.
Hockney R. W. Eastwood J. W. Computer Simulation Using Particles. McGraw-Hill, New York,
1981; ., . . ., , 1987.
Li P., Johnston H., Krasny R., A Cartesian treecode for screened coulomb interactions // Journal of
Computational Physics, 2009 .--- 228 .--- pp.38583868.
Lissauer J.J. Its not easy to make the moon, Nature 389(6649):353357, 1997.
Makino J. A fast parallel treecode with GRAPE // Publications of the Astronomical Society of
Japan, 2004 .--- 56 .--- pp.521-531.
Pangfeng Liu, Sandeep N. Bhatt. Experiences with Parallel N-body Simulation, Proc. 6th ACMSymposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, ACM SIGACT andSIGARCH, Cape May,
NJ, pp. 122131, 1994.
Riccardo Valdarnini. Parallelization of a treecode, New Astronomy Volume 8, Issue 7, Pages 691710, September 2003.
Salmon J.K., Warren M.S. Skeletons from the treecode closet. Journal of Computational Physics,
111(1), 136155, 1994.
Shigeru Ida et al. Lunar accretion from an impact generated disk, Nature 389(6649): 353357,
1997.
Stock M., Gharakhani A., Toward efficient GPU-accelerated N-body simulations. // 46th AIAA
Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, AIAA Paper, 2008 .--- p.608.

Yu Hu, S. Lennard Johnsson. A Data Parallel Implementation of Hierarchical N-body Methods, The
International Journal of Super Computer Applications and High Performance Computing, 10(1): 3
40, 1996.