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Model 19D Planetary Drive Axle

FOREWORD

This manual has been prepared to provide the customer and the maintenance personnel with information and instructions on the maintenance and repair of the DANA SPICER OFFHIGHWAY PRODUCTS DIVISION product. Extreme care has been exercised in the design, selection of materials, and manufacturing of these units. The slight outlay in personal attention and cost required to provide regular and proper lubrication, inspection at stated intervals, and such adjustments as may be indicated will be reimbursed many times in low cost operation and trouble free service. In order to become familiar with the various parts of the product, its principle of operation, troubleshooting, and adjustments, it is urged that the mechanic studies the instructions in this manual carefully and use it as a reference when performing maintenance and repair operations. Whenever repair or replacement of component parts is required, only DANA SPICER OFFHIGHWAY PRODUCTS DIVISION-approved parts as listed in the applicable parts manual should be used. Use of "will-fit" or non-approved parts may endanger proper operation and performance of the equipment. DANA SPICER OFF-HIGHWAY PRODUCTS DIVISION does not warrant repair or replacement parts, nor failures resulting from the use of parts which are not supplied by or approved by DANA SPICER OFF-HIGHWAY PRODUCTS DIVISION. IMPORTANT: Always furnish the Distributor with the serial and model number when ordering parts.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

NOTE: Metric Dimensions Shown in Brackets [ ].

DESCRIPTION The axle assembly has a spiral bevel type ring gear and pinion with further reduction provided by planetary gear set within the wheel hub. PRIMARY REDUCTION The spiral bevel pinion and ring gear transmit power through the center differential pinions, side gears, and to the axle shaft. The spiral bevel differential assembly is mounted on tapered roller bearings which are adjusted by positioning of the two threaded adjusting nuts mounted in the differential carrier and cap assembly. The tapered roller pinion bearing preload is adjusted and maintained by a hardened and precision ground spacer positioned between inner and outer bearings. Spacer is selected at assembly. SECONDARY REDUCTION In the wheel hub, a self-centering sun gear is spline fitted to the axle shaft and drives three planetary pinion gears. These gears in turn rnesh with and react against a rigidly mounted internal ring gear. The planet gears rotate on needle roller bearings mounted on hardened and ground pins located in the planet carrier which in turn drives the wheel hub. Positive

lubrication keeps all moving parts bathed in lubricant to reduce friction, heat, and wear. (LCB) LIQUID COOLED BRAKES The liquid cooled brake is ideal for use in contaminated or temperature sensitive environments and in machines where extra long maintenance intervals are required. Braking action of the liquid cooled brakes is achieved through the application of the hydraulic piston with the rotating graphitic friction surfaces which react with stationary stator plates. The stator plates are retained by scalloped tangs at the outside diameter, which in turn transfer the reaction torque to the rigid outside housing. Tangs on the O.D. of the friction discs prevent the discs from dropping out of alignment when the wheel hub is removed for wheel bearing adjustments. This provides ease of service reassembly. Hub splines are long enough to engage all friction discs before bearings or seals are set. This provides ease of assembly and assures the ability to accurately adjust wheel bearings. Wheel bearings can be serviced as in any normal bearing service procedure.

RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS FOR CLARK DRIVE AXLES Initial Fill Grade 85W140 qualified MIL-L-2105C gear lubricant as specified in Clark MS-8 engineering standard is preferred for initial fill for most ambient temperatures. (See chart on page 4.) For other ambient temperature ranges use proper viscosities of MIL-L-21 05C. Other lubricants approved to MIL-L-21 05C specifications are acceptable for initial fill or top off. Service Fill Multipurpose gear lubricants approved to the MIL-L-2105C specifications are recommended. MIL-L-2105C classifies multigrade gear lubricants on the basis of the viscosities at various temperatures. Listed on page 4 are the recommended multigrade viscosities for use at the prevailing operating temperatures in Clark Drive Axles. MS-8 EXTREME GEAR LUBRICANT MS-8 specifications cover a gear lubricant for use in heavy-duty axles. It is a highly refined base stock properly compounded with selected extreme pressure additives. MS-8 meets MIL-L-2105C but is fortified with an additive package that provides added protection during the break-in period and reduced wear and improved efficiency during subsequent operation. APPROXIMATE LUBRICANT CAPACITIES Note: All quantities are shown in pints; 1 pint 1 pound 1 [liter]. Below listed capacities are approximate. Fill to proper level as instructed in this manual. Always fill wheel ends and axle centers to the bottom of the oil level plug hole.

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For proper viscosity lube, refer to fahrenheit or celsius chart

below.

Gear Lubricant Chart

-40F -40F -40F -40F -15F -15F +10F

Ambient Temperature Ranges to -10F (-40C to -23C) to 0F (-40C to -18C) to + 100F (-40C to -38C) + Above (-40C + Above) to 100F (-26C to 38C) + Above (-26C + Above) + Above (-12C + Above)

Multigrade Viscosities MIL-L-2l0SC See (a) note below. 75W See (b) note below. 75W80 75W90 75W140 80W90 80W140 85W140

Notes: (a) The MIL-L-2105C Specification replaced the MIL-L-2105B Specification.

(b) The MIL-L-2105C 75W Classification replaced the MIL-L-10324A Subarctic Specification.

Liquid Cooled Brakes (LCB) Note: Specifications are subject to change. A, The following oils are allowable to use on the actuator side of the 10,000 & 20,000 series liquid cooled brakes. 1 -Motor Oil APl SE/CD. 2 MIL-L-46152B/MIL-L-2104 C or D. 3 ATF C-3 or oDEXRON. Not oDEXRON II@ (See Note Below). 4 -Hydraulic Oils. 5 -Water/Oil Invert Emulsion. 6 Synthetic Gear Oils (Chemical Ester) B. Brake sump cooling oils (when external cooling is used). The following cooling oils are recommended in order of preference. 1 -Organic Esters 2 Hydraulic Oil 3 MIL-L-46152B/MIL-L-2104 C or D. 4 ATF C-3 or oDEXRON@. Not DEXRON II@ (See Note Below). 5 -Motor Oil API SE/CD. 6 -Invert Emulsion and all of the oils in A above can be used in the brake sump except water/oil invert emulsion must not be used with the LCB 10,000 series shipped from Clark before 1 June 1984 because of incompatibility with the friction discs. C. Axle assemblies with Liquid Cooled Brakes having a common brake and gear sump (no brake external cooling used), use 1 -Gear Lubricant meeting Clark specifications MS-8,

2 MIL-L-2105C.

NOTE: DEXRON "@ is not compatible with graphic friction plate material unless it meets the approved C-3 specifications. *DEXRON is a registered trademark of General Motors Corporation.

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CHECKING OIL LEVEL IN DRIVE AXLES For off-highway operation, check Iubricant level after each 250 hours of operation. Always maintain lubricant level to bottom of filler plug hole. Drain oil every 2,500 hours or one year, whichever comes first. For highway operation, lubrication should be checked each 5,000 miles [8,000 km]. Maintain lubricant level to bottom of filler plug hole. Drain oil every 25,000 miles [40,000 km] or one year, whichever comes first. To check oil level in axles with differential drive and planetary wheel ends, the axle should be run first, then allowed to stand for a minimum of five minutes on level ground. This procedure will allow oil to drain back to its normal level. After the five minute interval, remove oil filler plug at axle center and in the planetary wheel ends for oil level inspection. If oil level is not to the bottom of the filler hole, add necessary lubricant.*

LIQUID COOLED BRAKE - LUBRICATION The self-contained liquid cooled brake system uses the same lube as the axle center section and wheel ends. There are no seals between the spindles and wheel hubs. Oil that lubricates the differential and planetary wheel ends also lubricates and cools the brake assembly. The oil level is the same height as the planet and axle center and the brake may be filled and oil level checked at the planet carrier assembly or planet carrier cover. Brake oil changes would be accomplished at the same time the axle lube is changed. Contaminates resulting from braking will not affect axle within normal oil change periods. CAUTION: On all axles with liquid cooled brakes, check brake drain plug for presence of axle lube for axles without forced cooling, or cooling fluid for axles with forced cooling.

LIQUID COOLED BRAKE -DRAINING To drain the brake housing, remove the bottom drain plug from the brake housing. Remove the inlet plug below the bleeder screw. Allow enough time for housing to drain completely.

CHECKING AND FILLING PLANETARY WHEEL ENDS Always check lubricant level in planetary wheel ends, with wheel hub oil level plug in a down position. Remove oil level plug. If lubricant is below oil level hole, remove filler plug and fill to oil level hole.* Reinstall pipe plugs.

DRAlNING THE AXLE CENTER AND WHEEL ENDS Draining is best accomplished immediately after the vehicle has operated a short time or completed a trip. The lubricant is then warm and will flow freely, allowing full drainage in minimum time. This is particularly desirable in cold weather. Remove plug at bottom of axle housing and allow sufficient time for lubricant to drain. With planetary wheel ends, rotate wheel until filler hole is down. Remove plug and allow sufficient time for draining. Be sure planet cover oil level hole is in proper position when refilling wheel ends. * NOTE: When filling the axle housing, planetary wheel ends, and brakes, allow enough time for lubricant to flow through the various components in the differential, planetary housing, and the brake assembly. After filling is completed, allow a few minutes for lubricant to attain its level and recheck each wheel end and the axle center. Add lubricant if necessary.

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DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY WITH LIQUID COOLED BRAKES Item Description Quantity Item Description Quantity

AXLE ASSEMBL Y INSTRUCTION ILLUSTRATION 19D SERIES (WITH LIQUID COOLED BRAKES)

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Item

Description

DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY WITH DRY DISC BRAKES Quantity Item

Description

Quantity

AXLE ASSEMBL Y INSTRUCTION ILLUSTRATION 19D SERIES (WITH DRY DISC BRAKES)

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DRY DISC BRAKE ASSEMBLY

DRY DISC BRAKE HEAD SERVICE INFORMATION (Service Information Provided By Rockwell International) GENERAL INFORMATION -FIGURE 1 The calipers are used as service brakes for hydraulic brake systems. All calipers mount to a fixed position on fixedposition discs. The caliper has four pistons with two pistons on each side of the disc. The linings are made from nonasbestos material. One or two calipers can be used on a disc. If one caliper is used, it is mounted at the 12 o'clock position. If two calipers are used, they are mounted at the 3 o'clock and the 9 o'clock positions. FLUID For the fluid specifications, see the recommendations of the vehicle or equipment manufacturer. CAUTION Use only the specified hydraulic fluid. Do not use different brake fluids. The wrong fluid will damage the rubber parts of the caliper. INSPECTION Inspect the caliper and the linings at the interval recommended by the equipment manufacturer or on a periodic basis that depends on how the caliper is used.

INSPECTION OF THE LININGS -FIGURE 2 Inspect the lining for: A. Lining Wear -Replace the linings when the thickness of the lining is less than 1/8 inch [3 mm]. B. Linings Wear Not Even -Replace the linings when the thickness of the linings is very different on each lining. Check the pistons for correct operation. Replace pistons that are locked in the bore. Check that the disc surface is flat and parallel to the linings. -35

C. Oil or Grease on Linings -Remove grease or oil with denatured alcohol or by reburnishing the linings. If grease or oil cannot be removed, replace the linings. D. Cracks on Linings -Replace linings that have cracks. NOTE: Cracks on the surface of the linings are normal when the caliper is used under high temperature conditions. CAUTION: Always replace both linings. If only one lining is replaced, possible disc damage can occur.

INSPECTION OF THE CALIPER HOUSING Inspect the following areas for fluid leaks: A. Pistons -If the fluid leaks at the piston, disassemble the caliper. Inspect the pistons, the bores, the "0" rings, and the backup rings. Service as necessary. B. Cylinder Head -If the fluid leaks at the cylinder head, tighten the cylinder head, the inlet fitting or the plug. If the leak continues, disassemble the caliper. Inspect the cylinder head threads, the housing threads, and the "0" ring. Service as necessary. C. Bleeder Screw -If fluid leaks at the bleeder screw, tighten the bleeder screw. If the leak continues, replace the bleeder screw. D. Inlet Fitting -If fluid leaks at the inlet flitting, tighten the fitting. If the leak continues, the "0" ring must be replaced. FIGURE 3

INSPECTION OF THE DUST COVERS Inspect to make sure that the dust covers are soft and can bend. Disassemble the caliper to replace dust covers that are hard or damaged. INSPECTION OF THE DISC -FIGURE 4 Inspect the disc. If the disc is worn beyond the wear limits, replace the disc. See the recommendations of the manufacturer for wear limits on the disc.

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1 .Remove the bolts that fasten the end plates to one side of the caliper housing. Remove the end plates. 2. Loosen the bleeder screws to release the hydraulic pressure in the caliper. 3. Use a piece of wood against the linings as a pry bar to push the pistons completely into the housing. Tighten the bleeder screws. FIGURE 6 4. Remove the linings from the caliper housing. If necessary, discard the linings. CAUTION: Always replace both linings. If only one lining is replaced, possible disc damage can occur.

5. Install the linings in the caliper housing. 6. Apply Loctite #271 or equivalent to the threads of the bolts that fasten the end plates to the housing. 7. Put the end plates on the housing. Install and tighten the bolts to 170 Ibf.ft [230 Nom]. Make sure the linings move freely in the housing. 8. Remove the air from the brake system. See Bleeding the Brakes in this manual. 9. Apply and release the brakes three times to make sure the caliper operates correctly. Check for fluid leaks. Make sure the linings move freely in the housing.

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REMOVAL OF THE CALIPER 1. Disconnect the brake line from the inlet fitting. Put a plug in the brake line and the inlet fitting to prevent contamination of the system. 2. Remove the bolts that fasten the end plates to the caliper housing. Remove the end plates. Remove the brake linings from the caliper housing. 3. Remove the fasteners that hold the caliper housing on the mounting bracket. Remove the caliper housing from the mounting bracket. If shims are used between the housing and the bracket, mark the position of the shims. INSTALLATION OF THE CALIPER 1. If shims are used, put the shims in the position marked during removal. DISASSEMBLY OF THE CALIPER 2. Put the caliper housing on the mounting bracket. Install the fasteners that hold the caliper on the bracket. Tighten the fasteners to the torque specified by the equipment manufacturer. 3. Install the brake linings in the caliper housing. Apply Loctite #271 or equivalent to the threads of the bolts that fasten the end plates to the housing. 4. Put the end plates on the housing. Install and tighten the bolts to 170 Ibf.ft [230 N.m] . 5. Make sure the housing is installed correctly on the mounting bracket. The disc must be in the (;enter between the linings. The linings must move freely in the housing. FIGURE 7 6. Remove the plugs from the brake line and the inlet fitting. Connect the brake line to the inlet fitting. 7. Remove the air from the brake system. See Bleeding the Brakes in this manual. 8. Apply and release the brakes three times to make sure the caliper operates correctly. Check for fluid leaks. Make sure the linings move freely in the caliper. 1. Remove the inlet fitting and the "0" ring from the cylinder head. Drain the hydraulic fluid from the caliper. Discard the fluid. 2. Clean the outside of the housing with denatured alcohol. Dry the housing with compressed air or a clean cloth. 3. If installed, remove the bolts that hold the end plates on the housing. Remove the end plates and linings. 4. Remove the pistons from the side of the housing opposite the mounting plate according to the following procedure : A. Use a C-clamp to hold a 1/2 inch [50 mm] block of wood against the two pistons on the mounting side of the housing. Make sure the C-clamp is not in the area in front of the piston bore. FIGURE 8 WARNING: Do not put your hand in front of the pistons when you force out the pistons. Personal injury may occur.

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B. Apply compressed air to the inlet fitting to force the pistons out of the housing. If one piston comes out before the other piston, put a piece of wood in front of the piston that comes out first. Apply compressed lair to force the other piston out of the housing. FIGURE 9 C. Remove the wood block and the C-clamp from the housing. D. Remove the pistons from the bores that are opposite from the mounting plate.

8. Remove the dust covers from the housing. 9. Inspect the "0" rings and the backup rings in the housing for cuts and damage. Remove and discard the "0" rings and the backup rings. Inspect the ring grooves in the housing for scratches and rust. Remove small scratches and rust with emery cloth. Replace the housing if there are large scratches or large amounts of rust. FIGURE 12

5. Remove the two bleeder screws from the housing. 6. Put an open-end wrench on the two flat areas on top of the cylinder head. Remove the cylinder heads from the housing. Inspect the "0" ring on the cylinder head for cuts and damage. Remove and discard the "0" ring. FIGURE 10

10. Inspect the pistons and the bores for scratches and rust. Remove small scratches and rust with emery cloth. Replace the component if there are large scratches or large amounts of rust. 11. Measure the outer diameter of the piston. Replace the piston if the outer diameter is less than 2.995 inch [76,073 mm]. FIGURE 13

7. Remove the pistons from the mounting plate side of the housing. Push on the ends of the pistons to force them out of the disc side of the housing. FIGURE 11

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2. Install a new "0" ring and a new backup ring in the groove in the middle of the bore. The "0" ring is installed toward the outboard end of the bore. The backup ring is installed toward the lining side of the bore. 3. Install a new dust cover in the top groove of the bore. FIGURE 15 NOTE: The "0" rings, backup rings, dust covers, pistons, and bores must be lubricated with the hydraulic fluid used in the system before you can install the pistons.

12. Measure the inner diameter of the piston bore in the caliper housing. Replace the housing if the inner diameter of the bore is more than 3.003 inch [76,276 rnm]. FIGURE 14

4. Install the pistons in the housing. Push the pistons in from the lining side of the housing. Make sure the pistons are straight in the bores. Push each piston into the bore until the top of the piston is even with the top of the dust cover. FIGURES 16 AND 17

ASSEMBLY OF THE CALIPER CAUTION: Use only the specified components when you assemble the caliper. Do not mix components from other calipers. If you install the wrong components, the caliper will not operate correctly and may cause injury to the operator and damage to the equipment. 1. Use the hydraulic fluid that is used in the system and lubricate the following components: Pistons Bores Ring Grooves in Housing Dust Covers Backup Rings Housing "O" rings Cylinder Head "O" ringS

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the specified type of brake fluid and the specified fluid level, CAUTION: Use only the specified hydraulic fluid. The wrong fluid will damage the rubber parts in the caliper. 2. Put a clear tube on each bleeder screw. Submerge the other end of the tube in a clear container of the specified brake fluid. 3. Loosen the bleeder screw that is further from the master cylinder. 4. Slowly apply low hydraulic pressure to the caliper. Do not release pressure. Continue to apply pressure until bubbles do not appear in the container of brake fluid. Tighten the bottom bleeder screw and then tighten the top bleeder screw. Release the pressure to the caliper. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder. If necessary, fill to the specified level. See the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer.

5. Install a new "0" ring in the groove on the cylinder head. Make sure the "0" ring is not cut by the threads on the cylinder head. 6. Install the cylinder heads in the caliper housing. Tighten the cylinder heads to 75 Ibf.ft [100 N.m] as shown in Figure 18. 7. Install the bleeder screws in the housing. 8. Install the "0" ring and the inlet fitting in the cylinder head.

BLEEDING THE BRAKES You must bleed the brakes to remove air from the brake system when you remove and replace the caliper or the linings. If two calipers are used, first bleed the caliper that is further from the master cylinder. Bleed the brakes as follows: FIGURES 19 AND 20 1. Make sure that the fluid level in the master cylinder is at the specified level. If necessary, fill the master cylinder to the specified fluid level. See the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer for -41

NOTE: If an air/hydraulic or mechanical actuator system is used, pushing the pedal to the down position does not remove all the air from the system. Tighten the bleeder screw before returning the pedal to the up position so that air is not pulled back into the system. After the pedal is in the up position, loosen the bleeder screw and push the pedal down until air is removed from the system. Tighten the bleeder screw before releasing the pedal. 5. Loosen the bleeder screw that is closest to the master cylinder. 6. Slowly apply low hydraulic pressure to the caliper. Do not release pressure. Continue to apply pressure until bubbles do not appear in the container of brake fluid. Tighten the top bleeder Screw. Release the pressure to the caliper. 7. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder. If necessary, fill to the specified level. See the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer. 8. Apply and release the brakes three times to make sure the caliper operates correctly. Check for fluid leaks. Make sure the linings move freely in the caliper.

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DRIVE AXLE ASSEMBLY WITHOUT WHEEL BRAKES Item Description Quantity Item Description Quantity

OVERHAUL OF AXLE ASSEMBLY (Less Wheel Brakes) NOTE: Procedure for disassembly and reassembly of axles without brakes are the same as axles with dry disc brakes except where noted. If face seal retainer was replaced or removed from the spindle, apply a continuous coat of Loctite sealer #515 to the seal retainer area on the spindle. It is recommended the seal retainer be heated to 375F [190,6C] and pressed against shoulder on spindle. Press inner and outer bearing cups into position in wheel hub. Position inner bearing in bearing cup. Install face seal in seal retainer and in wheel hub per instruction on face seal installation on page 93. Refer to Figure 29 on page 30 for axle reassembly.

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DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY SERVICE (LIMITED SLIPI, NoSPIN AND STANDARD)

DESCRIPTION OF THE LIMITED SLIP HIGH TORQUE BIAS DIFFERENTIAL

The Clark-Hurth POSI TORQ limited slip differential is designed to prevent the severe loss of traction which occurs when one wheel encounters adverse tractive conditions such as slippery, wet, muddy conditions and the uneven terrain often encountered in off-road vehicle operations. This terrain can cause the vehicle to become immobile because of the spinning of one wheel. The Clark-Hurth POSI TORQ differential uses clutch plates (which may optionally be spring loaded) to inhibit spinning and send torque to the high-traction wheel. With the spring loaded POSI TORQ, the wheel with the best traction can have up to five (5) times the torque of the wheel with poor traction (5:1 bias ratio) at low torque levels. The use of clutches in the differential provides high torque bias while maintaining a smooth differential action. This eliminates the drive line shock inherent in locking type differentials.

FEATURES: .Increases traction in adverse driving conditions over a standard differential. .Reduces tire wear.

.Eliminates shock loadings caused by locking differentials.

.Improves steering over a locking differential.

.Directs torque away from a slipping wheel to the wheel with the most traction

.Provides Up to five (5) times the torque to the tractive wheel as to the slipping wheel at low torque levels.

.Uses a quiet four (4)-pinion gear differential with each pinion backed by a replaceable thrust washer to reduce maintenance costs

.Available in two (2) versions -without springs and with springs depending on application requirements .Available Oil many Clark-Hurth axle models.

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LIMITED SLIP DIFFERENTIAL General Description The limited slip differential is similar in construction to the torque proportioning or conventional differential. The difference is that the limited slip differential contains a set of discs, like those used in the Clark-Hurth transmission, which are mounted between the differential side gears and differential case. These discs limit the amount of "differential" according to the amount of torque transmitted through the differential assembly.* The purpose of the limited slip differential is to give better traction characteristics than a torque proportioning or conventional differential and to give better "differential action" when turning than the "nospin" differential. The result is a compromise which provides good traction and less tire wear. * Differential action is that function of a differential which allows the outside wheel to rotate faster than the inside wheel when turning a machine. Operation In the limited slip differential there is a set of internally splined discs and a set of externally splined discs behind each side gear. The internal discs are splined to the side gear and must rotate when the side gear rotates. The external discs are splined to the differential case and must rotate when the differential case rotates. The amount of torque transmitted through the differential assembly determines the force the side gears exert against the discs. When a small amount of torque is transmitted through the axle assembly, the side gears have little side thrust. When a high amount of torque is transmitted through the differential assembly, the side gears have a high side thrust and the discs are compressed together. When a machine is traveling straight, the side gears and the differential case are rotating at the same speed and there is no slipping action between the discs When a machine is turning, the side gears must rotate at a different speed than the differential case. The discs must slip. The amount the discs slip is controlled by the pressure exerted by the side gear and the degree the machine is turned. If the torque transmitted through the axle is low, the discs are free to slip easily and "differential action" takes place easily. When the torque transmitted through the axle is high, the discs are compressed together by the force of the side gears and the "differential action" will not take place as easily. As the discs wear through normal use, the side gears move farther outward. The limited slip differential is self adjusting or self-compensating for wear -the torque proportioning axle is not.

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Lubrication and Service The limited slip differential uses the same type of lubricant recommended for torque proportioning or conventional axles and the service interval is the same. For proper lubrication of the discs the oil level in the axle housing had to be raised to the center line of the housing. Any axle that comes from the factory equipped with the limited slip differential will have an oil level plug properly located in the center line of the housing. It is extremely important that the oil level be kept at the level plug. If the oil level becomes too low the discs will not receive sufficient lubrication and will wear rapidly.

Disc Replacement in the Limited Slip Differential Disc replacement time is determined by the amount of material collected on the magnetic drain plug. When the oil level is checked, examine the drain plug for metal particles. A considerable increase in the amount of metal particles found on the magnetic drain pug indicates the necessity for replacing the discs. Disassembly and Assembly of the Differential Unit The limited slip differential unit is disassembled and assembled like the conventional or torque proportioning differential unit. The only difference being the removal and installation of the discs. Note the position of the internally and externally splined discs when disassembling and replace the discs in the same position. -49

NoSPiN differentials are ideal for vehicles that operate off-road, In bad weather, or under other adverse traction conditions. PRIME FUNCTIONS .Assures "maximum traction" at all time.. .Automatically permIts wheel speed differentiation when vehicle turns or operates on uneven surfaces. OPERA TION When a vehicle equipped with a NoSPIN differential is operated in forward or reverse over a smooth surface, the NoSPIN remains locked Both wheels thus turn at the same speed. If one wheel loses traction or leaves the ground, the opposite wheel, which still has traction, continues to drive the vehicle until traction is regained by both wheels There can be no one-wheel spinout when using NoSPIN differentials (Fig 1)

MAINTENANCE Lubrication The NoSPIN differential is designed to operate in those lubricants recommended by the vehicle/axle manufacturer. No special lubricant is needed For certain cold weather applications, use the lightest oil the axle manufacturer will allow. Routine Inspection Follow the recommended lubrication, preventative maintenance and inspection procedures of the vehicle/axle manufacturer as part of NoSPIN differential preventative maintenance. Maintenance, inspection and lubrication requirements of NoSPIN differential equipped vehicles are the same as for vehicles with conventional differentials Adjustments No adjustments or alterations should be made to the NoSPIN differential

VEHICLE PERFORMANCE The performance of a vehicle equipped with a NoSPIN differential will differ from that of a vehicle equipped with a conventional differential For example When turning a corner, the sound of gear disengagement and reengagement may be audible, and the transfer of driving torque from both wheels to one wheel may be noticeable When going from drive (acceleration) to coast (deceleration) in a turn, a "metallic" sound may be heard as torque flow is reversed (inside wheel engaged during acceleration; outside wheel engaged during deceleration). These characteristics are normal because of backlash designed into the NoSPIN differential When negotiating a turn under conditions of poor traction, the inside wheel may receive excessive torque which will cause it to break traction This will cause the inside wheel to slip until the turn is completed or until the inside wheel catches up with the outside wheel When the vehicle turns a corner, or when one wheel passes over an obstruction, the outside wheel, or the wheel passing over the obstruction, must travel a greater distance and therefore faster than the other wheel When this occurs, the NoSPIN differential automatically allows for the necessary difference in wheel speed. (Fig 2)

CAUTION Operator Turn the engine off and raise all driving wheels of a NoSPIN differential equipped axle when changing tires to prevent the vehicle from moving Axles equipped with NoSPIN differentials deliver power to both wheels-even when only one wheel IS on the ground Do not operate the vehicle If both wheels of a NoSPIN differential equipped axle are not driving Power to only one wheel can cause serious steering problems Distribute the load evenly slde-to-slde do not exceed the vehicles rated payload capacity keep the diameter of the tires equal Failure to observe these measures can create a difference in Individual wheel speeds which can cause the NoSPIN differential to deliver power to only one side of the vehicle and thus cause steering problems Operate In low gear when coasting downhill Into a turn Braking capacity IS reduced when a NoSPIN differential equipped vehicle makes a turn while coasting downhill Mechanic NoSPIN differentials have compressed springs Use a retaining bolt or some other restraining means when separating the differential case halves

A comprehensive NoSPIN differential operation and maintenance manual is available at a nominal charge. Contact service publications for Information as to how to order.

.NoSPIN

'S a registered trademark at Tractech Inc

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DIFFERENTIAL AND CARRIER ASSEMBLY LIMITED SLIP Item Description Quantity Item Description Quantity

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DIFFERENTIAL AND CARRIER ASSEMBLY STANDARD AND NoSPIN Item Description Quantity Item Description Quantity

1850 DIFFERENTIAL AND CARRIER ASSEMBL Y

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Posi- Torq Limited Slip Differential

Performance Ranges POSI TORQ performs in a range dependent upon the size and design variation of the differential. The inclusion of springs creates pressure on the clutch plates that can increase the tractive effort of the high traction wheel to as much as five (5) times over the wheel with the poor traction. As operating conditions improve and the torque level in the axle increases, the effect of the springs diminishes and the bias ratio declines. In a POSI TORQ without springs the clutch friction is proportional to axle torque, so bias ratio is constant over the axle torque range. A bias of between 2 2.75 can be achieved in a POSI TORQ without springs.

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1850 POSI TORQ

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MULTI-DISC LlQUID COOLED BRAKE ASSEMBLY

Item

Description

Quantity

Item

Description

Quantity

LIQUID COOLED BRAKE LUBRICATION The self contained liquid cooled brake system uses the same lube as the axle center section and wheel ends. There are no seals between the spindles and wheel hubs. Oil that lubricates the differential and planetary wheel ends also lubricates and cools the brake assembly. The oil level is the same height as the planet and axle center and the brake may be filled and oil level checked at the planet carrier assembly or planet carrier cover. Brake oil changes would be accomplished at the same time the axle lube is changed. Contaminates resulting from braking will not affect axle within normal oil change periods. NOTE: FOR FORCED COOLING, CONTACT CLARK-HURTH AXLE ENGINEERING.

LIQUID COOLED BRAKE TESTING PROCEDURE 1. Connect a porto-power unit to brake line inlet. 2. Pump porto-power up to about 500 P.S.I. [3447,4 kPa] and bleed brake. After all air is out of brake, pump porto-power up to 1000 P.S.I, [6894,8 kPa] and lock off. The gauge will show about 100 P.S.I. [689,5 kPa] drop. At this point the gauge should hold. After three (3) to five (5) mirnutes unlock gauge, let pressure bleed off so the gauge shows zero, then pump porto-power up to about 100 P.S.I. [689,5 kPa]. Lock off porto-power. Gauge should hold at 100 P.S.I. [689,5 kPa]. Let stand for about five minutes. If pressure holds, the brake does not leak. If there is a drop in pressure on the gauge the brake is leaking and will require a complete disassembly to replace the piston inner and/or outer sealing ring. 3. After making a satisfactory test, relieve pressure on the porto-power and remove. Reinstall brake line arnd bleed brakes in a normal manner.

FACE SEAL BREAK-IN PERIOD

WHEN MACHINE IS IMMEDIATELY DRIVEN FROM PRODUCTION FLOOR OR AFTER FACE SEAL HAS BEEN REBUILT OR REPLACED, IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT A 15 MINUTE BREAK-IN PERIOD BE CONDUCTED AT NOT MORE THAN 25 RPM WHEEL SPEED, WHICH IS 5 MPH MAX. AND IN 1ST GEAR OPERATION ONLY. THIS IS TO ALLOW THE SEAL RUBBERS AND METAL RINGS TO PROPERLY SEAT.

RECOMMENDED LIQUID COOLED BRAKE COOLING OILS

IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT AXLES WITH EXTERNAL COOLED LIQUID COOLED BRAKES (LCB) USE "TRACTOR HYDRAULIC FLUIDS" MEETING ALLISON C4 DESIGNATION FOR COOLING OIL. THIS FLUID HAS E.P. ADDITIVE FOR IMPROVED FACE SEAL LIFE AND FRICTION MODIFIERS FOR HIGH TORQUE AND QUIET BRAKE OPERATION.

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SEAL REBUILDING INSTRUCTIONS FOR SPLIT SEAL INSTALLATION


1. The rebuilding kit includes two (2) rubber rings (see Figure 1) and two (2) lint free wiping cloths. Both of the rubber rings must have barbs as shown in the drawing.

NOTE: In rebuilding the seal do not intermix metal sealing rings. Keep original mated metal sealing rings as a set (see Figure 2). 2. Before rebuilding the seal inspect the two metal sealing rings in the following manner to determine if it is acceptable for rebuilding. (a) The .sealing band must be within the outer half of the sealing face (see Figures 3 and 4). The sealing band is a narrow highly polished band on the sealing face.

Seal acceptable for rebuilding

Sealing band not within outer half of sealing face. Seal not acceptable for rebuilding.

(b) The sealing band must be uniform in width and must be concentric with the I.D. and O.D. of the sealing face (see Figure 5). If the metal sealing rings do not meet the proper specifications, do not rebuild the seal-use a completely new seal.

3. The metal sealing rings must be cleaned as follows: (a) Remove any foreign material from the back of the metal sealing rings with a scraper or wire brush (see Figure 6). (b) Clean the metal sealing rings with a clear! degreasing solvent then wipe with the lint free wiping cloths furnished in the rebuilding kit (see Figure 6). 4. Assemble the rubber rings to the metal sealing rings. Be sure the rubber rings are completely seated against the back of sealing faces (see Figure 7). 5. Apply a thin film of light oiI to one of the sealing faces, being careful not to wet other surfaces with oil (see Figure 7). Cleanliness is critical when handling these seals. 6. See page 93 for face sea I installation instructions, and page 104 for Duo-Cone installation instructions. -92

FACE SEAL INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

1, Examine the seal carefully and note its four basic parts. It has two rubber members and two lapped metal sealing rings. On new face seals a clear plastic retainer band is optional and is used only to hold the seals together. Discard plastic band. Note that both rubber members have barbs at the O.D. The barbs are there to hold the seal halves concentrically in their bores while you are making the assembly; that is their only function. It is possible to push a rubber member off of the neck of the metal sealing ring. Do not install the seal while it is in this condition-the rubber member will not go back on the neck of the metal sealing ring by itself. Before installing the seal, you must push the rubber member back on the neck of the metal sealing ring. When installing the seal you must hold it so that you will not dislodge the rubber members from the metal sealing rings.

2. The seal is intended to be held in its operating position by two counterbores. One (1) of these bores will be in the wheel hub (a rotating member) and the other bore will be stationary (in the liquid cooled brake housing.) The function of this seal is to prevent dirt from entering the axle end or axle lube from leaking. 3. An important point to note is that there must be no oil or dirt on the bores, rubber members, or any area of the casting except the lapped face as explained below. Any oil or dirt in these areas must be removed with a clean degreasing solvent. (A new seal is packaged and shipped clean of oil and dirt, and need not be re-cleaned unless it has become contaminated.) 4. Seals for split seal assembly may be shipped with their lapped sealing faces (interface) lightly pre-Iubed for installation under clean environmental conditions. If the seal has not been pre-Iubed or has become contaminated, the lapped face must be wiped clean and a few drops of light oil applied as a pre-Iube. 5. Seal installation. (a) Remove oil and dirt from the seal bores using a clean degreasing solvent. (b) If the seal was shipped with a clear plastic retainer band, remove retainer band. (c) Install one-half of the seal all the way into one bore, being careful not to get oil or dirt on the O.D. of the rubber member or dislodge it from its metal sealing ring. (See drawing installation, Step 1.) Repeat the other half of the seal assembly into the other bore. Note that the barbs hold the seal halves concentrically in the bores. (d) Follow pre-Iube note in Step 4. (8) When the installation is complete (wheel hub to brake), rotate the wheel hub 3 complete revolutions to seat the seal faces.

-93

SPIRAL BEVEL AND HYPOID TOOTH BEARING CONT ACT CHART

ALL CONTACT BEARINGS SHOWN BELOW ARE ON LEFT HAND SPIRAL RING GEAR THE DRIVE IS ON THE CONVEX SIDE OF THE TOOTH,

FIG. 1 TYPICAL PREFERRED BEARING ON BOTH SIDES OF TOOTH WHILE UNDER A LIGHT LOAD

FIG. 2 TOE BEARIING ON BOTH SIDES OF TOOTH -GEAR SET NOISY. TO MOVE BEARING TOWARD HEEL INCREASE BACKLASH WITHIN LIMITS BY MOVING GEAR AWAY FROM PINION.

FIG. 3 HEEL BEARING ON BOTH SIDES OF TOOTH -GEARSET NOISY AND COULD RESULT IN EARLY GEAR FAILURE. TO MOVE BEARING TOWARD TOE DECREASE BACKLASH WITHIN LIMITS BY MOVING GEAR TOWARD PINION,

FIG. 4 LOW BEARING ON GEAR AND HIGH BEARING ON PINION. CORRECT BY PULLING PINION AWAY FROM GEAR (INCREASE MOUNTING DIST ANCE,

FIG. 5 HIGH BEARING ON GEAR AND LOW BEARING ON PINION, CORRECT BY MOVING PINION IN TOWARD GEAR (DECREASE MOUNTING DIST ANCE,

BACKLASH

BACKLASH SHOULD BE MEASU RED WITH A DIAL INDI CA TOR RIGIDL Y MOUNTED WITH THE STEM PERPENDICU LAR TO THE TOOTH SURFACE )AT THE EXTREME HEEL.

-94

SPIRAL BEVEL AND HYPOID TOOTH BEARING CONTACT CHART

ALL CONTACT BEARINGS SHOWN BELOW ARE ON RIGHT HAND SPIRA RING GEAR -THE DRIVE IS ON THE CONVEX SIDE OF THE TOOTH.

FIG. 1 TYPICAL PREFERRED BEARING ON BOTH SIDES OF TOOTH WHILE UNDER A LIGHT LOAD

FIG. 2 TOE BEARING ON BOTH SIDES OF TOOTH -GEAR SET NOISY. TO MOVE BEARING TOWARD HEEL INCREASE BACKLASH WITHIN LIMITS BY MOVING GEAR AWAY FROM PINION.

FIG. 3 HEEL BEARING ON BOTH SIDES OF TOOTH -GEARSET NOISY AND COULD RESULT IN EARLY GEAR FAILURE. TO MOVE BEARING TOWARD TOE DECREASE BACKLASH WITHIN LIMITS BY MOVING GEAR TOWARD PINION,

FIG. 4 LOW BEARING ON GEAR AND HIGH BEARING ON PINION. CORRECT BY PULLING PINION AWAY FROM GEAR (INCREASE MOUNTING DIST ANCI.

FIG. 5 HIGH BEARING ON GEAR AND LOW BEARING ON PINION. CORRECT BY MOVING PINION IN TOWARD GEAR (DECREASE MOUNTING DISTANCE. BACKLASH

BACKLASH SHOULD BE MEASURED WITH A DIAL INDICATOR RIGIDLY MOUNTED WITH THE STEM PERPENDICU LAR TO THE TOOTH SURFACE AT THE EXTREME HEEL.

-95

CLARK RECOMMENDED WHEEL MOUNTING TORQUE

PROPER TIGHTENING PROCEDURE

-96

TORQUE FOR BOLTS, CAPSCREWS, STUDS AND NUTS

APPROVED BY AXLE ENGINEERING REVISED 24 MARCH 1980

-97

AXLE SERIES 19D2641 DRIVE AXLE WHEEL BEARING ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE (SingIe Wheel Bearing Adjusting Nut and Lock Plate) 1. Before wheel bearing adjustment is made, it is imperative all tapered bearing cones and cups be pressed to fully seated position. DO NOT depend on the wheel bearing adjusting nut to "shoulder" tapered bearing cups and cones. NOTE: If the wheel bearing adjusting nut has an undercut on the inner diameter, the undercut must go toward the internal gear hub. On axles with LCB brakes, release pressure before continuing (any brake drag will affect obtaining correct rolling torque value). 2. Coat inner face of nut, spindle threads, and spindle splines with brush-applied lubricant (Anti-Seize or Never-Seez). 3. Install spindle nut and tighten to 800 Ibf.ft [1085 N.m] torque. Shock internal gear hub with heavy bar while rotating wheel hub two (2) to three (3) times. Recheck nut torque-if nut moves, retorque to 800 Ibf.ft [1085 N.m] and repeat shocking and tightening as many times as necessary until 800 Ibtft [1085 Nom] does not advance nut. Loosen nut 1/4 to 1/2 turn and shock the wheel hub until a slight bearing end play is achieved and the wheel hub can rotate freely. 4. Using a torque wrench adaptor bar or other appropriate measuring device, determine the rolling torque of the wheel end with the bearings in a no-load end play condition. Due to part imbalance, there will be a variation in rolling torque as the wheel hub is rotated. Record maximum value of rolling torque throughout a revolution. This value will be the "no-load rolling torque" (LCB up to 200 Ibf.ft [271 N.m], others 25 to 100 Ibf.ft [34-135 N.m]). 5. For field service torque nut to 400 Ibf.ft [542 N.m]. Shock internal gear hub with heavy bar while rotating wheel hub two (2) to three (3) times while shocking the wheel. Re-check nut torque-if nut moves, re-torque to 400 Ibf.ft [542 N.m] and repeat shocking and tightening as many times as necessary until 400 Ibtft [542 N.m] does not advance nut. Then advance nut until three (3) holes in lock plate line up with tapped holes in internal gear hub. 6. Check rolling torque-must be in the specified range as shown on adjustment chart over no-load rolling torque. 7. If over the maximum preload, reduce nut torque as required to obtain the specified range but not less than 300 Ibf.ft [406 N.m] on nut. 8. If under the minimum preload, increase nut torque until preload is in the specified rolling torque range with lock plate holes aligned, but not more than 900 Ibf.ft [1220 N.m] after rotating the wheel hub five (5) or more times. 9. * Install lock plate and screws, tighten screws 20 to 25 Ibf.ft [27-33 N.m]. See page 101.

*NOTE: LOCK PLATE SCREWS ARE OF A SELF-LOCKING TYPE (ORANGE) LOCKING COMPOUND ON THREADS. USE ONL Y ONE TIME, THEN REPLACE OR THOROUGHL Y CLEAN USED SCREWS AND APPL Y EITHER LOCTITE 262 (HI STRENGTH) OR LOCTITE 242 (MEDIUM STRENGTH). INTERNAL GEAR HUB THREADS MUST ALSO BE CLEANED WHEN REPLACING SCREWS.

-98

AXLE SERIES 19D2748 -D-37770 DRIVE AXLE WHEEL BEARING ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE (Single Wheel Bearing Adjusting Nut and Lock Plate) 1. Before wheel bearing adjustment is made, it is imperative all tapered bearing cones and cups be pressed to fully seated position. DO NOT depend on the wheel bearing adjusting nut to "shoulder" tapered bearing cups and cones. NOTE: If the wheel bearing adjusting nut has an undercut on the inner diameter, the undercut must go toward the internal gear hub. On axles with LCB brakes, release pressure before continuing (any brake drag will affect obtaining correct rolling torque value). 2. Coat inner face of nut, spindle threads, and spindle splines with brush-applied lubricant (Anti-Seize or Never-Seez).

3. Install spindle nut and tighten to 1000 Ibf.ft [1356 N.m] torque. Shock internal gear hub with heavy bar while rotating wheel hub two (2) to three (3) times. Recheck nut torque-if nut moves, retorque to 1000 Ibf.ft [1356 N.m] and repeat shocking and tightening as many times as necessary until1000 Ibf.ft [1356 N.m] does not advance nut. Loosen nut 1/4 to 1/2 turn and shock the wheel hub until a slight bearing end play is achieved and the wheel hub can rotate freely. 4. Using a torque wrench adaptor bar or other appropriate measuring device, determine the rolling torque of the wheel end with the bearings in a no-load end play condition. Due to part imbalance, there will be a variation in rolling torque as the wheel hub is rotated. Record maximum value of rolling torque throughout a revolution. This value will be the "no-load rolling torque" (LCB up to 200 Ibf.ft [271 N.m], others 25 to 100 Ibf.ft [34-135 N.m]). 5. For field service torque nut to 400 Ibf.ft [542 N.m]. Shock internal gear hub with heavy bar while rotating wheel hub two (2) to three (3) times while shocking the wheel. Re-check nut torque-if nut moves, re-torque to 400 Ibf.ft [542 N.m] and repeat shocking and tightening as many times as necessary until 400 Ibf-ft [542 N"m] does not advance nut. Then advance nut until three (3) holes in lock plate line up with tapped holes in internal gear hub. 6. Check rolling torque-must be in the specified range as shown on adjustment chart over no-load rolling torque. 7. If over the maximum preload, reduce nut torque as required to obtain the specified range but not less than 300 Ibf.ft [406 N.m] on nut. 8. If under the minimum preload, increase nut torque until preload is in the specified rolling torque range with lock plate holes aligned, but not more than 900 Ibf.ft [1220 N.m] after rotating the wheel hub five (5) or more times. 9. * Install lock plate and screws, tighten screws 35 to 40 Ibf.ft [47-54 N.m]. See page 101.

"NOTE: LOCK PLATE SCREWS ARE OF A SELF-LOCKING TYPE (ORANGE) LOCKING COMPOUND ON THREADS. USE ONL Y ONE TIME, THEN REPLACE OR THOROUGHL Y CLEAN USED SCREWS AND APPL y EITHER LOCTITE 262 (HI STRENGTH) OR LOCTITE 242 (MEDIUM STRENGTH). INTERNAL GEAR HUB THREADS MUST ALSO BE CLEANED WHEN REPLACING SCREWS.

-99

AXLE SERIES 19D3747 .19D3960 .19D4049 .19D4354 DRIVE AXLE WHEEL BEARING ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE (Single Wheel Bearing Adjusting Nut and Lock Plate) 1. Before wheel bearing adjustment is made, it is imperative all tapered bearing cones and cups be pressed to fully seated position. DO NOT depend on the wheel bearing adjusting nut to "shoulder" tapered bearing cups and cones. NOTE: If the wheel bearing adjusting nut has an undercut on the inner diameter, the undercut must go toward the internal gear hub. On axles with LCB brakes, release pressure before continuing (any brake drag will affect obtaining correct rolling torque value). 2. Coat inner face of nut, spindle threads, and spindle splines with brush-applied lubricant (Anti-Seize or Never-Seez). 3. Install spindle nut and tighten to 1200 Ibf.ft [1627 N.m] torque. Shock internal gear hub with heavy bar while rotating wheel hub two (2) to three (3) times. Recheck nut torque-if nut moves, retorque to 1200 Ibf.ft [1627 N.m] and repeat shocking and tightening as many times as necessary until 1200 Ibf'ft [1627 N.m] does not advance nut. Loosen nut 1/4 to 1/2 turn and shock the wheel hub until a slight bearing end play is achieved and the wheel hub can rotate freely. 4. Using a torque wrench adaptor bar or other appropriate measuring device, determine the rolling torque of the wheel end with the bearings in a no-load end play condition. Due to part imbalance, there will be a variation in rolling torque as the wheel hub is rotated. Record maximum value of rolling torque throughout a revolution. This value will be the "no-load rolling torque" (LCB up to 200 Ibf.ft [271 N.m], others 25 to 100 Ibf.ft [34-135 N.m]). 5. For field service torque nut to 600 Ibf.ft [814 N.m]. Shock internal gear hub with heavy bar while rotating wheel hub two (2) to three (3) times while shocking the wheel. Re-check nut torque-if nut moves, re-torque to 600 Ibf.ft [814 N.m] and repeat shocking and tightening as many times as necessary until 600 Ibf-ft [814 N.m] does not advance nut. Then advance nut until three (3) holes in lock plate line up with tapped holes in internal gear hub. 6. Check rolling torque-must be in the specified range as shown on adjustment chart over no-load rolling torque. 7. If over the maximum preload, reduce nut torque as required to obtain the specified range but not less than 400 Ibf.ft [542 N.m] on nut. 8. If under the minimum preload, increase nut torque until preload is in the specified rolling torque range with lock plate holes aligned, but not more than 1400 Ibf.ft [1898 N.m] after rotating the wheel hub five (5) or more times. 9.* Install lock plate and screws, tighten screws 35 to 40 Ibf.ft [47-54 N.m]. See page 101.

*NOTE: LOCK PLATE SCREWS ARE OF A SELF-LOCKING TYPE (ORANGE) LOCKING COMPOUND ON THREADS. USE ONL Y ONE TIME, THEN REPLACE OR THOROUGHL Y CLEAN USED SCREWS AND APPL Y EITHER LOCTITE 262 (HI STRENGTH) OR LOCTITE 242 (MEDIUM STRENGTH). INTERNAL GEAR HUB THREADS MUST ALSO BE CLEANED WHEN REPLACING SCREWS.

-100

-101

AIR CHECKING THE AXLE WHEEL ENDS AND CENTER SECTION

It is recommended an air check be made on each wheel end after assembly. This checking device is comprised of a minimum 30 P.S.I [206 kPa] air gauge, an air shut-off valve, an air regulator valve, pipe tee, pipe nipple, reducing bushing and air line connector. The oil level plug is removed from the planet cover and the checking device is installed in its place. Remove the breather in the axle center and install a pipe plug in the breather hole. The regulator is opened to 12 P.S.I. [82 kPa] on the gauge. The air shut-off (installed between the regulator and gauge) is then closed. A 12 P.S.I. [82 kPa] pressure must be retained for 15 seconds. If there is a pressure drop in less than 15 seconds there is an air leak at the wheel hub oil seal. If an air leak is detected it will require a wheel end disassembly to correct the leak. Make both wheel end air checks and the following center section air checks before disassembling any of the axle to correct an air leak. Air check the axle center section the same way as the wheel ends except the checking device is installed in the air breather hole in the axle center. If an air leak is detected, locate leak and correct. After air check is made, reinstall air breather in axle center.

-102

CLEANING AND INSPECTION


CLEANING Clean all parts thoroughly using solvent type cleaning fluid. It is recommended that parts be immersed in cleaning fluid and moved up and down slowly until all old lubricant and foreign material is dissolved and parts are thoroughly cleaned. CAUTION Care should be exercised to avoid skin rashes, fire hazards and inhalation of vapors when using solvent type cleaners. BEARINGS Remove bearings from cleaning fluid and strike larger side of cone flat against a block of wood to dislodge solidified particles of lubricant. Immerse again in cleaning fluid to flush out particles. Repeat above operation until bearings are thoroughly clean. Dry bearings using moisturefree compressed air. Be careful to direct air stream across bearing to avoid spinning. Do not spin bearings when drying. Bearings may be rotated slowly by hand to facilitate drying process. HOUSINGS Clean interior and exterior of housings, bearirng caps, etc., thoroughly. Cast parts may be cleaned in hot solution tanks with mild alkali solutions, providing these parts do not have ground or polished surfaces. Parts should remain in solution long enough to be thoroughly cleaned and heated. This will aid the evaporation of the cleaning solution and rinse water. Parts cleaned in solution tanks rmust be thoroughly rinsed with clean water to remove all traces of alkali. Cast parts may also be cleaned with steam cleaner. CAUTION Care should be exercised to avoid skin rashes and inhalation of vapors when using alkali cleaners. Thoroughly dry all parts cleaned immediately by using moisturefree compressed air or soft lintless absorbent wiping rags free of abrasive materials such as metal filings, contaminated oil or laping compound. INSPECTION The importance of careful and thorough inspection of all parts cannot be overstressed. Replacement of a11 parts showing indication of wear or stress will eliminate costly and avoidable failures at a later date. BEARINGS Carefully inspect all rollers, cages, and cups for wear, chipping or nicks to determine fitness of bearings fcr further use. Do not replace a bearing cone or cup individually without replacing the mating cup or cone at the same time. After inspection, dip bearings in clean light oil and wrap in clean lintless cloth or paper to protect them until installed. OIL SEALS, GASKETS, AND RETAINING RINGS Replacement of spring loaded oil seals, gaskets, and snap rings is more economical when unit is disassembled than to risk premature overhaul to replace these parts at a future time. Loss of lubricant through a worn seal may result in failure of other more expensive parts of the assembly. Sealing members should be handled carefully, particularly when being installed. Cutting, scratching, or curling under lip of seal seriously impairs its efficiency. At reassembly, lubricate lips of oil seals with Lubriplate. GEARS AND SHAFTS If magna-flux process is available, use process to check parts. Examine teeth and ground and polished surfaces on all gears and shafts carefully for wear, pitting, chipping, nicks, cracks, or scores. If gear teeth are cracked or show spots where case hardening is worn through, replace with new gear. Small nicks may be removed with suitable hone. Inspect shafts to make certain they are not sprung, bent, or splines twisted, and that shafts are true. Differential pinions and side gears must be replaced as sets. Differential ring gear and bevel pinion must also be replaced as a set if either is damaged. HOUSING AND COVERS Inspect housing, covers, planet spider, and differential case to be certain they are thoroughly cleaned and that mating surfaces, bearing bores, etc., are free from nicks or burrs. Check all parts carefully for evidence of cracks or conditions which cause subsequent oil leaks or failures.

REASSEMBL Y OF AXLE The reassembly instructions describe the procedure to be followed when reassembling and installing components of axle. Instructions cover reassembly of only one side of axle. Reassembly of opposite side is identical unless otherwise noted. IMPORTANT: Both Grade 5 and Grade 8 fastening hardware have been used in the production of the axle assemblies covered in this manual. A table of proper torque values for both Grade 5 and Grade 8 hardware is provided at the rear of this manual. Grade of hardware may be determined by the "hash" marks contained on the head of each bolt; Grade 5 having three hash marks and Grade 8 having six hash marks as indicated on table of proper torque value page. Torque values specified in text of this manual are for Grade 8 hardware where presently used in production. Grade 5 torque values are also specified when that grade hardware is presently used. On all axles being overhauled, bolts should be identified as described above and torque value chart consulted for correct torque. At reassembly apply thread locking compound where noted. Guidelines for application where to apply: A. On bolts, capscrews, and studs (anchor end) apply compound on female threaded component part. B. On nuts, apply compound to the male thread of the mating fastener . C. Apply compound to coat the full length and circumference of thread engagement. D. Remove excess compound from mating parts after fastener installation.

-103

CORRECT ASSEMBL Y OF DUO-CONE SEALS STEP -2 REMOVE ANY OILY FILM FROM HOUSING AND SEAL RING RAMP, AND FROM THE TORIC Both ramps must be dry. Under no circumstances should oil from adjacent bearing installations or seal ring face lubrication get on the ramp or toric-UNTIL AFTER BOTH SEAL RINGS ARE TOGETHER IN THEIR FINAL ASSEMBLED POSITION.

THERE ARE FIVE FAILURE MODES 1. Oil Leakage 2. Galling 3. Pumping Mud Past The Toric 4. Toric Failure 5. Seal Ring Breakage Failures are caused by combinations of factors rather than one single cause, but all have one common denominator contributing to failure ASSEMBLY ERROR.

-104

STEP -5
STEP -6

WIPE SEAL FACES No foreign particles should be on the seal ring faces. Something as small as a PAPER TOWEL RAVELING will hold the seal faces apart and cause leakage. APPLY a thin film of clean oil on the seal faces by using an applicator, disposable tissue, or a clean finger. STEP -7 FINALLY! Assemble both housings and seal rings together. MAKE SURE THEY ARE SQUARE AND CONCENTRIC. Bring seals together slowly and carefully. Slamminq can damaqe or break seal on impact. Make any required adjustments with installment tool DO NOT PUSH DIRECTLY ON THE SEAL RING.

BEFORE ASSEMBLING BOTH SEALS AND HOUSING TOGETHER... WAIT-at least two minutes to let all TriChloroethane evaporate (some may still be trapped between toric and housing ramp).

1. A wet spot between housing and ramp can cause sliding and cock the seal. 2. Cocked seals cause uneven pressure on the seal face and it can cause the seal to wobble. 3. Uneven pressure causes leakage or scoring. 4. Wobbling seals can cause dirt entry problems in the field.

-105

RESULTS OF INCORRECT ASSEMBLY

Points "A" and "8" remain stationary. Points "X" and "Y" rotate 180. This causes high pressure at "A" and "Y" and possible galling.

-106