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SECTION 203

t COMBINATIONS OF LOADS

C

H A PTE R

2 · -

f v l l 1l 1 l " i l l . lI! l

O . 9D + I.6W+I. 6H

O . 9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

.)

t:

c . • • )

(2 0 3- 6 )

1 20J.1 General

i 1 po r t ion s

~ .

c

\\ here r e quired

'

o mbinauun s

pL ' c i a l

~ e i "lli c

B uildin g» , to w e rs

thereof

and

s hall

other

h e

in

ve rt ical s tr uc tures

de s i g n e d

S e cti o n 2 () X .

or

to

20 3.3

re s i s t

o r

C hapter

of Se cti o n

and

the

s pecified

20 3 .4 -t and

2 03.5 .

b y Section

l o ad combination s

all

load

and .

th e

Th e mo s ( nit icul effect can oc c ur

11lL 'L'u ntributing

s

in . ucordancc

w

h e n

one

All applicable

or more

o l

loads

arc not actin g .

including

loads

and wind,

hall hr c onsidered.

both earthquake lo a d combin.uions.

with the specified

w h e re :

.Ii

= 1 . 0 for flo o r s

l

o ad s

in ex ce ss

= 0 . 5 for oth e r

in places

of public

a s x c mbly .

o f 4.X kP a.

a nd f o r g ara g e

live l o ad s

fpr li v e live l o a d

Ex ce ption :

Factored load combinatio ns for stru c tural concret e p e r Se c tion 409.3.

203.J.2 Other Loads

Wh e re

s

hall

P is to be convidcr c d

be added

t() Section

20 . \

in d es ign.

the appllcahk

.

.\ . I f:ll'lmet!

as 1.:'/'.

IO:ld

1

!

I

1

I

203.2 Symbols and Notations

f)

= d e ad load

F

= ea rthquake

load

s et forth

in Se c tion

r".

::: l "tilllated

ma x imum

e a rthquake

d

e v e loped

in the

s tructur e

a s set

21UA Load Cornhinations

lsing

AI"I\\ able Stn'ss

2 0X.5.1.1

 

Design

force

that

can

he

203.4.1

Basil' Load Com hi nations

forth

in Se c tion

 

2 0 X. 5 . 1.

I

l

loa d

du e

to fluid s

w ith w e ll - d e fin e d

 

pr e s s ure s

a nd

max i m um

h e ig ht s

/I

Illa d ,o i I

d u e

t o l a t e r a l

pr ess ur e

o f

s oi l

a nd

w at er

i n

I .

:= II\ L '

l oad.

e x c e p t

r oo f

l ive

l oad .

i n c lud i n g

an y

pe rm it t e d

= pondin g

l i v e lo ad

r ed uc ti on

 

l.,

= r o o t " live

l o ad .

includin g

a n y p e rmitted

li ve

l oa d

l '

rc d uc t ion

load

I<

::: ra in I O: ld on the uud c ll cc t c d

r o of

l

= 'l' lf -. ' training

torc c

and

e fkci s

ari s ing

from

c

untrn c t

ion

or

expan s i o n

 

re s ulting

from

i

c mpcr.uurc

changL'.

s hrinka g e.

moisture

change.

CI\'CP In component

material s .

movement

due

to

di lfcrcntiul

settlement.

or combinations

thereof

II'

= Illad due to wind

pressure

 

Wh e r e

a llow able

s (rL ' S S d e S i g n

(\I ' o r kin g

, 11 \ ' "

d L " l g n

i

I '

u

se d ,

s tru c tur e s

and

a ll

po ru o u - .

thcr

co l

, h a ll

r c s l ~ 1

th l '

i110 s t

c ri tica l

efkc h

n : s u lti n g

l ro ru

til~'

fo ll ow in g

 

co

mhin ati o n - ,

of load s:

 

() + F

I : ,0 3 - X )

f) + H + F + I . + t

) + H + F + (1'1011<)

f

[) + H + F +0 .7 5['- + T + (i 'I or R)j

(

/) + 1/ + r + I I V o r

\

f .

1 . -1 1

\

I

(2 0 3 - l J)

(

20 3- 10 )

(20 3 - 1 I )

No increase

in allowable

stres s es

shall

h.: usc'd \11th

IhL"L'

load combinations

except

as s pecifically

pcrmiucd

hI

S e ction 2mA.2.

20J.J l . nad Combinations using Strength Design or Load and Resistance Factor Design

211 . ' . 3.1 Basic Load Cum hi nation s

Wh e r e

:11111 a ll port io n s t h er e of s hall r esi s t th e mo s t criti c ul

l o . u ] and r es i s t a n ce

f ac tor de s i g n

i s u s ed .

st ru c tur es

L'lll ·l · t S tror u

th e f o llo w in g

co rnbinutio n-,

o f f a ct ore d

l oad s :

 

(

2 0 3- 1 )

12(n

+ 1 + r ) + 16 { t .

+ fll + 0.5(/ "

o r 1<)

( 2 <n - 2 )

 

(

20 3 - 3)

12f)+

1.6W + / ; 1. + 0.5([ . ,

o r R )

 

121) + 1.0/: + I I I .

 

( 203 - 5 )

2 - 6

C HAPTER 2 - Mi n i mum De s ig n Load s

203.4.2 Alternate Basic Load Combinations

In li e u o f the ba sic l o ad co mbination s s pecified in Secti o n

2 03.4.1 , s tructur es and porti o n s ther eof s hall be p e rmitt e d

to be d e s i g ned for the mo s t c ritical e ff e ct s re s ulting from

u s in g th ese

altern a te basic l o ad combinations, a one-third incre ase

shall b e permitted in a llowabl e stresses for all combin a tions, in c luding War E.

the foll o wing l oa d combination s .

When

IJ+ H +F+(J.7 S l L+Lr +( W o r I ~ JJ

( 2 03-1 3 )

O.60LJ+W+H

 

( 203-14 )

 

E

0

.6 0D

+ -+H

(

203-IS )

1.4

D+

L+ Lr(or R)

(

20 3 -16 )

D+L+W

 

(

203-17 )

E

D

+L+

1.4

(203-18 )

Exception:

Cran e h o ok loads need not be comb i ned w i th roof live load or with more than one-half of the wind load .

203.4.3 Other Loads

Where P i s to b e c onsid e r e d in d e s i g n , e ach applicable

load s h a ll b e add e d t o th e combin a tion s Se c ti o n s 2 0 3 . 4. 1 a nd 2 0 3 .4 . 2 .

s p ec ified in

203.5 Special Seismic Load Combinations

For both allow a bl e stress d esign and s trength d es ign, th e followin g speci a l load c o mbinations f or seismic design

s hall b e u s ed a s s p e cifi c all y requir e d b y Se c ti o n 2 08 , o r

b y C h a pt e r s 3 thr o u g h 7.

1.2D+fIL+I.OEm

(2 03-19 )

O.9D±I.OE m

( 203-20 )

where :

Ii = I . n for fl oo r s in pl ac e s of publi c ass embl y. for liv e

l oa d s in e xc e ss of 4 .8 kPa , a nd f o r g a r age live lo a d . = 0. 5 for o th e r li v e l o a d s

Em = th c maximum e ff ec t o f h o ri zo nt a l

f

o rces

a s

set

fo rth

In

Se ction

a nd v erti c a l

208.5.1.1

Assoc i at i o n o f S tructur a l Engin e e r s o f th e Ph i li p pin es

~--------------------------=

j

j

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design

Loads

2 - 7

Table 204-1 Minimum Densities for Design Loads from Materials (kN/m 3 )

Material

Density

 

Alum i num

 

26.7

Bi t uminou s Products

 
 

A

s phaltum

12 . 7

7.2

Graphit e Par a ffin Petr o leum. crude Petr o leum . refined Petroleum , benzine

 

21 . 2 8 . 8 8 . 6 7 . 9

Petroleum. gasoline

6.6

Pitch

10.8

Tar

11.8

 

Br a s s

 

82.6

Bron ze

86.7

. C a st-stone masonry (cement, stone, s a nd)

 

22.6

·

· Ce ment. p o rtland, loose

 

14.1

C

e r a mic tile

23.6

C

h a rc o al .

 

I .9

C

inder fill

 

9.0

C

ind e r s, dry. in bulk

7.1

Coa l

 

Anthr a cite, piled

 

8 . 2

Bitumin o u s, piled

7.4

Li

g nit e . piled

7.4

P

e at , dry . piled

3 . 6

Co n c r e te . Plain

 
 

C

inder

17 . 0

Ex

panded- s lag aggregate

15 . 7

H

ay dite ( burned-clay aggregate )

 

14.1

S

l ag

20 . 7

St

o n e

22.6

V

e rmiculite and perlite aggregat e , n o nl o ad - bearing

ther light aggregate . load bear i n g

.3.9·7 . 9

O

11.0·16 . 5

 

C

o n c r e te . R e inforced

 
 

C

inder

17.4

Slag

 

21.7

Stone . (in c luding gravel)

23.6

 

Co pp e r

87.3

Co rk . c o mpressed

2.2

Ea rth (not submerged)

 
 

C

lay. dry

9.9

C

lay. damp

17.3

Clay and gravel. dry

 

15.7

Silt. moi s t. loose

12.3

Silt. moist. packed

15.1

Silt . fl o wing

17.0

Sand and gra v el , dr y . loose

15 . 7

S

and and g ravel. dr y . pack e d

17.3

S

a nd a nd gravel . we!

18 . 9

 

E

a rth ( s ubm e r g ed )

 
 

C

la y

1 2. 6

S

o il

11 . 0

Riv e r mud

 

14 . 1

Sa

nd o r g ravel

9.4

Sa

nd o r gravel and c lay

10 . 2

 

G

l ass

25 . 1

G

r av e l. dr y

 

16 . 3

G

y p s um. l o o se

11 . 0

G

y p s um. wallboard

7 . 9

I

c e

 

9 . 0

Iro n

 
 

C

a s t

.

70.7

Wr o u g ht

.

75.4

Material

Lead

Lime

Hydrated , loose Hydrated, compacted

.

.

Ma s o nry , Ashlar Stone Granite Limestone, cry s tallin e Limestone , oolitic

Marble

Sandstone

.

.

Masonry. Brick Hard (low absorption) Medium (medium absorptio n) Soft (high absorption)

Den s ity

. 111 . 5

 

5

. 0

7

. 1

 

.

2

5 . 9

.

2

5 . 9

2

l.2

2

7

. 2

22

. 6

2

0.4

18.1

15 . 7

MASONRY. Concrete (solid portio n ) Lightweight units Medium weight units Normal weight units .
MASONRY. Concrete (solid portio n )
Lightweight units
Medium weight units
Normal weight units
.
16.5
. 19.6
.
21.2
M
aso nry grout
.
22.0
Ma s onry , Rubble Stone
Granite
Limestone , cry s talline
Lime s tone, oolitic
Marble
.
2
4
. 0
.
23
. 1
.
2
1.7
.
.
2
4
. 5
Sand s tone
Mortar, cement or lime
.
21.5
20.4
Partic le board
Plywo o d
.
7.1
.
5
. 7
Riprap ( not nubmerged )
Limestone
Sandstone
.
13
. 0
.
14
. 1
S
and
Clean and dry
River. dry
14
. 1
.
16
. 7
Slag
Bank
II . n
Bank screenings
17 . 0
Machine
15.1
Sand
1>.2
Slate
27.0
Steel, cold-drawn
77.3
Stone, Quarried, Piled
Basalt, granite , gneiss
Limestone , marble , quartz
Sandstone
Shale
Greenstone , hornblende
15 . 1
14 . 9
12 . 9
14.5
16 . 8
Terr a Cotta , Architectural
Voids filled
Voids unfilled
1 8 . 9
11.3
Tin
7 2 . 1
Water
Fre s h
Sea
9 . 8
10 . 1
Wood ( see Table 6 . 2 for relative den s itie s f o r Philippine wood)
Zinc , rolled sheet
70.5

National Structural Code of the Philippines s" Edition Volume 1

2-8

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

Table 204-2 Minimum Design Dead Loads (kPa) (Use actual loads when available)

Component

CEILINGS

Load

Acoustical Fiber Board Gyp s um Board (per mm

0.05

thickness) Mechanical duct allowance

0 . 008 0 . 20

Plaster

on tile or concrete

0 . 24

Pla

s ter

on wood

lath

0.38

Suspended steel channel system

0 . 10

Suspended metal lath and cement plaster

0 . 72

Suspended metal lath and gypsum plaster

0.48

Wood furring suspension system

0 . 12

COVERINGS, Roof and Wall

Asphalt shingles

 

0.10

Cement tile

0 . 77

Clay tile (for mortar add 0.48 kPa)

Book tile, 50 mm Book tile , 75 mm

Three-ply ready roofing

0 . 57 0 . 96

Ludowici

0.48

Roman

0.57

Spanish

0 . 91

Composi ti on:

0 . 05

0.05

Four-ply felt and gravel Five-ply felt and gravel Copper or tin

0 . 26 0 . 29

Corrugated asbestos-cement roofing

0.19

Deck,

metal 20 gage

0 . 12

Deck,

metal, 18 gage

0.14

Fiberboard, 13 mm

0 . 04

Gypsum sheathing, 13 mm Insulation, roof boards (per mm thickness)

O.10

Cellular glass Fibrous glass

0 . 0013 0 . 0021

Fiberboard

0.0028

Perlite polystyrene foam Urethane foam with skin

0 . 0015 0 . 0004 0 . 0009

Pl y wood (per mm thicknes s ) 0 . 0060

Rigid Insulation, 13 rnrn

0 . 04

Sk

y light , metal frame,

10 mm wire gla s s Slate , 5 mm

0 . 38 0 . 34

Slate , 6 mm Waterproofing membrane s :

0.48

Bituminous , gravel-covered . 0.26

 

Bituminous, smooth s urface Liquid , applied Single-ply , sheet

0 . 07 0 . 05 0 . 03

W

o od Sheathing (per mm thickness)

0 . 0057

Wood Shingles

0 . 14

Component

FLOOR FILL

Load

Component

FRAME WALLS

Load

Cinder concrete , per mm Lightweight concrete , per mm

0.0 17 0 . 015

Exterior stud walls:

50xloo mm @ 400 mm , l S-rnm

Sand,

per mm

0.015

gypsum, insulated , IO-rnrn

Stone concrete , per mm

0.023

s

iding

0.53

FLOOR AND FLOOR FINISHES

50xl50 rnrn @ 400 mm, 15-mm

Asphalt blo c k (50 mm) , 13 mm mortar

1.44

Cement finish (25 mm) on stone- concrete fill

1.53

Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on 13 mm mortar bed

0.77

Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on 25 mm mortar bed

1.1 0

Concrete fill finish (per mm thickness)

0.023

Hardwood flooring, 22 mm

0.19

gypsum, insulated, IO-mm siding

0.57

Exterior stud wall with brick

2.30

veneer Windows, glass, frame and sash Clay brick wythes:

0.38

100

mm

1.87

200

mm

3 . 80

300

mm

5.50

400

mm

7 . 42

Linoleum or a sphalt tile, 6mm 0.05 Marble and mortar on stone-

concrete fill Slate (per mm thickness) Solid flat tile on 25 mm mortar ba s e Subflooring , 19 mm Terrazzo (38 mm) directly on slab Terrazzo s (25 mm) on stone- concrete fill Terrazzo (25 mm) , 50 mm stone concrete Wood block (76 mm) on mastic , no fill Wood block (76 mm) on 13 mm mortar base

0 . 028

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

Hollow Concrete Masonry unit s (Unplastered , add 0.24 kPa for each face plastered)

1.58

 

Grout

Wythe thickne ss ( mm )

1 . 10

Spacing

:

100

150 ;

200

0.14

0.91

1.53

1.53

0.48

0.77

600

mm

0.25

0 . 25

0.30

0.30

FLOORS, WOOD-JOIST (no plaster)

Joist

Sizes

(mm)

50xl50

50x2oo

50x250

50x3oo

300

mm

0.30

0.30

0 . 35

0.40

!?\s!~p_a£i~g

400

mm

0.25

0.30

0.30

0.35

FRAME PARTITIONS

Movable steel p a rtitions Wood or s teel s tuds, 13 mm

0 . 19

g

y p s um board each side

0.38

Wood stud s , 50 x 100, unplastered

0 . 19

Wood studs 50 x 100 , pla s tered one sid e

0.57

Wood studs 50 x 100, plastered two side

0.96

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPT E R 2 - M ini mum Design L o ad s

2 - 9

204.1 General

205.1 General

Dead loads c onsist o f th e weight of a ll materials

of

Live loads shall be the maximum lo a ds expected by the

c

onstru c tion incorporated into the building or other

intended use or o ccup a ncy but in no c a s e s h a ll b e le s s

s

tru c tur e , in c luding but n o t limited to wall s , floors, r o of s ,

th a n the loads required b y this sec tio n.

ceilin gs, s t a i rw ays , built - in partition s, f ini s he s, c laddin g

and other s imilarl y in c orporated

s tru c tur a l i te m s, a nd f i xe d s ervice e qu i pment , in c lud i n g

the we i g ht o f c rane s .

a r c hitectur a l and

204.2 Weights of Materials and Constructions

The actu a l weights of m a terials and con s tructions shall be used in d e t e rmining de a d l o ads for purpo s e s of design . In the ab se n c e o f definite in fo rmation, it s h a ll be permit t ed

t o u se th e minimum v a lu es in T a bles 204-\ a nd 204- 2.

204,3 Partition Loads

205.2 Critical Distribution of Live Loads

Wher e s tructural m e mber s a r e a rra nged t o c r e at e

co ntinuity, memb e r s s h a ll be d es i g n e d u s in g th e l oa ding

whi c h w o uld cau se m a ximum

conditi o n s,

bending moment s . This requir e ment may be s a ti s fi e d in

accordance with th e provisions

205.4 . 2 , where appli ca ble.

o f Section 205. 3 .2 or

s h ea r and

205.3 Floor Live Loads

205.3.1 General

Floor s i n of fi c e building s

a nd oth e r building s

wh e r e

Fl oo r s s hall be d es i g n e d for the unit live load s as se t forth

a rtit io n l oca tion s a re s ubje c t to chan ge s h a ll be de s i g n e d to s upp o rt , in addition t o a ll other l oa d s, a uniforml y

p

in T a bl e 2 05 - 1 . Th ese load s s h a ll be tak e n as the minimum liv e lo a d s o f horizont a l pr o jec tion to b e u s ed in

distribut e d d e ad load equ a l to 1 . 0 kP a o f f l oo r area .

th

e de s ign of building s for the o c c upancies

li s t e d , and

lo

a d s at least equ a l s hall be assum e d for uses not li s t e d in

this se ction but th a t creates or accommodate s s imilar

loadin gs .

Where it c an b e determined in d es i g ning tloor s that the

ac tu a l liv e load w ill be g reater th a n the v alue s h ow n in

T a bl e 205-1, th e ac tual liv e l o ad s hall be u se d in the

or porti on s thereo f . Sp ec i a l

pr ov i s i o n s shall b e m a d e for m ac hine a nd a pp a r a tu s l oa d s.

d es i g n of s uch buildin gs

205.3.2 Distribution of Uniform Floor Loads

Where uniform flo or loads are inv o lved, consid e ration

may b e limited

combination alt e rn a t e s pans .

t o full dead l o ad on all sp a n s in

with f ull live load o n a djacent s p a n s a nd

205.3.3 Concentrated Loads

Fl

oo r s s hall be d es i g n e d to s upp o rt s afely th e unifo rmly

di

s tributed

live l oa d s pre s cribed in t hi s secti o n o r th e

co ncentr a t e d load g i ve n in T a bl e

2 05-1 whi c h eve r

pr

o du c e s

the gre a tes t

load effec t s.

Unle ss o therwi s e

sp ec i f ied the indic ated concentratio n s hall be a ss um e d to

be uniformly distributed over an a re a 750 mm squ a r e and sh a ll be located so as to produ ce the maximum l o ad effec t s in the stru c tura l member.

Pr ov i s i o n s hall b e m a de in are as w here v ehic l es a r e u s ed

o r s t o r e d for con c entr a t e d lo a d s , L , co n s i s tin g o f t wo or more l o ad s s pa ce d 1 . 5 m nomin a lly on center w ithout

E a ch load s h a ll b e 4 0 per ce nt o f the

un ifo rm liv e lo a d s.

National Structural Cod e o f the Philipp i n es e " Edition Vo l ume 1

r

2 - 10

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

gross weight of the maximum

accommodated. Parking garages for the storage of private

or

for a

concentrated load of not less than 9 kN acting on an area of 0.015 m2 without uniform live loads. The condition of

in

or pleasure-type

refueling

size vehicle

with

to be

motor vehicles

no repair

designed

combined

shall have a floor system

or uniform

live

load,

concentrated

accordance with Section 203.3 or 203.4 as appropriate, producing the greatest stresses shall govern.

205.3.4 Special Loads

Provision shall be made for the special vertical and lateral loads as set forth in Table 205-2.

Table 205-1 - Minimum Uniform and Concentrated Live Loads

1- - -- -- - -

Category

1. Access floor systems

2. Armories

Use or Occupancy

Description

Office use

Computer use

--

Uniform Load I - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - kPa

2.4

4.8

7.2

3. Theaters, assembly areas 3 and auditoriums.

Fixed seats

Movable seats

Lobbies and platforms

Stages areas

4. Bowling alleys, poolrooms and similar recreational areas

--

5

. Catwalk for maintenance access

--

6. Cornices and marquees

--

7. and restaurants

Dining rooms

--

8. Exit facilities 5

--

2.9

4.8

4.8

7

3

. 2

. 6

1.9

3.6

4

4

. 8

4

. 8

9 . Garages

10 . Hospitals

11. Libraries

General storage and/or repair

Private or pleasure-type motor vehicle storage

Wards and rooms

Laboratories & operating rooms

Corridors above ground floor

Reading rooms

Stack rooms

4.8

1.9

1.9

2

. 9

3.8

2

7

. 9

. 2

12 . Manufacturing

Corridors above ground floor

Light

Heavy

3

. 8

6.0

12 . 0

Concentrated

Load

kN

9.0 2

9.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1.3

0

0

0 6

7

--

7

--

4.5 2

4 . 5 2

4 . 5

4 . 5 2

4 . 5 2

4.5

9.0 2

13.4 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

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CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

2 - 1 1

--------

-

---_

Category

13. Office

_-

.-

14. Printing plants

15. Re s idential 8

Use or Occupancy

-----------_

_- -- - - - -

_- ----- _-- - -

_- - ----- -

Description

.

---

Call Centers & BPO

Lobbies & ground floor corridors

Offices

Building corridors

above

ground floor

Press rooms

Composing and linotype rooms

Basic floor area

Exterior balconie s

Decks

Storage

-

Uniform Load I --- -_ kPa

2.9

----_ --------

_" --- -

4.8

2.4

3.8

7.2

4.8

1.9

2.9 4

1.9 4

1.9

16. Re s trooms 9

--

--

17. stands , grandstands,

Reviewing

Bleachers, and folding and telescoping

--

4.8

seating

18. Roof decks

Same as area served or Occupancy

-

-

 

Cla s srooms

1.9

19. School s

Corridors above ground floor

3.8

Ground floor corridor s

4.8

20. Sid e walk s and driveway s

Public access

12.0

21. Storage

Light

6.0

Heavy

12.0

Retail

4.8

22. Stores

 

Wholesale

6.0

23. Pede s trian bridge s and walkways

--

4.8

NOT ES FOR TABLE 20 5-1

I See Secti o n 2 05 _ 5 f o r li ve l o ad reducti o n s.

Se e Section 205.3 .3 , fir s t para g raph , for ar e a o f l o ad appli c atio n .

Concentrated -- Load --_ kN

9.0

------

9.0

9.0 2

9.0

11.0 2

9.0 2

0 6

0

0

0

--

0

--

4.5 2

4.5

4.5

7

--

--

--

4.5 2

13.42

--

-,

-

. I A s s e mbl y areas in c lud e s u c h o cc upan c i es a s dance halls , drill r o oms, gymnasium s , playground s , pla za s, terrac e s a nd s imilar occupan c i es that ar e g e n e rally accessibl e 10 the public.

4

For sp ec ial-purpose roofs, see Section 205.4.4 .

Exit f ac ilities shall in c lud e such uses as c orridors serving an o cc upant load of 10 or m o re persons , e xte rior exit balconi es, stairways, fire esc ap es and si milar u s es.

Indi v idual s tair tr e ad s s h a ll be d e si g n e d t o s upp o rt a 1.3 kN co n ce ntrated

l o ad pla ce d in a p os iti o n that w ould c au se

maximum str ess. S tair

s

trin g e rs ma y be d e si g n e d f o r the unif o rm l o ad s e t forth in th e t a bl e.

7

S

ee S ec ti o n 205.3 .3 , seco nd paragraph.f o r co n c entrated l oa d s . See Table 2 05 -2 f o r v e hi c le barri e r s .

 

H

R

es id e ntial o cc upan c i es in c lude pri v at e d wellin g s , apartments and h o tel guest r oo m s.

9

R

es tr oo m loads sh a ll n o t b e less than th e l o ad for th e occ upanc y w ith whic h they ar e a sso c iate d , but n e ed n o t e xc ee d 2.4 kPa .

National Structural Code of the Philippines e" Edition Volume 1

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CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

Table 205-2 Special Loads/

 

Use or Occupancy

 

Vertical

Lateral

 

Load

Load

 

Category

Description

kPa

kPa

1.

Construction. public access at site (live load)

Walkway

7 . 2

-

Canopy

7 . 2

-

2.

Grandstands,

 

reviewing ,

s

tands bleachers ,

Seats and

1.75

See

and

telescoping

folding and

footboards

Note 3

seating (live

 

load)

3.

Stage accessorie s (live load)

Catwalks

1.9

-

Follow s pot, projection and control rooms

2.4

-

 

Over stages

1.0

-

4.

Ceiling framing

 
 

(

live load)

All u s e s except over stage s

0.5 4

-

5.

Partitions and

 

0.25

 

-

-

 

interior walls,

 

6.

El e vator s and dumbwaiter s (dead and live loads)

Total load

2 x total load s

-

7 .

Cranes (dea d and live loads)

including

1.25 x total load "

0.10 x

total

load 6

 

impact increa s e

Exit fa c ilities serving an

0.75

occup a nt

load

-

kN/m 7

greater than

8 .

B a lcon y ra iling s

50

a

nd guardrails

Other than exit fa c ilities

 

0.30

 

-

 

kN/m 7

Components

-

1.2 8

9 .

Vehicle b a rriers

- -

-

27 kN 9

 

Se e Not e 10

See

10.

Handrails

 

Note 10

Over 2.4 m high

Total load s "

See

11.

Storage racks

Tabl e

208-1 2

 

1.1 kN plus

12

. Fire sprinkler

structural

-

weight of

water-filled pipe 12

See

Table

support

208-12

Notesfor Table 205-2

1

The tabulated loads are minimum loads . Where oth e r v erti c al b y

this c od e or required b y the de s ign would c ause greater stre sses, they shall be used. Loads are in kPa unl e ss otherwise indi c ated

 

in

the table .

2

Units is kNlm .

3

Lat

e ral swa y bracing loads of 350 Nlm paralle l and 145 N l m

 

p

e rpendi c ular s 10 seat andfo o tb o ards .

4

D

oes not appl y to ce ilings that ha v e s uffi c ient t o tal a c ce s s f ro m

 

b

e l o w, such that acce s s is not required within th e space ab o ve

the ceiling. Does not apply to ceilings if/he attic ar e as abov e the

c

e iling are n o t provided with a cc ess.

This live load need not be

 

con

s id e red a s a c tin g simultaneously

w ith oth e r

li v e loads

imp

os ed up o n the c eilin g framin g o r its s upporting s tru c tur e .

5

Th

e impa c t fa c tor s in c luded ar e for c ran e s with s t e el wh ee l s

 

riding on s teel rails . The y ma y be m o dified

if s ub s tantiatin g

 

tec

hnical data acceptable 10 the buildin g official is submitt e d.

Liv

e loads on crane support girders and their connections shall

 

b

e take n as th e max i mum

c rane whe e l loads. F o r pendant-

o

p e rated tra v eling c rane supp o rt gird e r s and th e ir c onne c ti o n s ,

 

th

e impa c t fa c t o rs shall be 1.10.

6

Thi

s appl ies

in the directi o n

paralle l

to th e runwa y

ra ils

 

(

l o ngitudinal). The fa c t o r for f o r c es perpendicular t o th e r a il is

0.20 x the transvers e

travelin g loads (tr o lley, c ab, hooks and

 

lifte

d loads). Forces s hall be applied at t o p of rail and ma y be

di

s turbed

am o n g rails of multiple

rail c rane s and shall b e

di

s tributed w ith du e r eg ard f o r late ral s tiffnes s o f the stru c tur es

 

s

upp o rtin g these rails .

7

A l o ad p e r lin e al m e t e r (kN l m) t o b e applie d hori zo ntall y a t r ig ht

 

an

g les to the t o p

rail.

8

Int

e rmediat e rails, panel filler s and th e ir conne c tions shall be

 

capable of w i thstandin g a load o f 1.2 kP a a pplied h o ri z ontall y at

 

ri

g ht an g les ove r th e e ntire tributar y ar e a , in c luding op e nin gs

 

and spa c e s be tween rails . R e a c tio ns du e t o this l o adin g n ee d n o t

b

e co mbin e d w ith th ose of F oo tnote 7.

9

A horizontal

load in kN applie d at ri g ht angl e s t o the ve h ic l e

barrier at a height o f 450 mm above th e parkin g surface. for ce may b e distribut e d over a 3 00-mm- s quare ar e a .

The

/ 0 Th e mountin g o f handrails

sh a ll b e su c h that th e c ompl e t e d

h a ndrail and s upp o rtin g s tru c tur e ar e ca p a ble of w ith s tandin g a

l oa d o f at l e a s t 890 N applie d i n an y dir ec tio n at an y p o int o n

th e rail. Th es e l o ad s s hall n ot b e a s sum e d 10 a c t c umulati ve l y

with Item 9 .

/I V e rtical m e mbers

of storage racks shall be pr o tected from

12

impa c t for ces o f op e rating equipment, or ra c ks shall be desi g n e d

so that failur e o f o n e ve rtical m e mber will n o t ca u se c ollap se o f

m o r e t han th e ba y o r ba ys dir ec tly supp o rt e d b y th a t memb e r .

Th e 1 . 1 k N l oa d i s t o be applie d t o an y s in g l e f i r e sprin k l e r

s upp o rt point but n o t s imultan eo usl y 1 0 all supp o rt j o ints.

Asso c iation of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

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CHAPTER 2 - Min i m ,

2- 1 5

Table 205-3 Minimum Roof Live Loads J

ROOF SLOPE

METHOD I

Tributary Area (mz )

o to 20

I 20 to 60 I Over 60

, Uniform Load (kPa)

1. Flat 3 or ri s e less than 4 units vertical in !

Arch

and dome with rise less than one-eighth of span .

to less than 12 units

vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3% to less than 100% slope). Arch and dome

with rise one-eighth of span to less than three-eighths of span.

12 unit s

horizontal (100 % slope) and greater. Arch or dome with rise three-eighths of span or greater.

12 units horizontal (33.3 % s lope).

2 . Rise 4 units vertical

3

. Rise

12 units

vertical

in

,

i

1.00

0

0

. 75

. 60

0 . 75

0 . 70

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

4 . Awning s except cloth covered. 4

0.25

0.25

0.25

5. Greenhou s e s,

lath

hou s es

agricultural buildings . 5

and

0

. 50

0.50

0.50

Uniform

Load 2

(kPa)

I

I

;

1.00

0.75

0.60

0 . 25

0.50

METHOD 2

Rate of

Reduction,

IV.

Reo ,

it

.1

r

0 . 08

0.06

(percentage)

40

25

/ '

No r e duction permitted

/ "

j

I

For spe c ial-purpose r oo fs. see Se c ti o n 205.4.4.

2

See Sections 205.5 and 205.6 for liv e -load reductions. The rate of redu c tio n r in Equ a tion 205-1 s hall be as indicated in th e table. Th e maximum

r

e ducti o n . R . shall n o t exce ed the valu e indicat e d in the tabl e .

. I A flat r oo f i s an y r o of with a sl o p e l ess than 1 / 4 . mit verti c al in 12 units h o ri z ont a l (2 % slop e).

Th e live l o ad f o r fla t roof s i s in additi o n to th e

 

p

o ndin g l o a d r e quir e d b y S ec ti o n 2 06 .7 .

4

S e e d e finiti o n in Se c ti o n 2 0 2.

5

Se e S e c ti o n 205.4.4 f o r co nc e ntrat e d l o ad requir eme nts f o r g r ee nhou se r o ofme mber s.

205.4 Roof Live Loads

205.4.1 General

Roofs shall be designed for the unit live loads, L n set forth in Table 205-3 . The live loads shall be assumed to act vertically upon the area projected on a horizontal plane .

205.4.2 Distribution of Loads

Where uniform roof load s are involved in the design of

s

con s ideration may be limited to full dead loads on all

s pans in combination with full roof live load s on adjacent spans and on alternate s pans.

tructural members arranged

to

create

continuity,

For those condi t ions where light-g a ge metal preformed structural sheets serve as the support and finish of roofs, roof structural members arranged to create continuity shall b e consid e red adequate if d es igned for full dead loads on all spa ns in combination with the most critical one of the follow ing superimposed loads :

1. The uniform roof live load, Ln set forth in Table 205- 3 on all spans.

2. A concentr a ted gravity load, Ln of 9 kN placed on any span s upporting a tributary area greater than 18 m 2 to create maximum stres s es in the member , whenever this loading creates greater stre s ses than tho s e cau se d by the uniform live load . The concentrated load shall be placed on the member over a length of ~150mm along the span . The concentrated load need not be applied to more than one span simultaneou s ly .

3. Water accumulation a s prescribed in Section 206.7 .

National Stru c tural C o d e of the Phil i ppin es s " Editio n Volume 1

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CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

205.4.3

Unbalanced Loading

Unbalanced loads shall be used where such loading will

result in larger members or connection s.

arches shall be designed to re s ist the s tre sses cau s ed by

unit live loads on one half of the span if such loading

res ults in reverse s tresse s , or stre sse s greater in any portion than the str esses produced by the require d unit live load o n the entir e span. For roof s whose structures

Tru ss e s and

a re comp os ed of a s tressed shell , framed or solid , wh e rein

s tres s es cau s ed b y any point loading a re di s tributed

throughout the are a of the s h e ll , th e requirement s

for

unbalanced

unit li v e load de s ign may be redu c ed 50

percent.

205.4.4

Special Roof Loads

Roofs to be used for special purposes s hall be des igned for appropriate load s a s approved by the building official. Greenhou s e roof bar s , purlin s and r a fters sh a ll be

de s igned to carr y a 0.45 kN concentrated

addition to the uniform live load

load, L" in

205.5 Reduction of Live Loads

The design live load determined using the unit live loads

a s s et forth in Table 2 05-1 for floors and Table 205-3,

M e thod 2 , for roof s may be reduced on an y member

s upportin g more than 15 m 2, including flat slabs, e x cept

for floor s in places of public a ssembl y and for live loads

g r e ater th a n 4.8 kP a , in accordance with the following

equation:

R = r(A-IS)

( 205-1 )

The reduction shall not exceed 40 perc e nt for members receiving load from one level only, 60 percent for other members or R, as determined by the following equation :

R = 23.1(1 + Df L)

wh e re:

(205-2)

A

= area of floor or roof s upported by the member, square meter, m 2

D

= dead load per s quare meter of area supported by the member, kPa

L

= unit live load per square meter of area supported by the member, kPa

R

= reduction in percentage , % .

r

= rate of reduction equal to 0 . 08 for floors. See Table 205-3 for roof s

For storage loads exceeding 4.8 kPa, no reduction shall be made, except that de s ign live loads on columns may be reduced 20 percent.

The live load reduction shall not exceed 40 percent in garages for the storage of private pleasure car s having a capacity of not more than nine pa s sengers per vehicle.

205.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction

As an alternate to Equation (205-1 ) , the unit live loads set forth in Table 205-1 may be reduced in accordance with Equation 205-3 on any member , including flat slab s, having an influence area of 40 m2 or more.

where :

(205-3 )

Al

= influence area, m2

L

= reduced design live load per s quare meter of ar ea

s upported by the member

L ; = unreduced design live load p e r s quar e meter of area

s upported by the member (Table 205-1 )

The influence area Al is four times the tributary area for a column , two times the tributary area for a beam , equal to the panel area for a two-way s lab , and equal to the product of the s pan and the full flange width for a pre c a s t T-beam

The reduced live load shall not be less than 50 percent of the unit live load L; for members receiving load from one level only, nor less than 40 percent of the unit live load La for other member s .

Asso c i a tion of Structural Engineers of the Philip pi nes

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