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.

2003
81.2 M15
. .
15 . .: , 2003. 280 . ISBN 5-94244-005-0
5.3.1
[
turn-taking; .: Sprecher-Wechsel Henne, Rehbock
1982], ,
( , , ,
), , [Sacks, Schegloff,
Jefferson 1974].

, .
,
:
1) , ,
, ,
;
190
2) ,
, , ()
;
3) ,
, ; ,
,
[.: transition-relevance place Schegloff, Sacks 1973; Sacks, Schegloff, Jefferson 1974; Sacks 1995;
Schegloff 1992].

[.: Searle 1992: 15ff; Schegloff 1992]. ,
( , ),
: In a conversation a speaker can select who is going to be the next speaker, for
example by asking him a question. Or he can just shut up and let somebody else talk. Or he can keep on
talking. Furthermore, if he decides to keep on talking, then next time there is a break in the conversation, the
same three options apply. And that makes the rule recursive [Searle 1992: 16].
,
.
. (
), . .
, (rule), ,
, (practice)
(usage), a
[Schegloff 1992].


[Henne, Rehbock 1982: 190]:
) ;
) (latching);
) .
[turn-signal Coulthard 1977: 61]
;
, , ; ,
;
191
You know...; ()...
^ ? ?, tag-questions
...oder? ...nicht wahr? ...ja? [Wunderlich 1976: 331].

, . . [Ballmer, Brennenstuhl 1981: 36]
: ; ; ;
/ ; ; /
. ().

, ,
- [.:
1987].
,
, ,
.
, ,
[Goodwin 1981: 23].

- .
, ,
, ; ,
, ,
.

. ,
, , .
, , ,
: ,
,
(
), .
192
^ 5.3.2


.
.
:
,
, ,
[strategies vs. rules,
conventions Carlson 1983: 55; Parret 1983: 99; Edmondson 1981: 81; Zeckhauser 1991].
,
.
. ,
, ,
.

,
.
, ,
, ,
.
. . [1988]. ,

[Levy 1979: 197].
.
,
, ,
[Parisi, Castelfranchi 1981].

,
. -
[tactics Coulthard 1977: 111],
,
193
[,
1997: 208]. .
,
,

- [
1988: 103].


,
[Edmondson 1981: 81].
,
, : . . . [1988]

, (),
, , , , [Tannen
1984b; 1989; Gumperz 1982a; 1982b] .
:
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
, [Coulmas 1981: 3].

[Fritz 1982: 59],
.
^ 5.3.3
.
cohaereo ( + haereo) (. , , ,
, ). 194
cohaesum.
cohaerentia , ,
. ,
, [.: : . 8, 1978: 469],
,
, -, , ...
(.: . coherence, conference,
audience, . Kohrenz, Konferenz, Audienz .).
,
,
[.: Halliday, Hasan 1976; Hobbs 1982; Craig, Tracy 1983; Werth 1984; Gernsbacher 1995; Heydrich
1989; Norgard-Srensen 1992; Rickheit, Habel 1995; Tannen 1984a .].
, -
, -
,
. . . . .
[Halliday, Hasan 1976] : ,
; , ;
, ; ,
, ,
; ,
:
, , . .
- -, ,
.
, -
,

, -
, - ( )
() , ,
[van Dijk 1977: 10; 1981: 124; Lanigan 1977: 24; Levy 1979:207208; Edmondson 1981: 18;
Lux 1981: 1922; Fritz 1982; Hobbs 1982; Carlson 1983: 146149; Brown, Yule 1983: 223; Tannen
1984b: 151154; Werth 1984: 93].
, , ,
(), ;
195
,
, [Carlson 1983: 149].
,
:
, , , ,
,
[Hobbs 1982: 226227].
,
[.: global coherence
van Dijk 1977: 246; makrostrukturelle Kohrenz Lux 1981: 22; discourse, interactive coherence
Edmondson 1981: 19 .].
, ,
(,
: , , ).
, , ,
,
, .
[Hobbs 1982: 227].
- ,
( ). , ,
, ,
, (connectivity) : ,
(, ), (, )
,
-
(

,
,
).
, [.:
thematic, topical coherence Coulthard 1977: 80; Edmondson 1981: 18; Hobbs 1982: 228].
.
,
. :
, , , , ,
.

196
,
.
, , ,
; , ,

, , ,
, .
,
( , - ,
, ,
, ).
- , -
,
: -
, , , [challenges, defences, retreats
Labov, Fanshell 1977: 60].

.

.
^ 5.3.4
,
, : ,
,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
[Lanigan 1977: 7982; Leech 1980: 33; Stubbs 1983: 4866;
Brown, Yule 1983: 132133 .].
,
, , .
,

( , 197
, ,
). ,
,
[discourse deixis Fillmore 1975: 70; Levinson
1983: 85; Textdeixis Rauch 1983: 48 .].
, ,
, -
(As I said before... I've already told you earlier.
Later I'll explain this rule... abovementioned, hereinafter represented by...).

.
. , ,
[Redeorganisierende Sprechakte Wunderlich 1976: 330334], :
) ;
) , , , ,
;

) , ,
, , ,
;
) , , , ,
/ .
, ,

: , ,
( ,
, );
(, )
,
. ,
.
. , , ,
[monitoring of the speech situation Stubbs, 1983: 48].

198

.
, .
, , .
[Stubbs 1983: 5053]: , ;
; ;
; ; ; ; .

,
. ,
[ 1981;
1987]. : ,
, , ;
, , , .
, (,
well, look, you know, listen,
, , Mr. Speaker, Mickie, Madam, Sir, Doc, Officer; Hey, mister . .).
(yes,
yeah, ok, I see, all/right, I am listening, I hear you perfectly, I understand),
(Do you follow me? Repeat what I've said. Is it clear? Are you with me? Are you
listening?), - (what? pardon? I don't get it. Sorry, could you say
this again?), (/
can't get through to you. We don't seem to be on the same wavelength),
,
(, , . .).
, (Speak up! I can't
hear you. The feedback's awful, I'll call you back in a minute. Don't talk with your mouth full! No one can
read your scribbles).

, , ,
: Zero-five, do you read me? Roger. Copy.
199
,
: , ,
, ;
, - ; ,
, , , ,
(. ) . .

(Don't you dare talk to me like that! Who do you think you're talking to ? You are the boss. You
must know your place. Don't sir me. Now I'm talking not as your boss, but as your friend).
,
.
, (Don't use that tone of voice with me! Watch your tongue!
You're not in the barracks!). (Mr. Speaker,
off the record! Each of you may ask only one short question),
(You didn't answer my question). ,
(Senator Jones will have the floor now. Mr. Brown, you cannot have the floor
twice. John, let your brother say a word. If I may interrupt you...). ,
, , (We shall discuss the pollution problem first. Speaking of
discourse markers... By the way... Enough politics! Let's talk about the holidays).
.
( ),
( ), (
, ), , ,
. -
,
, (), ,
, :
; , , . .

,
200
(first of all, before I answer your question, on one hand on the other hand, to conclude,
finally), (in other words, to recapitulate, to sum it up, anyway, as I was saying).
,
, -, , . e. , ,
, , ,
(Do you believe it is really true? I'm dead sure. I mean it. Frankly.
Evidently. Metaphorically speaking); -, (You've said enough! This letter is just
wordy. Is that all you want to tell us?); -, (This has nothing to do with the
problem. Are you sure this is the case?); -, (Not here! I don't want to
discuss it now. Not over the phone).
, , ,
, , Well..., You know..., By the way

, ,
. .
,
, , [.: organizational vs.
conversational exchanges Francis, Hunston 1992: 125]. -
[framer, marker, starter,
metastatement, summons, return, loop, prompt, reformulate, engage Francis, Hunston 1992: 128133].
***
, ,
, ,
.
,
- .
,
, .
, , ,
.
201
(),
.
,
. .
, (, ,
, , ) :
- ,
;
, .
:
, , , .