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Pakistans Foreign Policy

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Group Members
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Nisar Ahmed Muhammad Usman Imran Aziz Khan Lodhi Ahsan Aslam freedi Akber Hayat
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Contents
               Foreign policy: Definition Machinery of Formulation of Policy Geo Strategic Importance of Pakistan Pakistans foreign policy 1947-2009: Principles of Pakistans Foreign Policy Six Important Phases of Pakistans Foreign Policies Pak-Afghan Relations Pak-China Relations Pak-India Relations Tashkent Declaration Pak-Iran Relations Pakistans Relations with USSR: Pakistan as a member of International Organizations Impact of U.S relations on Pakistan Recommendations:
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Foreign Policy and its Purpose:


Definition
 Set of goals outlining how the country will interact with other countries:
    Economically Politically Socially Militarily

Purpose of Policy
 Foreign policies are designed to help protect a country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.

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Who develop Foreign Policy


      

President Prime Minister Chief of Army Staff. Ministry of Foreign Affairs High level bureaucrats Intelligence Agencies Pressure Groups and Political Parties

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Principles Of Pakistans Foreign Policy


Following are basic Principles of Pak. Foreign Policy:  National Security  Economic Interest  Islamic Solidarity  Peaceful Co-existence  Non-alignment  Bilateralism

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Important Phases Of Pakistans Foreign Policies

       

Era of neutrality (1947-53) Era of alliances (1954-62) Era of bilateralism (1962-69) Era of non-aligned movement (1969-1981) Era of revival of policy (1981-1990) Era of regionalism (1991 -1999) Era of war on terror (2001-2007) Foreign policy of current government(2007-to-date)

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Foreign Relations of Pakistan with Neighbor Countries

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Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations Pakistan

Afghanistan

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Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations
 Pakistan shares a long and porous border with Afghanistan (The Durand Line).  Share many cultural, linguistic and ethnic commonalities.  During Soviet invasion on Afghanistan in 1979, Pakistani Government played a vital role in:
 Supporting the Taliban  Assisting Afghan refugees.  Providing Health facilities doctors, medicines

 Open Border

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Issued Related to Afghanistan


Due to war in Afghanistan:  Pakistan has suffered more than any other country. Other Problems include  Refugees Problem  Security of the region  Terrorists can enter into Pakistan  Peaceful Neighbor is important

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Pak-China Relations
Pakistan

China

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Pak-China Relations
 In 1950 Pakistan recognized the new People's Republic of China  first Muslim country to do so.  Road was built linking China's Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region with the Northern Areas of Pakistan.  China Provided Pakistan with economic and military assistance in 1965 and 1971 wars with India  Favorable relations with China have been a pillar of Pakistan's foreign policy  China is supplying a range of modern weapons to the Pakistani defense forces.  Trade between Islamabad and Beijing now hovers around $7 billion a year
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Chinas Projects in Pakistan


      

Heavy Engineering, Power Generation, Mining, And Telecommunications-- ZonG Investment $4 Billion In 2007 Gawadar Port Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra

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Pak-china Projects

Karakorum Road
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Pak-India Relations

India

Pakistan

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Pak-India Relations
 Considered Big Rivals of Each other  Kashmir :A major cause of Rivalry  Indus waters Treaty: September 19, 1960 in Karachi by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the then President of Pakistan Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan.  World bank as is a signatory as a third party.  Fought two Wars 1965,1971  Shimla Accord in July 1972 by Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto  They agreed to a "Line of Control" (ceasefire line)  February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume an official dialogue with India.
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Pak-India Relations
 Kargil War 1998  Pervez Musharraf came to power on October 12, 1999 and contiuned dialogue process.  2007 the two countries agreed to start flights between their capitals.  Samjhota Express Blast  Mumbai Attacks in 2008  Dialogue Process finished after Mumbai Attacks in 2008  India a Important Factor of Pakistans Foreign Policy

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Big Events: Breakout relations

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Tashkent Declaration
 After the war in 1965  The prime minister of India and the president of Pakistan, met in Tashkent on 10 January 1966,  At the invitation of the chairman of the council of ministers of the soviet union  Made a treaty between them known as Tashkent declaration/ treaty  Withdrawal of all armed personnel of both sides to the positions they had held prior to 5 august 1965 should be completed by 25 February 1966

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Pak-Iran Relations
Pakistan Iran

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Pak-Iran Relations
 In 1947 Iran was the first country to recognize the newly independent state of Pakistan.  The Iran- Pakistan- India pipeline is currently under discussion.  Pakistan has the second largest shia population in the Muslim world after Iran.  Shias are in a majority in the city of gilgit in northern areas, jhang, parachinar.  So Pakistani shias Love Iran.  Government is trying to maintain good relations with Iran.  Sunni sect of Pakistan Opposes relations with Iran due to Shiat.

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Pak-Iran Relations

 2005, Iran and Pakistan conducted U.S. $500 million of trade.  Trade going up by 1.4 billion in 2009.  Trade with Iran (in $Million)

Year

Exports

Imports Total 449.959 638.015 405.767 573.312

Trade Balance -261.903 - 230.222

2005-06 188.056 2006-07 167.545

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Pakistans Relations with USSR


Pakistan

Russia

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Pakistans Relations with USSR


No recognition of Pakistan by USSR in 1947 Relations fluctuated from cool to aggressive and unfriendly 1949: Liaqat ali khan Visited USA instead of USSR March 22, 1950: The first ambassador was named for Pakistan Pakistans decision to join the Western security alliance system, SEATO in 1954 and CENTO in 1955, wasnt appreciated by USSR.  March-April 1954, a delegation of the Soviet cultural troupe toured Pakistan.  August 1960, Soviet offered long term loan of US$30 million for oil exploration, helped in restoration of relations  April 1965: First direct personal contact in 18 years between the top leaders of Pakistan and USSR.
    
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Pakistans Relations with USSR


 January 10, 1966: The Soviet Union played the forefront role to sign Tashkent Declaration  January 1966: barter deal :Rice for Vehicles and road building and engineering machinery  December 6, 1971, the Soviet Union vetoed resolution supported by the US. For cease-fire in East-Pakistan  1979: war Between Russia and Afghanistan effected the relations with Pakistan.  Pakistan Show his support for afghans and U.S.A.  Now situation has changed. Pak has started Trade with Russia

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Pakistans Relations with USSR


*The Trade between Pakistan And Russia is as follows (In US $: Millions) Year Exports Imports Total Trade Balance -406.78 -192.477

2005-2006 2006-2007

52.419 83.397

459.200 275.874

511.619 275.874

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*Source: Ministry of commerce website

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Relations With USA

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Impact of U.S.A. relations On Pakistan


Negative impact  Pakistan has considered USA as an important ally from its independence in 1947.  First visit of Pakistans Prime minister Liaqat Ali Khan To USA in 1949, instead of USSR,  Without formal refusal to the invitation made by USSR government  Pakistan has suffered a Lot By showing friendship towards the USA  Strong Ally of USA in 1970s Russian war against Taliban  In 2001: Pakistan agreed to become a strong Partner with USA on WAR on terror.  Pakistans Image as an Islamic country has been vanished due to friendship with USA.  Nowadays, presence of USA and NATO forces in Afghanistan and Black Water in Pakistan is a big threat to Pakistans nuclear Program.
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Big Event : Changed History


 After 9/11 Relations with USA changed completely.  Pakistan helped USA to attack Afghanistan

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Impact of U.S.A. relations On Pakistan


Positive Impact:  USA Has Given millions of Dollars to Pakistan as an aid for the Military and Economic Development in following areas:  Civil liberties.  Political rights.  Voice and accountability.  Government effectiveness.  Rule of law.  Control of corruption.  Immunization rates.  Public expenditure on health.  Girls primary education completion rate.
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Impact of U.S.A. relations On Pakistan


Public expenditure on primary education. Natural resource management. Business start-up. Land rights and access. Trade policy. Regulatory quality. Inflation control. Fiscal policy Currently USA Government has approved a bill known as Kerry Lugar bill.  Provide $1.50 Million Dollars annually  Strongly Condemned by the Pak. Army, political parties and common public.
        
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Trade With USA

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Source: http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c5350.html#200933

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Pakistan as a member of International Organizations

 United Nations (UN)  International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)     

South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Security Council resolution 1373 (2001) World Trade Organization (WTO) South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA ) European Free Trade Association (EFTA),

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Recommendations:  Take measures to change Pakistans image in other countries.  Improve Security Measures in Pakistan  Take necessary measures to maintain good and long term relations with other countries.  make policies which could help to increase exports.  Create a Clear point of view about war on terror.  maintain good relations with Muslim countries especially with Arab states.  Create awareness in our nation to change their views toward government.
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