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. .

2- ,


, 2009

22.141
32

32

. ., .

. | 2- ., . . | .: , 2009. |
144 .: .
ISBN 978-5-94057-450-7
| . | , . .
, . , , ,
, ( 6 11)
.
1998 .

22.141
: ftp://ftp.mccme.ru/users/shen/algebra.pdf
: ftp://ftp.mccme.ru/users/shen/algebra.zip

: .
. . .
26 2008 . 60 90 1/16. .
. 9 . . . 3000 .
.
. 119002,
, ., 11. . (499) 241-74-83.
\.
"
121099, , ., 6.

ISBN 978-5-94057-450-7

c . . , . , 1998, 2009.

1.
| . | ,
.
.
.
: ; ( ); .
( ), . ,
.
, . , .
, , ,
. .

2.
3 5:

3 + 5 = 8:

:
5 + 3 = 8:
. , |
+ , .
:
3

| :
5

8?

3.

, . 3 ,
5 | , 5, 3 | , 8:
.

5+3

3+5

3.
.
. .
. .
.
3 5 5 3. 15. , .
| .
- ,
.
| , | .
| ?
, 2 + 2 + 2 + 2. ,
,
, , - .
5 3 = 3 5 : ( )
( ).

4.

4.
, 7 + 9, 7 , 9
, : , , , , ... , , . : 7 + 9 = 16.

z
|

}|

z
{z

16

}|

{
}

. , , 137 268, .
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-,
.
0, 1, 2, ... , 8, 9,
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1 . - +, 1000. ?
. (, 88 + 88 + 8 + 8 + 88 ,
1000, 280.)

4.
.

:
...8
....
...8
1000

, .
, , 8
0. , 5
:
...8
...8
...8
...8
...8
1000
4, 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 40.
0, : 4 +
+ 8 + 8 = 20.
8
8
8
. . 88
. . 88
1000
2, :
8
8
8
88
888
1000
.

8 + 8 + 8 + 88 + 888 = 1000.

2 ,

5. .

( , | ,
| )?
. |
.
, :
( )? ,
, |
. , . = 1,
= 9. : = 1, = 9, = 0.
111
999
1110

5. .

, , 17 38,
17 38 . , , ,
.
(- ) ,
. | ! | , ?
!,
, .
17 38 ,
( ):
17
38
136
51
646

38
17
266
38
646

| | (
)?
.
3 1001. .
4

101010101 57.

6.

10001 1020304050.

11111 1111.

7 , | ,
, . .
. :

1
3
1
(, , , , ; ,
). 7,
3 0 = 0;
3 5 = 15;

3 1 = 3;
3 6 = 18;

3 2 = 6;
3 7 = 21;

3 3 = 9;
3 8 = 24;

3 4 = 12;
3 9 = 27

3 7 = 21 1. :
1 7
3
7 1
3 7 2, 3
5. , = 5:
1 5 7
3
5 7 1
= 8, = 2, = 4.
.

142857
3
428571

6.
| . , .
8

123123123 123. ( !)

111...1 (100 ) 1111111 ?

7.

10

7?

, 1000...0 (20 )

11 , ,
( ) :

100000000...
7
30
28
20
14
60
56
40
35
50
49
10
7
30
28
2...

7
142857
| {z }14

| ?
12 7 2000...000 (20 ), 3000...000 (20 ),
4000...000 (20 ) . . .
13 142 857 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 .
142 857, : 2 7.
14 , 1000...0
( 7 ).

7.
15 , { .

10

7.

0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
...
16 1 , 2 , 4 , 8 16 (
). , 0 31 ,
(+ ,
).

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
...

16

...

+
+
+
+
...

+
+
+
+

...

+
+

+
+

+
+
...

+
...

00000
00001
00010
00011
00100
00101
00110
00111
01000
01001
01010
01011
...

0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
...

(0
1 +).
.

7.

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
...

11

0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
...

: ,
. : . (,
1024 : 10000000000.)
17

, -

18

10101101 -

19

, :

45.
?

1010 + 101 =
1111 + 1 =
1011 + 1 =
1111 + 1111 =

?
?
?
?

, .
20 . , .
1101 101 = ?
110 1 = ?
1000 1 = ?

12

8.

21 1101 1010
:
1101

1010
?? ? ?

, .
. :
1011
11
1011
1011
100001

1011
101
1011
1011
110111

22 11011 101 ( ) . , .
. :

11001 100
100
110
100
100
01
0
1
23 1=3 0;333...
?
24 , 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
.

8.
. :
+ =
= +
, ,
.. + .. = .. + ..

9.

13

,
.. .. | , a b .
:

a +b =b +a

a b =b a

, | .
ab = ba

a + b = b + a ,
ab = ba | .
. : 3 7 21,
37. ,
a b , a b ab a b :
a*b ( ).

9.
, :
3 + 5 + 11 = 8 + 11 = 19:
:
3 + 5 + 11 = 3 + 16 = 19:
:
(3 + 5) + 11
, 3 5,
3 + (5 + 11)
5 11.
.
:
(a + b ) + c = a + (b + c )
-, , : ,

14

10.

|
. |
:
( + ) + = + ( + ):
25

357 + 17 999 + 1.
357 17 999 .
17 999 + 1, 18 000 357 :
26

357 + (17 999 + 1) = 357 + 18 000 = 18357:


357 + 17 999.
357 + 17 999 = (356 + 1) + 17 999 = 356 + (1 + 17 999) = 356 +
+ 18 000 = 18 356.
28 899 + 1 343 + 101.
. .
27

:
( b ) c = (b )
, :

(ab )c = a (bc )

29

37 25 4.

30

125 37 8.

10.
| |
2345
, , .
, :
((2 3) 4) 5 = (6 4) 5 = 24 5 = 120;
(2 (3 4)) 5 = (2 12) 5 = 24 5 = 120;
(2 3) (4 5) = 6 20 = 120;
2 ((3 4) 5) = 2 (12 5) = 2 60 = 120;
2 (3 (4 5)) = 2 (3 20) = 2 60 = 120:

11.

31

15

(2 3) (4 5) = ((2 3) 4) 5 = (2 (3 4)) 5 = 2 ((3 4) 5) = 2 (3 (4 5))

a (bc ) = (ab )c . , a = 2 3, b = 4, c = 5.
a; b; c , ?
32


2 3 4 5 6;

( ). , . (. 14 .)
33 ,

2 3 4 5 6 ... 99 100 ?
,
, , |
.
, .
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + 98 + 99 + 100.
100 50 : 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + 98 +
+ 99 + 100 = (1 + 100) + (2 + 99) + (3 + 98) + ... + (49 + 52) + (50 + 51).
101, 50, 50 101 = 5050.
, ( ) , |
, !
34

11.
, . 2 3 7 ,
2 7 = 14 , 3 7 = 21 ,

2 7 + 3 7 = 14 + 21 = 35:
: 2 + 3 = 5
7 ,
(2 + 3) 7 = 5 7 = 35:

16

11.

,
(2 + 3) 7 = 2 7 + 3 7
, ,

(a + b ) c = a c + b c

. ,
:

c (a + b ) = c a + c b
1001 20.
1001 20 = (1000 + 1) 20 = 1000 20 + 1 20 = 20 000 + 20 =
= 20 020.
36 1001 102.
. 1001 102 = (1000 + 1) 102 = 1000 102 + 1 102 = 102 000 +
+ 102 = 102 102.
35

| .

(a + b )(m + n ):
, (m + n ) | m n , , | | .

(a + b )

m +n =a m +n +b m +n
m + n | m n .

,
:

... = a (m + n ) + b (m + n ) = am + an + bn + bm:
: ,
.

37


(a + b + c + d + e )(x + y + z )

, ?
38


(a + b + c )(d + e )(x + y + z )

, ?

12.

17

12.

(a , b , c , ... , x , y , z ).
() . ,
, ( 5- ) |
.
|
( ).
, , , .
| , , , | | .
, , | .
.

a +b =b +a

a b
. a + b = b + a , , a b
. ,
a + b = b + a 1 + 7 =
= 7 + 1, 1028 + 17 = 17 + 1028 |
.
:
39 5 ;
13 .
?
. (.) 5 . 2 2
10 (10 = 2 5). , , 2 3 13 . ,
10 13 . , 13 10 = 3 .
, ,
5 : 5 3 = 2.
. | 2 , | 3 .
,
.., ... : ,
.. + .. = 5;

18

12.

2 .. + 2 .. = 10:

2 .. + 3 .. = 13:

, , .. = 3, , .. = 2.
.. ..
x y , .
.
x , |
y . :

x + y = 5;
2x + 3y = 13:
2, ,
2x + 2y = 10:
, ,

y = 13 10 = 3:

x = 2, y = 3.

x = 5 y = 5 3 = 2:

, .
. . 3. 2.
. 4. . 2, ?
, .
,
( x ).
40


3
2

4

. 2

x
x +3

2 (x + 3) = 2x + 6
(2x + 6) x = x + 6
(x + 6) 4 = x + 2
(x + 2) x = 2

13.

19

13.
, 3 + 5 = 8, , ,
: , , , , ... ,
, . , (3) + (5) = (8) 3 + (5) =
= (2)? :
3+5=8
(3) + 5 = 2
3 + (5) = (2)
(3) + (5) = (8)

3 ,
5
8 .
3 , 5
, . . +2 .
+3 , 5
, . . 2 .
3 , 5
, . . 8 .

:
3+5=8
(3) + 5 = 2
3 + (5) = (2)
(3) + (5) = (8)

+ =

+ =
( -1 )
+ =
( -)
+ =

14.
, , , :
5 + 5 + 5 = 15:
1 5,
, -
. 0 5 (3) 5 :
?
1 | ;
, . . , -.

20

14.

, , :
5 0 = 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0;
5 (3) = (3) + (3) + (3) + (3) + (3) = 15:
, | |
,
0 5 = 0; (3) 5 = 15:
(3) (5). : 15
+15? . , |
, . ,

3 5 = +15
(3) 5 = 15

3 (5) = 15
(3) (5) =?

, , (3) (5)
+15. ?
, , : , . , : ?
| , , ?
:
3 5 = 15
3 (5) = 15
(3) 5 = 15
(3) (5) = 15

|

|

|

|

.
1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
, 3:
3; 6; 9; 12; 15; ...

14.

21

, 3. (, , 5 15):
5; 4; 3; 2; 1; ...
15; 12; 9; 6; 3; ...
:
5; 4; 3; 2; 1; 0; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
15; 12; 9; 6; 3; 0; 3; 6; 9; 12; 15; ...
5 15, 3 (5) = 15:
. , 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, ... 3 ( , ):
1;
3;

2;
6;

3;
4;
9; 12;

5;
15;

...
...

3.

5;
15;

4;
3;
12; 9;

2;
6;

1
3

:
5;
15;

4;
12;

3;
2;
9; 6;

1;
3;

0; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...
0;
3;
6;
9; 12; 15; ...

5 15, (3) (5) = 15.


,
. ,
, (3) (5) = 15?
: , (3) (5)
15, , , , -

. .
, 3 (5) = 15. 15? , 15, . . , 15 0.
,
3 (5) + 15 = 0:

,
3 (5) + 15 = 3 (5) + 3 5 = 3 (5 + 5) = 3 0 = 0:
( 3 ,
ab + ac = a (b + c ) a = 3, b = 5, c = 5 | ,

22

15.

, .) , 3 (5) =
= 15. ( , 3 0 = 0. : | ,
| .)
, (3) (5) = 15.
(3) + 3 = 0
5:
((3) + 3) (5) = 0 (5) = 0:
:
(3) (5) + 3 (5) = 0;
. . (3) (5) + (15) = 0. , (3) (5) 15, . . 15. ( :
, 0 (5) = 0 ,
15.)

15.

3

15

, , , :
9
15

33

35

3
5

221
391

403
713

,
, :
221
391

17 13
17 23

13
23

31 13
31 23

403
713

15.

23

, ?
:
221
391

221 713
391 713

403

713

403 391
713 391

:
713
221
713
1426
1426
157573

391
403
1173
1564
157573

, | ,
13=23 !
41

: 1=3 2=7 ?
1=3 = 7=21, 2=7 = 6=21, . . 1=3 > 2=7.

( :
?) : |
, , . . 1=3 2=7.
, :
1
3

:
?)

10001

12345

42

43

10002

54321

2
6

< 27 :

100001
100002
12346
54322

? (. 1.

| . : ,
, | ? ( )
.

=
=
1
3
=
1
3
=
1
=
1=
=3
3
=
11
33
=
1
3
=

1=6

1
=
2
=
1
2
=
1
=
2
=
1
=2
1=
2
=
=
1
2
1
2
=

24

15.

, , :
2
3

2+5

3+7

7
10

: 7=10 = 0;7
2=3 = 0;666... 5=7 = 0;714285... :
( 2=3 ), ( 5=7 ),
, 7=10 ).

44

a
b

c
d

(a , b , c ,
ad

| )

bc

,
1,
bd
ad bc = 1.
1. , .
a
c
a +c
2. , ,

b

a
b

c
d

3. ,

f < b + d ,

a
b

c
d

.
e
f

+d

e f,

45 7 13 . 20
. , ( )
| ).
.

20

. 18 . ,
13
. ( 18,
.)

13

, |

;
k

+l

7 + 13

+l
20

. , ,

13

:
2 ?
46

2 | , | / ,/ | :
/
? (. . . - --. . .)

25

16.

47

2=3 1=2 , ?
1=2 :

3
4

2
3

= =

( ).

16.

2; 4; 8; 16; ...
:
4=22
8 = 4 2 = 2 2 2 (3 )
16 = 8 2 = 2 2 2 2 (4 )
...
:
2 2 = 22
2 2 2 = 23
2 2 2 2 = 24
...
, , 26 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 64.
2, 4, 8, 16, ... : 2, 22 , 23 ,
2 , ... a n a n ( ) n - a ( ). a
, n | .
a 2 a 3 : a , a .
, a a 2 ,
a a 3 .
4

48

: () 210 ; () 103 ; () 107 ?

49

101000 ?

10 . ,

300000 / = 3 105 / = 3 108 / = 3 1010 /:

26

16.

50 ,
.
, 4 ?
( '
).




(
)






' 3 1022
' 6 106
' 4 108
' 1;5 1011
' 1026
' 6 1024
' 5 109
' 1;5 1010
' 6 109
' 2 109

.
: , ,
, 0;000015.
, ,
.

, . , 210 = 1024 1000 = 103


, 1000 ( 1000 , 1000 ), 1024: 1 =
= 1024 . ( | .)
51

220 ?

52

2100 .

2n
n .
53

0;3:
210 ' 100;310 ;

2n ' 100;3n :

27

17.

( 0;3, 0;30102...,
10.)
, , , :
370 000 2 100 000 = 7;77 1011 :
10 (
, ):
7:77

11

,
777 000 000 000
.

17.
2:
2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 64; 128; ...
, - (, 128), :
128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2:
, |
. :
128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2; 1;

1
2

; 14 ; 18 ;

1
16

...


2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 64; 128; ...
:
2; 22 ; 23 ; 24 ; 25 ; 26 ; 27 ; ...
:

128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2


27 ; 26 ; 25 ; 24 ; 23 ; 22 ; 2

, :
128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2; 1;

1
2

1
4

1
8

1
16

...

27 ; 26 ; 25 ; 24 ; 23 ; 22 ; 21 ; 20 ; 21 ; 22 ; 23 ; 24 ; ...

28

17.

. ,
23 = 8; 21 = 2; 20 = 1; 21 =

1
2

22 =

1
4

23 =

1
8

. .

, , 23 2, 3 , 25 | 2, 5 .
, , , 21 , 1

, 20 = 1 23 =
8
. , ( 1

n ) 2n n .
2
, . , | | .
54

() 101 ; () 102 ; () 103 .

:
1
1
1
1
1



( ,
)
( )

= 102
= 103
= 106
= 109
= 1010
' 3 1023
' 15{350 109
' 1031
' 7 107

, , .
:
, ' 6 103 ' 4 105 .
55 ,
? ( .)

, :

am

18.

an ,

29

n
a = a a ... a (n );
a = a1 ;
a 0 = 1:

56

an

n = 0?

, a n = n ? , a n a
, (, ,
) . - a n - ,
1

= n . | a
?! ,
(. ).
n


2a a a a b b b c c d
| 2a 4 b 3 c 2 d , a
2a a a a c
b

b b d

2a 4 b 3 c 2 d 1 .
57

a a a a a a a a a a b b b b ; ()
10 4
3 2
. () a b ; () 2a b
.
(a)

58

()

ab
3

2a a a
b

, :
; () a 2 b 7 .

()

b5

; ()

a2b 7

18.

am

an ,


a m a n , m n . ,

a 5 a 3 = (|a a {z
a a a}) (|a {z
a a}) = a 5+3 = a 8 :
5

30

18.

am

an ,

, a m a n = a m +n . , a m | a , m , a n | a , n . ,
n = 1 :

a a1 = a a = a
m

m +1

. ! , m = 5, n = 3 :

a 5 a 3 = a 5+(3) = a 2 :
:

a 5 a 3
a 5 a13 = a aa aa aa a = a 2 :

a 5 a 3 = a 5+3 = a 2 :
. ,
3

a 5 a 3 = a15 a 3 = aa 5 = a12 = a 2 :
,
,

m n

a 5 a 3 = a (5)+(3) = a 8 :
,

a 5 a 3 = a15 a13 = a18 = a 8 :


, . ,
( ) 0, a 0
. : ,

a a 0 = a +0 = a :
, a 0 = 1,
a a0 = a 1 = a :
m

59

m< 0, m = 0 m> 0?

60

an

m n

19.

31

19.

a a
m

= a m +n

:
, 2 107 3 1011 2 3
7 11:
(2 107 ) (3 1011 ) = (2 3) (107 1011 ) = 6 107+(11) = 6 104 :
(
10 2).
61

21001 2n = 22000 . n ?

62

21001 2n = . n ?

63

: 103 210 ?

64
65

21000
2n

1000

2n

= 2501 . n ?
=

1
16

. n ?

66

4100 = 2n . n ?

67

2100 3100 = a 100 . a ?

68

(210 )15 = 2n . n ?

, . ,
. ,
- , , -
a m +n = a m a n m n . , .
, n = 0 a m a 0 = a m +0 , . . a m a 0 = a m . , a 0 = 1. a n a n = a n +(n ) = a 0 = 1 ,
1
a n = n .
a

, ? ,
(a 2 )3 = |a 2 a{z2 a}2 = (a a ) (a a ) (a a ) = a 6 :
3

(a m )n = a m n

32

20. .

m , n . : ,
m n . ,
 1 3
1
1
1
1
(a 2 )3 = 2 = 2 2 2 = 6 = a 6 = a (2)3 :
a

69

( m> 0,
; ).

n < 0; m n

, , :
(ab )n = a n b n
70

n .
71
72


(a )775 : a 775 a 775 ?
 a n
? n ?

b

.
: , .
, 41=2 ? 271=3 ? -
?
73

, .

20. .


(a + b )(m + n ) = am + an + bm + bn
( ,
, ).
:
(a + b )(a + b ) = aa + ab + ba + bb:
, ab = ba
a 2 b 2 ,

aa bb

(a + b )(a + b ) = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ;

21. (a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

33

(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
74

: () 1012 ; () 10022 .

75 10 .
?

:
.
,
: | (a + b )2 ,
| a 2 + b 2 .

76

| ?

21.
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2


.
, .
( , , |
.)
- a . a | a 2 . , b . b | b 2 .
a 2 + b 2 .
a b .
a + b a + b | (a + b )2 . |
|
?
, .
a b ( ). ab . a | ba .
ab + ba = 2ab
. (a + b )2 a 2 + b 2
2ab . , (a + b )2 = a 2 + b 2 + 2ab .

34

22.

77 a + b
b a b .

a,

.
a

ba

ab

22.
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
(5 + 7)2 = 52 + 2 5 7 + 72



 1 2
1
1
= 132 + 2 13 +
;
13 +
3

, a b .
. , , a = 7, b = 5:
(7 + (5))2 = 72 + 2 7 (5) + (5)2 :
, , ,

(7 5)2 = 72 2 7 5 + 52
,

(a b )2 = a 2 2ab + b 2
:

78

=a

: () 992 ; () 9982 .

(a + b )2 = a 2 +2ab + b 2 (a b )2 =
2ab + b 2 () a = b ; () a = 2b ?

79
2

23.

35

23.
80

a + b a b .
:

(a + b )(a b ) = a (a b ) + b (a b ) = a 2 ab + ab b 2 = a 2 b 2
(ab ba ).
:

a 2 b 2 = (a + b )(a b )
81

101 99.

82 a b .
a b a + b .

b
a

( , ) .
83 , 2 , 1. ,
( ). ,

3 5 + 1 = 16 = 42 ;
13 15 + 1 = 196 = 142:

. n .
1,

n + 2. n (n + 2) = n 2 + 2n .
n 2 + 2n + 1 = (n + 1)2 ( ).

. n . 1,

n 2. n (n 2) = n 2 2n .
2
n 2n + 1 = (n 1)2 ( ).

.
, n .

36

23.

n 1, n + 1,
(n +1)(n 1)= n 2 1 ( ), . .
.
84

1, 2, 3, ...:
1; 4; 9; 16; 25; 36; 49; ...;

:
1

16

25

11

36

13

49

...

...

2. ?
2
. n n + 1 n
(n + 1)2 =
2
= n + 2n + 1. 2n + 1, n 1
2.
. , ( 3, 5, 7, 9, ...),
. .
85 , ,
5: 5, n ; n
n + 1 25. :

352 :

5, 3; 3 4 = 12,
25, 352 = 1225.
2
115 : 11 12 = 132, 1152 = 13225.
.

(a + b + c )2 .
2
2
. (a + b + c ) = (a + b + c )(a + b + c ) = a + ab + ac + ba +
2
2
2
2
2
+ b + bc + ca + cb + c = a + b + c + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc :
86

ab

ac

bc

ba

ca

cb

(a + b c )2 .
. .
87

24.

88

37

(a + b + c )(a + b c ).
.

89

(a + b + c )(a b c )
.

90

(a + b c )(a b + c ).
.

(a 2 2ab + b 2 )(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ).


.
91

(a b )2 (a + b )2 = ((a b )(a + b ))2 = (a 2 b 2 )2 = a 4 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 :


.

(a 2 2ab + b 2 )(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ) = ((a 2 + b 2 ) 2ab )((a 2 + b 2 ) + 2ab ) =

= (a 2 + b 2 )2 4a 2 b 2 = a 4 + 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 4a 2 a 2 = a 4 + b 4 2a 2 b 2 :

24.
(a + b )3 .
(a + b )3 = (a + b )(a + b )(a + b );
. ,
,
(a + b )3 = (a + b )2 (a + b ) = (a 2 + 2ab + b 2 )(a + b ):
,
a , b :
(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 )(a + b ) = a 2 a + 2ab a + b 2 a + a 2 b + 2ab b + b 2 b:
x m x n = x m +n
a , b ,

a 3 + 2a 2 b + ab 2 +
+ a 2 b + 2ab 2 + b 3 :

( ). . ,

(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3
92

113 .

38

25.

11 = 10 + 1.
1013 .

93

(a b )3 ?
3
. , (a b ) =
2
2
2
= (a b ) (a b ) = (a 2ab + b )(a b ) .
(a + b )3 b b :
94

(a + (b ))3 = a 3 + 3a 2 (b ) + 3a (b )2 + (b )3 ;

(a b )3 = a 3 3a 2 b + 3ab 3 b 3

( , ,
).

25.
(a + b )4 , . ,
:
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3
,

(a + b )1 = a + b:
, :
(a + b )1 = a + b:

(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

(a + b )3 = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3

(a + b )4 = ???

, . ? ,
. ? , a 4 . ?
. :
(1) a b ?
(2) ?
. ,
(a + b )1
(a + b )2
(a + b )3

a b,
a 2 , ab b 2 ,
a 3 , a 2 b , ab 2 b 3 ,

39

25.

,
(a + b )4

a 4 , a 3 b , a 2 b 2 , ab 3 b 4 .

| 1 , :
(a + b )1 = 1a + 1b:

(a + b )2 = 1a 2 + 2ab + 1b 2

(a + b )3 = 1a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + 1b 3
:
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
? ? ? ? ?
, , 1. , ,
4 ( 1, 2, 3)
1
1
1
1

1
2 1
3 3 1
4 ? ? ?

. (a + b )4 b
a , b 4 , a 4 ,
ab 3 , a 3 b :
1
1
1
1

1
2 1
3 3 1
4 ? 4 1

a 2 b 2 , |
. ,
:
(a + b )4 = (a + b )3 (a + b ) = (a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3 )(a + b ) =
=

a3 a +
+

a a +
3

3a 2 b a +

3ab 2 a +

b3 a +
3ab 2 b + b 3 b

a 3 b + 3a 2 b b +
3a 3 b + 3a 2 b 2 + ab 3 +
a 3 b + 3a 2 b 2 + 3ab 3 + b 4 :

(, , ) ,

26. (a + b )5 , (a + b )6

40

(a + b )4 = a 4 + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + b 4
; ,
a 2 b 2 , 6.

26. (a + b )5 , (a + b )6

(a + b )5

a 5 a 4 b a 3 b 2 a 2 b 3 ab 4 b 5

1 5

? ? 5

1:

| , | :
(a + b )5 = (a 4 + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + b 4 )(a + b ) =
=

a4 a +
=

+
5

4a 3 b a + 6 a 2 b 2 a +

a4 b
5a 4 b

+
+

4ab 3 a +

4a 3 b b + 6a 2 b 2 b +
10a

10a

b4 a +
4ab 3 b + b 4 b
5ab 4 + b 5 :

, :
1 1
1 2

1 3

1 4

4 1

1 5 10 10 5 1
, :
| : 1 + 4 = 5, 4 + 6 = 10,
6 + 4 = 10, 4 + 1 = 5.
, (a + b )5

26. (a + b )5 , (a + b )6

41

:
1... +4...

+6...

+4... +1... +

+1...

+4...

+6... +4... +1... =

= 1... +5... +10... +10... +5... +1...



1, (a + b )0 = 1.

1
5

1
4

1
3
10

1
2
6

1
3
10

1
4

1
5

1;

:
( , 1). ,

15

20

15

1;


(a + b )6 = a 6 + 6a 5 b + 15a 4 b 2 + 20a 3 b 3 + 15a 2 b 4 + 6ab 5 + b 6
(
[1623 { 1662] | ).
95

113 , 114 , 115 , 116 ?

96

(a + b )7 .

97

(a b )4 , (a b )5 , (a b )6 .

98 : ?
99

b = a?

(a + b )2 , (a + b )3 , (a + b )4 , (a + b )5 , ...

100

101

(a + b )2 , (a + b )3 , (a + b )4 , (a + b )5 , ...

b = a ?

42

27.

27.
, , .
. :

a 4 + a 3 b + ab 3 + b 4 ;
(5 7x )(x 1)(x 3) + 11;
(a + b )(a 3 + b 3 );
(a + b )(a + 2b ) + ab;
(x + y )(x y ) (y x )(y + x );
0;
(x + y )100 :

, , ,
. ,
(a 4 , , a a a a ). ,
, a 7 x y | .
, , . . . :
5 a 7 b a;
127a 15 ;
(2)a 2 b:

( | ,
2).
, : 5 a 7 b a 35a 2 b .
, | :
| . (
- ,
.) ,
. ,
(a + b )(a 3 + b 3 ) = aa 3 + ab 3 + ba 3 + bb 3 = a 4 + a 3 b + ab 3 + b 4 ;
(a + b )(a + 2b ) = a 2 + 2ab + ba + 2b 2 :

|
. , 2ab ba .
:
(a + b )(a + 2b ) = a 2 + 2ab + ba + 2b 2 = a 2 + 3ab + 2b 2 :

27.

43

102 (1 + x + y )(12 zx y ) .
.

(1 + x y )(12 zx y ) = 12 zx y + 12x xzx xy 12y + yzx + y 2 =


= 12 zx 13y + 12x zx 2 xy + yzx + y 2 :

( ).
, : , . ,
12 + (1)zx + (13)y + 12x + (1)zx 2 + (1)xy + 1yzx + 1y 2 :
( 1).

, () , .
, (1 + x + y )(12 zx y )
.
,
. :

[1x + (1)y ] + [1y + (2x ) + 1z ] =


= (1 + (2))x + ((1) + 1)y + 1z = (1)x + 0y + 1z = (1)x + 1z:
.
, :
(a 5 b 7 c ) (a 3 bd 4 ) = a 5+3 b 7+1 cd 4 = a 8 b 8 cd 4 :
. ,
(x y )(x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x 3 + x 2 y + xy 2 yx 2 xy 2 y 3 = x 3 y 3 :
( ; ,
, 1 1.)
103

(1 + x )(1 + x 2 ).

104

(1 + x )(1 + x 2 )(1 + x 4 )(1 + x 8 ).

105

(1 x )(1 + x )(1 + x 2 )(1 + x 4 )(1 + x 8 ).

106

(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 )2 .

44

28. : ?

107

(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ... + x 9 + x 10 )2 .

108

x 30 x 29

1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ... + x 9 + x 10

3

109

(1 x )(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + ... + x 9 + x 10 ).

110

(a + b )(a 2 ab + b 2 ).

(1 x + x 2 x 3 + x 4 x 5 + x 6 x 7 + x 8 x 9 + x 10 )
(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6 + x 7 + x 8 + x 9 + x 10 ).
111

28. :
?
-. : ,
( , , . .). :
,
. , : , , .
, ,
. ( ,
) ,
.
-, , : , . , -,
, :
, .
112

, ,
(x 1)(x 2)(x 3)(x 4) 6= (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4):

113

x = 1 ,


(x 2 1)(x + ...) = (x 1)(x + 3)(x + ...)

29. ?

45

, . ?
. x = 1 x = 3.
, ,
. ? -
, . ,
. , ,
.
114 (x +1)2 (x 1)2 x 2 +4x 1
1 1 x , . ?
. : x = 0.
| ( ,
).

, , .
, , , .
, , |
.
, , . ,
, a 2 b 2 (a b )(a + b ).

29. ?
115 , 4 ?
. 0:

x 3 + 4 = x 3 + 0x 2 + 0x + 4:
.
. (a + b + c + d ) (x + y + z + u ):
(a + b + c + d )(x + y + z + u ) = ax + ay + az + au +
+ bx + by + bz + bu + cx + cy + cz + cu + dx + dy + dz + du:
16 . , 16 (
).
116 , 4 , 16 ?

46

30.
.

: 16 . ,

(1 + x + x + x 3 )(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 ) = 1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + 3x 4 + 2x 5 + x 6 ;
2

16 7.
117 , ?
. .
. , ,
, .
.
118
? (, , .)
119 , , ?
. :

(x 2 + 2xy + 2y 2 )(x 2 2xy + 2y 2 ) = ((x 2 + 2y 2 ) + 2xy )((x 2 + 2y 2 ) 2xy ) =

= (x 2 + 2y 2 )2 (2xy )2 = x 4 + 4x 2 y 2 + 4y 2 4x 2 y 2 = x 4 + 4y 4 :

30.

1
4

1
3

1
2
6

1
3

1
4

(a + b )n :
(a + b )0
(a + b )1
(a + b )2
(a + b )3
(a + b )4

=
1
=
1a + 1b
=
1a 2 + 2ab + 1b 2
3
=
1a + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + 1b 3
4
= 1a + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + 1b 4

.
,
a b .
120

a = 1, b = 1?

31.

47

(1 + 1)0 = 1
(1 + 1)1 = 1 + 1
(1 + 1)2 = 1 + 2 + 1
(1 + 1)3 = 1 + 3 + 3 + 1
(1 + 1)4 = 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1
...
1 + 1 = 2, , .
121
, :

11=0
12+1=0
13+31=0
14+64+1=0
...
?
.

a = 1, b = 1.
122 (1 + 2x )200 , ( x ).
?
.
123

x = 1.

, 122, (1 2x )200 .

(1 + x y )3 .
?
124

125 (.) , y ?
126 (.) , x ?

31.
| , , .

48

31.

| | ( ). .
127

ac + ad + bc + bd .
ac + ad + bc + bd = a (c + d ) + b (c + d ) = (a + b )(c + d ).

128
129
130
131

ac + bc ad bd .
1 + a + a 2 + a 3 .
1 + a + a 2 + ... + a 13 + a 14 .
x 4 x 3 + 2x 2.

,
:

a 2 + 3ab + 2b 2 .
2
2
2
2
. a + 3ab + 2b = a + ab + 2ab + 2b = a (a + b ) + 2b (a + b ) =
= (a + 2b )(a + b ).
132

133
134

a 2 3ab + 2b 2 .
a 2 + 3a + 2.

, a 2 + 2ab + b 2 .
:

a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = a 2 + ab + ab + b 2 = a (a + b ) + b (a + b ) = (a + b )(a + b ):
135
136
137

a 2 + 4ab + 4b 2 .
a 4 + 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 .
a 2 2a + 1.

.
a 2 b 2 (
):

a 2 b 2 = a 2 ab + ab b 2 = a (a b ) + b (a b ) = (a + b )(a b ):
138

x 5 + x + 1.

x5 + x + 1 = x5 + x4 + x3 x4 x3 x2 + x2 + x + 1 =
= x 3 (x 2 + x + 1) x 2 (x 2 + x + 1) + (x 2 + x + 1) =
= (x 3 x 2 + 1)(x 2 + x + 1):

49

31.

, | , . .
a 2 b 2 = (a b )(a + b )
. a = b , a b = 0 (
). , . : a = b ,
a 2 = b 2 . , a + b = 0, a 2 = b 2 ( a = b
a 2 = b 2 : ).
139

a 2 = b 2 , a = b

a = b .

, , , | .
a 3 b 3 .
3
3
. a b , a = b .
, a b .
:
140

a 3 b 3 = a 3 a 2 b + a 2 b ab 2 + ab 2 b 3 =
= a 2 (a b ) + ab (a b ) + b 2 (a b ) = (a 2 + ab + b 2 )(a b ):
141

a3 + b 3.

a 3 + b 3 = a 3 + a 2 b a 2 b ab 2 + ab 2 + b 3 =
= a 2 (a + b ) ab (a + b ) + b 2 (a + b ) = (a 2 ab + b 2 )(a + b ):
, (b )
b .
142 a 4 b 4 .
.

a 4 b 4 = a 4 a 3 b + a 3 b a 2 b 2 + a 2 b 2 ab 3 + ab 3 b 4 =
= a 3 (a b ) + a 2 b (a b ) + ab 2 (a b ) + b 3 (a b ) =
= (a b )(a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 + b 3 ):
, :

a 4 b 4 = (a 2 b 2 )(a 2 + b 2 ):

a 4 b 4 = (a b )(a + b )(a 2 + b 2 )
.

50

31.

143
144
145
146

a5 b 5.
a 10 b 10 .
a 7 1.
a 2 4b 2 .

, 4 = 22 ,

a 2 4b 2 = a 2 22 b 2 = a 2 (2b )2 = (a 2b )(a + 2b ):
a 2 2b 2 .

, ,

2 1;4142
::: | ,
2, . . ( 2)2 = 2.
( a

, a .
a . , ;
.)
2 :

a 2 b 2 = a 2 ( 2b )2 = (a 2b )(a + 2b ):
2
, a 2 2b
, ,
2.
.
p 
p 
p 


a b = a 2 b 2 = a b a + b :


, a b ? , ,
a b | (

| , ).
a 2b ? ?
, | |

, . A 2 |
( ).
.

a 2 2.
148 a 2 3b 2 .
149 a 2 + 2ab + b 2 c 2 .
150 a 2 + 4ab + 3b 2 .
151 a 4 + b 4 .
( a b ,
(b ) b , .)
147

51

31.

: 2a 2 b 2 :

a 4 + b 4 = a 4 + 2a 2 b 2 + b 4 2a 2 b 2 = (a 2 + b 2 )2 ( 2ab )2 =

= (a 2 + b 2 + 2ab )(a 2 + b 2 2ab ):


.

. a n b n n ( a b ). n a n + b n
( b b ; a + b ).
a 2 + b 2 , a 4 + b 4 , a 6 + b 6 . .
.
152

a2

+ b 2n -

a 6 + b 6 = (a 2 )3 + (b 2 )3 .
, n , 1, 4 |
a + b ,
a2 + b 2.
a 2 + b 2 :

a 2 + b 2 = a 2 ( 1 b )2 = (a 1 b )(a + 1 b );
.

| 1 (. . ,
1) , .
, , , .
| , .
.
,

(2 + 3 1) (2 3 1)?
153

| .
154
155
156
157
158
159
160

x 4 + 1.
x (y 2 z 2 ) + y (z 2 x 2 ) + z (x 2 y 2 ).
a 10 + a 5 + 1.
a 3 + b 3 + c 3 3abc .
(a + b + c )3 a 3 b 3 c 3 .
(a b )3 + (b c )3 + (c a )3 .
, a , b > 1, a + b < 1 + ab .

52

32.
.

(1 + ab ) (a + b ).

, a 2 + ab + b 2 = 0, a = 0 b = 0.
3
3
. a b . ( , .)
161

162

163

a + b + c = 0, a 3 + b 3 + c 3 = 3abc .
1

+b +c

1
a

1
b

1
c

a , b , c
(. . a = b , a = c b = c ).

32.
( ,
). , , . ( : , ,
0.)
:
()

ab
c

()

a=b
b=c

()

1+

()

1+

1+

1+

()

y
y
x

+
+

y
z
z
y

+
+

1
x

z
x
x

+ 1;

()

+ x2 + x + 1
x

+1

()

1
1
a

1 
2

x2

, ,
| ,
x x
0.
, | .

53

33.

33.

. ,
, . ,
.
.
1.

| .

P
Q

PS
QS

R
S

PS
QS

QS

PS

QR

QS

PS

:
Q

4.

QR

R
S

P , Q, R ,

P Q S , a R S
+ QR
:
QS

Q ):

3.

2.

R
S

PR
QS

QR
QS

:
P

.R

PS
QR

,
:
PX
QX

P
Q

164 () { () ()
( () ()
).
.

()

ac
b2

()

()

1+

1
1+

x
x

+1

1
x

+1

2x + 1

;
1

1+

1+

1
1+

+1

=1+

x
x

+1

2x + 1
x

1+
1+

1
1+

1
x

3x + 2
2x + 1

+1

54

33.


x
y

()

y
x

z
y

z
x

x
z

+1=

(x 2 z + y 2 x + x 2 y )
(y 2 z

()

+ z 2x

2ab
a

+b

+ x 2y )

3x +2
2x +1

2x + 1
3x + 2

(x 2 z + y 2 x + x 2 y )=xyz
(y 2 z

+ z 2x

+1=

2
x z

+ x 2 y )=xyz

+1=

(x 2 z + y 2 x + x 2 y ) xyz
(y 2 z + z 2 x + x 2 y ) xyz

+ y 2x + x 2y + y 2z + z 2x + x 2y
y 2z

+ z 2x + x 2y

+1=

,
. ,
x

+ x2 + x + 1
x2

,
:
x

+ x2 + x + 1

(x + 1)(x

1)

(x + 1)(x 2 + 1)
(x + 1)(x

1)

+1

. , | ,

. ,
x

+1

+ x2 + x + 1
x2

x = 1,

. ,

.
, | . |
, , .
165


(x
(c

a )(x b )
(x a )(x c )
(x b )(x c )
+
+
:
a )(c b )
(b a )(b c )
(a b )(a c )

. ,
(c a )(c b )(b a ) (
b a , | c a ; ,

33.

55

b c = (c b )):
(x
(c

(x a )(x c )
a )(x b )
+
=
a )(c b )
(b a )(b c )
(x a )(x b )(b a ) (x a )(x c )(c a )
=
=
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )[(x b )(b a ) (x c )(c a )]
=
=
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )[xb xa b 2 + ab xc + xa + c 2 ac ]
=
=
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )[x (b c ) + a (b c ) (b c )(b + c )]
=
=
(c a )(c b )(b a )
(x a )(b c )(x + a b c )
=
:
(c a )(c b )(b a )

(c b ) = (b c ),
(x

a )(b + c a x )
:
(c a )(b a )

( ):
(x

a )(b + c a x )
(x b )(x c )
+
=
(c a )(b a )
(a b )(a c )
2
2
2
xb + xc xa x ab ac + a + ax + x xb xc + bc
=
=
(c a )(b a )
2
a + bc ab ac
a (a b ) c (a b )
(a c )(a b )
=
=
=
= 1:
(c a )(b a )
(c a )(b a )
(c a )(b a )

,
(x
(c

166

a )(x b )
(x a )(x c )
(x b )(x c )
+
+
= 1:
a )(c b )
(b a )(b c )
(a b )(a c )

x = a , x = b x = c .

, ,
.
, .
| ,
.
1

1
a

1
b

.

( , a b )
a b .
.

56

34.

167 , | a , b .
, , ?

168 , a ,
( ) | b .
, ? (
).
169
v2 . ?
170

x + x1 = 7. () x 2 + x12 ; () x 3 + x13 .
1
| . , x +

x

,
1

x +
x
n = 1, 2, 3, ... .
171

172

v1 , |

() 53, ,
1
1+

x
x

+1

1+

1
1+

+1

2x + 1

3x + 2

2x + 1
3x + 2

2x + 1

1+

1+
1+

1+

1
x

...

1+

1
1+

1+
1+

1
1+

1
x

, . (
; , . . 78.)

34.

,

.
, | . ( -

57

35.

. , ,
.) , 7x 2 + 3x + 1 7x 2 ,
2.
0 , 0.
173

(2x + 1)5 ?

174 m , n .
?
. m + n ( x m x n = x m +n ),
x m x n . ,
.
175 () 7
9? () 7?
. () 9; () , 7.

10 x
x y 7 + 5y 2 y 4.
( y )?
176

35.
, | , . |
, . ,
,

7
5

11
11

37
7

3
7

15

| .

, ; :
7=15+2
( 1, 2)

37 = 5 7 + 2
( 5, 2)

37

11 = 1 11 + 0
( 1, 0)

11

=1+

11

2
5

=5+

=1

2
7

7 5
5 1
2
37 7
35 5
2
11 11
11 1
0

58

35.

, | .
,
. ,
x

5x

+1

+1

10x

x2

x3

| , a

x
x

+1

+2

| .


() + ( ):
:
()
()
()

+3

+1

+2

(x + 1) + 2

(x + 2) 2

2x + 1

+1
+2

+ (1=2)
2x + 1

=1+
=1

+1

+2

1=2
2x + 1

.
.
1

1=2

2x + 1

( , ,
, | ,
. , , 1=2 |
0.)
()
()

x
x

x
x

2
4

=
=

(x 2 4) + 4
x

(x 4 16) + 16
x

(x + 2)(x
x

2) + 4
= (x + 2) +
2

(x 2 + 4)(x + 2)(x

16

2) + 16

4
x

= (x 2 + 4)(x + 2) +
.
x 2

, . :

x
x

x 2
x4
x 4 2x 3
x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + 8
3
2x
2x 3 4x 2
4x 2
4x 2 8x
8x
8x 16
16

59

35.

:
x
x

2x 3
2x 3
2x 3
2x 3 4x 2
4x 2
+
= x3 +
= x3 +
+
=
x 2
x 2
x 2
x 2
x 2
4x 2
4x 2 8x
8x
= x 3 + 2x 2 +
= x 3 + 2x 2 +
+
=
x 2
x 2
x 2
8x
8x 16
16
= x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x +
= x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x +
+
=
x 2
x 2
x 2

= x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + 8 +

16
x

, :

x 4 = (x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x + 8)(x 2) + 16:

x
x2

+ 2x

x +1

x3
+ 2x
x2 x + 1
3
2
x x +x
x +1
x2 + x
x2 x + 1
2x 1
:
x
x2

+ 2x

x +1

x2 + x
+
x +1

x2

x
x2

+x

=x +

+x

x2

x +1
x +1
2
x x +1
2x 1
=x + 2
+ 2
= (x + 1) +
x x +1
x x +1

2x
x2

x 3 + 2x = (x + 1)(x 2 x + 1) + (2x 1):

().

2x

x3
2x 3
x 3 (3=2)x 2
(1=2)x 2 + (3=4)x + (9=8)
2
(3=2)x
(3=2)x 2 (9=4)x
(9=4)x
(9=4)x (27=8)
(27=8)

1
:
x +1

60

35.

:
x

2x

(3=2)x 2
(3=2)x 2
1
(3=2)x 2 (9=4)x
(9=4)x
+
= x2 +
+
=
2x 3
2x 3
2
2x 3
2x 3


1
3
(9=4)x (27=8)
27=8
1
3
9
27=8
= x2 + x +
+
= x2 + x +
+
:
2
4
2x 3
2x 3
2
4
8
2x 3

x3 =

1

x 2 + 34 x + 89
2


27
(2x 3) + :
8

() = ( ) () + ()

0).

177 7 3?
. 4,
0, 1, 2 3; , (. .
0).
178 , ( ) .
. . , P S
Q1 Q2 R1 R2 .

P = Q1 S + R1 ;
P = Q2 S + R2 ;
R1 R2 , S .
Q1 S + R1 = Q2 S + R2
, ,

R1 R2 = Q2 S Q1 S = (Q2 Q1 )S:
R1 R2 , , S ( R1 R2 , S ).
R1 R2 = (Q2 Q1 )S -
: Q2 Q1 = 0, R1 R2 = 0, . . Q1 = Q2 , R1 = R2 .
,
? , 0,
.

35.

61

:
1234 11
11
112
13
11
24
22
2
1234 = 112 11 + 2

x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x + 4 x + 1
x3 + x2
x2 + x + 2
2
x + 3x
x2 + x
2x + 4
2x + 2
2

x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x = (x 2 + x + 2)(x + 1) + 2:

; ,
10 x . , ,

x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x + 4 x 1
x3 x2
x 2 + 3x + 6
2
3x + 3x
3x 2 x
6x + 4
6x 6
10

x 3 + 2x 2 + 3x + 4 = (x 2 + 3x + 6)(x 1) + 10
: x = 10,

1234 = 136 9 + 10, , , ,


1234 9 136, 10 (
137, 1).
179
180
181
182
183

x 3 1 x 1.
x 4 1 x 1.
x 10 1 x 1.
x 3 + 1 x + 1.
x 4 + 1 x + 1.

1
= x n 1 + x n 2 + ... + x 2 + x + 1;
1

x 1
n 1
+ x n 2 + ... + x 2 + x + 1.
x :

1 + x + x 2 + ... + x n 1 =

1
1

62

x a

36.

( x , 1). . .

184

1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32; 64; ...


: :
1 + 2 = 3 = 4 1;
1 + 2 + 4 = 7 = 8 1;
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 = 15 = 16 1
. . .
.
1 + x + x 2 + ... + x n 1 =

x = 2.
1 + 2 + 22 + ... + 2n 1 =

2n

21

1
1

= 2n 1:

. 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16,

1:

1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 = (1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (2 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (4 + 4 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (8 + 8 + 16) 1 =
= (16 + 16) 1 =
= 32 1:
.

36.

x a


x a ( a | ), .
, , x 4 x 2.
, | (
x 2). ,

x 4 = ( )(x 2) + ()

36.

x a

63

x = 2.
24 = (...) 0 + ();

. . 24 = 16.
, P | ,
x a ( a | ).

P = ( )(x a ) + ()
x = a . :

x x a ,
a x .
.
( ), .
:
,
x a , ,
a x .
, , . , P
x a , a | P .
185
186

n
n

x
x

x 1 ?
+ 1 x + 1 ?
1

,
, x a (a | ).
,
.
187

()


() x 4 + 3x 2 + 5x + 1;

x 4 + 5x 6;

x 3 3x 2.
P . ,
()

188 , 1 2 |
P
(x 1)(x 2).
. 1 P , P (x 1), P = (x 1) Q . x = 2, ,
2 Q , Q x 2, Q = (x 2) R .
P = (x 1)(x 2)R .
. : P x 1 (
1 | ) x 2 ( 2 | ), , P

64

36.

x a

(x 1)(x 2). : . ,
12 6 4, : , 12
6 4 = 24.
,
a1 , a2 , ... , an
P , P (x a1 )(x a2 )...(x an ).
189

5?
5 . ,

(x 1)(x 2)(x 3)(x 4)(x 5)


1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 5 . ,
P 5 6 a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , a6 ,

(x a1 )(x a2 )...(x a6 )
. .

P = (x a1 )(x a2 )...(x a6 )Q;

, 6.

. ,
-. ,
x 2 2x + 1? , x 2 2x + 1 = (x 1)2 ,
x = 1 , x 6= 1 | .
, , . ,
a b
c (x a )(x b )

x 2 2x + 1 = (x 1)2 = (x 1)(x 1)
a = b =1 ( c =1),

, .
,
, , ,
, n n
.
190

x 2 1?

65

37. , ,

P.

191

, 1 1 -

x 2 1?


(x
(c

(x a )(x c )
(x b )(x c )
a )(x b )
+
+
1 = 0;
a )(c b )
(b a )(b c )
(a b )(a c )

. 54 ( 1 ). a ,
b , c | .
x . 2.
( 0 ). a , b
c . , !
,
(
, : a = b , ) .
, | .

P ( x )
x 2 1 1, . .
ax + b . a b , P x = 1 x = 1?
.
192

P = (x 2 1)( ) + (ax + b )

x = 1 x = 1.

x 2 1
P x 1?
193

5x 7.

P = x 3 + x 2 10x + 1 (
), x1 ; x2 ; x3 .
, :
194

(a)

x1 + 1, x2 + 1, x3 + 1;

195

() 2x1 , 2x2 , 2x3 ;

()

x1

x2

x3

() a b , , + ax 2 + x + b x 2 3x + 2.

37. , ,
P | , () x .
, P (x ) ( ).
x - , , 6, -

66

37. , ,

. P (x ) x = 6
P (6) ( ).
, P (x ) = x 2 x 4, P (0) = 02 0 4 = 4.
: P (1) = 4, P (2) = 2, P (3) = 2, P (4) = 8, P (5) = 16, P (6) = 26
. .
196

197

P (x ) = x 3 2.

P (x ) = x 2 x 4:

P (0); ...; P (6)

P (0), P (1), P (2), ...

4; 4; 2;

2;

8; 16; 26; ...

:
4

16

10

26

...

...

:
4

2
2

8
2

16
2

10

26
...

...

...

. , ,
| .
198 , 2 .
199 .

200 P (x ) = x 2 + x + 41 (
. ) x = 1, 2, 3, ... , 10. , |
( , ).
, P (1), P (2), P (3), ... ?

, ,
- .
n ( )
, 0, 1, 2, ... , n .
, 1 ax + b . a 6= 0
1. a = 0, b 6= 0 0. a = b = 0
( ).
2 ax 2 + bx + c . .

37. , ,

201

P (2) = 5. P (x ).
.

P (x )

x = 1 x = 2.

| 1,

P (x ) = ax + b ,

67

P (1) = 7,

| .

P (1) = a + b = 7;
P (2) = 2a + b = 5:

, , a 7 5, a = 2, b = 9. : P (x ) = 2x + 9.
1,
x . , ,
y = ax + b | , :
, .

202 P (x ) 1
P (1) = 0 P (2) = 0. , P (x ) = 0 x .

2.
, ? , .
203 P (x ) = 0 2 , P (1) = 0
P (2) = 0. , P (x ) = 0?
. :

P (x ) = (x 1)(x 2) = x 2 3x + 2:
, P (x ), P (1) = P (2) = 0,
P (x ) = (x 1)(x 2)Q (x ), Q (x ) | .
P (x ) 2, Q (x ) .

204 P (x ) 2 , P (1) = 0, P (2) = 0,


P (3) = 4. P (x ).
. , P (x ) = a (x 1)(x 2)
a | . , x = 3:
P (3) = a (3 1)(3 2) = 2a = 4;
a = 2. : P (x ) = 2(x 1)(x 2) = 2x 2 6x + 4.
2
. 2 ax + bx + c .
x = 1, 2, 3, :
P (1) = a + b + c = 0;
P (2) = 4a + 2b + c = 0;
P (3) = 9a + 3b + c = 0:

68

37. , ,

3a + b = 0;
5a + b = 4:

2a 0 4, a = 2. b = 6, c = 4.
: 2x 2 6x + 4.
205 , 2 . , P (x ) Q (x ) | 2 P (x1 ) = Q (x1 ), P (x2 ) = Q (x2 ), P (x3 ) = Q (x3 )
x1 , x2 , x3 , P (x ) Q (x ) .
. P Q , R (x ) =
= P (x ) Q (x ). R (x1 ) = R (x2 ) = R (x3 ) = 0.
, x1 , x2 , x3 | R (x ). 2, , (
).

206

,
16a + 4b + c = 0;
49a + 7b + c = 0;
100a + 10b + c = 0:

a = b = c = 0.

, n
n + 1 . ( n = 2 .)
208 P (x ) 2, :
() P (1) = 0, P (2) = 0, P (3) = 4;
() P (1) = 0, P (2) = 2, P (3) = 0;
() P (1) = 6, P (2) = 0, P (3) = 0;
() P (1) = 6, P (2) = 2, P (3) = 4.
. () : 2(x 1)(x 2).
() (). : () 2(x 1)(x 3), () 3(x 2)(x 3).
207

(), .
:
2(x 1)(x 2) 2(x 1)(x 3) + 3(x 2)(x 3) =

= 2x 2 6x + 4 2x 2 + 8x 6 + 3x 2 15x + 18 = 3x 2 13x + 16:

( ()). - Q 2, Q (1) = 6, Q (2) = 2. ,


Q (x ) = 10 4x ( 1). Q Q (1) Q (2) , Q (3) = 2 | .

38.

69

P (x ) = Q (x ) + a (x 1)(x 2):
a , P (1) P (2) .
a P (3) :
P (3) = Q (3) + 2a = 2 + 2a:
P (3) 4, a = 3.
:
P (x ) = 10 4x + 3(x 1)(x 2) = 10 4x + 3x 2 9x + 6 = 3x 2 13x + 16:

P (x ) 3, P (1) = 2, P (0) = 1, P (1) = 2, P (2) = 7.


210 x1 , ... , x10 | , y1 , ... , y10 |
209

. , 9,
P (x1 ) = y1 , P (x2 ) = y2 , ... , P (x10 ) = y10 .
211

, ,

a , b c ,

( a ,

bc

100a + 10b + c = 18;37


36a + 6b + c = 0;05
4a + 2b + c = 3
, .)

P 1, P (1) = 0, P (2) = 0,
... , P (9) = 0, P (10) = 0.
P ? P (11)?
. 10; P (11) = 3628800.
212

P (3) = 0,

38.

3; 5; 7; 9; 11; ...
2 ;
10; 9; 8; 7; 6; ...
1 .
.
. ,
, , .

70

38.

213

?
2 1.

214

5; 2; ...
.

215

9.

1000-
2; 3; 4; 5; 6; ...


1; 2; 3; 4; 5; ...

1, 2, ... , 1000- 1000.


.
. 1001.
216 1000-
2; 4; 6; 8; ...
217

1000-
1; 3; 5; 7; ...

218 a ,
1000- ? n - ?
.

d.

1-
a
2-
a +d
3-
a + 2d
4-
a + 3d
5-
a + 4d
...
...
1000- a + 999d
...
...
n -
a + (n 1)d

219 d
. ? , ?

220 d
. ?
?

71

39.

221

, .

222 5,
8. ?
. 6;5.
223
?
. (a + b )=2.

a,

b.

224 a , b .
?
225


1; 3; 5; 7; ...; 993; 995; 997; 999:

. n - 2n 1. ( |
2, 4, 6, ... , 1000.)

39.
226


1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + ... + 999:

(. ).

n 1+(n 1) 2=2n 2+1=2n 1. 999 n =500.


500 . 250

(1 + 999) + (3 + 997) + ... + (499 + 501):


1000.
. 250000.
227 n a , (n -)
b . .
. , ,
n=2 , a + b .
.

228

n (a

+ b)

. -

. n . n
, () . n , ,

72

39.

S = 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11:
:

S = 11 + 9 + 7 + 5 + 3

S = 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11+
+11 + 9 + 7 + 5 + 3:
2 , 14:
3 + 11 = 5 + 9 = 7 + 7 = 9 + 5 = 11 + 3 = 14:
5 14

= 35.
2S = 5 14 = 70, S =
2
n ,
, . . a + b .

S = n (a 2+ b ) :
: , 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11, 5 14.

229

1 = 12 ;

1 + 3 = 22 ;

1 + 3 + 5 = 32 . .
.

40.

73

40.

3; 6; 12; 24; ...

2 .
6; 2;

2
3

; 92 ; 272 ; ...

3 . .
. ,
, , | .
230

?
2 1=3.

231


2; 3; ...

232

9=2.

1000- 3, 6, 12, ...

1-
3 = 3 20
2-
6 = 3 21
3-
12 = 3 22
...
...
1000-
= 3 2999
233 n - , a ,
q ?
.

1- a = a q 0
2- a q = a q 1
3- a q 2
4- a q 3
...
...
n - a q n 1

234 1,
4. ? ( .)
. 2, 2.

74

41.

235 30 , . 2 ?


1; 0; 0; 0; ...
? , :
, .
, (
, 0).
236 q 6= 0
. ?
. 1=q .

237 q . ?
?
238 , .
239 a ,
b . ?
. x , x=a b=x . x=a = b=x , ax , x 2 = ab .
ab < 0,
( );
ab = 0, x = 0; ab > 0, x = ab (.
).
. , x = 0 a = 0.
, |
.
, , a = 1 b = 0,
: x = 1 0 = 0.
240 1, 4- a> 0.
2- 3- ?
. . n - .

3
.
a 3 a2.

41.
241 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 512 + 1024 (
).

75

41.
.

1:
1 + 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 2 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 4 + 4 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 8 + 8 + ... + 1024 =
= 16 + ... + 1024 =
...
= 256 + 256 + 512 + 1024 =
= 512 + 512 + 1024 =
= 1024 + 1024 =
= 2048

2048 1 = 2047.
S :

S = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + ... + 512 + 1024:

2S = 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + ... + 1024 + 2048:

( ) 2048
1. :
2S S = 2048 1;

S = 2048 1 = 2047:

1 + , 1 + + , 1 + + + , ... ,

242
1

1024

1 + + + ... +

243
q . n .
.

a + aq + aq 2 + ... + aq

n 1

a,

= a (1 + q + q 2 + ... + q n 1 ):

1 = (q 1)(q n 1 + q n 2 + ... + q + 1);

,
1 + q + ... + q n 1 =

1
:
1

76

42.

,
n

a qq 11 :

S :

S = a + aq + ... + aq

q :

n 2

+ aq n 1 :

qS = aq + aq 2 + ... + aq 1 + aq :
aq , a ,
qS S = aq a;
(q 1)S = a (q 1);
S = a qq 11 :
n

244 .
?
. q = 1 :
1n

11

.
na . ,
q

1
= n;
1

q = 1:

( , ; ,
f (x ) = x n
!)

42.
245 1=2, 1=3, 1=5 ( ) ?
. ; 1=30.
246 2, 3, 5 ( )
?
. , . ,
q .

3 = 2q n ;

5 = 3q m

77

42.

m n .
q

3
2

; q

5
3

 3 m
2

= q mn =

 5 n
3

3m +n = 2m 5n . , | ,
m 6= 0. m = 0. ,

5 = 3q m = 3 1 = 3:
, 3 = 2q n 5 = 3q m
. , 2, 3 5
.
247 ,
3 2, 5 3 (
m n ). ?
248 2 , | ?
. : , | , | .
249 10 , | ?
. :

512; 256; 128; 64; 32; 16; 8; 4; 2; 1;

1
2

; 14 ; ...

250
?
. :
.
251

.
: 1, 1, 1.

252
, | ?

2 .

2 (. ).
253
2 ?

78

43.

254

1; 3; 7; 15; 31; ...

2 1. 1000- ?
1000
. 2
1.
255 , .
. . .
.

1+

256

1; 1; 2; 3; 5; 8; 13; 21; ...

: 1,
. A B , n -

 1 + 5 n
 1 5 n
A
+B
:
2

43.
, . ? ,
: ? , |
. ?
, | .
, . . .
, 440 ( 440 ;
),
.
. . ,
20 20 (
;
).
, , ,
| .
.

43.

79

| 50 , . . 50 (
, | 60 ). - , .
257 , .
, ?
.
258 (, ) , , . ,
?
259 33 45;
?
260 | ? ?
261 . ?
262 , | ?
,
, .
( )
. { (,
: = 2 : 3) { (, : = 3 : 4).
263 ,
.
, (
) | , .
264 { { () 440, 330 220. , (
) , ( 330)?
. , ,

440 : 330 : 220 = 330 : x : y:

440 : 330 : 220 = 4 : 3 : 2;

y = 330 (1=2) = 165,


{ { .

x = 330 (3=4) = 247;5.

, , :

80

43.

| , . ( )
2 . ,

...; 55; 110; 220; 440; 880; 1760; ...

2.
265 ,
? (, 20 20000 .)

, :
( 2), | , .

266 , ,
( ).
. 12 (7 5 ).
:
, | , . (
, | .) ] [ . , :
] = [.
267 , ?
. .


( ) :

] = flat ] = [ ] =
= [ ] = [ ] = [ ...

43.

81

,
|
.
, , .
268 , , .
. c , |
q . ] = [ c q , c q 2 :

] ] ] ] ]
cq cq 2 cq 3 cq 4 cq 5 cq 6 cq 7 cq 8 cq 9 cq 10 cq 11 cq 12


, cq 12 = 2c .

12
12
q = 2, q = 2.
. , ,
12 , 12 2 .
269 ( ,
).
.

2
12
2) = 6 2.
. (

, . , , .
: . , : { . , ,
:
]

=
]

270 x x x
( ) ?
.
, .

271 ;
, .

82

43.

. ] [ ;
, . :

, .
272 ,

12 2, ( ).
. ,

(12 2)7 . : (12 2)7 = 1;498...


3 : 2, ,
.
273 {
4 : 3, .
5
12
. (
2) = 1;3348...; 4=3 = 1;3333...

| (12 2)7 3 : 2 ? . ,
.
, , . ,

83

43.

, , . ,
( ), :
, ,
() .
? , ,
. , |
.
:
2:1
3:2
4:3
5:4

274 , | .
?
. 3 : 1.
275 , .

, . ,

q = 12 2. :

6 : 5 = 1;2
5 : 4 = 1;25
4 : 3 = 1;333...
3 : 2 = 1;5
8 : 5 = 1;6
5 : 3 = 1;666...
2:1=2


1;1892...
1;2599...
1;3348...
1;4983...
1;5874...
1;6817...
2

q3
q4
q5
q7
q8
q9
q 12

, | ,
.
, ,
.
18- (, |
) ,

84

44.

. , ( , ) | ,
, ,
.

, | .
. | 24 , . ,
| ,
, -
. , (
) | .
276

: , ,
12 ()? 13 7

?
13 2 7 2. , (3 : 2, 4 : 3
) .
277 , 7 () .
- 3=2 4=3?
12 .


, , 12 |
( ) .
, 12- ,
|
,
, , .

44.
( )
( , . 3, . 3):
... , , :
,

44.

85

, ; , . . .
.
, ,
,
1

1;

10

1
1
; 100
; 1000
; ...

1=10 ( ). ,
,
1+

1
10

1
100

1000

+ ...

,
( ) : , . .
, .

1. S :
1
1
S = 1 + 101 + 100
+
+ ...
1000

10S = 10 + 1 +

10

1
100

S = 109 :

9S = 10;

+ ... = 10 + S

2. :
1+
1+
1+

1
10

1
10

10
1

100

= 1;1
1

100

+
...

= 1;11
1

1000

= 1;111

1;111...

, , 1 ( 1=9 = 0;111...).
1
9

86

45.

3.
1 + q + q 2 + q 3 + ... + q n 1 =

1
:
q 1

q = 1=10, a n ( ).
q n ( n (1=10)n )
.
1 + q + q 2 + q 3 + ... =

1
1q

( ). ,
1

10

q = 1=10,


= .
0;9
9
4. , , .
, , S . , 10 ,
9

= S.
S=10, S
10
10
1, ,
(9=10)S = 1 S = 10=9.
S

10 .
, . ,
, , . .
1 + 10 + 100 + ...
, .
1 + q + q 2 + q 3 + ... =

1
1q

q = 10

1 + 10 + 100 + 1000 + ... =

1
1 10

1
9

278
, 1=9 - ?
. .

45.
, ,
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ;

87

45.

, a b .
. ( , ) ( , ).
, , , , : , . . ,
.
.
,
5x + 3 = 2 x + 7
: 2x + 3 ,

3x = 4
( , -
x , ). 3,

x = 43 :

: 5x + 3 = 2x + 7 :

x = 4=3.

+1

+2

=1
+1

. (:
=1, x +1= x +2, x +2
.) , .
, , , ,
. , |
, .
x

,
,

,

,

88

46.

46.

ax 2 + bx + c = 0
a , b , c | , x | .
279 x 2 3x + 2 = 0.
2
. x 3x + 2 = (x 1)(x 2). ,
(x 1)(x 2)=0; : x 1=0
(. . x = 1) x 2 = 0 (. . x = 2). :
x = 1 x = 2.
280 x 2 4 = 0.
281 x 2 + 2 = 0.
282 x 2 2x + 1 = 0.
283 x 2 2x + 1 = 9.
284 x 2 2x 8 = 0.
285 x 2 2x 3 = 0.
286 x 2 5x + 6 = 0.
287 x 2 x 2 = 0.

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

a 0,
bx + c = 0

x = bc :
288 , :
. ?

b =0

c=b

a 6= 0, a x 2 + ba x + ac = 0:

,
x 2 1.

47.

47.

p = 0.

89

x 2 + px + q = 0:

p = 0.

x 2 + q = 0:


() q = 0: x 2 = 0 x = 0.
() q > 0: , x 2 q 0.
() q < 0: x 2 = q ,
() q .
.
, c .

. ,

c > 0,
c
c.

, 0 0.

2 :

x 2 2 = (x 2)(x + 2):

c 2.

x 2 = c:

x 2 c = 0;

x 2 ( c )2 = 0;

(x c )(x + c ) = 0;

x = c x = c , -

2
:
? x = c , x = c
( x = c | ). , .

, ( , x 6= c ,
).
c
. , x 2 , x , . x , x 2 , x 2 .
x 2 = 0, . . x 2 c . x , x 2

90

47.

p = 0.

, x 2 > c x . , x 2 c ,
c . , -
c .
, .
, , ,
, ,
, | . (
).
289

m
2 6=
n

m n . ( , 2 ;
, | , .)

m
.
2 = . :
n
() m n ;

m
() m
()

( | m n | ,
m n 2,
() { ().)
.
:
2k , k | ;
2k + 1.

2k + 1
,
() 2 =
2l + 1
 2k + 1 2
= 2;
2l + 1

(2k + 1)2
(2l + 1)2

= 2;

(2k + 1)2 = 2 (2l + 1)2 ;


4k 2 + 4k + 1 = 2 (2l + 1)2 :
: ( ) + 1 = ( ).

48.

()

2=

2k
2l + 1

91

,


2

2k
2l + 1

= 2;

(2k )2 = 2 (2l + 1)2 ;


4k 2 = 2 (4l 2 + 4l + 1);
2k 2 = 4l 2 + 4l + 1:
: ( ) = ( ) + 1.

2k + 1
() 2 =
,
2l

(2k + 1)2 = 2 (2l )2 ;

4k 2 + 4k + 1 = 2 (2l )2 :
: ( ) + 1 = ( ).
, .

290 , 3 .
. 3k , 3k + 1 3k + 2.

2
,
x 2 = 0 x = 2
x = 2, , , .

2,

| 2 ,
2, . . x 2 2 = 0.

48.
291

,
p

a ,

b > 0.

ab = a b
p


, a b
ab , | | , ab :
p 2
 p 
a b = a 2 b 2 = a b:
.

292

,
r

a
b

a > 0, b > 0.

=
b

92

49.

x 2 + px + q = 0

293 , a 2 = a ?

. , :
a a 2 a .
: a 2 = |a |,
(
a; a > 0;
|a | =
a; a < 0:

1
1
7+
= 2 3;
, ()
() =
2
2+ 3
7 5

295 : 1001 1000 1=10?


p

296
3 + 2 2.

2
. 3 + 2 2 = 1 + 2 + 2 2 = 1 + ( 2) + 2 2 = (1 +
2) .

. 1 +
2.
294

297

32 2= 1+22 2=

2
1 + ( 2) 2 2 = (1 2)2 = 1 2:

2 < 0, 2 1.
. 1

49.
298

x 2 + px + q = 0

x 2 + 2x 6 = 0:
.

x 2 + 2x 6 = 0;
(x 2 + 2x + 1) 7 = 0;
(x + 1)2 7 = 0;
(x + 1)2 = 7;

x + 1 = 7 x + 1 = 7;

x = 1 + 7 x = 1 7:

49.

x 2 + px + q = 0

93

.
299

x 2 + 2x 8 = 0:
300

x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0:

 2  2
x 2 + 3x + 1 = x 2 + 2 32 x + 32 23 + 1 =




9
5
3 2
3 2
+1= x +
:
= x+
.

x + 32

x+2=
3

x = 2 +
.

5
4

5
4

2

5
4

;
r

x + 2 =
3

x = 2

5
4

5
4

x = 32

5
4

x 2 2x + 2 = 0.
2
2
2
. x 2x + 2 = (x 2x + 1) + 1 = (x 1) + 1. ,
2
(x 1) + 1 = 0 ,
1.
.
:
301

x 2 + px + q = 0;

 2   2
x + 2 p2 x + p2 p2 + q = 0;
x + p2

2

 p 2
2

q =

q:

,
, .

q -

94

50.

q > 0,
r

x + p2 =
x = p2

q;

q:

q = 0,

x = p2 :

q < 0, .

x1 2 = p2
;

q = 0

q;

x1 x2 (

0),
q < 0 . (
4
,
, .)
p

q , ,
D =
4
, .
p

50.
.
() ,

x 2 + px + q = 0

+ = p;
= q:
:
,


x 2 + px + q = (x )(x ):

x 2 + px + q = 0

| ,
(x )(x ) = x 2 ( + )x + ;

95

50.

x 2 + px + q (x )(x ) ,
.
. ( )

= p D; = p + D;
2

D = p4

q . :

= p2 + D; = p2 D;
.

+ = p2 D p2 + D = p

 p  p   p 2
2
D + D =
D =
2

D =

+ q = q:

.
( ) . , P (x )
, :

P (x ) = (x )(x )R (x )
, P 2, R

( ),
1, x 2 x 2 + px + q
(x )(x ) . ,

x 2 + px + q = (x )(x );

.
302 , ? ?
303

( )

x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0
() , , . ,
+ + = p;
+ + = q;
= r:

96

50.

x 2 + px + q = 0 x1 x2 . x12 + x22
p q .
2
2
2
2
2
2
. x1 + x2 = x1 + 2x1 x2 + x2 2x1 x2 = (x1 + x2 ) 2x1 x2 = p 2q .
304

x 2 + px + q = 0 x1 x2 . (x1 x2 )2
p q .
2
2
2
2
2
. (x1 x2 ) = x1 2x1 x2 + x2 = x1 + 2x1 x2 + x2 4x1 x2 =
2
2
= (x1 + x2 ) 4x1 x2 = p 4q .
. x1 x2 | ; ,
 p2


, 2 D , (x1 x2 )2 = 4D = 4
q = p 2 4q .
305

306

x 3 + px 2 + qx + r = 0 ; ; .
( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2

p , q , r . ( p , q , r
. , ,
.)

x 2 + px + q = 0
+ ry + s = 0 y1 y2 .
307

x1 x2 ,

(y1 x1 )(y2 x1 )(y1 x2 )(y2 x2 )


p , q , r , s . (
; , .)

. , , : .
, . | ,
p = ( + ), q = , x 2 + px + q = 0 .
. (x )(x ) = 0, ,
. , , x 2 + px + q = 0.

,
4 7 .

. 4 +
7.
308

p , q x 2 + px + q = 0, , . ,
() | ;
() | ;
() n - n |
.
309

51.

97

, a + b 2 (a , b | )

k + l 2 k , l .

311 (a + b 2)n
n > 1.

312 (a + b 2)n k + l 2.

(a b 2)n ?
310

313 , a , b ,
a 2 2b 2 = 1.
2
2
. a 2b = 1 a = 3, b = 2,

2
2
3 2 2 =1.
2)(3 2 2)=1.
n :(3+2

n

n
-
:
(3
+
2
2)
(3

2
2)
=
1.

(3
+
2
2)n

k + l 2 k l , (3 2 2) k l 2. ,

(k + l 2)(k l 2) = k 2 2l 2 = 1;

. . k , l | .

, (3 + 2 2)2 = 9 + 8 + 12 2 = 17 + 12 2. :
172 2 122 = 289 2 144 = 289 288 = 1:
314 , x 2 + px + q = 0
, q < 0.
. , q , , 0. ,
0, | . , , ,
2

D = q : q < 0, D > 0.
4
: q < 0, x 2 + px + q
x = 0 . x
(x 2 px + q ) | , -
, . (
.)
p

51.

315

2x 2 + 5x 3.

2x 2 + 5x 3 = 2

x 2 + 52 x 32 :

98

52.

x 2 + 52 x 23 = 0:
5

x1 2 = 4
;

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 6= 0)

25
16

+ =

49
16

= ;

x1 = 3, x2 = 12 . ( , . 94)
x 2 + 52 x 32 = (x (3)) x 12




1
= (x + 3) x
2

2x 2 + 5x 3 = (x + 3)(2x 1):
1

316

2x 2 + 2x + .

317

2a + 5ab 3b 2 .

 a2

a
2a 2 + 5ab 3b 2 = b 2 2 2 + 5 3 :
b


x 2x 2 + 5x 3 =
b
= (x + 3)(2x 1), b
,
 a

a
+ 3 2 1 = (a + 3b )(2a b ):
... = b 2
a

, a 2 + ab + b 2 = 0, a = b = 0.
2
2
. a + ab + b = 0, a 6= 0. ( b 6= 0 .)
2
a , 1 + (b=a ) + (b=a )2 = 0. ,
318

x = ba

1 + x + x 2 ,
( 1 4 = 3 < 0).

52.

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 6= 0)

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 a ,
x 2 + ba x + ac = 0:

x 2 + px + q = 0

99

53.

x1 2 = 2a
b

p = ba , q = ac .

r

2a

2

2a

4 =

4ac
4a 2
b

2a

b2

4ac

2a

b2

2a

4ac

D = b 2 4ac

ax 2 + bx + c = 0:

, . D = 0,
. D < 0, .
319

4ac
4a 2

b2

b2

4ac

4a 2

4ac

2a

, , 4a 2 2a , |2a |.
?
320 , ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x1 x2 .
cx 2 + bx + a = 0?
2
2
. ax + bx + c = 0 x ;
 2
 
a + b + c2 = 0 c 1 + b 1 + a = 0;
x

cx 2 + bx + a = 0.
. , x1 6= 0, x2 6= 0. x1
x2 , ( ) c cx 2 + bx + a

. .

x1

x2

53.

x1 2 =
;

b2

2a

4ac

100

54.

. , , : c 6= 0,

x1 2 =
;

2c

b2

4ac

: x | ax 2 + bx + c = 0
y = 1=x cy 2 + by + a = 0,

y1 2 = b

b2

4ac

2c

c 6= 0, x 6= 0

x1 2 = y 1
;

321

1;2

2c

b2

4ac

,
b

b2

4ac

2a

2c

b2

4ac

( ,
).

54.
ax 2 x + 1 = 0.
, D =1 4a> 0, . . a< 1=4.
?
, a = 0 x + 1 = 0,
x = 1.
322

, a = 0 ,
. . -
: - ax 2 x + 1 = 0,
, a , , a
. ?
,
:

x1 2 = 1 21 4a :
;

a ,

1 4a 1,

x1 = 1 + 21 4a 1 +2 1 = 1;

101

55.

2
x2 = 1 21 4a = ,
;

. . . , a x1 1, x2 |
.
, .
a

= 1=4

hx; a i, ax 2 x + 1 = 0, ,
, a = (x 1)=x 2 . ( ; .)
ax 2 x + 1 = 0 a , , a , . , ,
. ( a > 1=4) | . ( a = 1=4) (x = 2),
( a 1=4).
, a
0, ,
.

a?
a?

323

x 2 x a = 0

324

x 2 ax +1=0

55.
y = x 2 ,
, .

102

2
x

1=

= 2x 2

55.

y = x 2 ( ) . y = ax 2 (
a | ) y = x 2 ( a > 1)
( 0 <a< 1) : a ,
; a , .
y = 2x 2 (
y = x 2 ) y = (1=2)x 2 ( ).

a < 0 (
y = x 2 , y = x 2 ).
y = x 2 + c y = x 2 c (, c > 0,
|c |, c < 0).
( c = 1).
y = ax 2 + c y = ax 2 .
, -.
1

y = x 2 y = (x + 1)2
2
2
(. ). x = 3. 1

(x + 1)2 (2)2 , . . ,

1
2

1 2
2

x = 2.

(x + 1)2

103

55.

1 2
,
2

x .
y

y
y

1=

(x

1=

2
x

1)

3 2 1

y = 21 (x + 1)2

y = 12 x 2 1. , y =
1
1
= x 2 , y = (x + 1)2 1.
2
2
1
1
2
: y = (x + 1) , y = x 2
2
2

1.

, y = a (x + m )2 y = ax 2
m ( m > 0; m < 0 |m |).
,

y = a (x + m ) 2 + n
y = x 2 :
() a | y = ax 2 ;
() m | y = a (x + m )2 ;
() n | y = a (x + m )2 + n .
( ) y = a (x + m )2 + n .
. (m; n ).
325

326 (), () ()?


, y = x 2 ,
, , ( (), (), ())?
2
. . x + n (), 2
2
(x + m ) + n () , , a (x + m ) + an ().
an n .
327 (), () () .
,
?

104

56.

, a (x + m )2 + n
:

ax 2 + bx + c = a x 2 + ba x


=a

2a

x 2 + 2 2ba

+c =
 b 2 
x +

2a

m , 4ba + c

2 

2a

+c =a

x + 2ba

2

4a

+ c:

n , .

a , b c , y =
ax + bx + c ?
. a> 0 , a< 0 | (. ).
328

a >

0
a <

b=a (
). b , a . c ,
( ax 2 + bx + c c x = 0).
. b : -, b ;
-, b .
:
f (x ) = ax 2 + bx + c x , 0, f 0 (x ) = 2ax + b ( b x = 0) .

56.
329

x 2 3x + 2 < 0.

57.

105

: ,
.
. :

x 2 3x + 2 = (x 1)(x 2):
0 x = 1 x = 2; x > 2
; 2 (1; 2) , ;
1 :
+

1 < x < 2.

)( x

=(
x

y = (x 1)(x 2). x = 1 x = 2 ;
.

57.

330 1. ?
. x ,
1 x , x (1 x ) = x x 2 . x 2 + x
( x 2 ), x = 0 x = 1,

, ,

 1
1
1
1
= .
2

4
1
4

x = 21 ,

106

57.
.

1
2

1
2

x ,
1
 1
 1
+x
x = x 2;
2

,
1

+ x ,

x =0

).

331 ,
.
332 ,
.
. .
2

x +
x
x ?
. , c > 0 c 333

x + x2 . , ,
x + x2 = c

.
c
x 2 + 2 = cx

. ( , 02 + 2 6= c 0,
x ).
x 2 + 2 = cx , , x 2 cx + 2 = 0 ,

 2
D = c2 2
 c 2
> 2, . .
, . .
2

c
c
> 2
6 2:
2

x+x

= c

2
x

x + x.

x + x2

c >2

2.
2 2.

c 6 2

| 2,

, |

107

58.

(. ), . . x = ,
x

2
x x + 2 2.

x 2 = 2, x =

2.

58.
x 4 3x 2 + 2 = 0.
2
. x | , y = x 2
y 3y +2=0 | . ( y )

334

y1 2 = 3
;

98

31
2

. . y1 = 1, y2 = 2.
x , x 2 = 1
x 2 = 2, 4 :

x = 1; x = 1; x = 2; x = 2:
(
ax 4 + bx 2 + c = 0).
335 ( ): () ; () 1 ; ()
2 ; () 3 ; () 4 ; ()
5 .
(. .)
336

ax 6 + bx 3 + c = 0?
. , a , b c .
.

337

0, 1, 2 .

ax 8 + bx 4 + c = 0:
59.
338


2x 4 + 7x 2 + 4x 2 + 7x + 2 = 0:

108

59.

. , x = 0 .
, x 2 :

2x 2 + 7x + 4 +

7
x

2
x2

= 0:

x :




1
1
2 x2 + 2 + 7 x +
+ 4 = 0:
x

x 2 + x12

x + x1

2

x + x1 :

= x2 + 2 x

1
x

 1 2
x

= x2 +

1
x2

+ 2;

x 2 + x12 = x + x1


2

2:
1

, x , y = x +
x

2(y 2 2) + 7y + 4 = 0;
:
2y 2 4 + 7 y + 4 = 0 ;
2y 2 + 7y = 0;
y (2y + 7) = 0;

y = 0 y = 7=2.
x ,

x + x1 = 0

x + x1 = 72 :

x + x1 = 0 x 2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = 1
x + x1 = 72

( );

( ,

x 2 + 1 = 72 x;

x 2 + 72 x + 1 = 0;

:
7

x1 2 =
;

49
4

x 6= 0)

33

60. .
.

x1 = 7 4

33

; x2 = 7 +4

33

109

60. .

. .
1. | ,
,
3x 2 + 2x 10 = 0

2 4 + 120

( x1;2 =
6
2.
, x = y 2 + y 1:

2 124

1 31

=
=
).
6
3
- , -

x 2 = (y 2 + y 1)(y 2 + y 1) = y 4 + 2y 3 y 2 2y + 1;
3x 2 + 2x 10 = (3y 4 + 6y 3 3y 2 6y + 3) + (2y 2 + 2y 2) 10 =
= 3y 4 + 6y 3 y 2 4y 9:
3.
3y 4 + 6y 3 y 2 4y 9 = 0:

4. 10 { 15 .
5. , , .
6. ,
, ,
:
3y 4 + 6y 3 y 2 4y 9 =

= (3y 4 + 3y 3 3y 2 ) + (3y 3 + 3y 2 3y ) (y 2 + y 1) 10 =
= 3y 2 (y 2 + y 1) + 3y (y 2 + y 1) (y 2 + y 1) 10 =

= 3(y 2 + y )(y 2 + y 1) (y 2 + y 1) 10:

y 2 + y 1 x ,
3(x + 1)x x 10 = 0;
3x 2 + 3x x 10 = 0;
x1 2 =
;

1 31
3

110

61.

+y 1=

1 + 31
3

+y 1=

1 31
3

, , !
| | : , ,

x2 + x 3 = 0

x 2 + 2x 1 = 0

:
(x 2 + x 3)(x 2 + 2x 1) = x 4 + 3x 3 2x 2 7x + 3 = 0:
(x 4 + 3x 3 2x 2 7x + 3 = 0)
. ,
.

61.
a | ,

| .) , a > 0 |
x , x 3 = a .

. n - a n a .

a . ( : a

. n - a x , x n = a . ( ,
n | ).

.
. , ?
. x , n - x n ( n , ).
n - .

. , x , x n = a , ?
. .

n
. n , a n - a .
?
. .

111

61.

. n , a x , x n = a . , (2)3 = 8. ,
8 2?
. ,
.

10
339 :
2 1;2?

340 7 0;999 .

3
341 : 2
3?

3
4
342 :
3 4?
p

343 :
2 4 2?

344 1 a ?

1
a = a ( a > 0).
.

.
345

,
p

ab = a b
p

a > 0, b > 0.

, ,
p
(n a n b )n = ab:

(xy )n = x n y n

( x = n a , y = n b )
p

p
(n a n b )n = (n a )n (n b )n = ab:
346

,
r
n

a
b

= n

a > 0, b > 0.


 x n x n
= n
y

112

61.

347

,
r
n

1
a

= n

a > 0.
348

,
p

a , b ,

abc = a b c
p

c > 0.

abc =

p
(ab )c = n ab n c = n a n b n c:

. ,
, . .

349

= (n a )m

a > 0.

= n |a a {z
... a} = n a n a ... n a = (n a )m :
|
{z
}
m

.
350 349 . .
. , m> 2. m = 0 1 . m . , ,
m = 3.
r

n
n

3
a = 13 = n1 3 = n1 3 = (n a )3 :
a

351

a)

a=
a
m n a .
mn

, ,
 q mn
m n
a = a:

113

62.

,
 q mn
m

352

 q m n
m

mn

(m ,

= (n a )n = a:

=m a

n > 1, a > 0).


353

a b =a b
(n | , a > 0, b > 0).
n

62.

: ( 345 { 353) ,
,

a = a1 2;

a = a1 3;

a = a1 4
=

. .

, ( )

(n a )n = a

a1

=n

n

=a


(a p )q = a pq

p = 1=n , q = n .
q

a= a
mn

a1

=m

1=n

= a 1=mn

p = 1=m , q = 1=n .

354 345 { 353 ( ).

114

62.

,
1=n (
).
. n > 1 a > 0

a 1=n = n a:
, . , ,

a 1 3 a 1 3 = a 1 3+1 3 = a 2 3
( a a = a + m = n = 1=3). ,
2 3
a 2 3 . ,
(a 1 3 )2
a
1
a
(a ) , , ( a ) .
. m n a
=

m=n

=n

m=n

m=n

= (n a )m :

.
,

a 10=15 (15 a )10


a 2 3 (3 a )2
10=15 = 2=3 a 10 15 a 2 3 .
=

, ,

(15 a )10 = (3 a )2 :
355

 q 5 2

5 3
(35 a )25 =
a
= (3 a )2 :
356 , m=n
a m=n .
. . , 10=15
5.

, , , ( ).

115

62.

357

a a
p

= a p +q

p q .
. , , p = 2=5,
). ,

q = 3=7 ( -

a 2 5 a 3 7 = a 2 5+3 7 :
=

2=5 3=7 :
2
5

14
35

3
7

15
35

a 2 5 = a 14 35 ; a 3 7 = a 15 35 ;
=

a 2 5 a 3 7 = a 14 35 a 15 35 = (35 a )14 (35 a )15 =

= (35 a )14+15 = a (14+15) 35 = a 14 35+15 35 = a 2 5+3 7 :


=

358

,
(ab )m=n = a m=n b m=n :

359

(a p )q = a pq

p q .
. q | , p = m=n .

(a p )q = (a m=n )q = ((n a )m )q = (n a )mq = a mq=n = a pq :


q = 1=k

k , p = m=n .
q

k
k
(a p )q = (a m=n )1=k = a m=n = (n a )m :

n a b , :
 q m

k
k
k
n
... = b m = ( b )m =
a = (kn a )m = a m=kn = a (m=n )(1=k ) = a pq :

, q = l=k

(a p )q = (a p )l=k = (k a p )l = ((a p )1=k )l = (a p=k )l = a pl=k = a pq :


,
(a p )1=k = a p 1=k ;

116

63.

(a p=k )l = a p=k l :

( .)
, a > 1 a p p ,
0 < a < 1 a p p .
. . , p (
).
360

a x
. ,
2

x,

p=q
,

2
p=q
p=q< 2 2 p=q> 2. (,
, .)

361 1=2 a 1=2 a ?

1=2
. ,
a = a 2 , 1=2 a = a 2 .

63.

, . , ,
.
362

,
1
2

1
1
1
< 101
+
+ ... +
< 1:
102
200

100

363

1
100

1
200

,
1

1
1
< 1 12 + 31 41 + ... + 199

< 1:
200

,

 1 1
 1

1
1
1
+

+ ... +

1
100

, ;

, 1.

1
200

199

200

117

63.

( 1=2, ).
,
1
.

,
1
101

364

1
2

1
3

1

1
5

...

1
198

199

1
200

1
102

+ ... +

1
200

199

= 1 + + ... +

1
200

1
101


 

1
1
1
1
1
1
= 1 + + + ... +
1 + + + ... +
=
200
2
3
200
2
3
100




1
1
1
1
1
1
1
= 1 + + + ... +
+ + + ... +
2
=

+ ... +

200

200

199

= 1 + + ... +

365

1
200

, (1;01)100 > 2.

(1;01)100 = (1 + 0;01)(1 + 0;01)...(1 + 0;01)


|
{z
}
100

, ? 1 ( ). , ,
0;01, | . 100, 0;01. ( 0;012 , 0;013 . .),

1 + 100 0;01 = 2:

118

63.
.

1;012 = 1;0201 > 1;02;

1;013 = 1;012 1;01 > 1;02 1;01 = (1 + 0;02)(1 + 0;01) =


= 1 + 0;02 + 0;01 + 0;02 0;01 > 1;03;

1;014 = 1;013 1;01 > 1;03 1;01 = (1 + 0;03)(1 + 0;01) =


= 1 + 0;03 + 0;01 + 0;03 0;01 > 1;04;
1;015 > 1;05;

1;016 > 1;06;


...

1;0199 > 1;99;

1;01100 > 2:

366

16

1+ + +

+ ... +

< 2:

1002

1
4
1
9
1

22
1

16

1
1002

32
1
42

< 1 1 2 = 11 21 ;
< 2 1 3 = 12 31 ;
< 3 1 4 = 31 14 ;
...

1
< 99 1100 = 991 100
:

( )
1

16

1+ + +

+ ... +

1
1002

<


 
 


< 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + ... +
2

1
99

1
100

(1=2 1=2, 1=3 1=3) ,


1 + 1

100

, 2.

367

: 10002000 20001000 ?

368

,
1

1 000 000

1 + + + ... +

< 20:

119

64.

1 + + + ... +

> 20:


1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+
+
+
+ + +
+
+

1
2

1
10

+ ... +

1
16

+ ...

1=2 1 (. ).

64.

+b

a b
.
2
,
a b :
a

(a + b )=2

b
x

(b

a )=2

.
, , a<b , . . a b .
b a ; a ,
369

a + b 2 a = 2a +2b a = a +2 b :
a 7. a ?
a b
: ab . ( a b , a b ab
370


. ,

ab ,

ab a b .)
371

a 7. a ?

372 ,
a b ? ,
a b ?

120

65.

373 ,
. ?
.

a; [ a b ]; b
,

a; [ a b ]; b
.
:
a , b ; a , b .

65.

374

ab

ab 6 a +2 b :


,
2

2
ab 6 a + b = (a + b ) :
.

ab

+b
2

, , 4ab 6 (a + b )2 ,
4ab 6 a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ;
0 6 a 2 2ab + b 2 :

(a b )2 , ( ).
375 ?
. , a b
, (a b )2 = 0, . . a = b .

66.

121

66.
376 ()
, c ? ()
?
. () c=2,
c=2, (. . )
c 2 =4. , .
() 0. ,
0, c .
377
,
c > 0?
.
c ,

c , 2 c . ,
.
| , , .
. , ,

.

378 ,
120 ?
379
, , 120 ? (
!)

240, , 60, 3600. 1800,


30, 60 30.

122

67.

380
| , a + 2b = 3?

ab , a

. a b ,
a 2b | , ,
. . a = 2b = 3=2. , ab

3
2

3
4

9
8

67.
. .
.

ab 6 a +2 b

ab 6 a + b

, ,
4ab 6 (a + b )2 :
, a b
a + b
, a 6= b (. ).
a

b
a
a
b
b

381

.
.
a b .

123

67.

22222

b
=
b
=
2
b
=
2
b
=
b
b
=
b=
=2
2
b
=
22
b
=
2
b
=

a =2

a 2 =2
a b ,

b 2 =2.
ab 6 a

+ b2
2

d a b :

c d 6 c +d :

. ,
- :

22222bbbbbbbbb
33333 b bbbbbbbbbb

a =3
a

|
. , y = x 2 ( )
3
a 3 =3 b b ,
2

ab 6 a3

2
3

b b;

a b.

124

68.

68.
+b +c

;
a , b , c
3

3
| abc ( , a , b , c > 0).
: n
a1 , ... , an
a

a1

+ ... + an

n
a1 a2 ... an :

a1 , ... , a

n
a1 a2 ... an 6 a1 + ... + an :
n

, ,
.

, .
382 , ,
,

a1 + a2 + ... + a

a1 a2 ... a

a1 , ... , a

| -

6 n;

6 1:

a1 + ... + a

6n

a1

+ ... + an
n

61

a + ... + an
n a1 a2 ... an 6 1
6 1 a1 a2 ... an 6 1:
n


( ).

383 , n
, .

384 , n , .

125

68.

, ( ). |
.
385 n = 4.
. 4 a , b , c , d .
, (, , ). |
, . .

1.

ab

+b
2

a; b; c; d a +2 b ; a +2 b ; c; d:
. ( , a = b ): c d ,
(a + b ) , .
2. c d :
a

+b
2

; a +2 b ; c; d a +2 b ; a +2 b ; c +2 d ; c +2 d :

, ( , c = d ).
3. ,
:
a

+b
2

; a +2 b ; c +2 d ; c +2 d

+b +c +d
4

; a +2 b ; a + b +4 c + d ; c +2 d :

4. :
a

+b +c +d
4

; a +2 b ; a + b +4 c + d ; c +2 d

+b +c +d
4

; a + b +4 c + d ; a + b +4 c + d ; a + b +4 c + d :

a; b; c; d

S; S; S; S;

S = (a + b + c + d )=4 | ,
( ):

a b c d 6S S S S

126

68.

abcd 6 S:

.
386 , ,
.
. , , .
387 n = 8?
. : ,
| ,
.
388 n = 3.
. a , b , c , :

a; b; c; abc;

:
q

4
a +b +c +
abc
3
abc abc 6
:
4

,
, ,
3
abc
. , ()

4
3
abc abc 3 abc ,
:
4q
4

abc 3 abc = abc 3 abc

abc )4 = (3 abc )3 3 abc = abc 3 abc:

+b +c +

abc
abc 6
;
4

3
3
4 abc 6 a + b + c + abc;

3
3 abc 6 a + b + c;

3
abc 6 a + b3 + c :

127

68.

.
389
n = 7.
390

n = 8, -

n = 6.
.

n > 2.
n = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ... , .
392 , , .
391

-.
, a1 , ... , an
| , | ,
.
. , ,
, 1.
:

a1 ; ...; a

> 0;

a1 + ... + a

=n

a1 ...a

6 1:

n .
1. n = 2 : 2,
(1+ h ) (1 h ) (1+ h )(1 h )=
= 1 h 2 6 1.
2. n =3. a; b; c
3. 1, , 1,
, 1. , a < 1, b > 1. a 1 < 0,
b 1 > 0
(a 1)(b 1) = ab a b + 1
, . .

ab + 1 < a + b:

(a + b ) + c = 3;

ab + 1 + c < (a + b ) + c = 3

128

68.

ab + c < 2:
-: ab c , 2, ,
1. .

: ,
2, 1.
2. : ,
2 | .

n = 4: ,
a; b; c; d > 0; a + b + c + d = 4; abcd 6 1:
(, a ) 1,
(, b ) 1.
ab + 1 < a + b; (a + b ) + c + d = 4;
3.

ab + 1 + c + d < 4; ab + c + d < 3:

, ()
3, 1 |
. .
, , |
.

a 3 + b 3 + c 3 3abc = 12 (a + b + c )((a b )2 + (b c )2 + (a c )2 );
, , ,
a , b , c ,

abc 6 a
a ,

bc

+ b3 + c3
3

p , 3q , 3 r :

pqr 6 p + q3 + r :


.
, n , .

129

68.

a1 , a2 , ... , a

n , ,
. , , a1 6= a2 . a1 a2 , a3 , ... , an , , a1 + a2
. a1 a2 , a1 a2 ...an . a1 a2 , ,
, . a1 ...an |
, !

.
, a1 ... an ( ) , a1 , ... , an .
, .
,
. , ,
a1 a2 , ,
a1 , ... , an . (
a1 a2 |
, .)
.
393

394

a1 , ... , a
a1
a2

395

; ,

a2
a3

+ ... +

an 1
an

an
a1

> n:

a ,

ab 2 6 a +3 2b

b > 0.

396

397

a 3 b c 6 a + 2b6 + 3c
p

a ,
398

a + b , ab 2 = 1 a , b > 0?

b c.

abc 6 a + 23b + 3c :
3

130

69.

399

,

1+

1 +

10

10

<


1+

11

11

10

11 

1
.
, 1, 1 +
10


11
1
, ,
1 +
11
, . ,
.
.

400

10

,

1+

11

10

>


1+

12

11

. 11 ,




1
1 2
2
1+
= 1+ + 2 ;

11

11

11



1
1 +
. 11
11
. ,

.
401
.

69.
a , b ,
a b , . .
r
a

+ b2
2

402 . , ?
403

, a , b> 0

69.

:
r
a

+ b2
2

>

+b

131

(, 0 a a= 2, a=2.)
. ,
a

+ b2
2

>

(a + b )2
4

2(a 2 + b 2 ) > a 2 + b 2 + 2ab;

a 2 + b 2 > 2ab; a 2 + b 2 2ab > 0:


(a b )2 , , .
404 a b ?

405 ,
.

.

a 2 +b 2

b 2
( a+
2 )

22222

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

a +b

y = x 2 . ha; a 2 i hb; b 2 i,
, . ,
, . .
D a + b a2 + b 2 E


D a + b  a + b 2 E
2

132

69.


 a + b 2

6
r

2
a

+b
2

+ b2
2

+ b2
a

, , y = x 2 (
).

(a + b )=2

b )=2

a +b

x y , y = x 2
y = x , .
?
406

+b

>

,
r
2
2

a +b
a +b
ab 6
6
:
2

ab

ha; b i,
1:

h1; 1i

h1; 1i

h1; 1i

133

70.

, , ,
:

h1; 1i

407 :
r
a

+b +c
3

+ b2 + c2
3

408 () 2. ?
() , 3.

70.
a , b ,
1=a 1=b ,
. .

1
a

=2

409 ,
.
.
1=a 1=b ;
1=a 1=b |
.
410

a1 , ... , a

. ,
1

1
(a1 + ... + an )
+ ... +
> n 2:
n

a1

an


a1

+ ... + an
n

>

1
1
a1

+ ... +

1
an

=n

134

71. :

. . , n
. ,
:

1
a1 + ... + an
1
> n a1 ...an = r
>1
 ;
1
n

a1

...

a1

an

+ ... +

=n

an

, ... , .
a1
an
.
( { )
(p1 q1 + ... + pn qn )2 6 (p12 + ... + pn2 )(q12 + ... + qn2 )
(

a,q
i

= , ).
ai

{ , (p1 + q1 x )2 + (p2 + q2 x )2 + ... + (pn + qn x )2 :


Ax 2 + Bx + C;

A = q12 + q22 + ... + q 2 ;


B = 2(p1 q1 + p2 q2 + ... + p q );
C = p12 + p22 + ... + p 2 :
n

x |
. , B 2 4AC , . .
 2
B 2 6 4AC; B 6 AC;
2

(p1 q1 + ... + pn qn )2 6 (p12 + ... + pn2 )(q12 + ... + qn2 ):

71. :

(, |
, ).
| ,

135

71. :

.
.
. 2
, 2k ( k | ). 2
. ,
: 2k + 1 ( k | ).
( ,
). :
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
:
=
=
=
=
, ,
2k + (2l + 1) = 2k + 2l + 1 = 2(k + l ) + 1;
,
(2k + 1)(2l + 1) = 4kl + 2k + 2l + 1 = 2(2kl + k + l ) + 1;
.
411


1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + ... + 998 + 999 + 1000;

, .
: , :
+

0 1 (
)
2:

136

72.

+
0
1

0
0
1

1
1
0

0
1

0
0
0

1
0
1

( , 1 + 1 = 0.)

72.

, , , 3?
: , 3, ,
3 (, 5 + 7 = 12), , (,
5 + 8 = 13). ( ), :
3 ( 0), 1 2.
:
+
0
1
2

0
0
1
2

1
1
2
0

2
2
0
1

0
1
2

0
0
0
0

1
0
1
2

2
0
2
1

, () 1 2,
3k + 1 3l + 2, 3k + 3l + 3 = 3(k + l + 1),
1+2=0. : 3k +2
3l +2, (3k +2)(3l +2)=9kl +6k +6l +4=3(3kl +2k +2l +1)+1,
2 2 = 1.
412

8999 3?

3 , , 10.
10 | ,
10 ,
: | []
, | [] .
413

37589 ?

414
5. 0; 1; 2; 3; 4
?

415 , 3 + x = 2 3x = 2
5.
: 5
x , 3 + x 2? x ,

137

72.

3x 2?
416
417

x 2 = 2 x 2 = 3 7.
x 2 = x 100.

: ,
. ? ( .)
418 (, ) ?

, ,
a d :

a; a + d; a + d + d; a + d + d + d; ...
, 10, 1 3:
1; 4; 7; 0; 3; 6; 9; 2; 5; ...
( , 3 7, 10, 10
, 0.) , , , |
.
. 0; 1; 2;...; 9 ,
10-. , 1
( ).
:
3

9
7

, .
. , 3, 4, :

138

72.

9
7

, 4 10 ( ).
.

419 n ( n -) k , -. , n k , ,
.
n = 10 k = 4 2.
. k n d . k
n , |
d .
( , d ), .

, n k
( , ),
, .
. , . ,
, ? ,
( n k ). , . (
), . d | (
, d = 1, , d = 2 ).
, n d ( ). , , k d . , d
n k , d = 1 n
k.
421 , p | , p ( )
420

139

73.

. ax = b p ,
a , b .

422

,
, n .

423 ,
p , p 1.

73.
| .
, , .
, () . ,
1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + ... + x n + ...
,
1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + 5x 4 + 6x 5 + ... + (n + 1)x n + ...
, , ,
: x 2 1, x x 1 x 2 ,
3x 2 .
, x -
: , , .
x = 0;1 1 + 0;1 + 0;01 + 0;001 + ...
1

1;111... = 1 , , , x = 2
9
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + ...,
. ,

.
,
, , . ,
1 x
1 x + 0x 2 + 0x 3 + 0x 4 + ... + 0x n + ...
424

1 x 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...

140

74.

p -

(1 x )(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) =

= (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) x (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) =

= (1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...) (x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + ...) = 1

( , , ).
, . ,
1 x 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...,
1
1x

= 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + ...

, .
425

, 1 + x .

426

, 1 2x .

427

, 2 x .

428

1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + ...

1+2x +3x 2 +4x 3 +... 1 x


.
429

430

(1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + ...)(1 x + x 2 x 3 + x 4 x 5 + ...)
.

74.

p -

,
.
, .
, , ( , ,
). , ,
...2731 ...5184 (, ):

75.

141

... 2731
... 5184
... 7915

... 2731
... 5184
... 0924
... 1848
... 2731
... 3655
...
... 7504
,
() () . : ()
10000, ().
, ,
, . 10- (
). p -
p .
10-,
( ) .
.

431 x + 1 = 0 10- .
( , 10- x , ...000001 ...000000.)
. , , x = ...9999999
( ).
, a , a , x + a = 0, :

1 = ...9999999:
432

3x = 1 10- .

, x 2 = x 10-
( x = 0 x = 1,
).
. ...25 ...76.
433

75.
, ,
, -

142

75.

.
(, www.math.ru).
, :
. , . . ?
. 2- . .: , 1967. : M.: , 2001.
. , . . . .: , 1962. : , 2007.
. . , . . . . .-.: ,
1952. : .: , 2004.
:
. . , . . , . . (.) . 2. . . { .: , 1961.
424 c.
. . . . .: , 1976.
: .: , 2001. 192 .
. . . .
. .: , 1978.
. . . , . .:,
2005. 545 .
( ):
. . . . .: , 1976.
. . . . .: , 1966. : .: , 1999.
. . . . .: , 1994.

143

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2.
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29.
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31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a m a n , . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a + b )2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(a + b )5 , (a + b )6 . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
: ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
, , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3
3
4
5
7
8
9
12
13
14
15
17
19
19
22
25
27
29
31
32
33
34
35
37
38
40
42
44
45
46
47
52
53
56
57
62
65
69

144

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40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
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67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
p = 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
x 2 + px + q = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (a 6= 0). . . . . . . . . . 98
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
. . . . 120
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
p - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141