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Universidad de Costa Rica


Escuela de Matemtica
MA-1210 Clculo I
FRMULAS Y GRFICAS


LGEBRA

) b ab a )( b a ( b a
) b ab a )( b a ( b a
) b a )( b a ( b a
b) (a b ab 2 a
b) (a b ab 2 a
2 2 3 3
2 2 3 3
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
+ + =
+ + = +
+ =
= +
+ = + +

2a
b -
x
entonces 0 Si
ac 4 b
0 c bx ax Si
2
2

=
= + +

<

=
0 x si x -
0 x si x
x

=
par es n si x
impar es n si x
n n
x
x x
n
n
=


FUNCIN EXPONENCIAL Y LOGARTMICA

Funcin exponencial de base a

Funcin logartmica de base a
Definicin
] [ + 0, IR : f tal que
f (x) =
x
a (a>0, a1)
] [ IR 0, : g +

tal que

g (x) = log
a
x (a>0, a1)
Grfica

0 < a < 1 a > 1

0 < a < 1 a > 1


Funcin exponencial Funcin logartmica
( )
0
1
* 1
*
*
*
*
m n m n
m
m n
n
n
m n m
a
a a
a a a
a
a
a
a a
+

=
=
=
=
=


= * log 1 0
a

= * log 1
a
a
( ) = + * log log log
a a a
x y x y
| |
=
|
\
* log log log
a a a
x
x y
y

= * log log
n
a a
x n x
=
log
* log
log
b
a
b
x
x
a

( )
x
* log a
a
x =
( ) log
*
a
x
a x =





-2 -1 1 2
1
2
3
4
-1 -0.5 0.5 1
2
4
6
8
10
1 2 3 4 5 6
-2
2
4
6
1 2 3 4 5 6
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
2

GEOMETRA

Sobre la recta que contiene a los puntos
: ) y , (x y ) y , (x
2 2 1 1

Pendiente:

1 2
1 2
x
y
x
y
m

=
Ecuacin: b mx y + =
Vrtice de la curva c bx ax y
2
+ + = :
|

\
|
=
a a
b
4
,
2
V


Circunferencia

r 2 C =
Crculo

2
r = A


Nombre Dibujo
1


Desarrollo rea Volumen
Cubo

2
6a A =
3
a V =
Paraleleppedo


bc) ac 2(ab A + + =

abc V =

Prisma

base lateral
A 2 A A + = H A V
base
=
Cilindro

H) R(R 2 A + =
H R V
2
=
Pirmide


base lateral
A A A + =
3
H A
V
base

=

Cono

R) R(G A + = H R
3

V
2
=

Esfera


2
R 4 A =
3
R
3
4
V =




1
Imgenes tomadas de http://blogmatemagica.blogspot.com/
3

TRIGONOMETRA
Tringulos especiales:

Tringulo issceles Tringulo equiltero

Identidades pitagricas:
x sec 1 x tan
x csc x cot 1
1 x cos x sen
2 2
2 2
2 2
= +
= +
= +


Reduccin de potencias:
2
) 2 cos( 1
x cos
2
) 2 cos( 1
x sen
2 2
x x +
=

=


Paridad:
cscx x) csc(
cotx x) cot(
secx x) sec( tanx x) tan(
cosx x) cos( senx x) sen(
=
=
= =
= =

Identidades de tangente y cotangente:
senx
cosx
cotx
cosx
senx
tanx = =


Identidades recprocas:
senx
1
cscx
cosx
1
secx
tanx
1
cotx
cotx
1
tanx
secx
1
cosx
cscx
1
senx
= = =
= = =


Suma y diferencia:
( )
( )
sen sen cos cos sen
cos cos cos sen sen
x y x y x y
x y x y x y
=
= m


ngulo doble:
x sen x cos cos(2x)
cosx senx 2 sen(2x)
2 2
=
=


Grficas de funciones trigonomtricas y sus inversas. (k es un nmero entero)

f (x)= sen x
D=IR, A=[-1, 1]





g (x)= arcsen x
D=[-1, 1], A=
(

,
2




2 3/2 /2 /2 3/2 2
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
/2
/2
4

f (x)= cos x
D=IR, A=[-1, 1]


g (x)= arccos x
D=[-1, 1], A=[ ] 0,



f (x)= tan x
D= IR
)
`

+
2

k
, A=IR


g (x)= arctan x
D=IR, A=

,
2






f (x)= cot x
D= IR { } k , A=IR


g (x)= arccot x
D=IR, A= ] [ 0,





2 3/2 /2 /2 3/2 2
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
/2

2 3/2 /2 /2 3/2 2
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
/2
/2
2 3/2 /2 /2 3/2 2
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
/2

5

f (x)= sec x
D= IR
)
`

+
2

k
, A= ] ] [ [ + , 1 1 ,


g (x)= arcsec x
D= ] ] [ [ + , 1 1 , , A=


2
3
,
2
, 0





f (x)= csc x
D= IR { } k , A= ] ] [ [ + , 1 1 ,


g (x)= arccsc x
D= ] ] [ [ + , 1 1 , , A=
(

(
(

(
(

(
(

(

2
, 0
2
,






















2 3/2 /2 /2 3/2 2
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
2 3/2 /2 /2 3/2 2
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
6

CLCULO

Asntotas oblicuas:
( )
lim , lim[ ( ) ]
x x
f x
m b f x mx
x

= =
Resultado del TFC:
( )
( )
( ) [ ( )] ( ) [ ( )] ( )
x
x
d
f t dt f x x f x x
dx



Lmites trigonomtricos especiales:
1
x
x sen
lim
0 x
=


0
x
x cos - 1
lim
0 x
=

bien
0
x
1 - x cos
lim
0 x
=



Definicin de derivada:
h
f(x) h) f(x
lm (x) f
+
=


0 h

( ) ( )
( ) lim
x a
f x f a
f a
x a



Derivadas: k es una constante

2
,
1 k k
[g(x)]
f(x) `(x) g g(x) `(x) f
g(x)
f(x)
: cociente del Regla
f(x) `(x) g g(x) `(x) f ` g(x)] [f(x)
: producto del Regla
`(x) kf ` [kf(x)]
`(x) g `(x) f ` g(x)] [f(x)
x k ` ) (x
k ` (kx)
0 ` k

=
(

+ =
=
=
=

=
=

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
2
2
cos
cos
tan sec
cot csc
sec sec tan
csc csc cot
d
senx x
dx
d
x senx
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x x x
dx
d
x x x
dx
=
=
=
=
=
=

( )
( )
a ln
1
u
` u
u
a
log
dx
d
u
` u
u ln
dx
d
a ln ` u
u
a
u
a
dx
d
` u
u
e
u
e
dx
d
=
=
=
=
|

\
|
|

\
|


( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 u u
u`
u arccsc
dx
d
1 u u
u`
u arcsec
dx
d
u 1
u`
u arccot
dx
d
u 1
u`
u arctan
dx
d
u 1
u`
u arccos
dx
d
u 1
u`
u arcsen
dx
d
2
2
2
2
2
2

=
+
=
+
=

=




7

Integrales:

C dx 0 =


C x dx + =


-1 n con C
x
dx x
1 n
1 n

n
+ =
+
+


= dx f(x) k dx f(x) k

[ ]

= dx g(x) dx f(x) dx g(x) f(x)

C
C
C
+
+
+
=

=
+
=

x arcsec
arctan x
arcsen x
1 x x
dx
x 1
dx
x 1
dx
2
2
2

C
C
C
+
|

\
|
+ |

\
|
+ |

\
|
=

=
+
=

a
u
arcsec
a
u
arctan
a
u
arcsen
a
1
a u u
du
a
1
u a
du
u a
du
2 2
2 2
2 2


Por partes:

du v - u v dv u

+ =
+ =
+ =
C
a ln
a
dx a
C e dx e
x
x
x x
C x ln dx
x
1

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
cscx dx cotx x csc
secx dx x tanx sec
cotx dx x csc
tanx dx x sec
x cotx dx x cot
x tanx dx x tan
cosx) senx (x
2
1
dx x cos
cosx) senx (x
2
1
dx x sen
cotx cscx ln dx cscx
tanx secx ln dx x sec
senx ln dx x cot
cosx ln dx x tan
senx dx cosx
cosx dx senx
2
2
2
2
2
2
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=

+ =

+ =

+ =