Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

.

- -
U

mahazubaidi@yahoo.com E-mail:
U


.
.


.


.

Sustainability Principals of Traditional Architecture in the


Islamic Perception
Dr. Maha Sabah Salman Al-Zubaidi
E-mail: mahazubaidi@yahoo.com

Dr. Bahjat Rashad Shahin


Architectural Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering-University of
Baghdad

Abstract
Undoubtedly, Islam contains many sustainability and environment conservations indicators
that integrated with the social values and human behaviour of the Moslems society. The
concept of environment in the Islamic perception means more than the simple enumeration of
its components or those of the ecological system; it transcends this to establish a link between
these components and the human factor. Thus, built environment in the Islamic World was a
reflection of Moslems view to environment as living entity. This view is materialized in
different levels whether in the city planning or architectural design that was shaped by the
beliefs and actions of inhabitants who adhered to the Islam as a way of life with social ideals.
This research aims to study the sustainability potential in the traditional architecture in the
Arab World: especially the house.
Research methodology depends on analytic approach to environmental solutions in the
traditional house from sustainability standpoint. In addition, research depends on procedural
approach to the survey measurements taken to case study samples to traditional and modern
houses in Baghdad

74

"

".

)
.(23 .
2003

" "

.(80. :








"

- ) .(11-10


"

)2003

"

"

199 ) 1990 .(5 .

2003 ( 28

) .( Edwards & du Plessis, 2001, P. 17


75

:




-

. :
- ) ( 49

) .(61



) (2


) (8












- ) .(33-32

- ).(19

" " " "

) 2003 29

)Edwards 2001, P. 19
.(& du Plessis,

).(58

" :

) 1994 .(155 .

") 1985 .(17 .

- ) .(21

76

- )

:





- ) .(31
:


- ) .(30


":

: :
" ) 2002 .(368 .

77

.(1

) -(1
) : (Hyde, 2001
:

).(1

"

" " "

) 2002 .(231 .

") 2002 .(370 .

" :


) Ragette, 2003,

(P. 73 :
) 2002 .(371 .

78

- ) .(2

)(

) -(2
) : (Ragette, 2003
:






- ).(20


) .(22

2003 .(27 .

- )


": "

( 49

": " )

2003 .(80.

)2003


.(28 . :









:

79

) .( 21-19

" "

) 1994 (147 .


:




- ) (41


. "
" Paul Oliver "
"

) .(22

) .(Oliver, 1997,P. 2

" " Brian Edwards

":

" ).(Edwards & du Plessis, 2001, P. 26

) .( Mortada, 2003, P.156

" :

" ).(Gissen, 2003, P.8


80

. "

Mortada, 2003, )" ".

"

.( P.157

" :

" " :

1400

) -(3 - )(Siani, 1983 :


81

) 12 15(

) .(36

- ) (3

" :

).(Al-Zubaidi, 2002, P. 12

" "

" )

.(261 .

"

" .

- ).(4

2002

82

) -(4
) : ( Schoenauer, 2000

) .(5

) .(5

.1

83

) -(5
)(Schoenauer, 2000 :

.2

.Introvert

) 2001 .(12 .

) -(6
) : ( Ragette, 2003

) .(6

12-10

84


) Moore, 1993,

(P.45,

P.46

.Night Flushing

60
50

40

30

20

10
0

00:00

04:00

08:00

12:00

16:00

20:00

) - (1
) :(

-) .(1

.3

Passive Energy


85

. )(

.4

).(7

) -(7

) :

(Ragette, 2003

)(

)Edwards , P.123

.( & Turrent, 2000


86

. Massive

.5

Building Envelope

Heat Capacity

) (

).(Giovani, 1998 , P. 120

).( Hyde, 2001 , P.115

) (15-12

) Siani, 1980 , P.

. (76

) -0.60-0.50 -0.36

(0.75

Al-

.(Zubaidi, 2002, P.10

-0.24

(0.36


87

-) .(2

60

50

40

30

20

10
0
00:00

04:00

12:00

08:00

20:00 16:00

) -(2
) :(

6 ) (

88

) ( .

Basement

) 2001.

.(11

) .(8

" "
(1.2 -1

) Ragette, 2003,
.(P.64

) (8
) : ( Moore, 1993

) .(3

89

60
50

40

30

20

10
0
00:00

04:00

12:00

08:00

16:00

20:00

) - (3
) :(

. (2003 )

. .

3 .

. )

: 1/42
. ) (2001

(2003

1/42 3

90

(2003 ) .

Humid Climates, Spon Press, London,


UK, 2001.
16. Moore, Fuller (1993), Environmental
Control Systems, International Edition,
McGraw-Hill, Inc, New York, NY,
USA.
17. Mortada, Hisham, (2003), Traditional
Islamic
Principles
of
Built
Environment, RoutledgeCurzon, New
York, USA
18. Oliver, Paul, (1997), Encyclopaedia of
Vernacular Architecture, Phaidon
Press Ltd, London, UK.
19. Ragette, Friedrich, (2003), Traditional
Domestic Architecture of the Arab
Region, Axel Menges, Stuttgart.
20. Schoeauer, Norbert, (2000), 6000
Years of Housing, W.W. Norton, New
York, USA.
21. Siani, S. B. (1980), Buildings in Hot
Dry Climates, John Wiley & sons, UK.

3 1/42 :
.

(1990 ) .

(1985 ) .

(2002 ) .

(2003 ) .

10. Al-Zubaidi, Maha S. (September


2002) Mass-effect Passive Cooling:
an
Environmental
Friend
Technology, Towards Better Built
Environment:
Innovation,
Sustainability
and
Technology,
Monash Univ., Australia.
11. Edwards, Brian & Chrisna du Plessis,
(2001), Snakes in Utopia: a Brief
History of Sustainability, Green
Architecture: Architectural Design
(AD), Vol. 71, No. 4, July 2001,
Wiley Academy, UK.
12. Edwards, Brian & Turrent, David,
(2000),
Sustainable
Housing:
Principles & Practice, E. & F. N.
Spon, London, UK.
13. Giovani, Baruch, (1998),Climate
Considerations in Buildings &
Urban Design, JohnWiley & Sons,
Inc., USA.
14. Gissen, David, (2003), Big & Green:
toward Sustainable Architecture in
the
21st
Century,
Princeton
Architectural, New York, USA.
15. Hyde, Richard, (2001), Climate
Responsive Design: A Study of
Buildings in Moderate & Hot
91

Оценить