Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 344

i

. .
. . -
. . -
. .
. .

19351957 .


2010

i
i

51
74.200.58:22.1
M82
:
. . ,
. . -, . . -,
. . , . .
19351957 .
M82 / . . . .: , 2010. 344 .
ISBN 978-5-94057-600-6
1935
1957 . , .
, .
.
, , .
, , , . .

74.200.58:22.1

-
-



19351957 .
. .
. .
10.03.2010 . 60 90 1/16. 1.
. . . 21,5. 2000 . ????
.
119002, , ., 11. . (499) 241-74-83.
.
121099, , ., 6.

ISBN 978-5-94057-600-6

, 2010.

i
i

,
, , 1935 , ,
1957 . ,
,
.
, . , , , ,
, , , , ,
.

. : 1935 1936 .
. . (19051942), ,
. . . . ,

, 122 . (, . . , . . . . :
, 1965). , ,
; -

i
i

, 1952 1964.
. .
. . ( . . , . : ,
1986). , ,
, 1985 .
680 000 .
, ,
, , . . . . , . . , ,

,
(. : , 1998). ,

. , .
. . , 1986
. 20 1987 . , ,
.
. ,
. , .
,
,

i
i

.
, ,
- . : . . ( 1935 .), . . (1936), . . (1937), . . (1938),
. . (1939), . . (1940), . . (1941), . . (1945), . . (1946),
. . (1947), . . (1948), . . (1949), . . (1950), . . (1951),
. . (1952), . . (1953), . . (1954), . . (1955), . . (1956),
. . (1957).
( )
, , .
: 19932005 ( . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . . . : , 2006) ,
.
, 1958 1992 .


. , , .
. .

i
i

i
i

i
i

i
i

1935 (I )

1-
1. ,
25 : 24.
2. a
b m .
3. ,
, , .
, .

2-
1. t1 ,
a t2 .
.
2. ,
.
3. , a,
.
3-
1. : , ;
, : 27, 27, 39, 87.

i
i

10

. 1935

2. ,
,
1
.
3
3. ; ,
,
, .
.
4-
1. :
2
2
2
2

x + y 2z = 2a ,
x + y + 2z = 4(a2 + 1),

z2 xy = a2 .

2. ABC D
AB , AC BC, BC AC
F G. , ,
ADG BDF,
, ABC.
3. 120 ; , 15 .

.

A
1. M, N, P,
( )
, , . .

i
i

. 1935

11

2. , . ,

, .
3. : ABC A1 B1 C1 . AB
A1 B1 , BC B1 C1 , CA
C1 A1 . , AA1 , BB1 CC1
, .
B
1.
:

x + y = 2,
xy z2 = 1?
2. 1 :

x3 y3 = 26,
x2 y xy2 = 6.
3.
13 + 33 + 53 + ... + (2n 1)3 .
C
1. 6 ;
6 , .

?
, .
12 .
1

, . . .

i
i

12

. 1936

2.
n ? , , .
3. M(a, b)
a b, D(a, b) a b.
M(a, b) D(a, b) = ab.

M(a, b, c) D(a, b) D(b, c) D(c, a)
D(a, b, c)

= abc.

1936 (II )

1. :

x + y = a,
5
x + y5 = b5 .
2. ,
a b, M. M c , , a,
b c, .
3. ,
, , , 12.
4. 1 000 000 1
? , , .
5. .

1

, . .

i
i

. 1937

13

, ? 1
1937 (III )

1. :

x + y + z = a,

2
x + y2 + z2 = a2 ,

x3 + y3 + z3 = a3 .

2. A B
. M,
MA + MB .
3. 2 . , .

1. , . ,

.
2. .
, ?
3. n- 3 ,
?
1
, . .
, .
. .
2
. . .
3
. . .

i
i

14

. 1939
1938 (IV )

1. O1 , O2 , O3 A. A O1 , A1 O2 ,
A2 O3 . A3 , O1 ,
O2 , O3 . , A.
2. 1 n
?
3. , .
4. 2 ,
, 5, 7?

1939 (V )

1. 3 :

3
3
3
3
3xyz x y z = b ,
x + y + z = 2b,

2
x + y2 z2 = b2 .

-, . , ,
( n = 2
, ).
,
. . . .
2

, . . .
3
, .
. .

i
i

15

. 1940
2p

4p

+ cos
= .
2. , cos
5
5
2
3. A, B, C. A , B C

.
p

4. a a + x = x.
5. ,
,
.


1. a10 + a5 + 1.
2. x . x ,
4. ,
, .
3. A B . X , AX BX
CD, MN.
4. 7
2

10

1010 + 10(10 ) + 10(10 ) + ... + 10(10 ) .


5. . P
. , P

P .
6.
?
1940 (VI )

78
1. : (b c)3 + (c a)3 + (a b)3 .

i
i

16

. 1940

2. 5 ,
7 .
?
3.
1 100 ?
4. , . ?
910
1. 1 :
 3
(x + y3 )(x2 + y2 ) = 2b5 ,
x + y = b.
2. , . , 206 788- .
3. ,
. ?
4. . ,
.
5. n
1 n . , .

78
1. ,
, .
2. A, B, C
. D AB. , DC = AD + BD.
1
, .
. .

i
i

. 1941

17

3.
, . . , , .
4. x, y, 1 1000, , x2 + y2 7?
910
1. , , . ,
. .
2. : 300! 100300 ?
3. O ABC
. O1 , O2 , O3 ABC, .
4. :

a1
a2

a2
a3

a3
a4

+ ... +

an1
an

an
a1

>n

(a1 , a2 , ... , an ).
5. x,
10 000, 2x x2 7?
1941 (VII )

78
1. , , .
2. 523 ... ,
7, 8 9.
3. ; A, B, C, D , P, Q .
, BCP ADQ.

i
i

18

. 1941

4. P, , , .
,
.
5. , .
910
1. . 2 78 .
2. . , .
3. ,
a0 xn + a1 xn1 + ... + an1 x + an ,
x = 0 x = 1 ,
.
4. ABC M N AM BN ,
AB.
5. :
| x + 1 | | x | + 3 | x 1 | 2 | x 2 | = x + 2.

6.
sin x =

x
?
100


78
1. , 5
.
2. ABC.
, , ,
ABC.

i
i

. 1941

19

3. ABC. M,
, BC
CA, AB BC, CA . .
,
, .
4. a,
(x a)(x 10) + 1
(x + b)(x + c)
b c.
5. , p > 3
12 1.
6. ABC H1 , H2
H3 ,
.
910
1. , .
2. , 3
r = 1. , 1.
3. a, b, c,
x(x a)(x b)(x c) + 1

.
4.
x + y = x2 xy + y2 .
5. . -

i
i

20

. 1945

, .
6. , .

1945 (VIII )

78
1. a128 b128
(a + b)(a2 + b2 )(a4 + b4 )(a8 + b8 )(a16 + b16 )(a32 + b32 )(a64 + b64 ).
2. , n > 2
1
n+1

1
n+2

+ ... +

1
2n

.
2
3. ,
, ,
. .
4. ,
.
5. , , , . , .
910
k
k
1. a2 b2
(a + b)(a2 + b2 )(a4 + b4 ) ... (a2

k1

+ b2

k1

).

2. , , ( ).

i
i

. 1945

21

3.


x2 y2 = 0,
(x a)2 + y2 = 1

, , . a
?
4. ABC , BC . ,
A , .


78
1. 6 : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. , ( ).
2. , .
25 30 .
?
3. AD ABCD n
. P B. , BP
1
(AQ =
AC AQ,
=

AC
).
n+1

n+1

4. A, B, C ABC A1 , B1 , C1 , . ,
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 .

i
i

22

. 1946

910
1.
xy + 3x 5y = 3.
2. a1 , a2 , ... , an +1, 1. ,


a a a
a a ... a p
a a
=
2 sin a1 + 1 2 + 1 2 3 + ... + 1 2 n1 n
2
4
2
4
r
q
p

= a1 2 + a2 2 + a3 2 + ... + an 2.
, a1 = a2 = ... = an = 1


1
1
p
p
1
= 2 cos n+1 =
2 sin 1 + + + ... + n1
2
4
2
4
2
q
p

= 2 + 2 + ... + 2.

3. , , . , , , 60 .

1946 (IX )

78
1. ?
2. 3 A, B, C. AB ABC1 , BC
BCA1 . M
AA1 , N CC1 .
, BMN . ( B A C; A1 C1 AB.)

i
i

23

. 1946

3. ,
131 112, 132
98.
4. :

x1 + x2 + x3 = 6,

x2 + x3 + x4 = 9,

x
3 + x4 + x5 = 3,

x + x + x = 3,
4

x5 + x6 + x7

x6 + x7 + x8

x7 + x8 + x1

x8 + x1 + x2

= 9,
= 6,
= 2,
= 2.

5. ,
(1 x + x2 x3 + ... x99 + x100 )(1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... + x99 + x100 )

, x .
910
1.
. A. ,
, A, ,
.
2. A, ,
, . , ,
, A
.
3. , n2 + 3n + 5 n
121.

a b

a b

i
i

24

. 1946

4. , n :
(2n)!
n!

= 2n (2n 1)!! .

5. ,

a b a < b ,

tg a

<

tg b


78
1. 1 VII
VIII . 8 , .
? .
2. ,
x5 + 3x4 y 5x3 y2 15x2 y3 + 4xy4 + 12y5
33 x y.
3. AOB O OA OB, OA > OB. OA M, OB B N
, AM = BN = x. x, MN .
4. A1 , A2 , ..., A30 ,
MN , .
MN MN 2 :
1

. , ,
. 1/2 .
2
,
MN . . .

i
i

25

. 1946
1

10

a 60

30

15 20 155 45

10

35

140

50

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

115

95

25

28

29

30

a 125

65

21

22

a 28

158

85

86

80

75

78

23

24

25

26

27

30

25

15

160

170

20

158

, , ,
. .
, ,
. , ?
5. :
1 ) ;
2) 1 ,
, ,
;
3) .
?
910
1. IX X
. 10 , , 4,5
, .
? .
2. : 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55,
89, ..., , , 1

, . . .

i
i

26

. 1947

.
(108 + 1) ,
?
3. PQ, QR, RP PQR AB, CD, EF.
S0 . S,
PQR,
SAB, SCD, SEF S0 AB, S0 CD, S0 EF. ,
AB
PQ

CD
QR

EF
.
RP

4. 57 . , :
1) ;
2) , , ,
;
3) .
57 ?
5. . 4 78 .

1947 (X )

78
1. ,
x17 x18
(1 + x5 + x7 )20 .
2. x + x3 + x9 + x27 + x81 + x243 (x 1)?
3. , n,
n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4

i
i

27

. 1947

,
.
4. ABCDE. ,
A, B, C, D, E,
CD, DE, EA, AB, BC. ,
1 M, , ,
, ,
, , .
5. O ABC. , , : O, A, B, O, B, C O, C,
A, .
910
1. :
(1 x2 + x3 )1000 ,

(1 + x2 x3 )1000


x20 ?
2. (. .
0,00001) :

 



1
1
1
1
1 2 1 3 ... 1 99 .
1
10

10

10

10

.
3. , n,
n, n + 1, n + 2, ..., n + 9 , , .
4. . 4 78 .
1

,
, . ( ), . . .

i
i

28

. 1947

5. , M d
AB.

78
1. 20 , , , 1 ( ). 11
?
2. , 13- .
3. : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ..., 199, 200
. ,
,
.
4. 2 4 ,

. .
910
1. 4 . , .
2. k , :
1) 2 ,
2) p
.
k p,
.
1
, ,
(
, , ). .
.
2
. . .

i
i

. 1948

29

3.
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
1
3
6
7
6
3
1
1
4 10 16 19 16 10 4
1
,
( , ). , ,
, .
4. : 1, 2, 3, ..., 199, 200
, 16, 99 . ,
2 ,
.
5. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 . A5 A6 A7 A8
A9 . , 5
, . 1
1948 (XI )

78
1. 1. ? .
2. 2100 ?
3. n . ,
, ,
( ),
1
,
. . .

i
i

30

. 1948

(. . , ) .
910
n
22 1 2
2n 2
,
1.
n
2n 1
. .
2. ,
1
log2 p

1
log5 p

> 2.

3. ABCD A BCD
BCD, A
ABCD. ,
A A BCD A ABCD.

78
1. xy = yx (x 6=
6= y). .
2. ,
: R > 2r (R r ), R = 2r
.
3. ,
?
910
1.
xy = yx (x 6= y).
2. .
3.
| x | + | y | < 100?
4. , ?

i
i

31

. 1949
1949 (XII )

78
1. ,
271958 108878 + 101528

26460.
2. ,
, .
3. ,
x2 + y2 + z2 = 2xyz
x, y z x = y = z = 0.
4. 1. 1
, , 4
.
5. , , , .
910
1. x, y, z v, ,
x2 + y2 + z2 + v2 = 2xyzv.
2. , ?
( ,
.)
3. :
q


1
1
1
= a + a2 + x
0<a<
.
x2 + 2ax +
16

16

4. 4n , ,
-

i
i

32

. 1949

. ,
n .
5. , ,
, ,
.

78
1. 12 : : ,
, .
,
, (
) .
. ?
2. ABC DEF O. X ABC Y
DEF; OXY
OXZY.
) ,
.
) ?
) ,
.
3. 13 ,
. , 12
2 , 6 , . ,
.
4. 1
. ,
.
1

. . .

i
i

33

. 1949
C
A

+ B

+
a

a
a
45 45

. 1

. 2

5. 100 1 ,
( ) ,
, 100. .
6. ;
, , , . ,
,
, , , (. 1). , , , .
910
1. . 1 78 .
2. (. 2) .
3. . 3 78 .
4. - .
5. , 2n
n .
1

. . .

i
i

34

. 1950

6. ,
8 .
1950 (XIII )

78
1. ( ).
, , , .
2. 555 : 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , ..., 555 .
.
3. O1 , O2 , O3 ,
O. O1 O2 , O2 O3
O3 O1 A1 , A2 A3 . O1
B1 . B1 A1 ,
B1 A1
O2 B2 . B2 A2 ,
B2 A2 O3
B3 . B3 A3 , B3 A3
O1 B4 . ,
B4 B1 .
4. a, b, c ; A, B,
C . ,
1
2

Aa + Bb + Cc > (Ab + Ba + Ac + Ca + Bc + Cb).


5. A :
1. .
2. , ,
.
,
. ,

i
i

35

. 1950

10

15

17

1
2

, .
,
A 6 ?
910
1. A , B C .
X,
sin X =

sin B sin C
1 cos A cos B cos C

( . . .)
2.
.
?
3. 81 12 , 22 , 32 , ..., 812 . .
4. :
p
p

x + 3 4 x 1 + x + 8 6 x 1 = 1.
5. n : O1, O2, ..., On,
O. O1 O2 , O2 O3 ,
..., On O1 A1 , A2 , ..., An .
O1 B1 . B1 A1 , B1 A1
O2 B2 . B2 A2 ,
B2 A2
O3 B3 . ,
Bn On . On An ,
Bn An
O1 Bn+1 . , Bn+1 B1 .

i
i

36

. 1950


78
1. 13- .
.
.
?
2. ,
99
1 3 5 7
...
2 4 6 8
100

<

1
.
10

3. . . , .
4. 20 . 20
10 1 .
?
910
1. 1950- . .
. ?
2. 1, 2, 3, ... , 101 - . , 90 ,
11
( , ).
3. . ,
.
4. 10 , 8
, , , 9
.
1

. . .

i
i

37

. 1951
1951 (XIV )

78
1. ,
x12 x9 + x4 x + 1

x .
2. ABCD A B C D
. , A >
> A , B < B , C > C D < D .
3. :
2,00000000004
(1,00000000004)2 + 2,00000000004

2,00000000002
(1,00000000002)2 + 2,00000000002

4.
. ,
, 1
.
5. 60 , 1 . , 1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 60 (
1 )?
910
1. , a ,
, 120 , .
1
, , . . .

i
i

38

. 1951
2. , 1
0,1234567891011 ... 4748495051
0,51504948 ... 4321

0,239.
3. .
, .
, ; .
?
4. 150 , 1 .
,
1 , 2 , 3 , ..., 150 (
1 )?
5. . ,
, ,
, R I, , V = I R (
).

78
1. ,
100
... 0} 5 |00{z
... 0} 1
| {z
49

99

.
1

. . .

i
i

. 1951

39

2. A, B, C
D, E, F, 180 360 .
O
, AOB = D, BOC = E, COA = F
(
).
3. 20 20 . , . , ,

.
4. A O P A , OA P. , .
, O ?
5. x1951 1 x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1
. x14 .
910
1. a. ,
.
2. , 1951.
1951. , 2.
3. 14 ( ).
25 . ,
:
a) A1 , B1 , A2 , B2 ,
A3 , B3 , A4 , B4 , ,

i
i

40

. 1952

A1 B1 , A2 B2 ,
A3 B3
A4 B4 ;
) , , 10 A1 , B1 ,
A2 , B2 , A3 , B3 , A4 , B4 , A5 , B5 , .
4. ,
, .
, ,
,
.

1952 (XV )

7
1. ABC ,
L, M N. ,
LMN (
ABC).
2.
(ax + by + cz)2 + (bx + cy + az)2 + (cx + ay + bz)2 =
= (cx + by + az)2 + (bx + ay + cz)2 + (ax + cy + bz)2 .
3. 6
, . .
4. A B M
N, 15 M. 6 /. ,
,
15 /. A , B

i
i

. 1952

41

A C, N M. B , C A
, N.
N C, A B N (
, A B)?
8
1. , ,
.
2.
(ax + by + cz + du)2 + (bx + cy + dz + au)2 +
+ (cx + dy + az + bu)2 + (dx + ay + bz + cu)2 =
= (dx + cy + bz + au)2 + (cx + by + az + du)2 +
+ (bx + ay + dz + cu)2 + (ax + dy + cz + bu)2 .
3. . 3 7 .
4. A B M N, 15 M.
6 /.
, , 15 /. A B : A , B
C, N M.
B , C
A ,
N.
N C, , A B N, (C
, A B; , , A B M
N).

i
i

42

. 1952

9
1. , ( 0 1). , .
2. . ,
.


xy
3. ,
< 1, | x | < 1 | y | < 1.
1 xy
4. ABC BD . , ,
ABD DBC,
, ABC.
5. ,
: a1 , a2 , a3
a2 . . ,
a1 , a2 , a3 , ... 1, 4.
10
1.
arcsin cos arcsin x arccos sin arccos x.
2. , n > 2 | x | < 1
2n > (1 x)n + (1 + x)n .
3. S
O. , ,
, SO.
4. p
ax2 + bx + c + p = 0
, a
. .

i
i

. 1952

43


7
1. :

1 x1 x2 = 0,

1 x2 x3 = 0,

1 x3 x4 = 0,

. ...... ..... ...

1
x14 x15 = 0,

1 x15 x1 = 0.

2. ABCD
: AB + CD = BC + DA. , ,
ABC, , ACD.
3. , 0,999 ... 9 (100 ), 0,999 ... 9 (100 ).
4. AB. C ABC.
8
1.

0,999
| {z... 9}.
60

2. C CA CB O. N
ND, NE, NF
AB, CA CB. , ND NE NF.
3. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
, ,
, .
4. 99 n . n, 199.

i
i

44

. 1952

9
1. :

1 x1 x2 = 0,

1 x2 x3 = 0,

1 x x = 0,
3 4
..... ...... ....

1 xn1 xn = 0,

1 xn x1 = 0.

2. a a
a ,
2
.
3. . 3 8 .
4. ABC ABC 20 . CB AB P Q , PAC = 50 QCA = 60 . , PQC = 30 .
5. 200 10 20 .
, 10
. , ,
20 . ?
10
1. ,
cos 32x + a31 cos 31x + a30 cos 30x + ... + a1 cos x
, .
2. . 2 9 .
3. , A
3x2n + Axn + 2 2x2m + Axm + 3.

i
i

. 1953

45

4. . 4 9 .
5. . 5 9 .

1953 (XVI )

7
1. ,
, .
2. , , ,
(333 ... 33).
3. .
( , .)
4. , n
n2 + 8n + 15 n + 4.
8
1. . . ,

. (
, .)
2. . 2 7 .
3. . 3 7 .
4.
n

2
2

zq

q
|

2+
2+

p
p

}|

2 + ... +
2 + ... +
{z

n1

2
}

1
4

> .

i
i

46

. 1953

9
1. , (x, y) sin (x + y) = 0.
2. AB A1 B1 . O O1
. , OO1
AA1 BB1 .
3. , x200 y200 + 1

x y.
4. A 1 . AA1 BB1 CC1 DD1 EE1
. AB DE
F. , ABB1 CC1 DED1
AD1 EF.
5. . 4 8 .
10
1. . 1 9 .
2. 2 O. , ,
, ,
O.
3. . 3 9 .
4. . 4 9 .
5. . 4 8 .

7
1. ,
.
1

, . . .
2
,
. . .

i
i

. 1953

47

2. . . , .
3. 11
,
, . . , ,
, . ?
4. , , 1500 .
, 1500
. ?
5.

x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,

x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + 4x4 + 4x5 = 2,


x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 6x4 + 6x5 = 3,

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 7x4 + 8x5 = 4,

x + 3x + 5x + 7x + 9x = 5.
1
2
3
4
5

8
1. a, b, c d . S . ,

1
S 6 (a + b)(c + d).
4

2. 1953 . , , , 1953-
27. ,
,
27.

i
i

48

. 1953

3. A1 , A2 , ... , A16 . ,
A1 , A2 , ... , A16 .
. , A1
. ,
A1 .
?
4. n
,
, . . , .
?
5.

x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 + ... + 2x100 = 1,

x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + 4x4 + 4x5 + ... + 4x100 = 2,

x + 3x + 5x + 6x + 6x + ... + 6x = 3,
1

100

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 7x4 + 8x5 + ... + 8x100 = 4,

.... ..... ...... ..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ...

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 7x4 + 9x5 + ... + 199x100 = 100.

9
1. . 2 8 .
2. A1 A2 A3 l
,
A1 A2 , A2 A3 , A3 A1 3 , 1 , 2 .
A1 , A2 , A3 , l 180 1 , 180 2 , 180 3 . ,
. l .
3.

ax2 + bx + c = 0 (1)

a a a
a

ax2 + bx + c

(2).

, x1 x2 -
(1) (2), x3

i
i

49

. 1954
a

x2 + bx + c = 0, x1 6 x3 6 x2 , x1 >
2
> x3 > x2 .
4.
101 200 . - ,
,
, ,
. 3
(. 3).
- ?
5. .
10
1.
1

x
1

x(x 1)
2!

... + (1)n

x(x 1) ... (x n + 1)
n!

= 0.

2. . 2 9 .
x2

+2

3. x0 = 109 , xn = n1
. , 0 < x36
2xn1

9
2 < 10 .
4. . 5 9 .
5. .
, 2n .
1954 (XVII )

7
1. 1 4
,
.
2. A1 A2 A3 A4 ... An
B1 B2 B3 B4 ... Bn . , A1 A2 = B1 B2 , A2 A3 = B2 B3 ,
1

, , . . .

i
i

50

. 1954

..., An A1 = Bn B1 n 3
. ?
3. ,
:

4. m n, m2 + 1954 = n2 ?
5. , .
8
1. 3 3 ,
, 1.
2. O n (
). O
,
,
. .

i
i

. 1954

51

3. . 3 7 .
4. . 4 7 .
5.






1
1
1
x 1 n + y 1 n+1 + z 1 n+2 = 0,
2

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

9
1. ,
x40 + a1 x30 + a2 x20 + a3 x0 + a4 = 0,
4x30 + 3a1 x20 + 2a2 x0 + a3 = 0,
x4 + a1 x3 + a2 x2 + a3 x + a4 (x x0 )2 .
2.
123456789101112131415 ... 99100.
100 ,
.
3. 100 a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., a100 ,
:
a1 3a2 + 2a3 > 0,
a2 3a3 + 2a4 > 0,
a3 3a4 + 2a5 > 0,
.. ..... ..... ...... ....
a99 3a100 + 2a1 > 0,
a100 3a1 + 2a2 > 0.

, ai .
4. ABC. A1 , B1 , C1 AS, BS, CS
BC, CA, AB , S ABC. ,
AB1 SC1 ,
C1 SA1 B, A1 SB1 C C1 , B1 , C1 , A1 ,
A1 , B1 .

i
i

52

. 1954

5. A, B, C,
D , AB = CD = 8 , AC = BD = 10 , AD = BC =
= 13 ?
10
1.
x2 + 2x sin (xy) + 1 = 0.
2. . 2 9 .
3. 100 a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., a100 ,

a1 4a2 + 3a3 > 0,


a2 4a3 + 3a4 > 0,
a3 4a4 + 3a5 > 0,
...... ..... ...... .....
a99 4a100 + 3a1 > 0,
a100 4a1 + 3a2 > 0.
, a1 = 1, a2 , a3 , ..., a100 .
4. . 4 9 .
5. . 5 9 .

7
1. . .
, 1 , , , , ?
2. , . 4.
A B , . , 1

. . .

i
i

53

. 1954

B
A
. 4

60

. 5

, 120
(. . 5). ?
3. :
10x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + x4 + x5
= 0,
11x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 3x5 + x6
= 0,
15x3 + 4x4 + 5x5 + 4x6 + x7 = 0,
2x1 + x2 3x3 + 12x4 3x5 + x6 + x7 = 0,
6x1 5x2 + 3x3 x4 + 17x5 + x6
= 0,
3x1 + 2x2 3x3 + 4x4 + x5 16x6 + 2x7 = 0,
4x1 8x2 + x3 + x4 3x5
+ 19x7 = 0.
8
1. 17 17.

1, 2, 3, ..., 70
.
,
A, B, C, D , AB = CD, AD = BC
, A C,
B D.
2. m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 , O. A1
m1 , m4 ,
m2 A2 , A2 ,
m1 , m3 A3 ,
A3 , m2 ,

i
i

54

. 1954

m4 A4 , A4 , m3 , m1 B.
OA1
(. . 6).
, OB <
2

m2

A2

A3

m3
A4

m1
A1

m4

. 6

3.
H = 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37
( ). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10,
11, 13, 14, ..., H , .
+1 1 : +1,
,
, +1, ,
, 1. ,
0.
4. . 3 7 .
5. ?
9
1. l1 l2 , O, OA1 OB1 l1 OA2 OB2
OB
OA1
6= 1 .
l2 ;
OA2
OB2
S A1 A2 B1 B2
l2 O ( l1 ).
2. m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 , O. A1
m1 , m4 , m2 A2 , A2 , m1 , m3 A3 ,

i
i

. 1954

55

A3 , m2 , m4 A4 A4 ,
m3 , m1 B. OA1
(. . 6).
, OB 6
4
3. C1 , C2 , ..., C100
C21 + C22 + ... + C2100 > 10000,
C1 + C2 + ... + C100 < 300.
, ,
100.
4. 15
a1 , a2 , ... , a15 ,

(1)


b1 , b2 , ... , b15 ,

(2)

bi (i = 1, 2, 3, ... , 15) (1), ai . ai , bi :


1, 0, 3, 6, 9, 4, 7, 2, 5, 8, 8, 5, 10, 13, 13?
5. OA. A 5
AB1 , AB2 , AB3 , AB4 , AB5 . Bi

. ., .
1001?
, ( O).
10
1. ?
2. . 2 9 .
3. . 3 9 .

i
i

56

. 1955
4. ,
x2 + Ax + B = 0,
x2 + Cx + D = 0

.
, 1
x2 +

B+D
A+C
x+
2
2

=0

. A, B, C, D .
5. , 2 1.
, , .
1955 (XVIII )

7
1. 1, 2, ... , 49
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
...........................
43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49.
,
, . . ., 7 .
.
2. ABC.
B BD. K
1

. . .

i
i

. 1955

57

AD ABD ,
.
ABC, K AD .
3. ABC.
AB BC D E , AE =
= CD. AE CD.
4. n, n2 + n + 1 1955?
5. , 13 .
8
1. 2n = 10a + b. , n > 3, ab 6. n, a b , b < 10.
2. ABCD. AB
K, BC L, CD M AD N , KB = BL = a,
MD = DN = b. KL MN. KL MN a
b.
3. 49 1 7 ,
. ,
,
. .
4. 1 ?
5. A, B, C, D.
.
A1 , B1 , C1 , D1 . (
.) , A1 , B1 , C1 , D1
.
1
, ,
, . . . . .

i
i

58

. 1955

9
1. 1, 2, ..., k2
1,
2,
... , k,
k + 1,
k + 2,
... , 2k,
................................
(k 1)k + 1, (k 1)k + 2, ... , k2 .
, , .
(k 1)2 . . k . .
2. , .
3. :
 3
x + y3 = 1,
x4 + y4 = 1.
4. , p a1 , a2 , ..., ap a1 > p.
, p , p.
5. ABC D , AC DA > 1 BC BD > 1. E AB. , EC ED > 1.
10
1. n2
1 n , . n , ,
1, 2, 3, ..., n. .
2. . 3 9 .

i
i

. 1955

59

3. ,
. 1 1/2. ,
, .
4. . 5 9 .
5. O. ABC, OAB, OBA,
OBC, OCB, OAC, OCA ?

7
1.
x3 2y3 4z3 = 0.

2. ax2 + bx + c x . , a = b = 0.
3. ABC. O1 , O2 O3 . , O1 O2 O3 .
4. 25 . ,
.
, ?
5. 18
, .
8
1. ax2 + bx + c x . , ax2 + bx + c = (dx + e)2.
2. . 1
,
, ,
. . .

i
i

60

. 1955

. , ,
.
3. O n- A1 ... An
. n- 1 n, .
OA1 , ..., OAn .
) n = 9 , A1 OA2 , ..., An OA1
.
) , n = 10 .
4.
Aa(Bb + Cc) + Bb(Cc + Aa) + Cc(Aa + Bb) >
1
2

> (ABc2 + BCa2 + CAb2 ),

a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 ,


A > 0, B > 0, C > 0. a, b, c ?
5. [a], [2a], ... , [Na] ,
h i
h i h i
2
M
1
,
, ...,
.
a

a.

9
1. ABC. AB, BC, CA C1 , A1 , B1 ,
AC1
C1 B

BA1
A1 C

CB1
B1 A

1
.
n

A1 B1 , B1 C1 , C1 A1 A1 B1 C1
C2 , A2 , B2 ,
A1 C2
C 2 B1

B1 A 2
A2 C1

C 1 B2
B2 A 1

= n.

, A2 C2 k AC, C2 B2 k CB, B2 A2 k BA.

i
i

. 1955

61

2. 1,
, 1
.
3.
xn a1 xn1 a2 xn2 ... an1 x an = 0,
a1 > 0, a2 > 0, an > 0. ,
.
4. . 2 8 .
5.
( ) ,
.
.
10
p
1. ,
q
,
f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + ... + an
, p kq
f(k) k.
2. . 2 9 .
3. P . r, h. H 1 . R, P
,
, ?
4. 1955 . ,
?
1

. . .

i
i

62

. 1956

5. A0 B0 C0 . A0 B0 , B0 C0 ,
C0 A0 C1 , A1 , B1 .
A1 B1 , B1 C1 , C1 A1 A1 B1 C1 C2 , A2 , B2 , , An Bn , Bn Cn ,
Cn An , An Bn Cn Cn+1 , An+1 , Bn+1 .
,
A 0 B1
B1 C 0

B0 C 1
C1 A0

C0 A1
A 1 B0

= k,

A 1 B2
B2 C 1

B1 C 2
C2 A1

C1 A2
A 2 B1

1
k2

, ,
An Bn+1
Bn+1 Cn

Bn Cn+1
Cn+1 An

Cn An+1
An+1 Bn

( n
k2
1
k 2n

n;
n.

, ABC, A0 A1 , B0 B1 , C0 C1 , An Bn Cn n.
1956 (XIX )

7
1. ,
A, B, C D , ABC, BCD,
CDA, DAB .
2. ,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 9.
3. .
,
. , .
4. ,
5l + 6
.
l
8l + 7
5.
1956 ,
1 2 ( )?

i
i

63

. 1956

8
1. AB CB ABC AD CE. DE.
2.
,

(. .
0,01). ,
. (
)?
3. 15 n ,
1 2 ( ). , n 10.
4. a, b, c, d, l . ,
al + b
k, ad bc k.

cl + d
5. , , , .
. , , (. .
).

9
1. ABCD KLMN, ABC, BCD, DBA CDA. , ,
ABCD, ,
,
KLMN.
2. ,
(. .

0,001). ,

i
i

64

. 1956

. (
)?
3. . 5 8 .
4. h, s1 , s2 ABC. D , ABCD
, D, h, ACD BCD s1 s2 (
)?
5. . 4 8 .
10
1. , , .
, 2r, 2r, r , .
2. ,
(. . 0,0001). , .
( )?
3. . 4 8 .
4. . : A1 A2 B1 ,
A2 A3 B2 , ... , An A1 Bn . ,

A 1 B1 A 2 B2

B1 A 2 B2 A 3

...

A n Bn
Bn A 1

= 1.

5. ,
x1 x2 = a,
x3 x4 = b,
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 1

i
i

. 1956

65

x1 > 0, x2 > 0,
x3 > 0, x4 > 0 , | a | + | b | < 1.

7
1. O , ABC. A1 , B1 C1 O ABC. ,
1 A1 B1 C1 O,
ABC , A1 B1 C1 .
2. A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 , A5 , A6 1 . A1 l1
A2 , A2 l2 A3 , ... ,
A6 l6 A1 . B1 ,
l1 , l6 , l5 . .
B1 .
B1 A1 .
3. 100 , , . , -,
, -, , .
? ?
4. 64 ,
1956, : . , , 112.
,
, . ,
1035.
5. 15 , . , ,
1

. . .

i
i

66

. 1956

8/15
.
8
1. 13,5 , 350 . ,
11 . ( .)
2. 64 ,
1956, .
, , 112. ,
, . ,
518.
3. AB , O.
.
4. 100 , , . , -,
, -, ,
, , -,
, .
? ?
5. 5 . , . ,
1/9.
9
1. . 1 8 .
2. , 13, 1956 . 1 ,
?

i
i

. 1956

67

3. x, y, z. x1 = | x y |, y1 = | y z |, z1 =
= | z x |. x1 , y1 , z1 x2 , y2 , z2 . . , n
xn = x, yn = y, zn = z. , x = 1, y z.
4. . , ,
,
.
5. A, B, C, . , ABC ,
.
10
1. n , . , ,
. , .
2. 1
5. ,
, 1/9.
3. . 3 9 .
4. ,
,
.
5. A1 A2 , A2 A3 , ..., An A1 n- 1 A1 A2 ... An B1 , B2 ,
..., Bn , B1 B2 A1 A2 ,
B2 B3 A2 A3 , ..., Bn B1 An A1 .
1

n > 5. . .

i
i

68

. 1957
1957 (XX )


7
1. , .
2. , ax3 + bx2 + cx + d, a, b, c, d , x 5. , a, b, c, d 5.
3. . 15 90
,
. ,
.
4. , , ,
. , .
5. A B 999 .
, A B:
999

998

...

999

,
?
8
1. , , .
2. . 3 7 .
3.
, .
4.

i
i

. 1957

69

, . ,

.
5. , ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e, a, b, c, d,
e , x 7.
, a, b, c, d, e 7.
9
1. . 1 8 .
2. x3 [x] = 3, [x] , x.
3. ABCD M AC, N BD.
MN AB CD M
N . , MM = NN , BC k AD.
4. ,
. ,
, . 1
5. A1 A2 ... An n
, . ,
n > 4, .
10
1. n 20n + 16n 3n 1
323?
2. ,

. , 6.
3. . 3 9 .
4. ,
. ,
1

50 ., 30 .
1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15 20 . .
.

i
i

70

. 1957

, . 1
5. A1 A2 ... An n
, .
?

7
1. OA OB . M OM 1,
, OA OB, .
2. ,
, .
,
(. . )?
3. a b.
, ?
4. , .
,
,
, .
.
5. 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, ...,

. . , .
1
30 .
1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15 20 . . .

i
i

71

. 1957

8
1. a b.
, ?
2. ,
1, 2, 3, ... , 108 1, 2, 3, ... , 109 .
3. ABC O. OG, O ( ) G , ( ) A , B , C . ,
OA
GA

OB
GB

OC
GC

= 3.

4.
2x21
1 + x21

= x2 ,

2x22
1 + x22

= x3 ,

2x23
1 + x23

= x1 .

5. ,
. ,
;
. . , .
9
1. ,
.
. ,
.
2.
1 x21 = x2 , 1 x22 = x3 , ... , 1 x298 = x99 , 1 x299 = x1 .

i
i

72

. 1957

3. . 1, 2, 3,
..., 20. ,
?
4. 1957 12
a1 , a2 , a3 , ... , a12 , a1 !
a2 ! a3 ! ... a12 ! .
5. . , , .
,
.
10
1. ABCD. .
2.
1 x21 = x2 , 1 x22 = x3 , ... , 1 x2n1 = xn , 1 x2n = x1 .
3. G , ABCD. OG, G O,
,
A , B , C , D . ,
OA
GA

OB
GB

OC
GC

OD
GD

= 4.

4. ,
1, 2, 3, ..., 10k 1, 2, 3, ..., 10k+1 .
5. n a1 = 1, a2 , a3 , ... , an , ai 6
6 ai+1 6 2ai (i = 1, 2, ..., n 1) .
,
?

i
i

i
i

i
i

1935 (I )

t a

,
2- . 1. l = 1
t2 t1
3p

a
a
v =
1 + 5.
/. 3.
t2 t1
6
3- . 1. : 24, 18,
12, 6; : 3, 9, 27, 81. 3. arctg 4.
4- . 1. (x, y, z) = (a2 a + 1, a2 a + 1, a2 + 1).
1
3. arccos .
17

A. 2. ,
.



1
3
B. 1. . 2. (x, y) = (1 i 3), (1 i 3) ,
2
2



3
1
(1 i 3), (1 i 3) . 3. n2 (2n2 1).
(1, 3), (3, 1),
2
2
C. 1. 30 7 983 360 (n 1)(n 2)
.
. 2.
2

1936 (II )

1. a = b = 0, x = c, y = c, c ; a = 0, b 6= 0
; a 6= 0
r a 6= 0, b = 0,
r
a

q
5
5
a2 + 2 a +4b
5a

q
5
5
a2 + 2 a +4b
5a

b 6= 0, x =
, y=
,
2
2
,
a

q
5
5
a2 2 a +4b
5a

q
5
5
a2 2 a +4b
5a

x =
, y=
. 5.
2
2
0 16 ( ).

i
i

76

1937 (III )

1. (0, 0, a), (0, a, 0) (a, 0, 0).

2. 30 . 3.

n(n 1)(n 2)(n 3)


24

n(n 3)
2

+1 =

n4
24

n3
4

23n2
24

7n
4

+ 1.

1938 (IV )

2. (n3 + 5n + 6)/6 . 4. 686 .
1939 (V )

1. b = 0, (x, y, z) = (0, a, a) (a, 0, a),
a ; b 6= 0,
q  
q 


1
1
(x, y, z) = 1
b, 1
b, 0 .
2
2
q
1
3
4. x = 0 a = 0; x = + a a > 1;
2
4
a.

2

1. (a + a + 1)(a a + a5 a4 + a3 a + 1). 4. 5. 6. 30
.
1940 (VI )

78 . 1. 3(b c)(c a)(a b). 2. 35. 3. 24. 4. 0
8 , 5 .

i
i

77

910 . 1.
1

1i 3
x=
2

b,

1i 3
y=
2

b x =

5/3

b,

5/3

y=
b; b = 0, x = y. 2. 7. 3. 7 2
( ). 5. 145.

78 . 1. 7744. 4. 1422 = 20164.
910 . 1. n, n
, n < 180
( > 180 , ). 2. 300! > 100300 .
5. 2857.

1941 (VII )

78 . 2. 523 152 523 656.
910 . 5. x = 2 x > 2. 6. 63.

78 . 4. a = 8 a = 12.
910 . 3. (a, b, c)
(1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 1), (2, 1, 1)
. 4. (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 2), (2, 1),
(2, 2).
1945 (VIII )

78 . 1. a b. 3. 29, 38, 47, 56, 65, 74, 83, 92.
910 . 1. a b. 2. 376 625. 3.

a = 1, a = 2. 4.

ABC.

78 . 1. 1 769 580. 2. 240.

i
i

78

910 . 1. (x, y) = (13, 2), (4, 1), (1, 0),


(2, 3), (3, 6), (4, 15), (6, 21), (7, 12), (8, 9), (11, 6),
(14, 5), (23, 4).
1946 (IX )

78 . 1. 3. 3. 1946. 4. x1 = x8 = 1, x2 = x7 = 2,
x3 = x6 = 3, x4 = x5 = 4.

OA OB

. 4.
78 . 1. 7 14. 3. x =
2
14, 23 24. 5. 7.
910 . 1. 10 . 2. , . 4. 8.
1947 (X )

78 . 1. x17 3420, x18 0. 2. 6.
910 . 1. (1 + x2 x3 )1000 . 2. 0,89001.
5. , , d AB
M, , AB ( M d AB,
; M AB
d, ).

910 . 2. (k, p) = (1, 1), (4, 2) (7, 3).
1948 (XI )

78 . 1. (2, 4, 4), (2, 3, 6) (3, 3, 3). 2. 31 .

i
i

79

78 . 1. x = 2, y = 4 x = 4, y = 2. 3. , .




p + 1 p+1
p+1 p
y=
, p 910 . 1. x =
p
p
, 0 1. 3. 19 801. 4. 4.
1949 (XII )

910 . 1. x = y = z = v = 0. 2. O, ,
O,
(
r

1
12a 2
12a

.
). 3. x1,2 =
2

16

78 . 1. , , , . 2. 3 6 .
910 . 4.
,
.
1950 (XIII )

78 . 5. 25 .
910 . 1. , . 2. , . 4. 5 6 x 6 10.

78 . 1. 13. 4. 16796.
910 . 1. 1949. 4. , .
1951 (XIV )

78 . 3. . 5. 3 .

i
i

80

910 . 1. a. 3. , R > 2r, R


, r . 4. 4 .

78 . 5. 1.
910 . 1. a2 /2.
1952 (XV )

3
11

, A B
7 . 4.
M.
p
10 . 1. arcsin cos arcsin x + arccos sin arccos x = .
2


7 . 1. x1 = x2 = ... = x15 = 1.
8 . 4. 100 198.
9 . 1. x1 = x2 = ... = xn = 1 n, x1 = x3 =
1
= ... = xn1 = a x2 = x4 = ... = xn = (a 6= 0) n.
a
5. ( ,
) .
1953 (XVI )

7 . 2. 11
... 1}.
| {z
300

9 . 1. ,
x + y = k , k .
10 . 2. ( O),
OS, S
, #
SO.

i
i

81


7 . 3. . 4. 1998. 5. x1 = x3 = x5 = 1, x2 = x4 = 1.
8 . 3. . 4. n , n 6= 1 . 5. x1 = x3 = ... = x99 = 1, x2 = x4 = ... =
= x100 = 1.
9 . 4. , .
10 . 1. 1, 2, ..., n.
1954 (XVII )

7 . 2. , . 3. 1014 ( 2 3)
1035 ( 5 9). 4. , .
5. 100.
8 . 5. y = 3x, z = 2x (x ).
9 . 2. 9999978596061 ... 99100. 5. , .
p
10 . 1. x = 1, y = + 2k . 3. a1 = a2 = ... = a100 = 1.
2


7 . 1. . 2. , . 3. x1 = x2 =
= ... = x7 = 0.
8 . 5. 0, 1 7.
9 . 1.
( , ). 4. ,
. 5. , .
10 . 1. 0, 1, 2, 3 6.
1955 (XVIII )

7 . 1. 175. 2. BAC = 60 BCA = 30 . 3.
( ), B,
( ) , AC 120 , . 4. ,

i
i

82

. 5.
13 : 1.
8 . 2. (. . 7).
B
K

L
C

M
N
D
. 7

4. , ,
.
k(k2 + 1)

. 3. (x, y) = (1, 0) (0, 1).


9 . 1.
2
10 . 5. , .

7 . 1. x = y = z = 0. 4. 28.
5. . . 8.
N1
8 . 4. . 5.
6
M
.
M1

6 |a| 6
9 . 5. 5 ; (
).
10 . 4. 1954/2 = 977 ; ,
.

18
14
10
6
2
5
7 11 15
17 13 9
1
3
4
8
12
16
. 8

i
i

83

1956 (XIX )

7 . 2. 18, 45, 90 99. 4. 13. 5. 1304.
51
99
50
,
, ...,
, 1.
8 . 2. 0,

100 100
100
500
501
999
9 . 2. 0,
,
, ...,
, 1. 4. 0,
1000 1000
1000
5000
5001
9999
10 . 2. 0,
,
, ...,
, 1.
10000 10000
10000

2, 4 8.


7 . 2. B1 A1 = 2. 3. , .
8 . 4. , .
9 . 2. , . 3. y = 1, z = 0 y = 0, z = 1.
1957 (XX )

7 . 1. 2 /5 . 5. 40.
8 . 1. R > r
. 2r 2 6
6 R2 ,

2
2R r 2 ,

. 9 ( ;
). 2r 2 > R2 , . 9

2r 2 R2 . 3. .

9 . 2. x = 3 4.
10 . 1. n. 5. n > 4,
, n = 4 , .

i
i

84

7 . 1. OA OB | x | + | y | > 1 x2 + y2 6 1.
2. , . 3. a b. 4. 60 .
8 .
1. a > 2b,

2
a b2 , b 6 a < 2b, b ( ,
a > b). 4. (0, 0, 0) (1, 1, 1).

9 . 2. x1 = x2 = ... = x99 =
= 163
{z + 163} +164.
| + ...

1
2

. 3. . 4. 1957 =

11

10 . 2. n , x1 = x2 = ... = xn =
1

1
2

n , x1 = x2 = ... = xn =
, x1 =
2
= x3 = ... = xn1 = 0 x2 = x4 = ... = xn = 1, x1 = x3 = ... =
= xn1 = 1 x2 = x4 = ... = xn = 0. 5. .

i
i

i
i

i
i

1935 (I )

1-

1. q = x/y, x y .
2. , , .
3. ABC, AB = AC. B C ,
BC.
2-
1. , , , , .
2. 90 .
3.
, ,
.
3-
1.
( )
.
2.
.
3.
.

i
i

88

4-
1. , z = a2 + 1.
2. , .
3. ABC ,
, BC ; O
. BOC
.

A
1. ,
A O .
ON AM .
2. , 90 .
3. ,
AB A1 B1 , BC B1 C1 , AC A1 C1 .
B
1. xy > 1
x + y > 2 xy.
2. y = kx x k.
3. 13 + 23 + 33 + ... + m3 .
C
1. (), .
2.
n = 1 + 1 + ... + 1.
3. p ,
M(a, b) D(a, b), ,
a b.

i
i

89

1936 (II )

1. t = xy .
2. , , .
3. , 3.
4.
4. ,
, , , , .
5. ,
, ,
.
1937 (III )

1. , xyz = 0.
2. B, , M MA, A A ,
A .
3. , ,
.

1. A, B, C , A , B , C
(A , B C, . .).

BA C, AB C AC B.

i
i

90

2. .
3. , .

1938 (IV )

1. , .
2. , ,
n ( ).
3. ,
, .
4. , 5,
, 7, , 35,
.

1939 (V )

1. , b 6= 0, z = 0.
2. , ,
,
.
3. : BC .
4. a x.
5. , .

i
i

91


1. ,
a10 + a5 + 1 =

(a5 )3 1
a5 1

a15 1 = (a3 )5 1.

2. ,
,
.
3. , X ,
K, , D AB,
P, KC AB.
k
4. , 1010 104 (mod 7) k > 1.
5. , P,
, P
.
6. an ,
n , bn
, n . , an 6 an1 + 2(n 1) bn 6 bn1 + an1 .
1940 (VI )

78
1. b = c,
c = a a = b, b c, c a a b.
2. ,
.
3. , 1 100, 5, 25.

i
i

92

4. .
910
1. t = xy.
2. .
3. , : ;
.
4.
, ,
.
5. , 5, ,
5
1.

78
1. (11x)2 , x , 4 9.
2. DC L, DL =
= DA, DAB LAC .
3. ,
.
4. x2 + y2 7 , x y 7.
910
1. ,
, ,

.


1 n
< 3 n.
2. , 1 +
n
3. O O1 O2 O3 .

i
i

93

4. 1.
5. 7 2x x2
3 7 .
1941 (VII )

78
1. , .
2. 523 000 7 8 9 = 504 .
3. .
4. , P
, .
5. x(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) + 1 .
910
2. , ,
, , ,
.
3. , x P(x) .
4. M N AB,
.
5. .
6. y = x/100 y = sin x.

78
1. , ,
.

i
i

94

2. .
3. ,
, .
4. x = b.
5. p > 3 6n 1.
6. ABC H1 H2 H3

.
910
1. , , .
, () .
2. ,
.
3. , .
4. x , y .
5. , .
6. .
1945 (VIII )

78
1. a b.
1
.
2. n
2n
3. 11.

i
i

95

4. , , .
5.
.
910
1. a b.
2. N , N2 N = N(N 1) 1000.
3. y , .
4. ABC
.

78
1. , ,
.
2. , 360 .
3. AQP CQB.
4.
ABC.
910
1. (x 5)(y + 3) =
= c, c .
2.
n a
2 sin = 2 2 cos .
2
3. , .

1946 (IX )

78
1. , 360.

i
i

96

2. 60 B.
3. 131k + 112 = 132l + 98 131(k l) = l 14. k 6= l, l
,
.
4. ,
, .
5. P(x), P(x) = P(x).
910
1. l
l , ,
.
2. ,
A , , A ( ). A
, ,
.
3. ,

a b

a b

n2 + 3n + 5 = (n + 7)(n 4) + 33.
4. , n! 2n = (2n)!!.
5. , , < cos (tg tg ) > cos tg .

b a

a b

a a


78
1.
,
, .
2.
(x + 2y)(x y)(x + y)(x 2y)(x + 3y).

i
i

97

3. MN ,
.
4. , an , , an , , an , . . 90 . (
, .)
5. ,
.
910
1.
, .
2. 10000 , 108 + 1
.
3.
SAB, SCD, SEF, PQR,
, PQR, . .
4. , - n , n
n .

1947 (X )

78
1. x5m+7n .
2. x + x3 + x9 + x27 +
+ x81 + x243 x = 1.

i
i

98

3. , 3.
4. , .
5. , AOB = 180 C.
910
1. , f(x) f(x)
x20 .
2. .
3. 5
, ,
3, ,
5, 7.
5. ,
d AB.

78
1. . , , 9
. ,
. -
, .
2. , ,
.
3. , .
4. , 1
5 , 2
4 , 3
3 .

i
i

99

910
1. , , , .
2. , p 6 3.
3. , , 2 .
4.
.
5. A9 A5 A6 A7 A8 .

1948 (XI )

78
1.
, 3.
2. , 210 = 1024.
3. n.
910
n
2nm 1
22 1 2
=2 n
.
1. 2n 2 = nm, n
2. x =

1
log2 p

2 1
2 1
1
, x = 10 > 2 .
log5 p

3. , A
AB.

78
1. , , x < y, y x.
2. 1
.
2

i
i

100

3. .
910




p + q (p+q)/q
p + q p/q
y=
, p
1. , x =
p
p
q .
2. ,
.
3.
| x | + | y | = n n = 0, 1, ..., 99.
4. , , (1,0,0).
1949 (XII )

78
1. 271958 (108878 101528 ) = (271958 108878 ) +
+ 101528 5 72 22 33 .
2.
.
3. 2a ,
x2 /2a , y2 /2a , z2 /2a .
4. ,
, .
5. , ,
.
910
2.
. ,
, .
3. f(x) = f 1 (x).

i
i

101

4.
.
5. ,
, .

78
1. , . .
.
2. . , .
3. ,
. , ;
.
4. .
5. 100 S1 = a1 ,
S2 = a1 + a2 , ..., S100 = a1 + a2 + ... + a100.
6.
,
.
910
2. , , .
4. - O, T,
T , T O.

i
i

102

5. , A m n,
lg A < n lg 2 m < lg(A + 1).
1950 (XIII )

78
1. .
2. n, n + 1, ..., n + 8
.
3. B1 A3 O B3 A3 O.
4. .
5. 2 , 1
. 2 ,
1 .
910
1. ,
sin B sin C + cos B cos C = cos(B C) 6 1.
2.
1 (
), 3
4.
3. n2 , (n + 1)2 , ...,
(n + 8)2 , , 18 .
4.
.
5. Bn An O Bn1 An1 O.

i
i

103


78
1. 13- , .
2.
98 99
1 2 3 4 5
...
2 3 4 5 6
99 100

1
.
100

3. ;
.
4. an 2n
n .
an a1 , a2 , ..., an1 .
910
1. A1 ,
,
Ap Ap+1 . ,
p 6 975. , A1 Ap+1 , 2 p.
2. ak
xk yk , xk
, ak , yk
,
ak . xk 6 10 yk 6 10 k,
(xk , yk ) 100,
.
3. AB, BC, CA AD
K, L, M N ,
,
AK BL CM DN

BK CL DM AN

= 1.

4. 10 ,
.

i
i

104

1951 (XIV )

78
1. x 6 0, 0 < x < 1, x > 1.
2. ,
.
1+a
1+b

.
3.
1 + b + b2
1 + a + a2
4. , P
.
5. k ,
, k + 1
k + 1, 2(k + 1), 4(k + 1), 8(k + 1), ..., 2k (k + 1)
( ).
910
1. 3,
( ) .
2. , 0,515 < b < 0,516 0,1234 <
< a < 0,1235.
3. , , , .
4. . 5 78 .
5. 2y = x + z 102y =
= 10x 10z .

78
1. .
2. ABC
180 D, 180

i
i

105

E 180 F, ABC.
3. , ,
. , .
4. P , , O .
5. x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1 ,
x12 1 (x 1)(x3 + 1)(x4 x2 + 1).

910
1. ,
.
2. 1, 2, ..., 1951, a1 , ..., an ,
i
i h
i
h
h
1951
1951
1951
.
+
+ ... +
a1

a2

an

3. ) , , 7-
8-.
) , 1, 2, ..., 10 ,
.
4. , .

1952 (XV )

7
1. LMN ABC.

i
i

106

2.
(x2 + y2 + z2 )(a2 + b2 + c2 ) + 2(xy + yz + zx)(ab + bc + ca).
3. ,
.
4. , A C , , B .
8
1. , , .
2.
(x2 + y2 + z2 + u2 )(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) +
+ 2(xy + yz + zu + ux)(ab + bc + cd + da) + 4(xz + yu)(ac + bd).
4. A B , N .
9
1. ,
( ).
2. b a c,
c a c, a
b c .
3. ,
(1 x)(1 + y) > 0

(1 + x)(1 y) > 0.

4. , .
5. , a3 , a4 , a5 100.

i
i

107

10
1. cos arcsin cos arcsin x = x sin arccos sin arccos x =
= x.
2. n.
3. SO .
4. a > 0 a < 0.

7
1. x1 = x3 .
2. A
AC.
3. 0 < a < 1, 0 < a2 < a < 1.
4. AB AB, .
8

1. 0 < a < 1, 0 < a < a < 1.


2. NBD NAE, NBF NAD .
3. a b , a ab
9, ,
b,
b
7.
4. m , , m 2m + 1 .
9
1. x1 = x3 .
2. .
4. BC R , CAR = 60 .
S CQ AR. ,
QP SQR.
5. , , -

i
i

108

, ,
.
10
1. , x x + , x x + /2, . .
3. , 1,
1.

1953 (XVI )

7
1. .
3.
.
4. n2 + 8n + 15 n + 4 .
8
1. ( ) ,
.
4.
q
p

a = 2 + 2 + ... + 2
|
{z
}
n1

, a < 2.

9
1. k , k
.
# 1 # #
2. , OO1 = (AA1 + BB1 ).

i
i

109

3. f(x)g(y) = x200 y200 + 1, x = 0, y = 0.


4. , SEFA = SACE .
10
2. , O .

7
1. .
2.
,
.
3. .
4. .
5. ,
. .
8
1. 2S 6 ad + bc .
2S 6 ac + bd,
,
.
2. 1953
n, 3. , ,
.
3. A1 ,
.
4. . 3 7 .
5. . 5 7 .

i
i

110

9
2. ,
l .
a
3. x = x1 x = x2 x2 + bx + c 2
.
4. , ,
.
5. , .
10
1. 1, 2, ..., n .
3.

xn1 2
(xn1 2)2
xn 2 <
.
xn 2 <
2

5. n = 1 , n > 1
.
1954 (XVII )

7
1. 3 .
2. n.
3.
10.
4. n2 m2 , 4.
5. abc = 100a + 10b + c 100a + 10b + c
6 100.

a+b+c

8
1.
, .
2. 90 .

i
i

111

5. : x + y + z = 0, 4x + 2y +
+ z = 0.
9
1. f(x0 ) = f (x0 ) = 0, x0
f(x).
2. .
3. .
4. ,
.
5. ABCD , ABC .
10
1. .
3. .

7
1. .
2. .
3. x1 , ..., x7 , x1 , ..., x7 , xk

P



. | akk xk | >
aik xi .
i6=k

8
1. , , .
2. , O ,
.

i
i

112

3. , k 2k1 ,
, 2k1 ,
.
5. ,
.
9
1. l1 C,
A B
CA2 k B1 B2 , , A1 S = A1 A2 1 1 .
A1 C
2. . 2 8 .
3. C1 > C2 > ... > C100 > 0. , C1 <
< 100. 100 C1 > 0, 100
C2 > 0, C2 C3 > 0 C1 C3 > 0.
4. ai , ai bi
.
5. k ,
4k + 1.
10
1. , .
4. .
5. .

1955 (XVIII )

7
1. 7a + b,
0 6 a 6 6 1 6 b 6 7,
7a b.

i
i

113

2. , AB = BD = DC = DA.
3. 120 ABC.
4. n2 + n + 1 5.
5.
: .
8
1. , n 4.
, n 4, ,
24k 1 3.
2. KL , .
3. 1 7 7
,
. 7 ,
.
4. l
A, ,
l , A l.
5. , A1 C1 B D.
9
1. ka + b,
0 6 a 6 k 1 1 6 b 6 k, ka b.
2.
.
3. , x y
, . ,
x y , , x
y .

i
i

114

4. p a1 , a2 , ...,
ap . .
5. CE AD, DA +
+ EC > AC + ED.
10
1. 1 n n
,
. n ,
.
3. , .
5. A, B, C O.

7
1. (x, y, z), x ,
y , z .
2. x 1 n. , ax2 + bx + c
,
.
3. O1 O2 O3 ABC.
4. 25
1 = 24 .
5 ,
. 5
4 .
5. ,
. .
, 17 . 18- .

i
i

115

1. f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, f(x + 1) f(x)


x.
2. O1 O2 ,
R , P , . ,
PO21 PO22 = RO21 RO22 .
3. n- 3(n + 1)
. n = 10 .

2
4. a = b = 1, c = 2.
N1
5. 0 < a <
, [a], [2a], ..., [Na]
N
.
9
1. A2 B2 C2 ABC.
2. ,
1/2, 1/4,
1/8, ...; .
3. xn
, , .
5. , ; ( ).
10


p
1. , f(x) = g(x) x ,
q

qn1 g(x) .
3. , ,
,
.
4.
.

i
i

116

5. A2 , B2 , C2 A1 B1 C1 A0 A1 , B0 B1 , C0 C1 .

1956 (XIX )

7
1. : 1)
; 2)

.
2. 9.
3.
.
4. 5l + 6
8l + 7.
5. , A
1 2, . , 1 2, . .
8
1. DE , DA EC.
1
n
+ 1 , n 0 6 1 <
.
2. =
100
100

n
. , 0 ( n = 0),
n + 100a1
1/2 1.
3. , A
1 2, . , 1 2, . .
4. al + b = km cl + d = kn
ad bc = k(na mc).

i
i

117

5. ,
, .
9
1.
ABCD.
1
n
+ 1 , n 0 6 1 <
.
2. =
1000
1000
n
. , 0 (

n + 1000a1
n = 0), 1/2 1.
4. .

10
1.
; ,
.
n
+ 1 , n 0 6 1 <
2. =
<

1
.
10000

10000

. ,

n + 10000a1
0 ( n = 0), 1/2 1.
4. ,
.
5. , x1 =
= x2 + | a | x3 = x4 + | b |. 1 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 2x2 +
+ 2x4 + | a | + | b | > | a | + | b |.

7
1. ABC A1 B1 C1 .
2. x = B1 A2 .
3.
.

i
i

118

4. ,
- ,
.
5. n S,
, (n 1)S/n.
8
1. 8 . , .
2. , ,
, .
3. X ,
O, OX.
4. ,
;
, .
5. 1/9, 1 + 8/9, 1 + 8/9 + 7/9 . .
9
2. 133 1.
.
3. x, y, z ,
,
.
4. ,
, ,
,
.

i
i

119

5. ,
ABC .
A, B, C ( ).

, .
10
1.
m, m 1 ;
m 1, m 2 , . .
2. 1/9, 1 + 8/9, 1 + 8/9 + 7/9 . .
4. , .
5. xk = Ak+1 Bk .

1957 (XX )

7
1. ,
,
, , , .
2. x = 0, x = 1 x = 2.
3. (, ,
, )
.

i
i

120

4. ,
.
5.
, 9.
8
1. ABCD , O
OB2 OA2 = OC2 OD2 .
3. d
a b. d2 > a2 + b2 > 2ab > 2S, S
.
4. ,
.
5. x = 0, x = 1 x = 2.
9
2. , 1 6 x < 2.
3. M N AB CD.
MM M NN N
.
4. , 5, , 1, 2 3
. 5, 10 15 .,
, 1, 2 3 . .
5. , a, , .
10
1. 20n 3n 17, 16n 3n 19.
2. , , , 3, , , ,
.

i
i

121

4. ,
5, , 1, 2
3 . 5, 10 15 .,
, 1, 2 3 . .
5. . 5 9 .

7
1. OA OB. , M
.
2. , .
3. , a b,
.
4.
,
.
5. ak+1 + ak+2 + ... + ak+8
ak+9
ak+10 .
8
1. a > b. BC; A .
BA1 . , BA1 > CA1 BA1 < CA1 .
2. , .
3. O G .
,
, .

i
i

122

4. x1 , x2 , x3 ,
,






1 2
1 2
1 2
+ 1
+ 1
= 0.
1
x1

x2

x3

5.
,
.
9
1. , .
2. 1 2 f(x) = x, f(x) =
= 1x2 . , (, 1 ),
( 1 , 0), (0, 2 ), ( 2 , 1), (1, +) f (n) (x) = x .
3. i (i).
20
P
(i (i)) (mod 20).

i=1

4. , b > a + 2,
a! b! > (a + 1)! (b 1)!.

5.

( ).
10
1. ABCD, .
2. . 2 9 .
3. O G .
, -

i
i

123

,
.
4. , .
5. ,
. ,
, .

i
i

i
i

i
i

i
i

1935 (I )

1-
x+y
1. x y .
: xy =
2
q
qx

25
y
= 25 : 24, . .
+
= . q = x/y. q +
y

1
q

25
,
12

x
12
25
q + 1 = 0.
12

. . q
+ =
, q1 = 4/3 q2 = 3/4. , x : y =
= 16 : 9 9 : 16.
2. ABC , CD . AC E , BE k CD
(. 10). E
BE BCE a
, EC = CB = a.
C
, EB : CD = EA : CA,
EB =

m(a + b)
.
b

BCE
A
D
B
, . 10
.
ABC b EC C.
m(a + b)
< 2a.
,
b

3. ABC ,
A ABC, . .
BAC = ; S . , . ASB ASC ,
, B C

i
i

128

. 1935

AS, . D , E BC. = CDB


. , DE = AE sin (ADE = 90 , AD BDC) EC =
EC
tg(a/2)
a
j
.
=
= AE tg . tg =

DE

sin f

2-
1. l .
, ,
a , l , .
t a

l = t1v, l + a = t2v. , l = 1
t
t1
2
a
v=
/.
t2 t1

2. a, b, c , b a c. , A, B, C
ABCD a, b, c .
. b
B BA1 a BC1 c.
(. 11),
A1
A
.
a
. b
B
a A1 A, BC1 .
D
A. C
c
(, A
C1 C
C
. 11
A1 C1 ).
. , ABC = 90 AB = BC, . b B a
B 90 ( ). C
c a
.

i
i

129

. 1935

3. b, h. V a2 h/3.

. b sin = h, b cos =

2
a
2

=
b sin =
2

a
.
2

1- 3-

h = b sin
1
3

a
a
a = 2 asin(sina/2)
= a cos ,
2

, V = a3 cos . , 2- 3- sin

a < 90 ,

2
1
a
=
2
2

cos . cos

a
2

= x.

< x < 1,

(1)

1
2

1 x2 = (2x2 1).

(2)


, 2x2 1 > 0 (1).
(2) 4x4
2x2 1 = 0.
1

x2 . , x2 =
.
4
2
x ,
x , p

1
1 + 5.
x =
2

3-
1. a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d ; b, bq, bq2 , bq3
.
a + b = 27,
a + d + bq = 27,
a + 2d + bq2 = 39,
a + 3d + bq3 = 87.

i
i

130

. 1935

, ,
:
d + b(q 1) = 0,
d + bq(q 1) = 12,
d + bq2 (q 1) = 48.
b(q 1) = d;
b(q 1) :
d dq = 12,
d dq2 = 48.

,
d
12
= 6, b =
=
1 + q = 4, . . q = 3. , d =
1q
1q
= 3 a = 27 b = 24. , 24, 18, 12, 6; 3, 9, 27, 81.
2. a d, a, a + d , h , a. ,
ah
, ,
,
2
(a d) + a + (a + d)
r. ,
:

ah
2

2
3ar
,
2

1
3

. . r = h.

3. R ,
r .
, 3
,
r= R
4
12r
.
3

h=R

, 3R 3.

12r
3
= 3R 3, . . r = R.

,
. 12

R
Rr

f
tg f =

= 4 (. 12).

i
i

131

. 1935
4-
1. :

2
2
2
2

x + y = 2z + 2a ,
x + y = 4(a2 + 1) 2z,

xy = a2 z2 .

,
, 2, .
0 = 16(a2 + 1)2 16(a2 + 1)z,

. . z = a2 + 1 ( , a , a2 + 1 6= 0 a2 + 1 ).
:

x + y = 2(a2 + 1),
xy = a4 + a2 + 1.

; ,
x = a2 a + 1,

y = a2 a + 1.

2. R1 , R2 R ADG, DBF ABC


:
R1
AD

R1 + R2
AD + DB

R
,
AB

R2
DB

R
,
AB

, R1 + R2 = R.

2 , .
3. l . , l/3. , , 15 ,
+ 15 . ,

i
i

132

. 1935

180 , , = 60 . ABC 45 , 60 , 75 .
BC , O ABC. BOC = 2 45 = 90 ,
BOC

l/3. , BC = l 2/3. D l
BC, S . OD = DB = SD =
3 2
q

l 17
l2
2
2
2
= SB DB = l = . ,
cos

1
f = OD
= .
SD
17

18

3 2


A
1. ABC , A
ABC, , . M, N P
.
O . ON
A
AM, BC (. 13). O
.
M , ON.
B
C
A M
P N
. . 13
, AP ON;
ON. .
2. , AC1
ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 90 ,
( -

i
i

. 1935

133

). , , ,
B AC1 90 . AB BCC1 B1 , ABBC1 (. 14),
. . ABC1 = 90 .
D1
C1
.
A1

B1
, .
D

C
A
B
, . 14
.
3. AB A1 B1 , BC
B1 C1 , AC A1 C1 ,
ABA1 B1 , BCB1 C1 ACA1 C1 .

BB1 ( , ABC A1 B1 C1
). BB1 ,
,
AA1 , BB1 CC1 . , AA1 CC1
,
. BB1 , AA1 , BB1 CC1
. ,
.
.
: ABC A B C
, AB A B , BC B C , CA C A , AA , BB CC
.

i
i

134

. 1935

B
1. . ,
xy > 1. x y , 2. , x y , x + y >

> 2 xy > 2, x + y = 2
, x = y = 1. z = 0.
. y = 2 x . z2 = x(2 x) 1 =
= (x 1)2 . , z = 0, x = 1 y = 2 x = 1.
2. y = kx. , k 6= 1.
x3 k3 x3 = 26,

kx3 k2 x3 = 6
x3 =

26
1 k3

x3 =

6
.
k k2

26
1 k3

6
.
k k2

k 6= 1, 1 k.
6
26
= ,
2
1+k+k

. . 6k2 20k + 6 = 0. , 1
26
k = 3 . x3 =
3
1 k3
3
3
, x = 1 x = 27. , y = kx, , .
3
3
3
3.

2m , 1 + 2 + 3 + ...

m(m
+
1)
. , ... + m3 =
2
: m = 1 , 1.
, . . -

i
i

135

. 1935

m2 (m + 1)2
4

+ (m + 1)3 =

(m + 1)2 (m + 2)2
.
4

(m + 1)2 4
m2 + 4(m + 1) = (m + 2)2 .
,


2n(2n + 1) 2
,
13 + 23 + 33 + ... + (2n 1)3 + (2n)3 =
2

. .

13 + 33 + 53 + ... + (2n 1)3 + 23 (13 + 23 + ... + n3 ) =




2n(2n + 1) 2
.
=
2


,
2
 ,
n(n
+
1)
.
13 + 23 + ... + n3 =
2

13 + 33 + 53 + ... + (2n 1)3 =






2n(2n + 1) 2
n(n + 1) 2
=
23
= n2 (2n2 1).
2

C
1. .
. , ,
, .
5 ; .
, (
), (
).

. , . 5 3 2 = 30 .

i
i

136

. 1935

. -
, . . ,
, , . 6 ,
5, 4 . . 6! = 1 2 ... 6 = 720
. ,
;
. , 720/N,
N . 6 .
4 ( ), .
6 4 = 24 .
720/24 =
= 30.
12- ();
,
.
12! = 1 2 ... 12. , 12!
. 12
. , 5 ( ),
. 60 .
12!/60 = 7 983 360.
2. . n = x + y + z. x
1, 2, 3, ... , n 2. x y n x 1 .
(n 1)(n 2)
.
(n 2) + (n 3) + ... + 1 =
2
. n : n = 1 +
+ ... + 1. n -

i
i

137

. 1936

n = x + y + z , n 1 - . , ,
x ,


n1
(n 1)(n 2)
z .
=
2
2
.
3. .
a = pa11 ... pak k b = pb11 ... pbkk .
D(a, b) = p1min{a1, b1 } ... pkmin{ak, bk } ,

ab
ab

M(a, b) = p1max{a1, b1 } ... pkmax{ak, bk } ,

a b

min{ , } ,
max{ , } .
. a = pa b =
= pb , 6 . D(a, b) = pa M(a, b) = pb . M(a, b) D(a, b) = pa pb = ab.
. , a = pa , b = pb , c = pg , 6 6 .

a b

a b g

M(a, b, c)D(a, b)D(b, c)D(c, a)


D(a, b, c)

pg pa pb pa
pa

= abc.

1936 (II )

1. xy = t. ,
x5 + y5 = (x + y)5 5(x + y)3 xy + 5(x + y)x2 y2 = a5 5a3 t + 5at2 .
a 6= 0 t
t2
r


1
a5 + 4b5
a5 b 5
2
2
= 0. , t =
a
.
a t+
5a

5a

i
i

138

. 1936

x + y = a,
xy = t.

; .
2. A, B, C b c,
c a, a b. ABC, AB M CA CB K L (. 15). CK + CL = (CA + AK) +
+ (CB + BL) = (CA + AM) + (CB + BM) = CA + CB + AB.
, CK = CL,
c {{{
a
CK
= CL = p, p {
.
B
B
B
B
p
L
}}}}|||
M

.
zzzz

|
|||C
A
K L , CK = CL = p. {{{{zzzz
K
p
S,
b
}}}}
b a
. 15
K L. , M S. , S ABC, c.
3. a b , c
. a2 + b2 = c2 . , 3 0 1.
a2 + b2 ,
a b 3.
4, a b 4. , ab 12.

i
i

. 1936

139

4. 2a1 5b1 , 2a2 5b2 2a3 5b3 .


a1 + a2 + a3 = 6 b1 + b2 + b3 = 6. ai
bi . a1 = k,
a2 + a3 = 6 k 7 k . a1 + a2 + a3 = 6 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 28
. (28)2 = 784 .
,
.
, ,
100. ,
, . 2
0, 1, 2 3, . . ; 5.
16 ,

. 15 , . 784 1 45 = 738.
6 ,
738/6 = 123 . 1 + 15 + 123 = 139 .
5. O R S. , S1 O1 . S1
S1 O1 O1 O. S1 O , R.
,
R. S1
O , 23 = 8
.
, ,
O
. , -

i
i

140

. 1936

, . , , O.
.
, O .
, . :
, O.
, O
. ,
O ,
, , O, . ( O ,
.)
, : 1)
; 2) . , ,
O ,
. ,
O. ( ,
, .)
, 16
S1 . , S1 S1 . , , O , OO1 S; S1 O1 -

i
i

141

. 1936

O1 O (. 16). ,
, ,
, .
( ). 16 ,
.
S1
S1

S
O

O1

. 16

. 17

,
, , 0
16. ,
,
. ,
, , , ,
(. 17). , .
. SR . , SR . R SR ,
(. 18, ). R ,

i
i

142

. 1936

SR .
1 (. 18, ). R. SR , 2 (. 18, ).
SR
. 3 (. 18, ). R ,
4 (. 18, ).

SR

SR
)

SR
)

SR

SR
)

)
. 18

,

SR , R ,
0 16. ,
SR
.

i
i

. 1937

143

1937 (III )

1.
(x + y + z)2 (x2 + y2 + z2 ) = 2(xy + yz + xz)
,
xy + yz + xz = 0.

(1)

(x + y + z)3 (x3 + y3 + z3 ) = 3(x + y)(y + z)(z + x)


, (x + y)(y + z)(z + x) = 0. (1),
xyz = (xy + yz + xz)(x + y + z) (x + y)(y + z)(z + x) = 0.
x = 0, (1) , yz = 0. y = 0 z = a, z = 0 y = a. .
: (0, 0, a), (0, a, 0) (a, 0, 0).
2. l , a . , M l
. S
a B, S A
AM M,

A , A
B
l (. 19).
S
M
l
S, A
S .
A
S
M.
S
A A

S , . 19
S, M.
S .
C S, AA ,

i
i

144

. 1937

AA C; S D. AA k CD
:
A A AA
S. , AA CD. X
AA CD. S
XP XQ. AA P AA Q , XP2 = XQ2 =
= XC XD = XA XA (. 20).
P
D

C
X
A
A

Q
. 20

a 0, 1
2 .
3. ,
1
6

abd sin ,

a b , d
b
, .
. 21
, ,
(. 21). -

i
i

145

. 1937

4 ,
1/6 . 1/3 . , a b , , , d.


1. A, B, C , A , B , C
(A , B C . .). BA C,
AB C, AC B . x, y, z
, : x
#
#
CB CA , y #
#
AC AB , z
#
#
BA BC (. 22). , , , ,
ABC, ,

a b

B
zz
zz

x
x
b x

C
A

zz
zz
A

B
B

B
B
B
y

x
C

. 22

i
i

146

. 1937

. 22.

y + z + = 90 ,
z + x + = 90 ,

x + y + = 90 .

a
b
g

. ,
x, .
x, y, z, : ABC ()
x, y, z; .

,
8 .
2. 20 , 10 . ,
10
,
. , , , .
, 120 ,
(. 23). , .
0 d, d a, a , d
(, d > a). , . , , (. 24);
.

i
i

147

. 1937
B

D
. 23

. 24

, , ,
. ,
.
: 1) ; 2) , ; 3) . : 1)
; 2) , ; 3)
.
. ,
. .
.
, , . ,
.
, . 23:

i
i

148

. 1937

, ,
.
, .
, ,
,
. , .
,
, , ,
. 24. ,
ABCDEF ( ). , .
ABCDEF, (, ,
). ,
,
ABCDEF, .
.
3. .
, , , m + 1, m
, . . 1. ,
n-, D + P + 1,
D , P
. , D = n(n 3)/2.
P.
, n. , n- -

i
i

149

. 1938

. P
n,
. .
n(n 1)(n 2)(n 3)
.
P=
24

1938 (IV )

1. X Y
#
2XY. ,
X A
B, Y
B C. XY ABC (, A, B, C , ).
,
#
# #
#
#
#
AA2 = 2O1 O2 , A2 A4 = 2O3 O1 A4 A6 = 2O2 O3 .
#
, AA6 = 0, . . A = A6 .
2. , n ,
, (n2 + n + 2)/2 .
n. n = 0 . , n
, n + 1 .
. n + 1 , -
, n . n + 1. ,
(n + 1)2 + (n + 1) + 2
2

n2 + n + 2
2

+ n + 1.


, . ,

i
i

150

. 1938

n n
, . . (n2 + n + 2)/2 .
n = 0 ;
(n + 1)3 + 5(n + 1) + 6
6

n3 + 5n + 6
6

n2 + n + 2
2

B
3. ABC c, hc
A B. C
C
, ABC .
C , C A
B
AB, B
, B
. 25
CC (. 25).
, AC < BC. ACB = ACC + C CB = ACC + C CB = 180 A +
+ C CB = 180 (A B), . . ACB .
. ABB AB = c BB = 2hc
ABB = 90 . C
BB , AB 180
(A B).

4.
i1, 2, ... , 999
h
999
= 199.
, 5;
5
1, 2, ...
h , 999
i ,
999
7;
= 142. 7
,
h 35,
i . 999

= 28. , 199 +
35
+ 142 28 = 313 , 999 313 = 686 .

i
i

151

. 1939
1939 (V )

1. , b = 0. z = x y z2 =
= x2 + y2 . , xy = 0.
, x = 0, z = y y = 0, z = x.
.
, b 6= 0.

3xyz x3 y3 z3 = (x + y + z)(xy + yz + xz x2 y2 z2 ).
,
xy + yz + xz x2 y2 z2 =

b2
.
2

x + y + z = 2b,
x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2xz = 4b2 .
,
x2 + y2 + z2 = b2

3
2

xy + yz + xz = b2 .

, z = 0. ,
x2 + y2 = b2

xy =

3
2

b2 .

,
(x y)2 = x2 2xy + y2 = 2b2 .
, , z = 0, x + y = 2b. x y = 2 b x + y = 2b,
q 
q 


1
1
b, y = 1
b.
x = 1
2

2. ABCDE , 1 O. ,

i
i

152

. 1939

O , 2p

,
5
.
# # # #
OB, OC, OD, OE OA, O
A, 1. ,
2p
4p
2 cos
+ 2 cos .
5

3. , l .
.
. l BC.
B l,
C , l. A
(. 26).
A BC . BC A B. . A BC,
l, BA . l BC, .
A

C
B

C
. 26

. 27

. l BC.
ABC ABA C
# # #
(. 27). AA = AB + AC ,
B C l
A l. . AA H
AA A H, -

i
i

153

. 1939

. l = AH
BC, .
4. ,
x4 2ax2 x + a2 a = 0.
a . , :
a = x2 + x + 1;
a = x2 x.
, x > 0. a = x2 x a = 0 (
),
a = x2 + x + 1 a > 1. , , .
5. AD, AM AH , ABC. , , D AD . D BC, MD k AH.
, D MH.
(. 28).

M
B

D
D

C H

. 28

i
i

154

. 1939

1. ,
a15 1
(a5 )3 1
= 5
=
a5 1
a 1
(a3 )5 1
(a3 1)(a12 + a9 + a6 + a3 + 1)
=
4
3
2
(a 1)(a + a + a + a + 1)
(a 1)(a4 + a3 + a2 + a + 1)

a10 + a5 + 1 =
=

(a2 + a + 1)(a12 + a9 + a6 + a3 + 1)
.
a4 + a3 + a2 + a + 1

,
a12 + a9 + a6 + a3 + 1
a4 + a3 + a2 + a + 1

= a8 a7 + a5 a4 + a3 a + 1.

,
a10 + a5 + 1 = (a2 + a + 1)(a8 a7 + a5 a4 + a3 a + 1).
2. , 4, , . ,
. ,
.

2. an xn + an1 xn1 +
+ ... + xr bm xm + bm1 xm1 + ... + xs; r s , , ai bi 0 1.

2,
an bm xn+m + ... + xr+s . , xr+s , .
3.
A B, MN (. 29). . ,

i
i

155

. 1939

X. AX
S C, BX D. D , AB;
S K.
KC AB P. APC AXB , A
APC = CKD = CXD.
, AP AB = AC AX.
N

M
X
S
K
C
A

B
. 29

. A , S C X . AP AB = AC AX = AC AX ,
P. , CDK ( AB MN).
KC, ,
S , ,
S, KC.
P S , C.
4. , 106 1 (mod 7). , 103 + 1 7, . . 103 1 (mod 7). , 10k 4 (mod 6) k > 1, 99 ... 96 -

i
i

156

. 1939
k

3. , 1010 104 (mod 7)


k > 1. 10 104 = 105 7. 5, 105 35 243 (mod 7).
5. , Q , P, , R
, , . PQ = PR tg , =
= PRQ.
.
. , , ,
:
P, ,
P .
,
, P . ,
( ). , P .

6. an ,
n , bn
, n . , a1 = 2 b1 = 2. , an 6 an1 + 2(n 1)
bn 6 bn1 + an1 . n . .
an1 .
2n 2 . 2n 2 ;

i
i

. 1940

157


. an 6 an1 + 2(n 1). bn 6 bn1 + an1 .
, . , a2 = 4, a3 = 8, a4 = 14
b2 = 4, b3 = 8, b4 = 16, b5 = 30.
. : an =
= n2 n + 2 bn =

n3 + 8n
3

n2 .

1940 (VI )

78
1. b = c,
c = a a = b, , b c, c a a b.
(b c)3 + (c a)3 + (a b)3 (b c)(c a)(a b)
,
(b c)3 + (c a)3 + (a b)3 = 3(b c)(c a)(a b).
2. v , u , l . l
l
=5
= 7; l/v.

u+v
uv
l = 5u + 5v, l = 7u 7v l/v = 35.
3. 1 100 20 ,
5, 4 , 25, ,
125, . 524 525 . ,
224 .
4. r , R O
.

i
i

158

. 1940

S | R r | O (. 30). , l,
r; . S
l .
0 8 , 5
.

S
S
O

r
R

r
l
r
r
l

. 30

, . 30 6 .
O, 7 ( l
S), 8 . , O 6
4 ,
,
,
2 . ( ), (
).
, R > r. , R < r, 3 (. 31),
5 ,

i
i

159

. 1940

. , R = r, 5 .
S

S
R
R
R
R

r
r

l
r

r
l
. 31

910
1. xy = t. x2 + y2 = b2 2t x3 + y3 = b(b2 3t).
b(b2 2t)(b2 3t) = 2b5 . b = 0,
x = y. b 6= 0, t (b2 2t)(b2 3t) = 2b4 . ,
t1 = b2 , t2 = b2 /6. , x y X2 bX + t = 0, x + y = b
xy = t.

t = b2 x =

t = b2 /6

1i 3
1i 3
b, y =
b.
2
2

1 5/3
1 5/3
x=
b, y =
2
2

b.

2. 9 , 99 9 = 90 , 999 90 9 = 900 , 9000 . . 9 , 90 2 = 180 ,


900 3 = 2700 , 9000 4 = 36 000
, 90000 5 = 450 000 .

i
i

160

. 1940

.
,
, 1 9 + 180 + 2700 + 36 000 =
= 38 889. 206 788 38 889 = 167 899 5 : 167 899 = 5 33 579 + 4. 33 580-
, . . 43 579 (
10 000). 4- .
3. , A, B, C, D
AB CD, AC BD, AD BC . A, B, C, D
, S . S k ,
4 k . ,
( S
; ). ,
k 6= 0 k 6= 4. , 1 6 k 6 3.
S: 2 + 2 ( S
) 1 + 3 ( S
, ).
A B
S, C D .
S O
AB CD (. 32).
S OA OC.
, 3 .
A, B C
S, D .
A, B C . O R -

i
i

. 1940

161

O A
B

D
. 32

. O ,
R OD. , 4 . 7 ,
.
- A, B, C, D
- AB CD, AC
BD, AD BC ,
7 . ABCD ,
, 6 . ABCD , , 5. A, B C
, D , 6. , A, B, C D
, AB 6= CD,
, AB = CD, .
4. a . , , l1 l2 , l1 l2 a, M1 M2 M3 M4 . , a = 0
l1 k l2 , . , -

i
i

162

. 1940

.
X XA1 XA2 l1
l2 . , , XA1 XA2 =
l1
= a. A1 X
A1
B, A1 B = a. BX =
a
l2
= XA2 . M B
l2 , X

B
M
l1 (M
A2
M1 , M2 , M3 , M4 ). MX . 33
BMA2 (. 33).
5. N = 100x + 10y + z , N = x! + y! + z!. 7! = 5040 , N 6. , N 700. N 5, 6! = 720. 3 4! = 72 < 100
, N 5.
x 6= 5, 3 5! = 360 < 500. 3 5! = 360
, x 6 3. , x 6 2, 3! + 2 5! = 246 < 300. 255 , 5, x 6 1, 2! + 5! + 4! = 146 < 200.
1! + 5! + 4! = 145 < 150, y 6 4. , z = 5.
, x = 1 0 6 y 6 4, N = 145.


78
1. a , b . 11(b + 100a),
b + 100a = 11x2 x. , 100 6 b + 100a 6 909, , 3 < x 6 9.
44, 55, ..., 99, ,
: 882 = 7744.

i
i

163

. 1940

2. , ADC = ABC = 60 , . CD L ,
ADL . DAB LAC
(. 34). , DAB = LAC,
60 BAL. CL = DB, , DC = DL + LC = AD + BD.
B

b
D

a
A

ab

d
g

g
d
a

ba
g d
d g

b
D

. 34

. 35

3. , 35.
#
ABCD AB
#
BC
.
,
, .
.
4. x2 + y2 7 , x y 7. ,
7 0, 1, 2 4.
, 1 1000
7, 142.
1422 = 20164.

i
i

164

. 1940

910
1. ,
, ,
. S A, . > 180 , (. 36). ,

a/2

a/2

. 36

< 180 . A SA a
SA B1 , ... , Bn , ASBk = k
2
(. 37). SA
a
C1 , ... , Cn , ASCk = k .
2
Bk Ck ; .
S

C3

C2

C1

A
A
A B1
A

B2

B3

. 37

i
i

. 1940
165
n

1
< 3 2. , 1 +
n
n. ,


n(n 1) 1
n(n 1)(n 2) 1
1 n
1
2+
3 + ...
1+
= 1+n +
n

... +

2
n
23
n
n(n 1) ... (n (n 1)) 1
n <
2 3 ... n
n
1
1
1
1
< 1 + 1 + + + + ... + n1
2
4
8
2

< 3,

n > 1
1 n1

2
n

1 n2

3
n

1
2

< ,

1
2

< ,

1 n3

4
n

1
2

< , ... ,

1 1

n n

1
2

< .

,



 n 
n + 1 n+1
n
n+1 n n+1
< n + 1.
:
=

3
3
n
3
 n
n
< n!.
n
3
,
n = 1 ,
 
n n
< n! ,

n+1
3

n+1

< (n + 1)

 n
n
3

< (n + 1)! .
 n
n
< n!, n = 300
3
.

3. O1 , O2 O3
O BC, CA AB . , , A1 ,
B1 C1 BC,
CA AB (. 38). BC k
k B1 C1 k O2 O3 OA1 BC. OO1 O2 O3 .
OO2 O1 O3 OO3 O1 O2 .
, O

B
O3

O1
C1
O
B1

A1

C
O2
. 38

i
i

166

. 1940

O1 O2 O3 . O,
OO1 , OO2 , OO3 .
ABC.
4. b1 = a1 /a2 , b2 = a2 /a3 , ... , bn = an /a1 1.
1.
1, . .
n.
5. 7 2x x2
3 7, 7 2x x2 21.
1 21:
x

10

11

2x

x
2

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

, x 2x x2 7. , 1 21
. 1 9996 = 21 476
476 6 = 2856 . , 9997, 9998 9999
9998 . , 21 1, 2 3, 1 6 x 6 3,
, x = 2 2x x2 7.

i
i

. 1941

167

1941 (VII )

78
1. ABC , AH ,
AM , R , O .
AHM
AH AM. M l MH. O
l R A. B C MH
R O.
0, 1 2
.
2.
7 8 9 = 504. 523 000 504 :
523 000 = 1037 504 + 352.
504 352 = 152, 504 523 152
523 152 + 504 = 523 656. , 504,
523 000 523 999 .
3. ,
. , , , AD CB , . DQ
BP ,
. AQ CP

. , BCP ADQ .
4. O , M
, ,

i
i

168

. 1941

P. PMO = 90 . OP,
.
5. f(x) ,
x(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) + 1 = (f(x) + 1)2 ,
. .
x(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) = f(x)(f(x) + 2).
x(x + 3) = x2 + 3x (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 3x + 2,
f(x) = x(x + 3). , n n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) + 1
n(n + 3) + 1.
910
1. . 2 78 .
2. , , , ,
. P, Q R ,
DA, AB
BC
A (. 39).
R

Q
C

B
D

A
P

. 39

PAQ = PAD + DAB + BAQ =


= 45 + + 45 = 90 +

RBQ = 360
RBC CBA ABQ =
= 360 45 (180 ) 45 =
= 90 + .

, PAQ = RBQ, , PAQ = RBQ.

i
i

. 1941

169

AQ BQ ,
PQ QR.
, PQ = QR. ,

, .
3. P(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + ... + an1 x + an . an = P(0) a0 + a1 + ... + an = P(1) .
x , P(x) an (mod 2). x
, P(x) a0 + a1 + ... + an (mod 2).
, P(x) ,
.
4. M N AB.
O
AB NM,
. A B AB O, M. A B
. C
AN BM.
5. x > 2, .
1 6 x < 2, 4x = 8,
.
0 6 x < 1, 2x = 2,
.
1 6 x < 0, 0 = 2, .
x < 1, 2x = 4, x = 2.
6. ,
0. , 31. sin x = x/100, | x | =
= 100 | sin x | 6 100. y = x/100

i
i

170

. 1941

y = sin x. 100/2 = 15,915 ... 15,


Ox 0 100 15
2 2 . , ,
2 ,
14 2
. ,
y = sin x 0 1, 1 0, . ,
.
,
y = sin x , ,
. , 100 30 > 5,752 > . ,
,
. , 2k (2k + 1) k
, . 31 .

p
p


78
1. , . Q. A. A
Q.
B,
Q. ,
C,
, D.
A D

i
i

171

. 1941

(. . A D ),
, Q.
, A
, ,
D
: Q
,
B
C
, ,
. 40 ( . 40
). q, a, b, c, d
. a = b + q, b = c + q,
c = d + q, d = a + q. , 4q = 0.
, 5 , 4,
. .
. , 8 , 9 . , 24 .
[12].

2. ABC
,
. , . 41. ,

, ABC.

. 41

.
; ,
. , , , , , .

i
i

172

. 1941

, , . 42, ,
,
na, (n + 2)a p (2n + 2)a, 42, , ,
p a, p na
(n + 1)a p.
(n + 2)- (
).

2a

2a

p a

pna

na

na
)

. 42
, a b p
, . . aa + bb + cp =
= 0 a, b c,
, . , X1 X2 ... Xn ABC P Q . p q,
ABC = pP qQ, pP qQ .
X1 X2 ... Xn , , , p(X1 X2 ... Xn ) = Xn ... X2 X1 , p(X1 X2 ... Xn ) = Xn+1 Xn ... X2 ,
Xn+1 ABC. , p q(X1 X2 ... Xn ) = X2 X3 ... Xn Xn+1 ,
p q(X1 X2 ... Xn ) = X3 ... Xn Xn+1 Xn+2 , Xn+2
. p q
f. ,
Xn+2 = p q(Xn ), X0 = p q(X2 ), X1 = p q(X1 ).
, ABC. ,
ABC f
p. , a = m1 f + n1 p b = m2 f + n2 p. m1 6= 0 m2 6= 0,
. , f
.
, .

i
i

. 1941

173

3. A1 , B1 , B2 , C2 , C3 , A3 , A4 , B4 , ... , ABC (. 43). A1 B1 k AB2 , B1 B2 k CA1


B1 C k B2 C2 , AB2 C2
B
A1 B1 C
. A3
C3
A3 BC3 AB2 C2 M
B2
, A4 B4 C
B1
A3 BC3 . A1
C
A1 B1 C - A C2
A3 BC3 . 43
. A1 = A4 , . . . ( M ABC, .)
4. (x a)(x 10) + 1 = (x + b)(x + c). x =
= b, (b + a)(b + 10) = 1. a b , b + a b + 10 . 1 . : 1) b + 10 =
= 1 b + a = 1; 2) b + 10 = 1 b + a = 1. a = 8
a = 12. (x 8)(x 10) + 1 = (x 9)2 ,
(x 12)(x 10) + 1 = (x 11)2 .
5. , p > 3 6. 2
4, .
3, 3.
, p > 3 6
1 5, . . 6n 1;
36n2 12n + 1.
6. H1 , H2 H3 H BC, CA AB. -

i
i

174

. 1941

: ABC ,
H
H1 H2 H3
H2
A
, , , A , H3
H1
, H2
C
B
H3
(. 44).

ABC. BHC CAB
H1
, . 44
,
180 .
180 , BHC . , BH1 C +
+ BAC = 180 , . . H1 ABC. ,
H2 H3
ABC, ABC H1 H2 H3 . , AH1 H2 =
= ACH2 = ACH3 = AH1 H3 , H1 A
H1 H2 H3 . H2 A H3 A
.
ABC
,
, H1 , H2 , H3 .
910
1. 1 78 , , . ,

i
i

175

. 1941
.
,
, . 45.
D E , .
.

Q
B
C
. 45

2. , .
, . R .
. ,
A B. ,
. C. , A, B C, R, R 6 1.
,
A, B C. ABC ,
, . ,
A, B C, R. , , ,
. 1 , 2 , ... , n ,
.
180 ,
. , n > 4 . , 1 +
+ 2 > 180 , 2 + 3 > 180 , ..., n + 1 > 180 .
, 2( 1 + 2 + ... + n) > n 180 , , 4 180 > n 180 . . , , -

a a

a a

a a

a a

i
i

176

. 1941

, . .
3. x(x a)(x b)(x c) + 1 = P(x)Q(x), P(x)
Q(x) . ,
P(x) Q(x) 1. x = 0, x = a, x = b x = c
P(x)Q(x) = 1, . . P(x) = 1 Q(x) = 1, P(x) = 1
Q(x) = 1. P(x) Q(x) = 0. P(x) Q(x),
(0, a, b, c), , P(x) = Q(x) x. ,
x(x a)(x b)(x c) = P2 (x) 1 = (P(x) + 1)(P(x) 1).
P(x) 1 = x(x a) P(x) 1 = (x b)(x c), . .
x(x a) (x b)(x c) = 2 ( ,
a, b, c). , a = b + c bc = 2. (a, b, c): (3, 1, 2), (3, 1, 2),
(1, 1, 2), (1, 2, 1). x(x a)(x b)(x c) + 1: (x2 3x + 1)2 ,
(x2 + 3x + 1)2 , (x2 + x 1)2 , (x2 x 1)2 .
4. .
x:
x2 (y + 1)x + y2 y = 0.

3y2 + 6y + 1. y > 3 y 6 1. y
: 0, 1, 2.
,
.
. x + y = x2 xy + y2 ,
(x y)2 + (x 1)2 + (y 1)2 = 2(x2 xy + y2 x y) = 2.

x y, x 1, y 1 2,

i
i

. 1945

177

0. x = y, (2, 2) (0, 0); x = 1, (1, 0) (1, 2); y = 1, (0, 1)


(2, 1).
5. a , d
. , (x, 0, 0), (0, y, a). ,
x2 + a2 + y2 = d2 , . . x2 + y2 = d2 a2 .
(x, 0, 0) (0, y, a)
(x/2, y/2,a/2),
d2 a2 /2 (0, 0, a/2), z = a/2.
6. a b , x y y2
16b2 4a2
x2
+ y2 = a2 x2 + = b2 . x2 =

4
4
15
16a2 4b2
. , x 15

.
y2 =

4b/ 15 2a/ 15,


y


4a/ 15 2b/ 15. 4b/ 15
,
15.
1945 (VIII )

78
1. (a + b)(a2 + b2 ) ... (a64 + b64 ) a b,

(a b)(a + b)(a2 + b2 ) ... (a64 + b64 ) =

= (a2 b2 )(a2 + b2 ) ... (a64 + b64 ) = ...

... = (a64 b64 )(a64 + b64 ) = a128 b128 .

i
i

178

. 1945

2. n 1

1
2n 1

>

1
2n

1
2n

1
.
2n

1
n+1

>

1
1
,
2n
n+2

>

1
,
2n

...,

.
3. 10a + b .
(10a + b) + (10b + a) = 11(a + b) k. k 11, , a + b 11. a + b 6 18, a + b = 11.
, a + b = 11, (10a + b) + (10b + a) = 112
.
4. , . , CD ABC
ACD BCD. ,
, , AD = BD. , CD . ,
, . . AC = BC. .
5. O , A D , B C

( A B , C D : . 46).
A
B
O .
BC AD
Q
P
O
P Q. , C
D
, , PB = PO = PC
QA = QO = QD. ,
: 1) PQ
ABCD; 2)
PQ
. 46
BC AD. ,

i
i

. 1945

179

ABCD AB CD.
910
1. , (a + b) (a2 + b2 )
k1
k1
k
k
... (a2 + b2 ) a b, a2 b2 .
2. N . N2 N = N(N 1)
1000. N N 1 , 8, 125. N = 125k. k 6 7. 125k 1, k = 1, ... , 7,
624 8 (
, 125k 1
8 , 5k 1). N 1 = 125k. N = 125k + 1, k 6 7.
125k + 1, k = 1, ... , 7, 376 8.
N2 N = N(N 1) 1000, Nk N =
= N(Nk1 1) 1000, Nk1 1
N 1.
. n
, 1,
10n 1 n ,
.

3. y = x.
,
(x a)2 + x2 = 1.

(1)

, (1) .
(1) x = 0, a2 = 1, . . a = 1.
(1) : 0 a, . , (1)
(. . ).

(1), a = 2.

i
i

180

. 1945

4. O .
O A BC,
AOB = ACB = C (. 47). ,
A ,
, C.
A O
C
BC BA. , OA =
= BC sin , = OCA. ,

OCA = OCB + BCA = OCB + C.


A
OCB 0 90 ,

C

90 + C = 180 B. ,
O
B

sin 1,
. 47
sin C sin B. , , A,
ABC.


78
1. , ,
. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

6 6 3 = 108,
,
0, 2, 4 ( ).
(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) 108 1000 = 1 620 000.
5 6 3 = 90 ( ). (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) 90 100 = 135 000.
(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) 90 10 = 13 500,
(2 + 4) 5 6 6 = 1080.

i
i

181

. 1945
1

17

25 =
,
2. ,
360
2
240
17 240 . ,
.
k 25 30 , k = 1, 2,
..., 240, . ,
(k k )17

k1 25 30 k2 25 30 , 1 2
240
, , k1 k2 240.
240 ,
240. ,
240- 25 30
.
3. . AQP CQB ,

AQ
QC

AP
BC

1
n

= . ,

. BC n ,
BP. AC n + 1
(. 48).

AQ
AC

AQ
AQ + QC

1
.
n+1
C

Q
A

D
. 48

4. A , B , C BC, CA, AB. AA1 B C . , AA1 , BB1 , CC1


A B C .
. , ,
, , , .

910
1. (x 5)(y + 3) = 18. 18
. , x 5 = 18 y + 3 = 1,

i
i

182

. 1945

x = 13 y = 2. x y .
2.
n = 1   n.

p
2 sin = 2.
4



a a a
a a ... a a
a a
p
=
2 a1 + 1 2 + 1 2 3 + ... + 1 2 n n n+1
2
4
2
4


a a
a a ... a
p
p
= a1 + a1 a2 + 2 3 + ... + 2 3 n1 n+1
=
2
2
2
4


p
p
a a
a a ... a
= a2 + 2 3 + ... + 2 3 n1 n+1 ,
2

a1 = +1, a1 = 1. ,


a a a
a a ... a a
p
a a
=
cos 2 a1 + 1 2 + 1 2 3 + ... + 1 2 n n n+1
2
4
2
4


a a
a a ... a
p
= sin a2 + 2 3 + ... + 2 3 n1 n+1 .
2

2 sin =
2

= 2 2 cos ,


a a a
a a ... a a
p
a a
=
2 sin a1 + 1 2 + 1 2 3 + ... + 1 2 n n n+1
2
4
2
4
r


a a ... a a
p
a a
= a1 2 + 2 sin a2 + 2 3 + ... + 2 3 n1 n n+1 .

( a1 , , a1 =
= 1.) ,
, a a
a a a
a a ... a a
a1 + 1 2 + 1 2 3 + ... + 1 2 n n n+1 2
4
2
a1 . , , .
3. , ABC, .
, BC.

i
i

183

. 1946
,
ABC ,
(. 49).
( + )/2 =
= BAC = 60 . = ,

,

BC. = = 60 .

a a

a a

a
B

C
. 49

a a

1946 (IX )

78
1. 360 .
, . .
.
, A1
, .
2. 60
B,
C A1 , C1
A (. 50),
CC1
A1 A. ,
N M.

C1

M
N

C
. 50

3. N . N = 131k +
+ 112 = 132l + 98, k l .
, N < 10 000, l =

N 98
132

<

10 000 98
132

< 76. ,

131k + 112 = 132l + 98, 131(k l) = l 14. -

i
i

184

. 1946

, k 6= l, | l 14 | > 131. l < 76, k = l


l 14 = 0. , N = 131 14 + 112 = 132 14 + 98 =
= 1946.
4. ,
3(x1 + x2 + ... + x8 ) = 0.
, .
2x1 + x2 + x3 + ... + x8 = 1, , x1 =
= 1. .
5.
Q(x) = (1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... + x99 + x100 ).

Q(x) = (1 x + x2 x3 + ... x99 + x100 ).


P(x) = Q(x)Q(x). : P(x) = P(x).

X
X
P(x) =
an x2n +
bn x2n+1 .

X
an x2n
bn x2n+1 .
P
P(x) P(x) = 2 bn x2n+1 . , P(x) P(x) x,
bn = 0 n > 0. , P(x) , x .

P(x) =

910
1. l ,
A. l
AB 1. B B
, O B . sin BAB = BB = OB sin BOB .

a b

i
i

185

. 1946

a b

sin BOB (
), OB 6 AB,
, O A.
sin BAB , l
.
2. PQ , A , P Q ,
A. , P Q , PQ. P A > Q A. AP AP = AQ
(. 51). APP AQQ
P
, APP
APP . ,
P
P
APP
AQQ .
A
, P Q PQ, Q Q
APP
. 51
AQQ .
. , PQ,
A , . ,
. , A. P Q .

3. , n2 + 3n + 5 = (n + 7)(n 4) + 33.
n2 + 3n + 5 121, (n + 7)(n 4)
11. (n + 7) (n 4) = 11, 11 . , (n + 7)(n 4) 11,
121. (n + 7)(n 4) + 33
121.
4. , n! 2n = 2 4 6 ... 2n.
n! 2n (2n 1)!! = (2 4 6 ... 2n) 1 3 5 ... (2n 1) = (2n)!.

i
i

186

. 1946

5. 1 O
K, A B , AOK = BOK = (. 52).
A AH
OK. C
C
B
A
OB.
OAB OAC ,
b
a
< OH2 (tg tg ). O
H K
OAK
OAH ,
> OH2 tg . ,

. 52

b a

tg b
b a tg b tg a
b
<
, . . <
.
a
tg a
a
tg a


78
1. x , y , . n(n 1)
.
n
2
, , ,
xy + 8 =

(x + 2)(x + 1)
,
2

. .
2y =

(x + 2)(x + 1) 16
x

= x+3

14
.
x

x 1, 2, 7, 14. 1 2 ,
y . : x = 7
x = 14. x = 7 x = 14 , .

i
i

. 1946

187

2.
(x + 2y)(x y)(x + y)(x 2y)(x + 3y).
y 6= 0 , 33
( ,
1 1). y = 0 x5 . x x5 33.
OA OB

( OM = ON ). 3. AM = BN =
2
M 6= M
, MN > M N . P
M N MN. M N M
M Q = N P. ,
MM Q = NNP, MM Q NN P
. , MN = MP + PN = MP + MQ > PQ =
= M N .

4. an , An , n
, an MN, Pmn an am .
1. am Pnm ,
n 90 , m ( an ,
am ).
2. m < n. am an ,
<
m
n , , m > n .
3. , an , ,
an , an .
. 1.
4. am , an .
am an , am Pnm . , ,
am Pqm , -

a a

a a

i
i

188

. 1946

Am Pmn . . 1 aq
am , , an . , . ,
Aq An Am . aq Am Pnm Am Pnm An Am An ,
Pnm An , . ,
Aq An Am . n < q < m. an am , aq am ,
aq an . . 2 ,
q 6 n < m . m 90 , n , n < m n < 90 .
q 6 n , aq , an , ,
am . , am Pqm . n > q > m
.
5. an ,
, an , , an ;
. 4 1.
, . 3 5 , an
, ,
an , , an .
.

a a a

a a

a
a a

. 1 . , A1 , A2 , ..., A30
( ).
2 . , , .
.

5. , , n N N = n(n 1) + 1.
a , B , -

i
i

189

. 1946

a . , B, a. B
n . ,
a n 1
, a. n(n 1) a.
. 1 . , ,
. 53; .
2 .
, ,
.

; ., , [11].

. 53

910
1. x .
11x(11x 1)
11x
2
. , , , , 1 : 4,5.
x(11x 1) , ,
11x 1 , .
,
,
. ; 10 .
2.
10000. a1 = 0, a2 , ... . ak ak+1 ,
ak1 , (k 1)- (k + 1)- k-. , k n
ak = ak+n ak+1 = ak+n+1 , ak1 = ak+n1 , ak2 = ak+n2 ,
..., a1 = an+1 . a1 = 0, an+1 = 0, . .

i
i

190

. 1946

(n + 1)- ,
.
, (a1 , a2 ), (a2 , a3 ), ...,
(a108 , a108 +1 ), (a108 +1 , a108 +2 ) . 0, 1, 2, ..., 9999
108 , 108 + 1 .
3. ,
AB
PQ

>

CD
QR

>

EF
.
RP
PQ

QR PR QD = CD

AB
PQ

.
PE = FE
AB

SSCD =

SSEF =

CD
QD
EF
E P

SSAB + SSCD + SSEF =


=

SSQD =
SSE P =
AB
PQ
AB
PQ

AB
PQ
AB
PQ

SSQD ,
SSE P ,

(SSPQ + SSQD + SSE P ) =


(SPQD E SSD E ).

, S
PQD E ,
. ,
S
SD E .
, D E
S0 .
D E R,
SAB, SCD, SEF
S. ,
PQR.
4. , - a n . B,
a. B n

i
i

. 1947

191

a, , . , B, a. B n . , c,
B, n . , B n , c ,
c , c .
A a. , A B,
C. c, C - a, A. c B, n .
c A, , A n . , a n 1
, a. ,
a. n(n 1)
a. n(n 1) + 1 = 57, n = 8.
5. . 4 78 .
1947 (X )

78
1. x5m+7n . 18 5 7, . . 5m + 7n,
x18 .
17 5 7 : 17 = 7 + 5 + 5; -

i
i

192

. 1947

.
20 1 + x5 + x7 x7 ,
19
19 18
= 3420.
x5 . x17 20
2

2. x + x3 + x9 + x27 + x81 + x243 = P(x)(x 1) + r.


x = 1 r,
6. , r = 6.
3. | k l | 6 4 k 6= l, k l 4.
4.
. 3.
.
4. .
11 : , 5 (
) 5 ( ).
M ,
1 (. 54, ), M
, 3 (. 54, ), ,
5 (. 54, ).

. 54

i
i

193

. 1947

5. , AOB = 180 C. , A B, C (. 55), 180 C.


AOB.
B
, sin AOB = sin C,
AOB
AB
2 sin AOB

AB
2 sin C

= R,

R ABC.
R.

O
A

C
. 55

910
1.
P(x) = (1 x2 + x3 )1000

Q(x) = (1 + x2 x3 )1000 .

x20 P(x) ,
P(x) = (1 x2 x3 )1000 , Q(x)
, Q(x) = (1 + x2 + x3 )1000 . , (1 + x2 + x3 )1000 x20
, (1 x2 x3 )1000 . ,
p20 x20
(x2 )n (x3 )m , 2n + 3m = 20, q20 x20 ,
(1)n+m .
, n = 1, m = 6 n = 7, m = 2.
2.
 



1
1
1
1 2 ... 1 5 ,
a = 1
10
10
10

 

1
1
b = 1 6 ... 1 99 .
10

10

i
i

194

. 1947

,
0,89001 +
, b < 1

1
106

1
.
106

< a < 0,89001 +

2
.
106

, 0 < x, y < 1,

(1 x)(1 y) > 1 x y.
,
b > 1

1
106

1
107

...

1
1099

> 1

2
.
106

,
ab < 0,890012 0,999999 < 0,890012,
ab > 0,890011 0,999998 > 0,890009.
3. 5 . 3, 5 7.
3 . , , 1,
3, 5, 7, 9. 1, 0, 2, 1, 0,
. , 5 7
.
, 3, , 5 7.
.
4. . 4 78 .
5. , d AB,
, . ,
M, .

78
1. . .

i
i

. 1947

195

. .
,
.
.
, 18 9 .
, . , , ;
, ; ,
. , 10 .
. .
, .
. k
, (k + 1)- .
( k = 9, , .) (k + 1)- .
k .
(k + 1)- .
, .
, , .
,
, . ,
.
11.
2.
, -

i
i

196

. 1947

, . ,
, .
, , , . , , , . .
, .
3. . 1 200 100
( 1, 3, ..., 199).
, . , , 2 .
.
4. . 56.
6 .
, ,
1 5 ,
2 4 , 3 3 .

. 56

i
i

. 1947

197

, (. 56, ).

(. 56, ), (. 56, ).
(. 56, ),
(. 56, ).
) ,
.
910
1. ABCD . AB ,
CD. C D C D . , AB C D . , ABCD , AB, , () ACB
ADC, C D AB. , CD AB ,
CD AB. , AC BD . BC = AD
BC = AD. .
2. , p 6 3. , p > 4.
1 . A 2 . B 6= A 2 3 , 4 , 5 ; 1 , 1 2
. 3 , 4 ,
5 1 ,
A. , -

i
i

198

. 1947

3 , 4 , 5 ,
B.
p = 1, k = 1 ( 2 , , p > 2).
p > 2 .
. p 1 , . .
3(p 1) .
, ,
. ,
3(p 1) + 1 = 3p 2 .
, (k, p) =
= (4, 2),
, , . , (k, p) = (7, 3), ,
ABC ABC ,
( ABC
).
3. , , , 0,
1:
1
1 0
1 1 1
1 0 1 0
..............

1
1
0
0

0
0
0

1
1

,
. ,
.

i
i

. 1947

199

4. , 1, 2, 3, ..., 199, 200


100 ,
. ,
, 16.
. , . 1, 3, 5, ..., 199.
, 1, 3, 9, 27 81.
, 27
2, 9 22 ,
3 23 , 1 24 . , 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8,
9 12,
81, 54 = 27 2, 36 = 9 4, 24 = 3 8, 16.

5, 15 45, ,
5, 10 15, 45, 30 = 15 2, 20 = 5 4.

7, 21 63, ,
7 14,
63, 42 = 21 2, 28 = 7 4. 11
33, ,
11. 13 39, , 13.
5. , . A9 A5 , A6 ,
A7 , A8 . 4 , 180 .
A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 , -

i
i

200

. 1948

.

. , A9 A5 A9 A7 , .
, 180 , .

1948 (XI )

78
1
1
1
1. x 6 y 6 z + + = 1.
x < 4, x, y, z > 4
x = 2,

1
y

1
z

1
x

x
y
z
1
1
3
+ 6 < 1.
y
z
4

1
2

+ = . , y 6 4

: (2, 4, 4) (2, 3, 6).


1

x = 3, + = . , y 6 3 y
z
3
(3, 3, 3).
2. , 2100 = (1024)10 > 100010 , 2100
31 . ,


 10
102410
32
41
1025 10
41 40 39
41
<
...
=
< 10;
=
<
10
1000

1000

40

40 39 38

31

31

, n > 1 n
n+1

>
, n2 > n2 1. ,
n1
n
2100 = (1024)10 < 10 100010 , 2100
32 .
3. n. n = 1
. ,
n . n + 1 , -

i
i

201

. 1948

, n .
, .
910
1. 2n 2 = nm.
n

22 1 2
2n 1

=2

22 2 1
2n 1

=2

2nm 1
2n 1

= 2(2n(m1) + 2n(m2) + ... + 2n + 1).

p ,
1
1
+
= logp 2 + logp 5 = logp 10 > logp p = 2.
log p
log p
. log p = a log p = b. 2 = p
5 = p, . . p = 2 p = 5. p
= 2 5 = 10.
, p < 10, .
2. . , 10 >

1/a

1/b

1/a+1/b

3. ,
A AB. , BA C =
= BAC + ACA BA D = BAD + ADA .
ACA + CA D + ADA > CAD.

, CA D = 180 A CD A DC CAD =
= 180 ACD ADC,
ACA + ACD + ADC + ADA > A CD + A DC.


: ACA + ACD > ACD ADC +
+ ADA > A DC.

. A1 ,
A CD AB. -

i
i

202

. 1948

A2 , CA A1 D. A1 , A2 A , .

78
1. , x = 1, y = 1 ( ), x 6= y. ,
x 6= 1, y 6= 1. xy = yx ,
x y , . . x = pa11 pa22 ... pann
y = pb11 pb22 ... pbnn , a1 , ..., an b1 , ..., bn . , a1 y = b1 x, ...,
an y = bn x. x < y. , a1 < b1 , ..., an < bn , . . y = kx,
k = pb11 a1 ... pnbn an .
y = kx xy = yx , xkx = (kx)x .
x, xk = kx, . . xk1 = k.
y > x, k > 1, , x > 1.
, 221 = 2. , x > 2
k > 2, xk1 > k. ,
k > 2 , 2k1 > k. k = 3
4 > 3, 2k1 > k k > 2,
2k = 2 2k1 > 2k > k + 1. x > 2 k > 2.
xk1 > 2k1 > k, x > 2,
, k > 2, .
2. A1 , B1 C1 BC, AC AB
.
1/2 S ABC S1 A1 B1 C1 .
S1 ABC, A B C , ABC,
S1 . r r
ABC

i
i

. 1948

203

A B C ; R R1 S S1 . ,
r 6 r = R1 = R/2. , A B C ABC , . . S1 ABC. AB1 = AC1 , AB = AC. AB = BC.
3. , O1 O2
, O3 = SO2 (O1 ) (. . , O1 O2 ) . SO3 =
= SO2 SO1 SO2 , . , A1 = SO2 (A), A2 = SO1 (A1 ),
A2
A
A3 = SO2 (A2 ). AA2 A1 A3 O2 (.
O2
O3
57). O1
O1
A1 A2 , O3 AA3 ,
A3
A1
.
. 57
, ,
. ,
. O1 O2 ,
( ).
O3 , O1 O2 ,
. .
910
1. , x < y. y = kx.
xkx = (kx)x . x, 1
x, xk1 = k. , x = k k1 y =
1
k
= kk k1 = k k1 . , k > 1, x < y. k p
1
= ,
;
k1

i
i

204

. 1948

. x y,

p
 p+q

p+q q
p+q q
y=
.
x=
p

p q , x y
,
q p p + q .
q > 2 p = nq ,
nq < p + q < (n + 1)q = nq + qnq1 +

q(q 1) q2
n +
2

...

q p + q . , q = 1, ,




p + 1 p+1
p+1 p
y=
;
x=
p

p .
, x > y,




r +1 r
r + 1 r+1
y=
x=
,
r

r . p = r
1,




p + 1 p+1
p+1 p
y=
,
x=
p

p 6 2.

2. a . ,
, (. 58).

a 6
,
4

a 6
.
4

. 58

i
i

205

. 1948

.
, . , R , ,
, . , R, , , ,
.
R
. , R > a/2
.
.
p , , r = R2 (a/2)2 ,
r R. , , . ,
, ,
,
. , ,
a 6

, R >
4
. , ,
( ).
,

.
a 6
,

4
. , a
. r = , 2 2

, , ( ,

i
i

206

. 1948

) OX, OY, OZ ( . 59
a
; r = ).
2 2

OX, OY, OZ ,

a 6

R >
. ,
4
,

.

. 59
( ),
. OX, OY OZ
120 , ,
. ,

, R >

a 6
.
4

3. | x | + | y | = 0, | x | + | y | = 1, | x | + | y | = 2, ...,
| x | + | y | = 99 1, 4, 4 2, 4 3, ..., 4 99
.
99 100
1 + 4(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 99) = 1 + 4
= 19801.

2
. , | x | + | y | 6 100.

4. .
, (1, 0, 0).
(xi , yi , zi ),
xi < 0. , (x2 , 1, 0). (xi , yi , zi ), x2 xi + yi < 0. x2 xi , x2 xi > 0, , yi < 0. i, j > 2
xi xj + yi yj + zi zj < 0. xi xj > 0 yi yj > 0,
zi zj < 0, . . zi zj . .
(1, 0, 0) (x2 , 1, 0) .

i
i

. 1949

207

,
, ,
.
1949 (XII )

78
1. , 26460 = 22 33 5 72 .
A = 271958 108878 + 101528
271958 (108878 101528 ).

5 72 . ,
27195 = 3 5 72 37,
108878 101528

10887 10152 = 735 = 3 5 72 .

,
A = (271958 108878 ) + 101528

, A 22 33 . ,
271958 108878
27195 10887 = 16308 = 22 33 151,

10152 = 23 33 47. , A
5 72 22 33 , 26460 = 22 33 5 72 .
2. ( ,
). ,

.
3. , x = 2m x1 , y = 2n y1 , z = 2k z1 , x1 , y1 , z1 . , m 6 n 6 k.

i
i

208

. 1949

(2m )2 .
x21 + 22(nm) y21 + 22(km) z21 = 2n+km+1 x1 y1 z1 ,
n + k m + 1 > 1.
m = n = k, ,
. , k > m.
4 1,
4 1
2, 0. .
4. A B,
. AB 6 1/2. , 1/4
O AB. M
, M1
M M
M A + AM
BM + AM
1
O. MO = 1 6 1
=
6 ,
2
2
2
4
BM + AM .
5. B ABC

M; O
, Ob ,
AC (. 60).
, MO = MOb.
A + B
2

AOM = BAO + ABO =

O
A

C
M

OAM = OAC + CAM =


=

A
2

+ CBM =

A + B
,
2

MA = MO. AO AOb -

Ob
. 60

i
i

209

. 1949

, 180 ,
OAOb . ,
, AOM = MAO = . , MAOb = MObA = 90 , , MA = MOb.

910
1. x2 + y2 + z2 + v2 ,
x, y, z, v . ,
4 1.
x, y, z, v , x2 + y2 + z2 + v2 0
(mod 4), 2xyzv 4.
x, y, z, v , x2 + y2 +
+ z2 + v2 4, 2xyzv 4.
x, y, z, v , . . x = 2x1 , y = 2y1 ,
z = 2z1 , v = 2v1 . x21 + y21 + z21 + v21 =
= 8x1 y1 z1 v1 . , (2k + 1)2 = 4k(k + 1) + 1 1
(mod 8). x1 , y1 , z1 , v1 ,
x21 + y21 + z21 + v21 8.
, x21 + y21 + z21 + v21 4.
, x1 = 2x2 , y1 = 2y2 , z1 = 2z2 , v1 = 2v2 ,
x22 + y22 + z22 + v22 = 32x2 y2 z2 v2 .
, , x, y, z, v
2n n. , x = y = z = v = 0.
2.
. ,
, O, A , OA
O. , . . , , , . , . . , , ,
. M () x -

i
i

210

. 1949

. x , : , , ,
. ,
x, x . x , . M
. M
. , M , ,
.
,
, O. ,

.
1

3. f(x) = x2 + 2ax +
= (x + a)2 a2 +

16
16
. y = f(x) . 0 < a < 1/4, f(x) > 0.
q
1
1
2
= a a2 + x .
(1)
x + 2ax +
16

16

(1)
1
f 1 (x). , y2 + 2ay +
= x,
16
q
1
y = a a2 + x .
16
, f(x) = x. , f(x) = x
, f(x) = f 1 (x).
x0 . , x0 > 0. [0, +) a > 0 y = f(x) -

i
i

211

. 1949

. f(x0 ) 6= x0 , f(x0 ) > x0 > f 1 (x0 ),


. , f(x0 ) = x0 .
,

1
= x.
x2 + 2ax +
16

,
r
x1,2 =

1 2a
2

1 2a
2

2

1
.
16

, x1,2 > 0
0 < a < 1/4,
.

4. ,
.
,
: a > b > c > d > e > ... a, b, c, d
. , . .
ab = cd, ac = bd ad = bc. ab > cd ac > bd,
ad = bc, . . d = bc/a. , e = bc/a.
, , ,
n .
5. ABCDEF ,
. FBCE ( ),
MM1 , , BE FC. NN1 LL1 ,

i
i

212

. 1949

. ( )
, ,
O. O ,
. , O.

78
1. 12
: 1, 6, 11, 4, 9, 2, 7, 12, 5, 10, 3, 8.
. 61 , 12

11

11

10

4
9

5
8

7
. 61

10

12

. 62

( ).
, ,
. 1, 4, 2, 3 (. 62) ,
, , . 1, 2, 3, 4, , , .
2. ,
n1 - n2 --

i
i

. 1949

213

. , .
A1 A2 .
OB1 A1 C1 OB2 A2 C2 B1
B2 , n1 -, C1 C2 ,
n2 -. ,

A
B1 B2 C1 C2 ,
B
A
,
B1 B2 C1 C2 , A1 A2 .
C
O
. 63
, , . .
A A (. 63); B1
A1
C1
O.
. 64 , B1 B2
C2
C1 C2 ;

A2
.
B2
, ,
A1 A2 . 64
, .
Ox.
,
Ox, , Ox ( ).
Ox. n1 - n2 -
a1 a2 ,
a1 + a2 . , .
,

i
i

214

. 1949

n1 + n2 n1
n2 . n1 + n2 ,
Ox , . .
. -
,
.
. ,
, , .
.

3. , ,
. 12
6 , . , a ,
, , b , a
b . a b , .
x,
x+b
x+a

,
.
2
2
,
1
| a b |, .
2
, | a b | .
, .
.
,
(
). ,
. ( ),
, .
,
. . ,

i
i

. 1949

215

() , . ,
.
.
, .
.
,
, . .
(
).

4. (. . ,
). ,
, ABCDEF.
(A, B), (C, D) (E, F).
, . (B, C),
(D, E) (F, A). . .
5. a1 , ... , a100 . S1 = a1 , S2 = a1 + a2 , ..., S100 = a1 + a2 + ... + a100. - Sk 100, .
100, S1 , ..., S100 99
100. Sn Sm (n > m),
100.
Sn Sm = am+1 + am+2 + ... + an 100.
6. ABCD ... YZ ,
tA , tB , ..., tZ , -

i
i

216
A

. 1949

)
A

)
. 65

. ,
A B tA tB .
: A B
(. 65, ) (. 65, ). ,
(tA tB ) + (tB tC ) + ...
... + (tY tZ ) + (tZ tA ) = 0.

910
1. . 1 78 .
2. 8 .
.
() , (. 66).
, ,

. 66

i
i

. 1949

217

; . 66 . ( ; .)
,
; . 66.
, (
, ).
3. . 3 78 .
4. O M, T, S(T) T O.
M T, S(T). , T, T S(T). O T,
T S(T) ,
.
A1 , B1 C1 BC, CA AB T = ABC. , O
A1 B1 C1 .
T S(T) . AB S(T)
x : y : z, x + y + z = 1. , A, B, C,
ABC x2 + y2 + z2 ( ABC); .
1 = (x + y + z)2 = 3(x2 + y2 + z2 ) (x y)2 (y z)2 (z x)2,
x2 + y2 + z2 > 1/3,
x = y = z; , O
ABC.

i
i

218

. 1949

: O AB1 C1 , A1 BC1 , A1 B1 C, AB1 C1 . T S(T)


,
O AO B1 C1 , .
O B1 C1 , ( x = 0).

,
. 2/3 .
5. A . ,
n , 10m A < 2n <
< 10m (A + 1) m, . . m +
+ lg A < n lg 2 < m + lg(A + 1). : m n, lg A < n lg 2 m < lg(A + 1). lg 2 .
, , lg 2 = p/q, p q
. 10p/q = 2, . . 10p = 2q .
.
= lg 2, a = lg A b = lg(A + 1). = b a.
, 0 < < < 1. n m ,
0 6 n m 6 1. n = 1, 2, ... m1 ,
2 m2 , ... [0, 1] ,
.
k. m1 , 2 m2 , ...,
(k + 1) mk+1 ,
. :
p mp (q mq ) = t. , 0 6 t < . , t 6= 0,

D a

a=

mp mq
pq

, t = s r, s r . , s ; r -

i
i

219

. 1949

(, s r <
, r > (s 1) > 0). Nt,
N .
n m, n m . ,
0 < t < , , a b.
, t = s r,
s r . , , , t1 = s1 r1 , 0 < t1 < t, s1 r1 ;
, .
s1 > 0, . t1 = s1 r1 ,
s1 < s < 0. t = t t1 = s r . , s > s s1 > 0 0 < t < t. , .

a
D

a
a

.
[1].

6. ABCD , A1 B1 C1 D1 , .
, 2. A1 B1 C1 D1
16. ,
A1 B1 C1 D1 ,
, 2. , 2,
1, ,
- . , (
).
ABCD : I) -

i
i

220

. 1949

; II) . I. A1 B1 C1 D1
.
1. A1 B1 C1 D1
.
PQ.
. 30 < < 60 ,
A1 B1 C1 D1
(, ); PQ
tg + 1/ tg > 2. < 30 > 60 , A1 B1 C1 D1 ;
PQ 2.
2. A1 B1 C1 D1
.
a + tg +
+ 1 a tg (. 67).
, a + tg + 1 a tg >
a a
> 2, . . (a 1) tg 6 (a 1).
a
a > 1 tg 6 1.
, I . II.
. 67
.
3. , , A1 B1 C1 D1 .
, . ,
,
. . 2.

a
a

a
a

i
i

221

. 1950
4. , ,
A1 B1 C1 D1 .
,
, (. 68).
,
I.

. 68

1950 (XIII )

78
1. (. .
, ),
,
1/2. , .
, . S,
,
( ). S
A B . ,
A B . A A. S
( , ,
AB),

.
S 2/2, 10/2.
, A B .

i
i

222

. 1950

A A. S A (
,
, ).
10/2. ,
S.

. S
8
, (. 69).
. 69
2. n, n + 1, ..., n + 8 : 1) n, n + 4, n + 8; 2) n + 1,
n + 5, n + 6; 3) n + 2, n + 3, n + 7.
1, 2, ..., 549 = 61 9.
550, 551, ..., 555 :
1) 550 555; 2) 551 554; 3) 552 553.
3. , .
(AB, CD) AB
CD. (A3 O, A3 B1 ) + (A3 B3 , A3 O) = (A1 O, A1 B1 ) +
+ (A2 B3 , A2 O) = (A1 O, A1 B2 ) + (A2 B2 , A2 O) = 0 , A3 , B1 B3 . ,
B4 = B1 .
4. ,
(A B)(a b) > 0, (B C)(b c) > 0, (C A)(c a) > 0.
, .

i
i

223

. 1950

5. v , V , T . ( /, .) ,
1, 2 3 3
1
1 2

, , T + ,
,
T+

v
2
V

T+

v
3
V

. , 2 -

, , . . T +
1

2
V

2
v

> .

T + > + > , . . 1 V
2
V
v
. 1 2
, 2 2
, 1 ,


2
2
3
3
2
3
. T + < , , T + 6 T +
<
V
v
V
2
V
v


2
6
2
6
< 3 = . 6 ( , 2
T+ 63 T+
V
V
v
v
, 3 ) .





3
6
2
1
T+ = 4 T+
3 T+
= 4 17 3 15 = 25 .
V

910
1. cos B cos C > 0. ,
sin B sin C + cos B cos C = cos(B C) 6 1
cos A 6 1.
sin B sin C 6 1 cos B cos C 6 1 cos A cos B cos C
, sin B sin C > 0,
0<

sin B sin C
1 cos A cos B cos C

6 1.

2.
BCD A. , 1.
AD D , AD = . ,

i
i

224

. 1950

ABCD 3,
ABCD 4. ABC
.
. ,
4/3 . [10].

3. n2 , (n + 1)2 , ..., (n + 8)2


: 1) n2 , (n + 5)2 , (n + 7)2 ; 2)
(n + 1)2 , (n + 3)2 , (n + 8)2 ; 3) (n + 2)2 , (n + 4)2 , (n + 6)2 . , 18
. 27 n2 , (n + 1)2 , ..., (n + 26)2
9 : x, x, x 18,
y, y, y 18, z, z, z 18.
x + y + z 18. , 27k 12 , 22 , 32 , ..., (27k)2
. k = 3 .
4. ,

x + 3 4 x 1 = ( x 1 2)2 ,

x + 8 6 x 1 = ( x 1 3)2 .

| x 1 2| + | x 1 3| = 1
( ).

1. x 1 2 > 0 x 1 3 > 0, . . x > 10.



x = 10.

2. x 1 2 > 0 x 1 3 6 0, . . 5 6 x 6 10.
, . . 5 6 x 6 10, x
.

3. x 1 2 6 0 x 1 3 6 0, . . x 6 5.

x = 5.
, x 1 2 6 0 x 1 3 > 0, ,
.

i
i

. 1950

225

5. , . (AB, CD) AB CD ( 180 ).


(Bn An , An O) = (Bn An1 , An1 O) = (Bn1 An1 , An1 O).


(Bn1 An1 , An1 O) = (Bn2 An2 , An2 O) = ...
... = (B1 A1 , A1 O).

, (B1 A1 , A1 O) = (B1 An , An O).


(Bn An , An O) = (B1 An , An O). , An ,
B1 Bn . , Bn+1 = Bn .

78
1. 13- , . , 13. 13- ,
13.
. ,
n > 5 , , n- , n.
99
2 4 6
98
1 3 5
...
B = ... . ,
2 4 6
100
3 5 7
99
2
1 4
3 6
5
98
97
99
> , > , > , ...,
> , 1>
. ,
3
2 5
4 7
6
99
98
100
1
1
B > A. , AB =
. A2 < AB =
.
100
100

2. A =

i
i

226

. 1950

3. , . ,
. , .
. ,
(. . ).
, , . , , . . (
). ,
. , a b
c. 1 a
1 b ( , 2). , (1 a) + (1 b) = c, a < c b < c.
a + b < 2c = 4 2(a + b), . . a + b < 4/3. ,
2/3 .
, , 2
2 + 3 = 4, 8.
3

4. an 2n
n . ,
a1 = 1 a2 = 2. ,
an = an1 + an2 a1 + an3 a2 + ... + a1 an2 + an1 .
2n . ,
, , -

i
i

. 1950

227

0
2n 2. 2k ,
2(n k 1) ;
( , )
ank1 ak .
, a3 = a2 + a21 + a2 = 5, a4 = 14, a5 = 42, a6 =
= 132, a7 = 429, a8 = 1430, a9 = 4862 a10 = 16796.
. ,
2n + 1
1
(2n)!
.
=
an =
n!(n + 1)!

2n + 1

910
1. , A1 A1 Ap A1 Aq , . Ap Aq , Ap A1 Aq , A1 , . , , q = p + 1
p 6 1950/2 = 975. A1 Ap+1 ,
,
,
2 p . 2
p 974, , .
1 + 974 2 = 1949 .
1950-, 1949-,
1949-
, . . A1 A1 A1950 , A1 A2 A1 A1949
A1 .

i
i

228

. 1950

1950- ,
, 1950/2 = 975 .
. ,
n > 4 , , n- , n 1.

2. , mn + 1

m + 1 , n + 1 . ak xk yk , xk , ak , yk , ak . ,
xk 6 m yk 6 n k. (xk , yk ) mn. xk = xl
yk = yl k 6= l.
. , k < l. ak < al , xk > xl , ak > al , yk > yl .
3. AB, BC, CA AD K, L, M N . AN = AK, BK = BL,
CL = CM DM = DN.
AK BL CM DN

BK CL DM AN

= 1.

(1)

A D
KLM, A B, B C, C D .
N , KLM DA. ,
AK BL CM DN

BK CL DM AN

= 1.

, -

i
i

229

. 1951

KLM. K, L, M N
X. A1 , B1 , C1 ,
D1 A, B, C, D. , , ,
AK BL CM DN

BK CL DM AN

A 1 X B1 X C 1 X D 1 X

B1 X C 1 X D 1 X A 1 X

= 1.

(2)

(1) (2) , DN : AN = DN : AN .
, N N AD:
N ,
N , A D
KLM. N = N .
4. 10 , .
, . 9 , , , 9 , .
8 ,
.
1951 (XIV )

78
1. x 6 0, x12 , x9 , x4 , x > 0. 0 < x < 1,
x12 + x4 (1 x5 ) + (1 x) > 0. x > 1, x9 (x3 1) +
+ x(x3 1) + 1 > 0.

2. c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos ,
a b ,
c .
BAD B A D .
BA = B A , AD = A D A > A . ,

i
i

230

. 1951

BD > B D . BCD B C D
BD > B D , C >
> C .
:
ABC A B C , ADC A D C . AC > A C , B > B
D > D. , ABCD
A B C D , . , AC < A C ,
B < B D < D .
3. a = 1,00000000004 b = 1,00000000002.
1+b
1+a

,

1 + a + a2
1 + b + b2
a > b. ,
1+b
1 + b + b2

1+a
1 + a + a2

(a b)(a + b + ab)
(1 + a + a2 )(1 + b + b2 )

> 0.

4. ABCD (AB CD ), P . ABCD


A B C D , C A, B D
(. 70).
. P
A B C D , P. PAP D : ,
P A

D = B

P
D

A = C

. 70

i
i

. 1951

231

BC, P AD.
. ,
P P ,
. 70 .
5. , n k n- , 1 n. , , n = 2k+1 (k + 1) 1. ,
n = 2k+1 (k + 1) 1.
,
k + 1, 2(k + 1), ..., 2k (k + 1) ( ). , , m 1 n: m = (2k a0 + 2k1 a1 + ... + ak )(k + 1) + r,
ai = 0 1 0 6 r 6 k. , n = 2k+1 (k + 1) .
, , , k .
k + 1 k . , .
, ,
, 0 k .
2k+1 (k + 1) 1 ,
. 1 n 2k+1 (k + 1),
. , n 2k+1 (k + 1). ,
n = 60, k = 3.
4, 8, 16 29 . 4, 8, 16
1 31,
, 29 60.
3 .

i
i

232

. 1951

910
1. n- A1 ... An A1 An = a, . n > 4, n- (n 1) A1 ... An3 An2 An1 , An1 = An An2 An3 An2 An An1 ( , An2 An1 180 ).

. . BC = a A ( 60 ). A
, BC 60 .

.
2. a = 0,1234 ... 5051 b = 0,5150 ... 321. , 0,239b 6 a < 0,24b. 0,515 < b < 0,516,

0,239b < 0,239 0,516 = 0,123324 < a

0,24b > 0,24 0,515 = 0,1236 > a.


3. , , : 1)
, , ; 2)
,
, 360 . (
). ,
. , , , . ,
r = R r. r < R r, ,

i
i

. 1951

233

r > R r, .
, ,
,
360 .
, r < R r , .
, , p , (R r)2 r 2
.
4. 5 78 (.
. 231), 2k k 6 n 6 2k+1 (k + 1) 1, k k 1 . , n = 150, k = 4. , ,
5, 10, 20, 40
71 . 5, 10, 20, 40
1 79, ,
71 150. 4 .
5.
O1 , O2 , O3 . x, y, z O1 , O2 , O3 (
). R = 10x (. . x R = 10x ), V = 102y I = 10z . x, y, z
, 2y = x + z, . . 102y = 10x 10z . , V = I R.
. . ,
,
, . . .
, .

i
i

234

. 1951


78
1. 10150 + 5 10100 + 1.
(1050 + 1)3 = 10150 + 3 10100 + 3 1050 + 1,
(1050 + 2)3 = 10150 + 6 10100 + 12 1050 + 8.
2. O ,
ABC ( O
, AOB, BOC, COA ,
,
360 ). D > C, E > A, F > B. , .
AB ABC ABC1 , C1 AB = 180 E
C1 BA = 180 F. A1 B1
, A1 BC = 180 F, A1 CB = 180 D, B1 CA =
= 180 D B1 AC = 180 E. ,
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 ,
O.
O1 C
AB1 C A1 BC. AO1 C =
= F BO1 C = E. , ABC1
O1 AO1 B = D. , AO1 B1 = ACB1 = 180
D = BCA1 = BO1 A1 . BO1 C1 = 180 E =
= CO1 B1 CO1 A1 = 180 F = AO1 C1 ,
180 D, 180 E 180 F 180 . AA1 , BB1 CC1 O1 .
, O1
O.
3. , .
a1 a2 , a1 . , -

i
i

235

. 1951

a2 ( a3 ).
a2 . , a3 a4 , a3 . . n- , an ak , 1 6 k 6 n 1.
, , n < 20. , k = 1. , ak , 2 6 k 6 n 1,
k 1 k. n- an .
:
, . . .
4. ABC . OABC O,
( OA, OB, OC, ). ABC P P
OABC (. . OABC , O). .

. 71

i
i

236

. 1951

1. P
. (. 71, ).
2. P
, O.
, (. 71, ).
3. P , O.
, ,
(. 71, ).
4. P ,
O. (. 71, ).
5. P ,
O, . , ,
, (. 71, ).
5.
x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1 = (x2 + 1)(x2 + x + 1)

x12 1 = (x 1)(x2 + x + 1)(x3 + 1)(x2 + 1)(x4 x2 + 1)


,
x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1 =
=

(x 1)(x3

x12 1
+ 1)(x4 x2 + 1)

12

x 1
.
x8 x7 x6 + 2x5 2x3 + x2 + x 1

x1951 1 x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x +
+ 1 , x12 1,
x8 x7 x6 + 2x5 2x3 + x2 + x 1. -

i
i

237

. 1951

, p(x) q(x)
p(x)

,
q(x)
. 1951 12
7,
x1951 1
x12 1

= x1939 + x1927 + x1915 + ... + x19 + x7 +

x7 1
,
x12 1

, x14


x7 1

x1939 + ... + x19 + x7 + 12


x

(x8 x7 x6 + 2x5 2x3 + x2 + x 1)

. ,
x7 (x8 x7 x6 + 2x5 2x3 + x2 + x 1) =

= x15 x14 x13 + 2x12 2x10 + x9 + x8 x7 ,

(x7 1)(x 1)(x3 + 1)(x4 x2 + 1)


x12 1

(x2

x7 1
+ 1)(x2 + x + 1)

3 .
910
1.
. , 3a2

4
,
,
,

a2
;
2

, -

i
i

238

. 1951


. ,

3a2
4

<

a2
.
2

2. a1 , ..., an .
h
i
1951
1, 2, 3, ..., 1951, ak ,
.
ak

a1 , ..., an 1951, 1, 2, ..., 1951
,
a1 , ..., an . 1, 2, ..., 1951,
a1 , ..., an ,
h
i
i h
i
h
1951
1951
1951
.
+
+ ... +
a1

a2

an

1, 2, ..., 1951 1951 ,

h
i
i h
i
h
1951
1951
1951
6 1951.
+
+ ... +
a1
a2
an
i
h
1951
1951
>
1,
,
ak
ak


 


1951
1951
1951
1 < 1951,
1 +
1 + ... +
a1

a2

an

. .

1951
a1

1951
a2

1951
a3

+ ... +

1951
an

< 1951 + n < 2 1951.

1951, .
. 1951
N > 4. ( N < 4 .)

3. ) , , 7- 8-. ,
i 6 7
j > 8. 7 7, -

i
i

. 1951

239

1, ..., 7, 8, ..., 14.


,
i 6 7 j > 8,
, i- j- .
25, 24 = 4 6
.
, 7 7 A1 , ..., A4 B1 , ..., B4 ,
Ai Bi
i = 1, 2, 3, 4. ,
, , 15 = 3 5 .
5 ,
. ,
9 . () 6 ,
(),
(), (), 4 .
. - ()
7 , (),
3 . .
, 6 6 , , , 8 = 2 4 . 5 5
,
, ,
3 = 1 3 ( , ).

i
i

240

. 1951

) 1, 2, ..., 10

, . ,
,
k k + 1,
1 6 k 6 9. , 1, 2, ..., k k + 1, k + 2, ..., 10 = k + (10 k).
k(10 k). , k(10 k) 6 25
( ,
5 6). 10 A1 , B1 , A2 , B2 , A3 , B3 , A4 , B4 , A5 , B5 ,
11, 12, 13, 14
4 (A1 , B1 ), (A2 , B2 ), (A3 , B3 ), (A4 , B4 )
; (A5 , B5 )
1, 2, ..., 10, ,
.
4. ,
, ,
120 .
, O2
. . ,
, . 72.

O1
O1 . . 72
60
O2 . .
(
O1 O2 ) , ; . 73
, A
.

i
i

241

. 1952
1952 (XV )


7
1. . L, M N BC, CA AB . BNL
CLM ;
1
1
(180 B) (180 C).
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

NLM = 180 (180 B) (180 C) = (B + C) =


1
2

= (180 A) < 90 .

, NLM .
. L, M N BC, CA AB . AM MN MN, MLN, MLN = AMN,
,
MN MAN.
A

A
B

C
C

A
C

B
A

. 73

i
i

242

. 1952

2. ,
(x2 + y2 + z2 )(a2 + b2 + c2 ) + 2(xy + yz + zx)(ab + bc + ca).
x2 , y2 ,
z2 , xy, yz, zx.
3.
a, b, c. a b, b c. , a = c. , a = b = c.
4. A B N ,
x 15 x.
C B
x. C A 15 2x,
A 15 x. A C
(15 x) + (15 2x) = 30 3x.
B x,
30 3x
15

x
6

= ,

. . x = 60/11. , B C
15 x
15

1 105

15 11

7
11

10
11

C B
x
6

1 60

6 11

, A B
C M
11
M.
8
1. H AA1 , BB1 CC1
ABC. A1 H BH = B1 H AH.
, A1 B1 -

i
i

. 1952

243

AB, A1 H AH = B1 H BH. , AH = BH A1 H = B1 H. , AA1


BB1 , , AC = BC. BC = AC.
2. ,
(x2 + y2 + z2 + u2 )(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) +
+ 2(xy + yz + zu + ux)(ab + bc + cd + da) + 4(xz + yu)(ac + bd).
x2 , y2 ,
z2 , u2 , xy, yz, zu, ux, xz, yu.
3. . 3 7 .
4. A B , N , . .
. , A x 15 x, B y
15 y. , A,
x
6

15 x
15

x
,
10

= 1+

, B, 1 + . 10
; .
, A x, B C
(15 y) + (15 y x).
30 x 2y
15

x
6

= ,

. . 7x + 4y = 60.
 x = y 7x + 4y =

= 60

11 11
,
10 10

7x + 4y = 60 x y .
, C, A B , 4 7 .

i
i

244

. 1952

9
1. aqn , n > 0. , q = 1, , , q 6= 1. , k1 , k2 ,
..., km+1 (m > 2),
aqk1 + aqk2 + ... + aqkm = aqkm+1 .

(1)

l1 < l2 < ... < lm+1 k1 , k2 , ..., km+1 , . (1)



aql1 = aql2 ... aqlm+1 .
aql1
1 = ql2 l1 (1 + ql3 l2 + ... + qlm+1 l2 ).
1,
ql2 l1 ,
1. .
, , . . km+1
k1 , ... , km . km+1 = k1 .
qk+2 + ... + qkm = 0
.
2. a b a c, b c b a, c a c b.
a b a c , b c b a , c a c b .
3. 1 x > 0, 1 + x > 0, 1 y > 0 1 + y > 0.
(1 x)(1 + y) > 0 (1 + x)(1 y) > 0, . . 1 x + y
xy > 0 1 + x y xy > 0. , 1 xy > x y
1 xy > y x. , 1 xy = | 1 xy |. ,
| 1 xy | > | x y |.
4. r, r1 r2
ABC, ABD BCD, p, p1 p2 -

i
i

. 1952

245

, S, S1 S2 . S = S1 + S2 , S = pr,
p
p
S1 = p1 r1 S2 = p2 r2 . r = 1 r1 + 2 r2 . BD < BC +
p
p
+ CD, p1 < p; p2 < p. , r <
< r1 + r2 .
5. , a2 6 92 3 = 243, ,
a3 6 22 + 92 2 = 166. 100 6 a3 6 166, a4 6 1 + 62 + 92 =
= 118, 100 6 a4 6 118, a5 6 2 + 81 < 100.

, , 99. .
,
1, 4 , .
, ()
. :
2, 4; 3, 9, 81, 65, 61, 37, 58, 89, 145, 42, 20, 4;
5, 25, 29, 85 (
58);
6, 36, 45, 41, 17, 50; 7, 49, 97, 130, 10;
8, 64, 52; 11, 2; 12, 5; 15, 26, 40, 16; 19, 82, 68,
100;
22, 8; 23, 13; 27, 53, 34, 25; 33, 18; 35, 34; 38,
73;
39, 90; 44, 32; 47, 65; 48, 80; 55, 50; 57, 74;
59, 106; 66, 72; 67, 85; 69, 117, 51; 77, 98;
78, 113, 11; 88, 128, 69; 99, 162, 41.
. . 10 10
: ab
(a, b) ba (b, a). ab, (a, b) . ,
,
.

i
i

246

. 1952

10
1. arcsin cos arcsin x = arccos sin arccos x = .
0 6 , 6 /2. , 0 6 cos arcsin x 6 1, p
p
6 arcsin x 6 , 0 6 sin arccos x 6 1,
2
2
0 6 arccos
=i
cos arcsin x, arcsin x =
x 6 . ,
h sin


p
p
= cos ; cos = sin arccos x,
= , x = sin
2
2


p
p
arccos x = x = cos
= sin . ,

ab p
p
b

cos = sin (= x), ,

a
b

a + b = 2.
p

2. n. n = 2
(1 x)2 + (1 + x)2 = 2(1 + x2 ) < 4.
, (1 x)n + (1 + x)n < 2n .
(1 x)n+1 + (1 + x)n+1 <

< ((1 x)n + (1 + x)n )((1 x) + (1 + x)) < 2n 2 = 2n+1 .

3. A, B C . OA SA, SAO = 90 . SBO = SCO = 90. SAO, SBO SCO SO AO, BO CO ( ), . , A, B C SO


. , SO ABC.
4. , a > 0. p D = b2 4ac 4ap , . , a < 0. c+p
,
p ,
a
.

i
i

247

. 1952


7
1. , x2 6= 0, 1
x1 = = x3 .
x2
x2 = x4 . . , x15 = x2 . x1 = x3 =
= ... = x15 = x2 = x4 = ... = x14.
x21 = 1, . . x1 = 1. ,
.
2. K L AC , ABC ADC.
2AK = AB + AC BC 2AL = AD + AC DC. AB + CD = BC + AD , AK = AL, . . K L .
3. 0 < a < 1, 0 < a2 < a < 1. 1 > a2 >
> 0,9
{z 9}. 1 > a > 0,9
{z 9} (, | ...
| ...
100

100

a ).

4. S AB A B lA lB . ,
lA lB ,
S (. 74).

. 74

1. 0 < a < 1, 0 < a < a < 1. a = 0,9


{z 9}.
| ...

60
1 > a > 0,9
{z 9}. , a = 0,9
{z 9} ...
| ...
| ...
60

60

2. NBD NAE, NBF


NAD , NBD = NAE NBF = NAD.

i
i

248

. 1952

, NB : NA = ND : NE NB : NA = NF : ND,
, ND : NE = NF : ND, . . ND2 = NE NF.
3. a b , . , a
ab
6 7.
b a 6= b. a b b. ,
b
, a b 9, b 9.

ab
b

9.

4. , m
, , m 2m + 1 . : m = 3; ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, , 2 99 + 1 = 199
. , 99 ,
99 , 98
. 100 ,
198 .
9
1. n
1 7 . n
x1 = x3 = ... = xn1 , x2 = x4 = ... = xn2 x2 = xn .
, .
2. ,

i
i

249

. 1952

.
, .
a/4,
a/2. ,
a .
a/2. ,

(. 75, ).

)
. 75

,
, , .
, ,
(. 75, ). , .
3. . 3 8 .

i
i

250

. 1952
4. BC R
, CAR = 60 . S CQ AR (. 76). , QP
SQR, 60 . ,

APC = 180 PCA PAC =


= 180 80 50 = 50 .

40

50

20

20

10

40
80

50

60

C
. 76

ACP , , PC = AC = SC.
C PCS : 20 , SPC = 80 . ,
RSP = 180 ASC PSC =
= 180 60 80 = 40 .

, SRP = 40 , QSR
.
5. A , B . C , A,
, B. A C C
B, A B. ( A B , A
B.)
10
1. ,
cos 32x + a31 cos 31x + a30 cos 30x + ... + a1 cos x
x.
x x + , ,

cos 32x a31 cos 31x + a30 cos 30x ... + a2 cos 2x a1 cos x

i
i

251

. 1952

x.
, ,
cos 32x + a30 cos 30x + ... + a4 cos 4x + a2 cos 2x
x. , p
p
p
p
x x + , x + , x + , x + . ,
2
4
8
16
cos 32x
x. x = /32 cos 32x
1. .

2. . 2 9 .
3. , 3x2n + Axn + 2
2x2m + Axm + 3. 2x2m + Axm + 3
2m
m
3x2n + Axn + 2.
xi 2x + Ax + 3,
xm
i =

A A2 24
4

a .
1,2

, xm
1 =

A2 24

xm
2 = 2 . 1,2 =
6
2
3x + Ax + 2.
. A2 24 > 0.
6 p
| 2 |, xn1 = 1 xn2 = 2 . | 1 | =

n
n
, | x
|
2/3 < 1, 1 x2 | =
1 2|=
p

m
m
, | x1 x2 | = | 1 2 | = 3/2 > 1. .
. A2 24 6 0.

1 2

,
| 1 | = | 2 | = 3/2 | p1 | = | 2 | = 2/3.
2m
m
|
=
|
3/2 > 1,
, ,
|
x
|
=
1
1
p

2n
n
, | x1 | = | 1 | = 2/3 < 1. .

a a
bb
aa

a
b

. ,
A .

i
i

252

. 1953

4. . 4 9 .
5. . 5 9 .

1953 (XVI )

7
1. ,
,
. ,
180 . , 180 .
... 3}
2. an = 11
... 1} 33
| {z
| {z
n

100

, n 3 an a100 . , an am , n
m. , 9an = 10n 1. an am , 10n 1
10m 1. n = dm + r, 0 6 r < m.
10n 1 = (10nm + 10n2m + ... + 10ndm )(10m 1) + 10r 1.
, 10n 1 10m 1 ,
r = 0, . . n m. ,
, n 3 100,
. . 300.
3. l AB A;
C D. l
AB B, l C D l
C D . X
AD BD Y

i
i

. 1953

253

AC BC. XY AB
.
4. , n2 + 8n + 15 = (n + 4)2 1.
8
1. A, B, C , A1 , B1 C1 , A, B C
B1 C1 , C1 A1 A1 B1 ( )
. A1 B = A1 C, B1 A = B1 C C1 A = C1 B.
, A, B C
A1 B1 C1 (
). , A1 B = A1 C = x, B1 A =
= B1 C = y C1 A = C1 B = z. , , A B + A 1 C 1 B1 C 1
x = 1 1
2
A1 B1 C1 A1 B1 A1 C1 .
. , A1 B, B1 C
C1 A ABC.
2. . 2 7 .
3. . 3 7 .
4. a =

2+

2+

2 + ... + 2.
{z
}
n1

2 + ... + 2 = 2 + a.
{z
}
n

i
i

254

. 1953

, ,

2 2+a
2a

1
4

> .

n , a < 2.

: 2 < 2. : a < 2, 2 + a < 2. :

8 4 2 + a > 2 a,

6 + a > 4 2 + a.
36 +
+ 12a + a2 > 32 + 16a, . . (a 2)2 > 0.
9
1. k , k
. , x + y = k ,
k .

2.
# # # #
AA1 = AO + OO1 + O1 A1

# # # #
BB1 = BO + OO1 + O1 B1 .
# # # #
, AO + BO = 0 O1 A1 + O1 B1 = 0,
# 1 # #
OO1 = (AA1 + BB1 ).
2

, AA1 BB1 .
3. ,
f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + ... + an

g(y) = b0 ym + b1 ym1 + ... + bm ,

i
i

255

. 1953

f(x)g(y) = x200 y200 + 1. x = 0, an g(y) = 1, . . g(y) = 1/an y. y = 0,


, f(x) = 1/bm x. 1
, x200 y200 + 1,
, f(x)g(y) =
an b m
, .
4. , AB k EC AC k EF. ACEF . , SEFA = SACE .
, SABB1 CC1 DED1 = SACE SAED1 + SABB1 + SEDC1 SAD1 EF =
= SEFA + SAED1 (. 77). SAED1 = SABB1 = SEDC1 ,
AED1 , ABB1 EDC1 . SACE
SAED1 + SABB1 + SEDC1 = SACE + SAED1 = SEFA + SAED1 = SAD1 EF .
B
A

A1

B1
E1

C1

D1
F

. 77

5. . 4 8 .
10
1. . 1 9 .
2. OS, S .
X, , O
, S,
. . X
.

i
i

256

. 1953

3. . 3 9 .
4. . 4 9 .

7
1. a b
, a b.
. . a = pa ... b = pb ..., 6 .
a b pa ...,
pb ...
pa ...
a b .

a b

2. ABCD O. AC
O, AC , AB = AD CB = CD.
BD O, BA = BC DA = DC.
3. . 1
11 (
,
). , 1 11 ,
.
4.
1000- 500 360 , 500 . ,
998 180 + 500 360 = (998 + 2 500) 180 .

i
i

. 1953

257

998 +
+ 2 500 = 1998.
5. , ,
, , , . .:

x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,

x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,

x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,

x4 + 2x5 = 1,

x5 = 1.

x5 , x4 , x3 , x2 , x1 .
, . , , .
, .
8
1.
a d, b c. (
, )
2S 6 ad + bc. 2S 6 ac + bd.
. c d,
a b , a,
b, d c.
a c, b d.
2S 6 ac + bd.
2. , 1953
n, 3.

i
i

258

. 1953

x = a0 + a1 10 + a2 102 + ... + an1 10n1 = a0 +


+ 10a 27. , y = a1 + a2 10 + ... + an1 10n2 + a0 10n1 = a + 10n1 a0 27. ,
9a + (1 10n1 )a0 27. x y 27 , 10(x y) =
= 90a + (10 10n )a0 = 9x + (1 10n )a0 27. n 3, 10n 1 = 99
... 9} 27.
| {z
n

3. ,
A1 , , A1 , A1 . ( A1 )
, 4.
4. . 3 7 .
5. 5 7 .
9
1. . 2 8 .
2. . , l x. (a1 , b1 ),
(a2 , b2 ), (a3 , b3 ) A1 , A1 , A3 .
A2 A3
x a2
a3 a2

y b2
.
b3 b2

, A1 , , x y
, . ,
x a1
y b1
+
= 0.
a3 a2

b3 b2

i
i

259

. 1953
A2 A3 :
x a2
a1 a3

y b2
b1 b3

= 0,

x a3
a2 a1

y b3
b2 b1

= 0.

(a3 a2 )(b3 b2 ),
(a1 a3 )(b1 b3 ), (a2 a1 )(b2 b1 )
. ,
. , , , .
. l1 , l2 l3 ,
A1 , A2 A3 . li Ai Al i k , k 1, 2, 3,
i l. , l1 , l2 l3 ,

a a

sin(a1 a2 ) sin(a2 a3 ) sin(a3 a1 )

sin(a3 a1 ) sin(a1 a2 ) sin(a2 a3 )

= 1.

3. x = x1 x = x2 x2 + bx + c 2

ax21
2

3ax22
2

+ (ax21 + bx1 + c) =

+ (ax22 + bx2 + c) =

ax21
2

3ax22
.
2

, x1 x2 .
4. .
100 199 ,
.
. , ,
, .
19 900 ; .

i
i

260

. 1953

. , .
,
( ). ,
, .
.
1965 . ( 2 8 9
3 10 ).

5.
A , A B C D ,
BCC B CDD C ,
B
(. 78). C
A
,
D
AC
AC, AB AD
(
B
C
). A
, D
. 78
AC .
10
1. x = k ,
n,
1

k
1

k(k 1)
2!

... + (1)k

k(k 1) ... 2 1
,
k!

.
k!
k(k 1) ... (k s + 1)
=
,
s!
s!(k s)!
.
1

k
1

k(k 1)
2!

... + (1)k

k(k 1) ... 2 1
k!

= (1 1)k = 0,

, k = 1, 2, ..., n

i
i

261

. 1953

. n , n.
2. . 2 9 .
3. xn ,

x2 + 2
1
2=
(xn1 2)2
xn 2 = n1
2xn1

2xn1

x
2
<
, xn 2 > 0. , n1
xn1
< 1,

x
2 xn1 2
x
2
xn 2 = n1

< n1
,
(1)
2

xn1

, xn1 > 1,
2 (xn1 2)2

1
(x
2) <
.
(2)
xn 2 =
2xn1 n1
2

x
(1) , xn 2 < n0 . ,
2
 3 3 


109
10
1000 3
x30 2 < 30 =
=
< 1.
10
2

1024

, (2),

x31 2 < 1/2,


x35 2 < 1/231 ,
x33 2 < 1/27 ,

x32 2 < 1/23 , x34 2 < 1/215 , x36 2 < 1/263 .

x36 2 < 1/263 < 1/230 < 1/109 .


4. . 5 9 .

5. .
, 2 , . 79. n = 1 . n > 1
, 2n ,
. 8n + 1 ( ).

i
i

262

. 1953


2n ( . 80
n = 2). 2n
.
. ,
, . 79
. m
, m > 3, m (
m m) , 4m + 1
m. m = 3 ,
.

. 80

i
i

263

. 1954
1954 (XVII )

7
1. . . 81.
1

2. n.
1
2
n = 3 ,
3
2
. n-, n > 4.
3
. . 81
, . , (n 1)-
. , , .
3. :

1 |

1abc,
10 + a x = 1, x 9. a = x 9 6 0. , a = 0 x = 9.
. 2 5.
x, 1, . .
3 9.

i
i

264

. 1954

10b + c , , ,
b > 1. 1abc = 10bc 3,
2,
1014, 5,
1020 1035. ,
1014 1035 , 1020 .
4. , n2 m2 = 1954. m n , , n2 m2 . m n , . , n2 m2
4. 1954 4 .
5. 100a + 10b + c 100a + 10b + c
a + b + c. ,
6 100. ,
a+b+c
100 100.
8
1.
1, 4 1

1, ,
(. 82).
2 2 < 3.

. 82

2. 90 2, .

0, 0.

i
i

265

. 1954
3. . 3 7 .
4. . 4 7 .

5. , :
x + y + z = 0,
4x + 2y + z = 0.
-,
1
, n+2 , 2
n- . -,







1
1
1
+y 1
+z 1
= 0,
x 1
2
4
8






1
1
1
x 1
+y 1
+z 1
=0
4

16

. , y
z
x
, + + = 0.
4
8
16
,
x + y + z = 0.

9
1. . f(x) = x4 + a1 x3 + a2 x2 + a3 x + a4 .
f(x0 ) = f (x0 ) = 0. , x0 f(x), . . f(x)
(x x0 )2 .
.
x4 + a1 x3 + a2 x2 + a3 x + a4 =
= (x x0 )4 + b1 (x x0 )3 + b2 (x x0 )2 + b3 (x x0 ) + b4 .

(x + x0 )4 + a1 (x + x0 )3 + a2 (x + x0 )2 + a3 (x + x0 ) + a4 =
= x4 + b1 x3 + b2 x2 + b3 x + b4 .

i
i

266

. 1954

x, b4 = x40 + a1 x30 + a2 x20 + a3 x0 + a4 = 0 b3 = 4x30 + 3a1 x20 +


+ 2a2 x0 + a3 = 0. , x4 + a1 x3 + a2 x2 + a3 x + a4 (x x0 )2 .
2. 100
, , . 8 ,
9;
19 , 9, . ., 84 (
4 49) ,
999995051 ... 5758596061... 99100.
16 .
99999 9, 19
; . 8
: 17 .
7, 15
505152535455565.
; 5 58.
3. . ak 1 3 + 2 = 0. , a1 3a2 + 2a3 ,
a2 3a3 + 2a4 , ..., 0. ,
0, . . , .

(a1 a2 ) + 2(a3 a2 ) = 0,
(a2 a3 ) + 2(a4 a3 ) = 0,
... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...
(a100 a1 ) + 2(a2 a1 ) = 0.

i
i

. 1954

267

a2 a3 = (a1 a2 )/2,
a3 a4 = (a2 a3 )/2 = (a1 a2 )/22 ,
...... ..... ...... ..... ..... ...... ..... ...
a1 a2 = (a100 a1 )/2 = (a1 a2 )/2100 .
a1 = a2 .
a2 = a3 , a3 = a4 , ..., a100 = a1 .
4. . , , C . AB1 SC1 C1 SA1 B B1
A1 , C1 .
, ABC . ,
AB1 SC1 , C1 SA1 B, A1 SB1 C
C1 B1 , C1
A1 , A1 B1 . , , AB1 SC1 C1 . C1 SA1 B C1 ,
A1 . A1 SB1 C A1 , B1 .
A2 , B2 , C2 B
,
C
1
A, B, C
C2
. C1
A2
BC2 , A1 A1
CA2 , B1
AB2 (. 83). AA1 , BB1
A
B1 B2
C
CC1
. 83
, AA2 , BB2 CC2 ( ). .

i
i

268

. 1954

5. . 82 + 102 < 132 , ABC . , ABCD , ABC


.
, ,
. ,
, . . .
,
.
a, b, c,
a2 + b2 , b2 + c2 , c2 + a2 . (a2 + b2 ) + (b2 + c2 ) > c2 + a2 . . ,
.
. , . AB2 + AC2 <
< BC2 , BAC > 90 .
ABC ABCM. A , AM < BC. BMC MH. BMC BDC , DH BDC. , DHM BC, D
HM H. , M A
, AD < AM < BC. .
10
1.
(x + sin(xy))2 = 1 + sin2 (xy).

, sin2 (xy) > 1, . .


sin(xy) = 1. sin(xy) = 1, -

i
i

. 1954

269

(x 1)2 = 0.
x = 1. , sin(y) = 1, sin y = 1.
2. . 2 3 .
3. 3 9 .
4. . 4 9 .
5. . 5 9 .

7
1. .
2. ,
, .
(. 84);
.

. 84

3. 7
P

aij xi = 0. aij i=1


P
| aij | j. x1 , ..., x7 : | ajj | >
i6=j

i
i

270

. 1954

. ,
x1 , ..., x7 . xk
.
P

7
P
aik xi ,
aik xi = 0
| akk xk | >
i6=k

i=1

. .
, x1 = x2 = ... = x7 = 0
.

8
1. , .
(172 1)/2 = 144. ,
, 2, 3, ..., 140. ,
, . A C ,
B D .
2. . 2 9 .
3. , (1 ), , . k, Nk = 2 3 5 7 ... pk
( k ) 2k1 2k1 . (
Nk 2k1 2k1 = 0.)
N1 = 2 . ,
Nk . Nk+1 2k1
2k1 , pk+1 (
Nk ). ,
pk+1 , 2k1 , Nk , 2k1

i
i

271

. 1954

, Nk . 2k1 + 2k1 = 2k
2k .
4. . 3 7 .
5. ( ). .
.

( ) . ,
.
,
, , 7
.
9
OA2
OC
=
. 1. l1 C ,
A 1 B1
.
A1 C

OB1

OB2

A2 CA2 k B1 B2 , A1 S = A1 A2

O
OA2 ,
A B
A1 1 1 .
A1 C
O ,
l1 .

# # #
= OA
2. . a
1 , b = OA2 , c = OA3 , d =
#

e = d.
= OA4 . e1 = a
2

b = e1 + 1 e2 ,

c = b 2 e1 = (1 2 )e1 + 1 e2 ,

e2 = c 3 b = (1 2 3 )e1 + ( 1 1 3 )e2 .

l
l
l

l
l
l l
l ll

i
i

272

. 1954

l l
l ll
m
m
l
l l
ll
m l l
ll
m = l (1 l ) = l l = ll = l (1 l ) 6 14 .

1 2 = 3
#
1 1 3 = 1. , e1 = OB. e1 = e2
4 c = 4 (1 2 )e1 + (1 4 1 )e2 , = 4 (1 2 )
4 1 = 1. ,
3

4 3

a = A OA , b = A OA , g = A OA , d = A OA .
1

A1 OA2 , A2 OA3 , A3 OA4 A4 OA1 ,


OB
OA1

sin a sin b sin g sin d


.
sin(a + b ) sin(b + g) sin(g + d) sin(d + a)

,
OB
OA1

1 (sin a sin b + sin g sin d)2


4 (sin(a + b ) sin(b + g))2

1
4

= ;

, , , , 2 , 2 , 2 2 .

a b g

3. , C1 > C2 > ... > C100 > 0. C1 >


> 100, C1 + C2 + C3 > 100. ,
C1 < 100. 100 C1 > 0, 100 C2 > 0, C2 C3 > 0 C1
C3 > 0,
100(C1 + C2 + C3 ) > 100(C1 + C2 + C3) (100 C1)(C1 C3 )
(100 C2)(C2 C3 ) =
= C21 + C22 + C3(300 C1 C2) >

> C21 + C22 + C3(C3 + C4 + ... + C100) >

> C21 + C22 + C23 + ... + C2100 > 10000.

, C1 + C2 + C3 > 100.
4. , ai . bi ai (1)

i
i

273

. 1954

.
ai bi . ,
ai , bi
. 1 , ...,
15 a1 , ..., a15 , , 1 , ..., 15 b1 , ..., b15 ,
, . . 1 , ..., 15
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 13, 13.

b
a a

b
b
b
b
a a a a a a a
b
a a b

, 1 = 0, 2 = 1, 3 = 2, 4 = 3, 5 = 4, 6 = 5
7 = 5, , 1 < 2 < 3 < 4 < 5 < 6 = 7 .
7 = 8 , 8 = 5, 7 < 8 , 8 = 7.
8 = 6. .

5. 5
. 4. k
, 4k + 1. k = 250
.
10
1. ABCD
. , , , . C D,
. AC = BC AD = BD.
, . , ( ), (. 85, ),
(. 85, ). , 3 , 6 (

i
i

274

. 1954

, . . ).
2 , 6 ( c = b 6= a,
).

b
b

a
a

a
a

a
)

)
. 85

2. . 2 9 .
3. . 3 9 .
4. | x | > 1. x2 + Ax + B > 0 x2 + Cx + D > 0.
A+C
B+D
x2 +
x+
> 0.
2

5. , , ,
. ,
, . , - 1, 2;
, .
,
,
.

i
i

. 1955

275

1955 (XVIII )

7
1. . 1 9 k = 7.
2. K AD , AB = BD.
B AC, BD =
= DC = DA. , AC = 2AB. BAC = 60
BCA = 30 .
3. D. BC
E1 E2 , AE1 = AE2 = CD, ,
BE1 = AD CE2 = AD. AE2 CD , BH
ABC. CD AE1
120 ABC.
CD AE1 AC 120 .
4. n2 + n 5
0, 1, 2. n2 + n + 1 5,
, n2 + n + 1 1955.
5. , ,
. : m ,
n. mn,
mn = 13. 13 , m
n 1, 13.
8
1. 24 = 16, 24k 6. , 24k+1 , 24k+2 , 24k+3 2,
4, 8. 24k , b = 6. , b

i
i

276

. 1955

. , 24k+1 2,
24k+2 4, 24k+3 8 3, , , 24k 1 3. 24 = 16
3 1, 24k
1 3.
2. BA BC
B ,
. , BC < BA, . 86,
BA , BC. B , A C.
KL ,
A C . ,
MN.
B
K
A

L
C

M
N
D
. 86

3. . 1 10 n = 7.
4. l
A, ,
l , A l.
, ;

, ;

i
i

277

. 1955

,
.
5.
, . 87. :
(B1 A1 , A1 D1 ) = (B1 A1 , A1 A) + (AA1 , A1 D1 ) =
= (B1 B, BA) + (AD, DD1 ),
(B1 C1 , C1 D1 ) = (B1 C1 , C1 C) + (CC1, C1 D1 ) =
= (B1 B, BC) + (CD, DD1 ).

(B1 A1 , A1 D1 ) = (B1 C1 , C1 D1 ),
, A1 , B1 , C1 D1 ,
(B1 B, BA) + (AD, DD1 ) = (B1 B, BC) + (CD, DD1 ).

, ,

(AB, BB1 ) + (BB1 , BC) = (AB, BC) = (AD, DC) =


= (AD, DD1 ) + (DD1 , DC).

, (AB, BB1 ) = (BB1 , AB) (DD1 , DC) =


= (DC, DD1 ), .
B

C1
A

D1
B1

A1

D
. 87

i
i

278

. 1955

9
1.
k 0 + 1,
k 0 + 2,
... ,
k 0 + k,
k 1 + 1,
k 1 + 2,
... ,
k 1 + k,
........................................
(k 1)k + 1, (k 1)k + 2, ... , (k 1)k + k.
ka + b, 0 6
6 a 6 k 1 1 6 b 6 k. ka b. , ka a = 0, 1, ..., k 1.
, b b = 1, 2, ..., k.
,
k(0 + 1 + 2 + ... + (k 1)) + (1 + 2 + ... + k) =
= k

k(k 1)
2

k(k + 1)
2

k(k2 + 1)
.
2

2. S1 S2 , O1 O2
. S2 ,
#
S2 O2 O1 ;
S1 .
A1 S1 , A2 A2
S2 S2 , . M
#
A1 A2 , M A1 A2 , MM =
1#
1#
= A2 A2 = O2 O1 (. 88).
2
2
, :
1#
O1 O2 .
2
O R
r, R > r. r
A AB, B R. , R

i
i

279

. 1955
A1
M

M
A2

A2

O2

O1
S2

S2

S1

. 88

A 1/2. O Rr

,
2

R+r
.
2

,
O, Ox
OA (. 89). A
r,
B1 B2
A
B1
O
B2
R R
R+r
R+r
R+r
r R+r
R+r R
R+r
2
22
2
22
R R . AB1 AB2 R + r
R+r

. 89
2
2
A ,
Rr

R+r
.
2

3. x = 0 1, y = 1 0. ,
x 6= 1 y 6= 1. :
x = 0, y = 1 x = 1, y = 0. ,
.

i
i

280

. 1955

, 0 < | x |, | y | < 1.
| x |3 + | y |3 > x4 + y4 = 1. x y
, . , . , ,
x > 0 y < 0. x3 + y3 < x3 < 1.
.
4. a1 , ..., ap , p, p.
p. p , 0. ,
ai aj ,
p. p. ai aj = (i j)d,
d . | i j |
p, p d.
5. CE
AD BD; AD
P (. 90). AP + PC > AC
EP + PD > ED, DA + EC =
= (DP + PA) + (EP + PC) = (AP + PC) +
+ (EP + PD) > AC + ED. , EC ED > AC DA > 1. CE BD, EC ED > BC DB > 1.

. 90

10
1. , , ,
.
, ,
. .
1 n.
1 n ,
n , -

i
i

. 1955

281

. n ,
1 n
; , 1 n
.
n , 1
n .
2. . 3 9 .
3. l1 l2
O. O l1
(. 91). l1 l2
1/2 O
l1
l1 ,
O
.
. 91
4. . 5 9 .
5. A, B, C
O. ,
.

7
1. x3 2y3 4z3 = 0, x, y, z .
x . x = 2x1 8x31 2y3 4z3 = 0. 2: 4x31 y3 2z3 = 0.
, y . y = 2y1
4x31 8y31 2z3 = 0. 2: 2x31
4y31 z3 = 0. , z . z = 2z1
x31 2y31 4z31 = 0,
, .

i
i

282

. 1955

, x1 , y1 , z1 . . , x = y = z = 0.
2. , a > 0 c > 0. x, 1, 2, ..., n. a b , ax2 + bx + c x
n/2 . 0 an2 + | b |n + c. ,
p 0
2
anp
+ | b |n + c, 4 an2 + | b |n + c + 1. 4 an2 + | b |n + c + 1 > n/2, . . an2 + | b |n + c > (n/2 1)4 .
n
, (n/2)4 , an2 .
3. O1 , BC, B C.
O1 CB =

180 C
2

O1 BC =

180 B
.
2

,
O3 O1 O2 = BO1 C = 180

180 C
180 B

=
2
2

180 A
B + C
=
=
2
2

< 90 .

, O1 O2 O3 < 90 O1 O3 O2 <
< 90 .
4. . n .
, ,
n + m 2 , m m 1 < log2 n 6 m.
m = 5, n + m 2 = 28.

i
i

. 1955

283

.
. n > 2 .
, . . n , n/2 , n ,
(n 1)/2 (n + 1)/2 .
,
, . . m- ,
. m m 1 < log2 n 6 m.
. m , 2m1 + 1 m ,

2m2 + 1 . ,
2m
m .
, n m ,
2m1 + 1 6 n 6 2m , . . 2m1 < n 6 2m . , .
n , . m . , (m 1)- , . (
).
, (m 2)- ,
. . .
n 1 . , , n 1
.
.
,
,

i
i

284

. 1955

. ,
, .
m. m 1 (
, ).
, n + m 2
.
, , , . ki ,
i ( , a < b b < c , a < c, ;
). ki
, ki 1. ,
, j . kj+1
1, ki .
k1 + k2 ,
, , ,
,
k1 + k2 > n + m 2.
, , ,
k1 > n 1,
, , - ( , ,
). , k2 > m 1.
, . , k2 > m 1 ,
:

i
i

285

. 1955

1) ;
2) ;
3) ,
( ,
).
, : , .
. . 1 2 .
3 .
k, k
, ( ) 2k . k = 0 .
, k , - . , ,
k .
, 2k
;
2k+1 , .
, m
, n
. m , ,
, ( ).
, k2 > m 1.
8

1. f(x) = ax2 + bx + c.
f(x + 1) f(x) =

(f(x + 1))2 (f(x))2


f(x + 1) + f(x)

a(2x + 1) + b
,
f(x + 1) + f(x)

i
i

286

. 1955

, lim (f(x + 1) f(x)) = a. x x

f(x + 1) f(x) , a = d, d
. , x > x0 , x0 , f(x + 1) f(x)
d. y = x0 +
+ n. f(y) = f(x0 ) + nd n.
,
ay2 + by + c = (f(x0 ) + nd)2 = (dy dx0 + f(x0 ))2
y = x0 + n, n . y. , d = a e = f(x0 )
dx0 , x0 .
2. . O1 O2
, O , A B
, P AB ( P O1
AB). P PQ O1 . ,
PQ = PA. M N O1 AB (. 92).

N
O1

O2

Q
A

2
4

O
1

O
O
O
O
5

7
1

9
8

2
7

P
. 92

. 93

i
i

287

. 1955

NO1 M NOP ,
NO1 M = NOP, O1 M OP ( AB). MN P. ,
PQ2 = PM PN = PM (PM + MN) = PM2 + PM MN =
= PM2 + AM MB.

K AB. PM2 = PK2 + KM2


AM MB = AK2 KM2 ,
PQ2 = (PK2 + KM2 ) + (AK2 KM2 ) = PK2 + AK2 = AP2 .

, PO21 = PQ2 + QO21 = PA2 + r12 , r1


O1 . ,
PO22 = PA2 + r22 , r2 O2 .
R
( O1 O2 ). PO21 PO22 = r12 r22 =
= RO21 RO22 . , PRO1 O2 , ,
PR . ( , X,
XO21 XO22 = const, , O1 O2 , .)
. P
AP. AB .
. , R,
, . , PR R.
, PR .
3. ) . . 93.
) A1 OA2 , ...,
3n(n + 1)
.
An OA1 3(1 + 2 + ... + n) =
2
n ,
3(n + 1)
3(n + 1)
. n = 10
.

2

i
i

288

. 1955

4. a = b = 1, c = 2.
1
2

1
2

2AB + 4AC + 4BC > 2AB + BC + AC,


7

. . AC + BC > 0.
2
2
A, B, C.
. a, b, c . , A = B = 1, C = e.

a(b + ec) + b(ec + a) + ec(a + b) >

1 2
(c + ea2 + eb2 ).
2

(*)

1
2

2ab > c2 , (*) e. , c2 6 4ab 6 (a + b)2 .


a, b, c , c 6 a + b. a 6 b + c
b 6 a + c .

5. [x] [y] , [x] [y] . N1


, a > 0. a <
,
N
[a], [2a], ..., [Na] , N N 1 0, 1, ..., N 2.
N1
. 1/a a>
N

1
a

>

M1
,
M

. . a 6
N1

M
.
M1

,
6a6
, [a],
N
M1
[2a], ... , [Na] . , a > 1, [a], [2a], [3a], ... , a < 1,
2
1
1 6 a < 1, 2 6 2a < 2, ..., N 1 6 Na < N,
N
N
h i h i
h i
1
2
M
[ka] = k 1 k = 1, 2, ..., N.
,
, ... ,
a
a
a
.
9
#
#
#
= BC,
1. (n + 1)a
(n + 1)b = CA, (n + 1)c = AB (.

#
#
#
1
1 #
BA
B1 C1 =
(nb + c),
C1 B = nc,
94). A2 C1 =
1 =a
n+1

n+1

i
i

289

. 1955
#

n #
n
+ b).
A1 C2 =
A B =
(na
n+1 1 1
n+1

#
A2 C2 =


1
+
(nb + c)
+ nc + a
n+1

n
+ b).
(na
+
n+1

nc

A1
B2

c ( a
2

n
+ b + c = 0,
). , a
1 +
n+1
#
A2 C2
b, . . A2 C2 k AC.
.

na

C1

C2

A2

nb

B1 b

. 94

. .

i [1, 2],
i h
h 2.
1
3
3
1
2 , 3 , 3 , 4 , ..., 2
2
4
4
1/2, 1/4, 1/8, ... (. 95). . ,
.
6

. 95

{an } d. , an
.
N . n
, an > N. an an+1 x
y (, x = 0 y = 0). an an+1
, x
y > 0.

i
i

290

. 1955

d1 , d,
d2 = d d1 . , 0 < d2 6 1. N ,
, N, d2 .
y < d2. , x 6 d1 . d = x + y < d1 + d2 = d.
, an an+1 .
d < 0, .
3.
an
.
xn
a
a
a
f(x) = 1 + 22 + ... + nn
x
x
x

1=

a1
x

a2
x2

+ ... +

x > 0
, 1
x.
. , .

4. . 2 8 .
5. , 1-. , 1- 2- 3- 4-, 1- 5-
2- 3- ( , 3- 4-). 3- 1-, 1- 4- 2-
5-. 2- 1-,
1- 3- 4- 5-.
: 2- 4- 3- 5-.
10
p
1. f(x) x ,
q


p
f(x) = g(x) x .
q

i
i

291

. 1955
g(x) = b0 xn1 + b1 xn2 + ... + bn1 .
a0 = b0 ,

p
q

p
q

a1 = b1 b0 ,

p
q

... , an1 = bn1 bn2 ,

a2 = b2 b1 , ...
p
q

an = bn1 .

b0 = a0 . qa1 = qb1 pb0 ,


qb1 . q2 a2 = q2 b2 qb1 p , q2 b2 , . . ,
qn1 g(x) .
qn f(k) = qn1 g(k)(qk p) , qn f(k) qk p. q p ,
qn qk p . , f(k) qk p.
2. . 2 9 .
3. S , S
,
S . S , . , S . ,
H > h. ,
, . 96, ). , A ,

. 96

i
i

292

. 1955

SA S A. , H = h, , . 96, ), H < h, ,
. 96, ).

,
S
h

= s. = arcsin(r/R)
Hh
= arcsin(r/s). H > h

pb +a

R
, s > R (p
s 6 R, ); H = h
pab
pa
; H < h o
.

p

4. , ,
. ,
, , , . 97, ).
, , 1, 2,
3 ,
. ,
, . 97, ).
3
3
2
1

2
)

3
)

. 97

i
i

. 1955

293

, , , .
- , ,
.
( , ,
).
977 .
5. , ABC
A1 B1 C1 , .
, A2 , B2 , C2 A1 B1 C1 A0 A1 ,
B0 B1 , C0 C1 . A0 , B0 , C0 1 + k3 ,
k1 , k2 .
, :
A0 B0 1 k1 (
1 + k1 ) A0 C0 k3
k2 ( k3 + k2 ); A0
, . A0 A1
B1 C1 . , C1 A0 B0
1 k1 , B1 A0 C0 k3 k2 , A1 B0 C0 k1
k2 . , A A0 A1 B1 C1 , B1 A : A C1 = (1 + k1 ) : (k2 + k3 ) = k2 ,
A = A2 . B2 C2 .
. A1 B1 C1 , A0 B0 C0 , k
1/k2 ; ABC .
A2 B2 C2 ABC . .

i
i

294

. 1956
1956 (XIX )

7
1. , . .
1. A, B, C D . 360 , .
; .
2. A, B, C D . . D ABC. D
360 , 120 . ,
D BCD, CDA, DAB
.
2. a 9a
. 9 a
9. , 9, : 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90 99.
27, 36, 54, 63, 72 81 ;
,
7, 8, 7, 3, 4 9.
.
3.
( ,
). ,
. , ,
.

i
i

. 1956

295

4. (5l + 6, 8l + 7)
, (a, b) = (a b, b).
(5l + 6, 8l + 7) = (5l + 6, 3l + 1) = (2l + 5, 3l + 1) =
= (2l + 5, l 4) = (l + 9, l 4) = (13, l 4).
13 ,
26
,
13. l = 4
39
13.
5. A , B C , 1 2 . ABC ,
B
1. : C AB ( BA C). D , C 1. CDAB, , . : DC AB.
, , E , B 2.
: DC AB E. , ,
1956 1956/3 = 652 3
( D, A, E, ...).
. 2 652 = 1304 . .
8
1. X DE, M AC. ADX CEX ADXA CEXC (. 98). X
DE, AA C C . , , ,
AA CC . M
A C . AD CE ,
A XC .
XM . , XM B
ABC. , X

i
i

296

. 1956
B

X
D
A
A

M
C
. 98

, M. , ABC.

2. =
+
100
, ,

a , n 0 6 a
1

1 n
a 100

m 0 6
m
.
100

m
100

<

<

1
.
100

a,
2

1
.
100

, 100 = n + 100 1 ,
n
100a

n = 0,

m
100

n
n + 100a1

6 1.

= 0. n > 0,
n

n
n + 100a1

1
2

> , -

100 1 < 1.

n + 100a1
1/2 1. , n = 1.
1
1
1 0
1

100
1 + 100a1
1/2.

3. 5 7 , 10. ,

.

i
i

. 1956

297

4. al + b = km cl + d = kn. c, a. , ad bc = k(na mc). , ad bc


k.
5. , a
.
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a +a +a +a
a > a1 , a > a2 , a > a3 , a > a4 , , a > 1 2 3 4 .
4
, a = (a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 )/4. .
9
1. ABCD, . .
A, B, C, D . , K A, B, C
, L B, C, D
, KL A, B, C, D 1, 2, 2, 1.
MN
A, B, C, D 2, 1, 1, 2.
, KL MN, A, B, C, D 3, 3, 3, 3.
, LM
NK,
.
2. 2 8 .
3. . 5 8 .
4. , D, h, D
1 2 , ABC.

i
i

298

. 1956

ACD s1 , D AC, BCD


s2 , D BC. 1
, , , AC.
, BC,
AC.
1 , , ,
, , . , , 0, 1, 2
4. 2 .
5. . 4 8 .
10
1. AB. S1 , , AB
ABC ( AC BC). A1 B1 C1 ,

ABC S1 ,
ABC, .
, S1 r. S1 .
S2 ,
. ABC, AB
. A2 B2 C2 , ABC
S2 , -

i
i

299

. 1956

ABC, . , S2 r.

S2 , 2.
2. 2 8 .
3. . 4 8 .
4. ,
. B1 , ..., Bn
B. A1 , ..., An
A1 , ..., An .
A 1 B1
B1 A 2

A 2 B2
B2 A 3

...

A n Bn
Bn A 1

A1 B A2 B
An B

...
BA2 BA3
BA1

= 1.

5. a > 0, x1 =
= x2 + a, a < 0, x2 = x1 a.
x1 = x2 , x2 = x1 . , , x1 = x2 + | a |. , x3 = x4 + | b |. , 1 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 =
= 2x2 + 2x4 + | a | + | b | > | a | + | b |.
, a + b < 1, a b
1ab
. x2 = x4 =
,
4
x1 = x2 + a, x3 = x4 + b. .

7
1. A2 , B2 , C2 CB, BA, AC . , OA2 BC BC k B2 C2 k B1 C1 .
OA1 B1 C1 , . . OA1 A1 B1 C1 . , OB1
OC1 .
, B1 C1 = 2B2 C2 = BC, BCB1 C1
. , BB1 CC1 -

i
i

300

. 1956

P, .
, P AA1 . , P ABC
A1 B1 C1 . O,
ABC A1 B1 C1 ,
, A1 B1 C1 ABC.
2. B2 , B3 , ..., B7 ,
l6 , l5 , ..., l1 ; x1 = A2 B1 , x2 = A1 B2 , x3 = A6 B3 ,
1
..., x7 = A2 B7 . xk+1 = (1 + xk ). x1 = x7 .
2

1
2

x7 = (1 + x6 ) =

1
2



1
1 + (1 + x5 ) =
2



1
1
1
=
1 + 1 + (1 + x4 ) = ... ,
2

x7 =

1
2

x6
2

3
4

x5
4

7
8

x4
8

= ... =

63
64

63

x1
.
64

+ 1 = x1 ,
,
64
64
x1 = 1. , B1 A1 = 1 + x.

3.
, , , . ,
a b, , a + b > 0.
:
,
,
. .

i
i

. 1956

301

4. ,
S > 1035. , .
S, ,
, 2S s,
s , . s
, s 6 112. ,
2S s > 2 1035 112 = 1958 > 1956. .
5. , n S, ,
(n 1)S/n. , , , , S/n,
. ,

(S/n) n = S, S.
15 S. ,
14
S1 > S.
15
, 13
13
S2 > S1 > S, . .
14
15
,
8
8
S7 > S6 > S.
9

15

8
1. 8 , ,
, .
, ,
8 1,5 = 12 , 1,5 ; .
4 350 = 1400 < 1500,
4 . , 8 ,

i
i

302

. 1956

, .
2. , S > 518. ,
, ,
. 8 ,
. 4 ,
s 6 112. ,
, 4S s > 4 518 112 =
= 1960 > 1956. .
3. A
A , O, OA A = 90 , A OA ( , ).

OA OB.
, ,
(. 99).

. 99

4. :
1) ; 2) , , ; 3) ,
,
,
. a b, ,
a + b > 0. a b, ,

i
i

. 1956

303

c, .
a + b + c > 0.
. , , , .
,
.
.
.
5. ,
1/9. , 5.
. 1. .

1/9, 8/9. . 2/9, 7/9, . . ,

7
1
8
1 + + + ... + = 5.
9

9
1. . 1 8 .
2. 133 = 2197 1.
,
2197, . ,
.
3. xn , yn , zn , x,
y, z . x, y, z -

i
i

304

. 1956

, x1 , y1 , z1
x, y, z,
xn , yn , zn
x, y, z. x, y, z
0. , x1 , y1 ,
z1 0 ( n = 1 ,
x1 = x, y1 = y, z1 = z). , x, y, z . ,
x, y, z 0, 0, 1, 0,
1, 1. ,
.
4. , , : ACBC , A1 B1 BC
AC, A1 B1 BC AC , C1
C1 , A1 B1 A1 B1
AB ( C1 C1 ,
).
A1 B1 k AB, AB1 : BA1 = B1 C : A1 C = 1.
AB1 = BA1 , , AB1 = BA1 , AB1 = AB1
BA1 = BA1 . , A1 B1 k AB.
, C1 C1 ;
, .
AC1 BA1 CB1

= 1.
C1 B

A 1 C B1 A

, A1 C = B1 C, AC1 : C1 B = AB1 : A1 B.
AC1 :C1 B = AB1 :A1 B. AB1 = AB1 BA1 = BA1 .
AC1 : C1 B = AC1 : C1 B, , C1 = C1 ,
AB.
5. , ,
ABC. A, B, C

i
i

. 1956

305

,
. ,
, , A, B, C
.
A, B, C , , ABC . A
. , A ,
Ox. Oy ,
y > 0. B C Oy,
A ,
. , B C
Ox,
A . , B C
(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ), y1 , y2 > 1, x1 x2
. (0, 1)
ABC BC.
10
1. a1 , a2 , ..., an .
ai ,
ai k + 1 , k ,
ai + ai+1 + ai+2 + ... + ai+k > 0. ,
ai k + 1 , ai+1 , ai+2 , ...,
ai+k k, k 1, ..., 2, 1 .
. , ( K), K 1 . , K 1 ,
K 2 , . . . ,
.

i
i

306

. 1956

2. 5 8 .
3. . 3 9 .
4. . ABC, ABDC , BCDA , CADB . ,
4 :
A, B C DA , DB ,
DC . , 180 ,
12
DA
. , A DB DC , B DC DA , C
C
B
DA DB (. 100).
, ADB = ADC , BDA = BDC
CDA = CDB . ,
DC
A
DB
,
. 100
.
4
, .

5. xk = Ak+1 Bk k 6 n 1 xn = A1 Bn , n-, a .

x1 = (a + x2 ) cos , x2 = (a + x3 ) cos , ... , xn = (a + x1 ) cos .


, x1 = a1 + b1 x2 = a2 + b2 x3 = ... = an + bn x1 ,
bn = (cos )n 6= 1, an ,
a. x1 ( xk k)
. , , x1 = x2 = ... = xn = x, x = (a + x) cos ,
. . x : a = cos : (1 cos ). Bi .

i
i

. 1957

307

1957 (XX )

7
1. ABCD
AD BC, AD > BC. ,
AC ABC
ADC. AC > AB AC > BC ,
AC ABC.
, ADC DC ,
AC = AD. ABC ADC, + 2 =
2 + = , = /5 = 2 /5. ,
ABCD , .

p a b p

a b
a p

a b p

2. x = 0, , d 5. x = 1, , a + b + c
a + b c 5. , 2b 2a + 2c 5, , b a + c 5. x = 2,
, 2(4a + c) + 4b + d 5. , 4a + c
5, 3a = (4a + c) (a + c) 5.
c 5.
3. a1
( ), a2 ,
b1 b2 . a1 = a2 b1 = b2 ( ), ,
a1 + a2 = b1 + b2 ( 15 ). , a1 = a2 = b1 = b2 .
4a1 , . . a1 .
4. . x1 , ..., xn
, y1 , ..., ym . -

i
i

308

. 1957

i- j- xi yj .
i- xi y1 + xi y2 + ... + xi ym .
, xi . , xi =
= xi (y1 + y2 + ... + ym ). xi ; ,
, y1 + y2 + ... + ym = 1. y1 + y2 + ... + ym
.
. aji , i- j- .
X
X

m
n
api
ajq .
aji =
p=1

q=1

,
 X 2
X
n
m
X
XX
aji .
ajq =
api
aji =
i,j

S =

i,j

p=1

q=1

i,j

aji S2 = S.

i,j

S > 0, S = 1.
5. , abc a1 b1 c1 . abc + a1 b1 c1 = 999, a1 = 9 a,
b1 = 9 b c1 = 9 c. a = b = c,
. 10.
a, b, c .
a1 , b1 , c1
, 9 (
a = 0 ,
abc a1 b1 c1 ).
5: (0, 9), (1, 8), (2, 7), (3, 6) (4, 5). , , : a b (
), a
b. 5 6 = 30 , 10 + 30 = 40 .

i
i

309

. 1957

8
1. A, B D ABCD .
.
1)
, . . .
2) B D , A . O

OA = r, OB = OD = R. .
OC = OB2 + OD2 OA2 = 2R2 r 2 ; OB2
OA2 = OC2 OD2
.
3) B D , A .

2, OC = 2r 2 R2 . r 2 > R2 /2.
2. . 3 7 .

3. a b ,
( ) , S , d

. d2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab cos
ab sin = S. d2 > a2 + b2 ab > S,
= 90 . ,
a2 + b2 > 2ab, d2 > 2S, , a = b = 90 , . .
.

4. x1 , ..., xn , y1 , ..., ym
. i- j-
xi yj . i-
xi y1 + xi y2 + ... + +xiym . ,
xi . , xi = xi (y1 + y2 + ... + ym ).
y1 + y2 + ... + ym .

i
i

310

. 1957

1, xi = 0. ,
x1 , ..., xn , y1 , ..., ym 0.
xi yj 0.
5. x = 0, , e 7. x = 1, , a b +
+ c d 7. 2(a + c) 2(b + d) 7, , a + c b + d 7.
x = 2 , e 7, , 2(8a 4b + 2c d) 7. 4a + c 4b + d
7. , 3a = (4a + c) (a + c)
7. a 7, , c 7.
, b d 7.
9
1. . 1 8 .

2. [x] = n x = n + , 0 6 < 1. x3 x + = 3. 0 6 <


< 1 , 2 < x3 x 6 3. x > 2, x(x2 1) >
> 2 3 = 6, x3 x 6 3
. x < 1, x(x2 1) < 0, 2 < x3 x . , , 1 6 x < 2, . . [x] = 1, 0 1.

x3 + 1= 3, x3 =
3, x3

3
3
3
1 = 3.
:
x = 2, x = 3, x = 4.
[ 3 2] 6= 1, [ 3 3] 6= 0 [ 3 4] = 1,

3 4.

3. M N , ABCD . , M N . , AD BC . M , K, N AB, BC, CD . MN k BC, BC k AD, AM = MC


BN = ND. , MN
BC , . . M 6= M N 6= N . ,

i
i

. 1957
311
#
#
#
# #
M M = BC/2 = NN M M = NN . M M k N N .
, KM k AB k CD k KN, . . M = N.
.
4. , 50 . ; , .
:
1 . 2 .,
1 . 2 . 3 .,
1 . 3 . 10 . ,
,
. ,
1 . , ,
1 . ( 1 . ,
1 .
2 .). 2 . , 1 . 2 . 3 .
3 . 2, 1 .
1 . 10 . , , 5, 1, 1 + 3 = 4 1 + 6 = 7 .
5, ,
5, 50.
, 1 . .
, , 2 . 3 . 5 ., 2 . 10 .
, 2 . , 2 .,
3 . .
2 . 1, 2, 3 4;
2, 4, 6 8 . 5,
. , , 1 . 2 .
, 3 .,

i
i

312

. 1957

3 . 5,
3 . 15 .
20 .,
.
10 . 5 .
15 ., .
5 . 10 .
, 5 . 10 .
15 ., 5 . 15 . 50 ., 40 .,
10 .,
.
5. a ( , ). , a,
, .
, . ,
b, , a b, x y.
x + b > y y + b > x. , , x = 0, a, b, y.
, x, y 6= 0. , a, x, y + b, a, y, x + b.
, a < x + y + b. ,
x + b > y y + b > x. , , a + x 6 y + b a + y 6 x + b.
a > b, 0 6 a b 6 y x 0 6 a b 6 x y. , x = y a = b. -

i
i

. 1957

313

4. x
x1 x2 . ,
x, a + x1 , a + x2 , x1 + x2 = x, .
10
1. , 323 = 17 19, 323 ,
17 19. 20n 3n 20 3 = 17. ,
16n (1)n (mod 17), 16n 1 17
, n . 19, 20n 1 20 1 = 19
n, n = 2m 16n 3n 162 32 = 13 19,
19.
2. e1 , e2 , e3
. e2 , e3 , . . e1 . , ,
e1 , e2 , e3 , e1 , e2 , e3 , ... 3. ,
e1
e1 . e2 e3 .
.
3. . 3 9 .
4. , 4 9
, , 1, 2
3 . . 20 .,
50 .,
, 4 9 .
10 .,
.
5 . 10 . ,
5 .

i
i

314

. 1957

10 .
15 ., .
5. 5 9 .

7
1.
OA OB, ,
OA OB , M (x, y). , x + y > 1, x2 + y2 6 1.
(xi , yi )
OM.
Pp
x2i + y2i = 1
,
xi , yi . , xi
xi+1 , ,
OB,
.

p
, x2i + y2i < xi + yi , ,
Xp
X
1=
x2i + y2i <
(xi + yi ) = x + y.

,
, x2 + y2 6 1.
, M x + y > 1 x2 + y2 6 1. ,
M . M AB A B, OM. , x2 + y2 < 1.
y M
1 y O. ,
OM > y, OM > x > 1 y OM < 1 = y + (1 y). P
OA , OPM .
| x | + | y | > 1, x2 + y2 6 1.

i
i

315

. 1957

2. , . k a k,
a . ( ,
, 7,
,
.) k , k a k
7, . .
2k , a. , ,
k 7, 2k
.
3. a > b. a. C , A ,
B
AC = b (. 101). B c
.
a
a c, A C.
A
b
C
B ,
. 101
AC ( , a = c).
B , A, C ( , ).
4. AB,
BC, CA C1 , A1 , B1 . A1 BC1 A1 CB1
p B

;
p C

. , A1 =

2
A + C
2

C1 =

A + B
.
2

B + C
.
2

B1 =


B1 + C1
=
2
2C + A + B
.
4

, A2 =
=

2A + B + C
,
4

B2 =

2B + A + C
4

C2 =

i
i

316

. 1957

A 6 B 6 C. A2 6
6 B2 6 C2 . , ,
A = A2 , . . 2A = B + C.
A 6 B 6 C, A = B = C.
5. , . S = ak+1 + ak+2 + ... + ak+8
.
, ak+9 < S < ak+10 . : S > ak+7 + ak+8 = ak+9 . . ,
ak+10 = ak+8 + ak+9 = ak+8 + ak+7 + ak+8 =
= ak+6 + ak+7 + ak+7 + ak+8 =
= ak+5 + ak+6 + ak+6 + ak+7 + ak+8 =
.... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... ......
= ak+1 + 2ak+2 + ak+3 + ... + ak+8 .
, , S.
8
1. a > b.
B C. S b.
C A1
S
, B b
, CB = a
(. 102). B
a
C
BA1 - B
. 102
S. A1 CB > A1 BC,

, A A1 . , B A1 BC.
A1 CB
> A1 BC ,

2 b2 , . . a >
a
2b. ,

b
6
c
=

a >
> 2b, a2 b2 .

i
i

. 1957
317

, a < 2b. , ,
a < 2b, BC
A2 . , A A2 . , , A A2 , BC B. C,
. , A ,
B. B, . (
, CBA2 6 CBA1 ;
B , A
A1 .) ,
b 6 a < 2b, b.
2. . 4 10 .
3. O OA1 , OB1
OC1 . G
GA2 , GB2 GC2 . ,
OA
GA

OB
GB

OC
GC

OA1
GA2

OB1
GB2

OC1
GC2

GA2 = GB2 = GC2 = x. , OA1 + OB1 +


+ OC1 = 3x.
a ABC,
S . a(OA1 + OB1 + OC1 ) = 2S.
OA1 + OB1 + OC1 O
ABC. O G,
3x.
4. , x1 , x2 , x3
, . , x1 x2 x3 6= 0.

i
i

318

. 1957


2
x2

= 1+

1
,
x21

2
x3

= 1+

1
,
x22

2
x1

= 1+

1
.
x23

,






1 2
1 2
1 2
1
+ 1
+ 1
= 0.
x1

x2

x3

x1 , x2 , x3 1
1
1
, 1 = 1 = 1 = 0,
x1
x2
x3
. . x1 = x2 = x3 = 1.

a b g

5. 6 6 . , > 0.
4 7 ,
b +g a+g a+b

>
>
.
2
2
2

ga

. n-
2

g a

ga

n1 .
2
n , .
9
1. .
,
#
XY (. 103)
Y
, ,

. , , (. 104). , X
. 103
SAB2 CD2 SAB1 CD1 = SCB1 B2 + SCD1 D2

i
i

319

. 1957
A
D1
D2

B1
B2
C
. 104

SAB1 B2 SAD1 D2 . B1 B2 D1 D2 ,
1
SAB1 B2 + SAD1 D2 = ab, a = B1 B2 = D1 D2 b 2

1
2

. SCB1 B2 + SCD1 D2 = ab.


2. . 2 10 .
3. , ( , ,
, ) , .
,
. ,
20, ,
21.
i 20
P
(i).
(i (i))

(mod 20). ,

20
P

i=1

(i (i)) =

20
P

i=1

i=1
20
P

i=1

s(i) = 0.

, -

i
i

320

. 1957

,
, (i (i)) (mod 20)
, i 1 20. 20
P
(i (i)) (0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 19) (mod 20).

i=1

19 20

= 190 20.
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 19 =
2
,
,
.

4. b a
. b > a + 2, b 1 > a + 1,
, a!(b 1)! b > a!(b 1)!(a + 1), , a! b! >
> (a + 1)!(b 1)!. b a b 1
a + 1.
1.
, , 1957 1957 = m (a + 1) + (12 m) a = 12a + m, 0 6
6 m 6 12. 1957 12, m 1957 12, . . m = 1; a = 163.
5. S1 S2 A. , , O1 O2 , R1
R2 . , , q
B S1 S2 ,
R +R

1
2
. , X AB
R1
AB S2 . BX BA. , AB : BX =
= O1 A : O1 O2 ,

BX BA =

AB2 O1 O2
O1 A

= AB2

R1 + R2
.
R1

,
. ,

i
i

321

. 1957


. 2 78 2 1940 , . . 16.
10
1. AB CD E F ,
BF CE . PQRS
,
D
P R
E
S
BA CD, Q F
BC (. 105). ,
P
S
A
EF. PQ

SR

BQ

FR

=
=
=
, . .
,
EC
EC
BC
FC
S EF. ,
S
EF, S P k BF, P Q k EC
Q R k BF (P , Q , R

AB, BC, CD).

S P
BF

R
B

Q C
. 105

P E
BE

Q C
BC

Q R
,
BF

. .

S P = Q R P Q R S .
. E F. S AD EF ( AD EF , ). .

1 x2 = x. 2. 1,2 =
2
x1 = ... = xn = 1 x1 = ... = xn = 2 .
n = 2k , x2l = 0, x2l1 = 1 x2l = 1,
x2l1 = 0 (l = 1, ... , k) . ,
.

, 1 =
=

1
2

, 0,

1 +
2

1 . -

i
i

322

. 1957
y

a1 =

1
2

a2 =

1+
2

1
x

. 106

f(x) = 1 x2
f (n) (x) = f(f( ... f(x) ... ))

(n ).

,
(, 1 ), ( 1 , 0), (0, 2 ), ( 2 , 1), (1, +) f (n) (x) =
= x . f(x) 6 1 ,
(1, +) . , ,
(, 1 ), (0, 2 ) (1, +) f(x) < x, ( 1 , 0) ( 2 , 1) f(x) > x (. 106). , f(x) (, 1 ) .
f(x) < x, , f (n) (x) <
< x. , (, 1 ) .
( 1 , 0). x1 ( 1 , 0),
x2 = f(x1 ) ( 1 , 0) [0, 1]. x2 [0, 1], f (n1) (x2 )
[0, 1], f [0, 1] .
f (n1) (x2 ) = x1 ( 1 , 0). , -

a
a

i
i

323

. 1957

x2 ( 1 , 0). x3 , ... , xn ( 1 , 0). f(x) > x


( 1 , 0), x1 < x2 < ... < xn < f(xn ) = x1 .
,
( 1 , 0) . x1 (0, 1). f
(0, 2 ) ( 2 , 1), ( 2 , 1) (0, 2 ), n
. , (0, 2 ) f(f(x)) < x, ( 2 , 1)
f(f(x)) > x.
(0, 2 ) ( 2 , 1)
.

a
a

3. O OA1 , OB1 , OC1


OD1 . G GA2 , GB2 , GC2 GD2 . ,
OA
GA

OB
GB

OC
GC

OD
GD

OA1
GA2

OB1
GB2

OC1
GC2

OD1
GD2

GA2 = GB2 = GC2 = GD2 = x. , OA1 +


+ OB1 + OC1 + OD1 = 4x.
S ABCD,
V .
S (OA1 + OB1 + OC1 ) = 3V .
OA1 + OB1 + OC1 + OD1
O ABCD. O
G, 4x.
4.
. . .
. , . , -

i
i

324

. 1957

, .
.
. ,
.
5. an , an1 . an2 ,
an3 , ..., a1 ,
( ,
). k > 0
, ak . ,
k 6 ak . , n1 = an an1 6 2an1 an1 =
= an1 . , k 6 ak , k1 = | k ak1 |
ak1 6 k ak1 6 ak ak1 6 2ak1 ak1 = ak1 .

, S1 S2 ,
| S1 S2 | 6 a1 = 1. S1 + S2 ,
S1 = S2 .

i
i


,
.
. ,
.
(. ).

1 .
k , n1 a1 , ..., an1 ,
n2 b1 , ..., bn2 , k- nk x1 , ..., xnk .
n1 n2 ... nk . ,
k = 2. n1 n2 , (ai , bj ) i- j- .
, n1 n2 . k = 3 (ai , bj ) .
(ai , bj , cl ) ,
(ai , bj ) cl . , n1 n2 n3 . k .
: 35.C.1, 35.C.2, 36.4, 45.2.78.1, 57.1.7.5.
2.
n , k , , (. . ,

i
i

326

, ).

n(n 1)(n 2) ... (n k + 1)
1 2 ... (k 1)k

n!
.
(n k)! k!

, , n(n 1)(n 2) ... (n k + 1) ,


n , n 1,
n 2 . . ,
, 1 2 ... (k 1)k . ,
k ,
k 1 ,
k 2 . .
k n Ckn .
: 35.C.2, 37.2.3, 47.1.78.1.
3.
(a + b)n , n ,

(a + b)n = C0n an + C1nan1 b + C2n an2 b2 + ... + Cnn1abn1 + Cnn bn ,
Ckn =

n!
(n k)! k!

k -

n. , ak bnk , k n
a + b a, b.
: 40.2.910.2, 48.2.910.1, 53.2.10.1.
4.


A B, A,
B A B. , ,

i
i

327

, , ,
. |X| X,
:
|A B| = |A| + |B| |A B|.

, |A| + |B|,
A B .
, n A1 , ..., An :
|A1 ... An | =
P

n1
P
k=1

(1)k+1 Nk ,

Nk = |Ai1 ... Aik |. ( n > 2


.)
: 38.2.4.
5.
(2n)!
. cn =
n!(n + 1)!

cn = c0 cn1 + c1 cn2 + ... + cn1 c0
c0 = 1.
,
n- cn2 ; n , n + 1 , ,
, ,
, cn .
: 50.2.78.4.
: [7].

i
i

328

6.
:
, .
: kd
k , , d + 1 .
: v n , -
v/n - v/n.
: 46.2.910.2, 47.1.910.3, 47.2.78.3,
47.2.910.5, 49.2.78.5, 49.2.910.5,
50.2.910.2, 51.2.910.3, 54.2.8.1, 55.1.9.4,
55.2.8.5, 56.2.9.1.

7.
, a b
( b), c,
a = bc. , b a.
(, 2 6 6 2, 1
5.) : b | a.
:
) 1 ; 0
, 0.
) d | a d | b, d | a b; , d | ac c; c | b b | a, c | a.
) b | a, | b | 6 | a | a = 0.
) d | a d | b, k l , d | ka + lb;
, a1 , a2 , ... , an
d, ki , d | k1 a1 + k2 a2 + ... + knan .
a b (a, b). a b ,
(a, b) = 1 ( , ,
, d | a d | b, , d = 1).

i
i

329

(a, b) = (a b, b)
(., , 56.1.7.4).
: 51.2.910.2, 53.2.7.1, 56.1.7.4.
: [2, . 1].
8.
a b , b 6= 0. q r, : ) a = qb + r;
) 0 6 r < |b|. q r a b .
b > 0. b
0, 1, ... , b 1. r
b , qb + r, q . b ()
. , b = 2 2n 2n + 1, b = 3 3n, 3n + 1
3n + 2 . .
b , b .
() (). ,
a b 3 6 7,
a + b 2 = 3 + 6 7, a b 4 =
= 3 6 + 7, ab 4 = 3 6 14 7.
: a1 b
r1 , a2 b r2 , a1 + a2
b r1 + r2 b, a1 a2
b r1 r2 b.

3
4 0 1. 36.3, 49.1.78.3 54.1.7.4.
a, a2 , a3 ,
4
a , ... . 40.2.910.5 55.1.8.1.

i
i

330

7,
, 7 ,
7. 40.2.78.4.
: 36.3, 39.2.4, 40.2.78.4, 40.2.910.5,
41.2.78.5, 42.1.910.2, 49.1.78.3,
49.2.78.5, 53.1.7.2, 54.1.7.4, 55.1.8.1,
57.2.9.3, 57.2.9.4.
: [2, . 1] [4, 2].
9.
p > 1 ,
p 1. ,

, .
.


pn11 pn22 ... pnk k ,
p1 , p2 , ... , pk , n1 , n2 , ... ,
nk .
.
( ).
: 35.C.3, 47.2.78.3, 47.2.910.4, 48.2.78.1.
: [2, . 1], [4].
10. m/n p/q ,
(m/n)p/q . m1/q n1/q .
.

q m

n1 > 0.
mp = mq1

m
np

np
mq1

nq1

m1
n1

, -

, mp = mq1 np = nq1 .

,

m m1 . a ,

i
i

331

m m1 x y .
px = qy, x q. , ,
m, q.
m ; n .

: 48.2.910.1.

11.

ABC
,
.
, (. 107).



.
,
.

C
B
X

C B

. 107

12. A ABC
AB C AB .
. AB AC C B , BC
X. BC = BX CB = CX. AB = AC +
+ CB = AC + CX AC = AB + BC = AB + BX. , AB = AC ,

AB = AC =

AB + AC
2

AC + CX + AB + BX
2

AB + AC + BC
.
2

: 36.2.

i
i

332


: A ABC

AB + AC BC
;
2
.
: 52.2.7.2, 53.1.8.1.
13. .
(
) .
. [6, 5.51 7.42].
: 52.1.8.1, 54.1.9.4.
14. ,
, .
. ,
,
,
.

: 39.1.2.
15. X, XA2 XB2 =
= const, ,
AB.
. [6, 7.6].
: 55.2.8.2.
16.
, , , 180 .

, . AB CD (:
(AB, CD)) ,
AB ,
CD. ,
n 180 , . -

i
i

333

, CD
AB AB
CD ( 180 ,
, 0 ).
:
) (AB, BC) = (BC, AB);
) (AB, CD) + (CD, EF) = (AB, EF);
) A, B, C, D, , ,
(AB, BC) = (AD, DC) (
: B D
AC; B D AC).
: 37.2.1, 50.1.78.3, 50.1.910.5, 55.1.8.5.
: [6, . 2].
17.
, . . (Xi , mi ),
Xi , a mi . X1 , ... , Xn m1 , ... , mn
O,
#
#
m1 OX1 + ... + mnOXn = 0.
, .
, , : , ,
, .
49.2.78.4, 55.2.10.5, 56.1.9.1.
,

.

i
i

334


.
49.1.910.2.
: 49.1.78.2, 49.1.910.2, 49.2.78.4, 55.2.10.5,
56.1.9.1.
: [6, . 14].
18. ai x + bi y = ci (i =
= 1, 2, 3), , , .
. ai x +
+ bi y = ci , i = 1, 2, 3. , ; ,
a1 x + b1 y = c1 a2 x + b2 y = c2 (x0 , y0 ), . . a1 x0 +
+ b1 y0 = c1 a2 x0 + b2 y0 = c2 . , a3 x0 +
+ b3 y0 = c3 . ,
(x0 , y0 ).

: 53.2.9.2.
19.
BC, CA AB ABC (
) A1 , B1 C1 . A1 , B1 C1
,
BA1
CA1

CB1 AC1

AB1 BC1

= 1,

( ) ABC ( ). AA1 , BB1 CC1


,
, ABC ( ).
56.2.9.4.
BC, CA, AB ABC
A1 , B1 , C1 ,
AC1 BA1 CB1

C 1 B A 1 C B1 A

sin ACC1 sin BAA1 sin CBB1

.
sin C1 CB sin A1 AC sin B1 BA

i
i

335


. 53.2.9.2.
: 53.2.9.2, 56.2.9.4.
: [6, . 5].
20.
ABCD AB CD + AD BC = AC BD.
: 54.2.9.2.
: [6, . 6].
21.
,
, .
37.1.3.
22.
, , , .
: 51.2.910.1.
: [8, . 2].

23.
#
AB , X X ,
# #
XX = AB.
(. ) .
: 41.2.78.3, 55.1.9.2.
: [6, . 15].

i
i

336

24.
A , X
X , A XX .
A, A .

#
A B 2 AB.
38.2.1.
: 38.2.1, 46.1.910.2, 48.2.78.3, 49.1.78.4,
49.2.910.4, 53.1.10.2, 54.2.8.1.
: [6, . 16].
25.
l (: Sl )
,
X X , l
XX .
, l .
l
, l. 51.1.78.4.
: 37.1.2, 38.2.3, 51.1.78.4.
: [6, . 17].
26.
O , X
X , :
) OX = OX;
#
#
) OX OX .
: 54.1.8.2 ( 90 ),
55.1.7.3 ( 120 ).
: [6, . 18].

i
i

337

27.
, X X , #
#
, OX = k OX ( O k ).
O , k .
: 36.5, 48.2.78.2, 54.2.9.1.
: [6, . 19].
28.
S O
R. S , A, O, A* , OA
OA* = R2 /OA O.
, . O:
) l, O, ,
O;
) C, O, , OC;
) , O,
, O;
) ,
;
.
: 55.2.8.4.
: [6, . 28].

29.

, :
. f g , g 6= 0. q r, ) f = qg + r; ) r g.

i
i

338

q r
f g . . ,
.
, x4 + 1 x2 + x
2
x x + 1, 1 x.
. ) f(x)
x a f(a).
) f(x) x a , a f(x).
: 47.1.78.2, 51.2.78.5 ( ),
55.2.10.1 ( ).
: [9].
30.
. n n .
53.2.10.1.
, P(x) x,
.
46.1.78.5.
: [9].
31.

2,
,

2,
2.
, xk an xn + an1 xn1 + ... + a0 bm xm + bm1 xm1 + ... + b0
ak b0 + ak1 b1 + ... + a0 bk , , 2
, ( , )

i
i

339

, .
: 39.2.2, 46.1.78.5, 47.1.78.2, 51.2.78.5,
53.2.10.1, 55.2.10.1.

32. ,

: n ,
.... : n = 1 , ..., n = 2
, ... . .
( ) . .
( ):
n, n + 1.
: 1, 2, 2, 3 . .
, ( ).
.
:
1 n, n + 1.
, : n > 1
1 , .
: , n,
n , -

i
i

340

, m < n,
m .
.
40.2.910.2, 52.1.10.2;
45.2.910.2; 35.2.B.3.

, ,
, : . 38.2.2, 39.2.6, 48.1.78.3, 52.2.8.4.
: 35.2.B.3, 38.2.2, 39.2.6, 40.2.910.2,
45.2.910.2, 48.1.78.3, 52.1.10.2, 52.2.8.4.
: [5].
33.

a b
a+b
ab 6
. 2
35.B.1. a = x, b = 1 x, x(1 x) 6 1/4,
54.2.9.2.
n x1 , ..., xn

x + ... + xn
n
x1 ... xn 6 1
.
n

: 35.B.1, 40.2.910.4 ( n ), 54.2.9.2.


: [7, . 8].
34.
,
..
.
: 41.2.78.1, 41.2.910.1, 41.2.910.2, 48.2.78.3,
49.2.78.3, 52.1.9.1, 54.2.7.3, 57.2.7.4.

i
i

341

35.
f(x)
[a, b], x1 , x2 x1 < x2
f(x1 ) < f(x2 ). x1 < x2 f(x1 ) > f(x2 ), f(x) . x > 0 f(x) = 1/xn n. c > 0,
f(x) , cf(x)
. ,
.
: 55.2.9.3.
36.
, an
L ( L, n ), > 0 k,
n > k | an L | < . : lim an = L.
n
an
L, n .
: , L,
an ,
, .

: 55.2.8.1.
: [3, . 3].
37. n m , n > m.
c1 c2 , c1 xn c2 xm , . . c1 xn > c2 xm x.
, xnm > c2 /c1 , x, n m > 0.
: 55.2.7.2.

i
i

342

38.
f(x0 ) = f (x0 ) = 0, x0 f, . . f(x) (x x0 )2 .
, f(x)
f(x) = (x x0 )m g(x),
g(x0 ) 6= 0, m . f(x0 ) = 0 , m > 1.
f (x) = mx(x x0 )m1 g(x) + (x x0 )m g (x) , f (x0 ) = mx(x x0 )m1 g(x0 ), f (x0 ) = 0,
m > 2.
: 54.1.9.1.

i
i


[1] . . // . 1998. 1. . 24.
[2] . . . . : , 1981.
[3] . . : 2 . . : , 2002.
[4] . . . . : ,
1969. ( , . 47).
[5] - . ., . .
. . : , 2004.
[6] . . . . : , 2006.
[7] . . , . . :
, 2007.
[8] . ., . . . . :
, 1989.
[9] . . . . : , 1996.
[10] . . // .
1983. 1. . 2225.
[11] . . . : , 1970.
[12] . . ? . : , 1968.

i
i

3
9
75
87
127
325
343

i
i