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17

2008
, 8-10 2008 .


2010

78.37

: .. , .. , .. ,
.. (), ..
(), .. (. .)
98

. . 17:

2008: , 8-10 2008 . .:
, 2010. 702 .

ISBN 978-5-89282-409-5
17
2008 (, 8-10
2008 .), .
, 50-
.
- ,
.
VII .
78.37
98

ISBN 978-5-89282-409-5

, 2010
, 2010
.. (., . ., -), 2010


Contents
9

Preface

1.

..

:
.

11

Shalyapina Z.M.

The Department of Asian and African languages of the Institute


of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences: the 5th decade of
scientific activities.
..

27

Alieva N.F.

Concerning the contribution of Russian scholars to the Austronesian


linguistics.
..

54

Alpatov V.M.

Japanese studies at the department of Asian and African languages of the


Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
..


50 .

59

Morev L.N.

The 50 years of the Thai languages studies at the Institute of oriental


studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences and in the USSR and the
Russian Federation in general.
..

, 2.
Remarchuk V.V.

My postgraduate studies at the Armyanskiy pereulok, 2.

72

88

..

!
Finkelberg N.D.

The Time Is Not Out of Joint!

2.

2.1.
..

gi-
.

96

Baranova V.V.

Ways of grammaticalization of the verb gi- speak in the Kalmyck language.


..

115

Grashchenkov P.V.

Complex predicates in Ossetian.


.., ., ..


( , )

131

Ermolaeva L.S., Kiknadze D., Khronopoulo L.Yu.

Typological similarity of Kartvelian languages and Japanese


(languages that are both topic-prominent and subject prominent).
..

:
.

139

Lander Yu.A.

On different morphologies: Tanti Dargwa locative forms.


..

162

Liperovskiy V.P.

On the transposed negation in Hindi.


..

- .

170

Mishkurov E.N.

Cognitive and functional aspects of word-order in Afroasiatic languages.


.., .-.

:
.
Rudnitskaya E.L., Hwang S.K.

Accusative adverbials: destination-of-trip adverbials in Korean.


4

185

..

- .

213

Solntseva N.V.

Demonstrative pronouns in South-Eastern languages.


..

220

Khamray A. A.

Prototypes and invariants in the paradigmatics of the modern standard


Arabic.
..

246

Shkarban L.I.

Aspects of syntactic typology of the Philippine languages.

2.2.
..

.
( ).

263

Kontsevich L.R.

The phonetic basis for transcription. Sounds of contemporary Korean


(a short description of the inventory of phonemes).

2.3.
..

298

Andreeva V.A.

On the nature of words with inverted components in Vietnamese.


..

308

Krylov A.Yu.

Towards the problem of the emotive category expression means


in the Arabic literary language and the Arabic spoken languages
in the Maghrib and Mashric Arab countries.
() ..

(
).
Markina (Kozha) K.A.

Problems of linguistic interference (as displayed by Chinese


lettered-words).
5

347

2.4.
.., .., .., ..,
.., ..

359


- : 2008 .
Kostyrkin A.V., Kanovich M.I., Modina L.S., Panina A.S., Tarasova E.S.,
Shalyapina Z.M.

The JaRAP experimental environment for studies in Japanese-Russian


automatic translation: 2008.
..

- .

398

Brechalova E.V.

On the procedure estimating correlation of the formal syntactical


representation and the predicate-argument structure of a Korean
sentence.

2.5.
..

437

Blinov A.A.

Standard Arabic in Tunisia.


..

458

Voropaev N.N.

Names-precedents of the Chinese discourse and their role in forming


the Chinese system of values.
..

472

Gurevich T.M.

The culturological approach to teaching Japanese.


..

:
, , .

481

Strelkova G.V.

Three incarnations of The Third Vow by Phanishvarnath Renu:


the story, translation, and film.
..

.
Shagal V.E.

Arabic studies in some European countries.


6

507

3. -

3.1.
..

519

Edelman J.I.

Towards ways of verification of historical hypotheses.


..

530

Vasilyev M.E.

Applying the lexical criterion to reconstruction of genealogical trees.

3.2.
.., ..


(,
).

573

Gorelova L.M., Orlovskaya M.N.

Information structures in Middle Mongol and Classical Manchu


(typological, ethnohistorical and areal aspects).
..

622

Pogibenko T.G.

Problems of historical morphology of Austroasiatic languages.

3.3.
..

- .

649

Belova A.G.

Dialectal vocabulary in the comparative-historical perspective.


..


- .

660

Stolbova O.V.

Some bird- and fish-names in Chadic with parallels in Hamito-Semitic


and Nostratic languages.
..


.
Titov E.G.

Etymology of some names of parts of the human body in Amharic.


7

671

3.4.
..


(- 19.53-54 = 11.8-9).

677

Kulikov L.I.

Notes on Hymn to Time (Atharvaveda-aunakya 19.53-54 =


Paippalda 11.8-9).
..

,
XV . .

695

Pyurbeev G.Ts.

Trade, economical and financial terms in the literary monument


of Mongolian law of the 18th century Khalkha djirum.


Authors index

701


Preface
2008,
, , 190 ,
50.
.
, .
. : , 6 (.. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ). ( .. )
( .. , .. , .. ).
, , -
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(.. ), (.. , .. ()), (.. )
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(. . .. )
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( .. .. ).
, , , .
: , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
.

10

1.

..
( , )

:

Shalyapina Z.M.

The Department of Asian and African languages


of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy
of Sciences: the 5th decade of scientific activities
The Department of Asian and African languages, formed at the
Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of sciences in
1958, has celebrated the 50th year of its scientific activities. The
Department numbers at present 30 regular staff and 6 part-time
researchers, remaining one of the world largest centers of oriental
linguistics. The publications of the Department in the latest decade
list 95 books, among them monographs on various problems of
oriental and general linguistics, grammars and dictionaries of
oriental languages, translations of literary monuments, etc. An
important direction of the Departments research is development
of original computational means for studies in oriental linguistics,
including a system of Japanese-Russian automatic translation.

2008

1958 . XX 1998 . 40- , [ . 1998] (.
, 4). ,
1998 2008 .
11


30 6 . 14
, - , 12
, 5 4 - . 1998 .
38 ,
.
. 10 15 ,
. 1998 . .. , 1999
.. , 2000 .. , .. .. , 2001 . .. , 2003 .. , 2005
.. .. , 2006 .. .. , 2007 .. , .. ,
2008 . .. .


. , ,
,
. , , , . .
.
, , .
, , , , . 7 , 10 , : .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. (), .. .
2008 . ,
. , , ,
, , , .
12


.
, 95 ,
(. ).
- .


.. , .
,
, .
- .. : 10
9 , 7
, Lincom Europa Harrassowitz
Verlag. ,
, .
.. (2008 .)
6 .. .
.
..
,
.
.. . .. 2002 .
(
, 1145 .).
.. ,

(2000 .).
13

.. .
-
.
,
.
-
, , , .
, .. (2001 .),
.. , Brill (2002
.),
.. (2004 .),
.. . (2008 .), .. (2003 2004 .), ..
.. (2001 .).
- (2004 .), . .. , 1-
(2006 .),
.. , (2007 .),
.. .. ,
.. , 1- 2001 ., 2- . 2002 .
- .. , .
- , .. .
, 2000 .

-
. ..
, 14

. . 2001-2002 2003 . 2001 .


4- ( ),
.
.. ,
, .. ,
,
, .
-
: . ..
(1998 .),
.. (2002 .), .. (2002
.), .. (2007 .).
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10 :
: (1998 .), :
(2001 .), (2008 .) . ,
, .. .
.
.. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .
,
:
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, -
15

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,
.

. 1998 .
.. ( .. ). 2001 2005 . .. . .. ..
- (2001 2005 .). ..
(2005),
.

.
.
, ..
(2005 .). .. .. - - ,
2006 . . ..

, .. ,
. .. , , (2004 .),
, .
, (2004 .), ..
, Lincom
16

Europa (2008 .), (2008 .),


.
,
, ,
,
.


. - .
,
:
-, ( The Linguist List Reviews). , , .. ..,

, , ,


.

,
. , ,
:
-

. 1999 .
275-
(4-29 1999 .).
. [ .
2009] .
17

,
, .
, .. 2004 .
( ).
.. 1999 .

(, )
, 2001 .
.
..
:
2000 . 2005 .,
- 2004 .
- 2008 .
.. - 2000 . . 2007 . .
.. 2001 .
(IV ).
.. (2000 .),
(2002 .),
, (2003 .). 2006 .
.
.. 2008 . .
. , 2001 .

18

.. .
.. , .. .. , . .

, .
.. - , ..
.. , .
.. -
- - ( , ). .. . ..
(PIAC),
- (ESCAS),
- (CESS). ..
, , ,
. ..
,
Annual Journal of Korean Linguistics,
(PACKS),
, . .. . . ..
. ..
, (PIAC). .. Middle Eastern Studies Association of USA,
,
- , -19

-. ..
.
.. . .. , (Akademia
Europaea), . .. - ,
, ,
, .
,
, 60- .,
.
, 1998-2008 . , : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ;
4) ; 5) . 1998 .

(. [, 2002] 4 ).
.

1998-2008 .
1.
.., .., .. . [ 2- .] / . . -, -
. .: , 2008.
.. . I. , ,
(
) // . . .:
, 2004.
20

.. ( ). / . .. . .: -, 2001. 330 .
.. . .:
, 2001.
Andronov M.S. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian languages. M: -, 2001.
Andronov M.S. A Grammar of the Brahui Language in Comparative Treatment.
Muenchen: Lincom Europa, 2001.
Andronov M.S. A Grammar of the Tamil Language. Based on Texts of Modern and
Classical literature. Moscow: The Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Oriental
Studies), 2003.
Andronov M.S. A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. Revised and
enlarged. Muenchen: Lincom GmbH, 2003.
Andronov M.S. A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. Revised and
enlarged. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003.
Andronov M.S. A Reference Grammar of the Tamil Language. Muenchen: Lincom
GmbH, 2004.
Gorelova L. Manchu Grammar / Handbook of oriental studies. Section eight. Central
Asia. Vol.7. Leiden, Boston, Koeln: Brill, 2002.

2.
.., .. - /
, . .: - , 2007.
.., .., .., .. . .: , 2002.
.. - (5 000 ). .: , 2002.
.. (.) - . 24 000 / ,
. .: , 2004.
.. (1- . ., , ).
- . 1 / - . -
. . .: .. , .. , .. , ,
, . .: , 2006.
.., .., . -
- . : , 2006.
Long Seam. Dictionary of the Ancient Khmer. Phnom Penh: Phnom Penh Printing
House, 2000.
21

3.
.. :
. . ., 1998.
.., . . . - . .:
, 1999.
.. 150 : 1917-1997. . 2-. .: , 2000.
.. . . 3-. .:
, 2001.
.. : . .: , 2008.
.. , . .: , 2005.
.. . 2-,
. .: , 2006.
.., .., .. . .:
, 2002.
.. / Lincom Europa. Lincom Studies in Asian Linguistics
(LSASL) 74. Muenchen: Lincom GmbH, 2008.
.. . .: , 1999.
.. . .: , 2003.
.. -
. / .
.: , 2004.
..
( ).
.: , 2008.
.. . .: , 2000.
.. : : /
. . . -. . . . .
. . . .. . ., 2007.
.., .. .
. : , 2001.
.., .. - . . :
, 2005.
.. . .: , 1999.
22

.., .. . . 2-. .:
, 2003.
.., .. :
/ . .: Academia, 2004.
.., .., .. .
.: , 2003.
.. . .: , 2007.
.., .. . . 3-,
. .: , 1998.
.. . / . .: , 2005.
.. . . .: -, 2001.
.. (
). .: -, 2002.
.. ( I 2007 ) / - . . . 6. .: , 2008.
.. (, ,
, ). .: , 2002.
.. XIII-XIV . : , 1999.
.. . - (
, ): - {
}, 2004.
.. . .: , 2000.
.. . . . / - . .: : -, 2005.
.. : - / - . . . .. . .:
, 2008.
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: , 2001.
.. . II.
: , , / . .: ,
2007.
23

.. /
. . . .. . .: , 2007.
.. . I . .:
, 2001.
.. : . .: , 1998.
.. : . . .: , 2001.
.. . .: , 2008.
.., .. : , . . .:
, 2008.
.. : / . . . .. .
.: , 2007.
.. . , / ., . . .. . .: , 1998.
Andronov M.S. Dravidian Historical Linguistics. Muenchen: Lincom Europa, 2001.
Andronov M.S. Brahui, a Dravidian Language. Muenchen: Lincom GmbH, 2006.
Stolbova O.V. Chadic lexical database. Issue I. L, N. NY, R / -
. : .., , 2005.

4.
.., .. (. .), .. (.). . .. /
. . .: , 2005.
.., .. (. .), .., ..,
.., .. (.). : , . 5-8
1998 . .: , 1998.
.. (. .), .. (.). : 80- .. / . .: , 2003.
.. (.). . .
.: , 2001
.. . . .: - , 2005
.., .., .. (.). . .
. / , . .
. . 1. .: Academia, 2008.
24

.., .. (.) : , , . III . 29 2004 .


: .. , .. . ,
, . ., 2004.
.. (., .). . 80-
. .. . .: , 1998.
.. (.). . , 1998.
.. (., .). . . . 2. .:
, 2001.
.. (. .). . . . /
. .. , , . .: , 2003.
.. (. .) . . . /
. .. , , . .: , 2004.
.. (. .). . . /
. .. , , . .: - , 2007.
.., .. (.). :
/ . .. ( ), .. ( ) / . . - . . . . 3. .: , 2006.
.., .., .. (.).
. . 3. / , ,
. .: , 2004.
.., .., .., .., .., .. (.). : . ,
29 6 2002 . . .: , 2002.
.., .. (.).
. .: , 2002.
.. (.) 2008.
8-10 2008 . / 190- .
50- . .: , 2008.
.., .., .. (.).
. . , 21 28 2005 . . .: , 2005.
.., .., .., .., .., .., .., .., .., .. 25

: / . .
05.11.01 . 56804. ., 2001.
Kim Ji-yung, Lander Yu.A., Partee B.H. (eds.). UMOP 29. Possessives and Beyond: Semantics and Syntax // Univ. of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 29. Amherst (Mass., USA): BLSA publications, 2004.
Kontsevich L.R. (ed.). Reosia-seoeui hentae Hankukeo yeonku / L.R. Kontsevich
yeokkeum. Kin Yeong-il olamkim { . . ..}. Taegu: Toseo ch'ulp'an Saram. 2000.
Lander Yu.A., Ogloblin A.K. (eds.). Language and Text in the Austronesian World.
Studies in Honour of lo Sirk / Lincom Europa Academic publications. Lincom Studies in
Austronesian Linguistics. Muenchen: Lincom Europa GmbH, 2008.

5.
(). 3- . 1: I-VII / : , CXXXV, 1. , ,
.. . .: , 2005.
. (). 2. VIII-XII / , , .. : , CXXXV, 2. .: -, 2007.
. ( 3 . 3). . / . . . I, 3. . .
.., .. . . : .., ..,
.., ., .., .. .: , 2002.
. I-IV. 2 , / ..
.: , 1999.
. V-VIII. 2 , . ..
.: , 1999.
. IX-X. / .. .: , 1999.

26

..
( , )



Alieva N.F.

Concerning the contribution of Russian scholars


to the Austronesian linguistics
The Austronesian family, the greatest in the world as to the number
of languages, was little if at all studied in Russia before the end of
colonialism in the region in question. The start was made on its
studies in 1945 when a course of Malay began to be taught in
Moscow. The aim of the present paper is to recall this period and
to trace the subsequent extension of the Austronesian studies to
other subfamilies: the Philippine, Sulawesi, Oceanic, East-Indonesian, Madagaskar ones. The paper is supplemented by a Bibliography (as complete as the author could make it) of Russian contributions to Austronesian linguistics. The Bibliography consists of
three parts: (1) books published in Russian, (2) papers published in
foreign languages, (3) PhD theses and full doctoral theses.

. 1 , ,
. , ,
, , ,
,
:
,
.
XIX . , ,
, , ,
27

, , (
!).
,
.. ,
; ,
[ 1902 (2007)].
1945
, ; , 1949 .,
, ; ,
1- . 1945 ,
() ,
20- 30- .
2008 . 120 .

, 57 . , .
.. , ,
.
. , ,
.
,
(). ( ) .. , , . 1914 .
.
I- . .
.
.
.
28

, . , 1918
, , ,

, , , . ,
1924 , .
. ,
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. -
, .
,
,
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30- . . , .
, , , . 1932 , 5
. ,
(
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, 1936 .
. ,
. (1949
1954 .), ,
. , ,
,
. , 1938
, . 1941
.
. . 1942 .

.
29

1945 - : , , , , - .
, ,
.
.
,
.
.. ,
2008 . 120 . /
.
-, , , , . , - . , , , . 1967-1968 . - , , ; 18
.
.. , -,
. ,
.
: -, , , -, , . , ( ), ,
.
-.

.
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30

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1954
( ) 5 , 2 !

; ,
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, .. ,
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,
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,
, . ;
1958 . (
) .. . . , ,
. - ( ) . , , [, 1960],
[ 1961; 1963] ;
, , , 31


. .. , ; [ 1965], . : ..
[Teselkin 1972], ,
, (
[ 1967]
[Krupa 1968] ), [ 1975] ,
[Krupa 1973],
[ 1979].
20 ;
.
, ,
-
1979 [, 1999].
, - . , ..
.. : - (1958) - (1963), .. . 1963 .
- ( ), .. .. . 1961 .
- .. ,
.. , .. ; - 2-
.. (1990), 2004 . ,
.. .
- ( 27 .
) 1970 . ; : .. , .. ,
.. . , 2004 . - .. .. ( 25 . ), ,
32

.

.. (2008).
, ,
,
,

,
.
,
. , 1945
( ) , / .
,
.
.
1960 . ..
.
.. , , . .. , ,
. 1986 . [ 1986]. ,
- ,
.


, .
, . , , ( , ),
,
, .
, .
33

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.
.
.
.
. .. ; .. ,
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; ,
,
, , .
: -.

, , ; ,
.

.
, .

.
, .
-,
.
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.
34

,
,
.. . 1966 ,
.. . 1965 , .
, 1972 .
32,5 .. . 2-3 .
, ; ,
, , , , . , , , ( ) .
.
(
).
, ,
, .
;
. 1981 . ..
.. III
(ICAL) ,

.
- (ILDEP;
. )
.

,
.. . , , , ,
( .. , ) . ,
.. 35

. .. .

:
- , . , .. . . ILDEP , .. .
1991 .
[Alieva, Arakin, Ogloblin, Sirk 1991], , , .
, !
2-3
, , , . .. , ,
. , , .
, .. .. ,
-
. , 1979 .. .

(), , (). ,
, .. ,
[, 1999]. ..
([ 1987] 3.2 ).
36


,
Oceanic Linguistics, Honolulu [Grant 2004]. ..
[Alieva 1984; 1986; 1991(b); 1992(b); 1994(), (b); 1997].
- ,
, , .. , [ 1961; 1963].
,
.
..
([ 1963] 3.2 ). ,
, .

.. ;
[ 1965].
-
.. , . ,
;
[Ogloblin 2005];
, , , .
- . (= ). .. ,
, . , ,
,
. . .. , , 37

.
1966 .
[, 1966].
.. .. ,
.. , .
..
, , [ 1995] [ 1996].
, .
.. , .
. . - ( ), ,
, 60 ,
(1995, 2006, 2008 .).
.. , , 70- ,
[ 1975],
[Sirk 1979] Archipel, [Sirk 1983].

- , , . 80- , ,
,
. : - [ 2008],
. ,

.
..
70-, [Lander, Ogloblin 2008(a)].
38

: , , .
, , .. [ 1963, 1965, 1973, 1981]
[ 1967, 1975, 1979; Krupa 1968, 1973].
[ 1995].
.. ([ 1985]
3.2 ); , ([ 1998;
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, .
.. .. .
..
. ,
.. , . ;
[Chlenov, Chlenova 2008;
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, ,

- .
.
- . (, - , . ) , ,
.
, VII VIII
. ..,
39

..
.. [ 1963].
, . , , , ,
, , .
;
,
. ,
, XVI . , .
XIX .
.
. , .

[ 1963].
.. ,

,
,
.
,
, .
.. ,
.
[ 2006].
, .
. ,
, , ,
. , ,
.
, , .
,
40

.
. , , . ,
.
,
, . .
.

1.
.. . . .: (.
. . -), 1975. 142 .
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{ }. 4, 1976. . 18.
.. . . .
. .: , 1998. 328 .
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.., .., .., ..
. .: (. . . -), 1972. 420 . (: . 97-103, 111194, 253-411).
.: .., .., .. // .
5, 1976. . 167-174; .. // . .
6, . 1, 1974. . 133-137; Bambang S. // Minggu Merdeka. 09.07,
1972; Eisengarten R. // Zeitschrift fur Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung. Band 28, Heft 3/4, 1975. S. 441-446; Lombard D. // Archipel.
Vol. 7, 1974. P. 170-171; Minggu Merdeka (Djakarta). 04.01, 1976; Phillips N.G.
// Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Univ. of London. Vol. 37,
1, 1974; Steinhouer H. // Linguistics. 184, 1976. P. 63-65; Stokhof W.A.L. On
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(Leiden). Deel 131, 2&3, 1975. P. 254-269; USSR terbitkan Paramasastera
Bahasa Indonesia {.:
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Rusia-Indonesia semakin laris {.: C
-. } // Minggu Merdeka (Djakarta). 04.01, 1976.
.., . . / - 1979 . .: , 1999. 192 .
41

.: Krupa V. // Asian and African Studies (Bratislava). Vol. 11, 1, 2002. P. 9899; Pogadaev V., Pogadaeva P. // Jurnal Dewan Bahasa. 2003; Grant A.P. //
Oceanic Linguistics. Vol. 43, 1 (June), 2004. P. 273-276
.., ..
. . 2. . .: ,
1980. 206 .
.. . .: - . -, 1963. 64 .
.. . .: (. . . -), 1965.
151 .
.. . .: (. . . -), 1973. 87 .
.. . .: (. . . -), 1981. 79 .
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Teselkin A.S. Old Javanese. New York: Cornell Univ., 1972.

3. .
3.1.
.
..
. .: , 1992.
.. (
). .: , 2005.
.. - , . : ,
1988.
.. . .: , 1996.

3.2.
.
.. . . .:
, 1963.
.: Spitzbardt H. Deutsche Literaturzeitung (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag). Vol.7,
8,1964. P. 629-633.
.. .
.: , 1985.
.. .
.: , 1971.
.. . : ,
1975.
.. . .: , 1969.
.. . .: ,
1980.
52

.. (-
). : , 1966.
.. . .: , 1966.
.. .
.: , 1985.
.. . .: , 2002.
.. ( - - ). .: , 1979.
..
. .: , 1966.
..
. : , 1973.
.. .
.: , 1966.
.. -
. .: , 1972.
.. - . .: , 1970.
.. . ., 1966.
.. . .: ,
1979.
.. (
) . : , 1973.
.. , ,
. : , 1965.
.. . .: , 1963.
.. . .: , 1979.
.. - (
). .: , 1987.
.. . .
.: , 1967.

53

..
( , )



Alpatov V.M.

Japanese studies at the department of Asian and African


languages of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the
Russian Academy of Sciences
The studies of Japanese in our country began later than the studies
of many other oriental languages, but the level of these studies was
high, many Soviet and Russian specialists in Japanese were
specialists in general linguistics, too. Since the organization of the
Department of oriental languages, Japanese was one of the
priorities of the studies of this department, outstanding scholars
worked in it: N.A. Syromyatnikov, I.F. Vardul, S.A. Starostin.
Their traditions continue now.



( .. 1890 .), . . -, ,
,
: , , .
. , ,
54

, . .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. .

:
. - .. (1911-1984), 1940- .
1950 .,
. -
, ( ),
, 1958 .
.
. , XVI-XIX ., (1965) (1978), .
(1972) (1983).

(1971) ,
, XVI .
.
, 1971 . .
.. ,
,
- , 1972 . . .. . [ 1994].
1956 . (19231998),
, 1982-1989 . . ,
55


. (1964),
, .
, ,
( ). .. ,
(1973) ( ) (1977; 2- 2006). .. . .. , .. , .. , ..
[ ... 2005].

.
(1903-1990) - .
(-, 1967),
70- .,
, . 60- . (1927-1989),
XVIII . 1968 . ,
. 1968 .
(. 1989-1995 .).
1975 . ,
(19532005). , ,
17 - . , ,
..
.
XIX ., - ; . 56

(1991)
(1992) , , . , .

.. . ,
1992 .
70- 80- . .. .

. .. , .. ,
.. . 1977 . .. , 1979-1982 . : (.. ),
(.. ), (.. ), (.. ). , ,
- . , ..
( .. - ). 2000 .
, 1974 . . ,
.. , .. .. . ,
1975-1994 .,
, .
(1980) (1994) ,
.
(1990) : (1993).
57

, 2008 . . ,
.. ,
.
1977 . , - ,
. , ..

:
(2007). 1995 . .. .

, (.. ,
.. ) : .. , .. , .. . .. .. .

. , .

. .. /
.., .. (. .), .. (.). .:
, 2005.
.. .. (1911-1984) //
. 60-80- . ., 1994.

58

..
( , )


50
Morev L.N.

The 50 years of the Thai languages studies at the Institute


of oriental studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences
and in the USSR and the Russian Federation in general
The studies of the Thai languages, both practical and scholarly,
began in our country in the middle of the fifties of the XXth century.
The Thai language instruction was introduced in several Moscow
and Leningrad Universities. Simultaneously, academic research on
Thai languages began at the Institute of Oriental Studies and at the
Leningrad State University. A good dozen of scholarly books and
about a hundred of smaller papers have been published since. The
main contributors were L.N. Morev, A.A. Moskalev, J.M. Osipov,
J.Y. Plam, S.Y. Yahontov, and others.

2- . ,
. .
.
.
. .
- ( ).
59

40-
, , , , , .
, , . , 1952
- ,
, (
) ,
. 1954

, .

.
1961
( .. ),
1963 ( .. ) 1998 (, .. ). . 1972 (.. ) , . 90-
.
,
. ,
, , . , , , - .
, , , - , .
.
60

, ,
.


.
, ,
, , , , 1957/1958 .
( . .. ).
, - .
. ( 30 ),

.
50- , :
.., .., .., .. ..
.
, .. , . .. , ..
, .. , .. -
. .. ,
,
- .
, . 70- .. , , . 1986 .. , 1993
.. . , 1994 .. , , ,
, .
61

. .
.
,

:
,

.
60- ,
, .
.. ,
.. .. .
, , , .
, .
. .. , ,
.

, ,
, .
.. , 1960 ,
.

. ()
. 1965
() , 1980
(, , , ). , , . . 62

( ) . ..
,
, ,
.. , .
, , . 90- .. ,
2003 .. . .. . , , ,
, , .

, , .
, , -, ,
.

,
. / .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. . . ,
,
.
. , .
-, , 50 60-
, , , , .. , , .
.
, , . ,
, 63

. .
, .
, , ,
, ,
. , , [
1991]. ,
-
- . ..

[ 1970], ..
-
[ 1989], [ 2006]. .
..
.
: [, ,
1961], [ 1961],
[, , 1972], [ 1978],
[ 1983], [ 1988(b)],
[ 1999].
, . ,
( )
.
, . 1979
.
, , ,
64

,
, .
, :
[ 1964(b)],
[ 1965],
[ 1969], [ 1971],
[ 1991],
[ 1992].
.. [ 1966],

(.. ). ,

.
, , ,
. - ,
- .
, . , - ( , , , , , ,
.),
,
, . , ,
,

. ()
, . , 1999 , , , ,
, ,
, ,
.
1964
65

[ 1964(d)] ,
- . .
.
, ,
.

.
. ,

[ 1971],
, .. - . , -
, ( , 1980). ,
. ,
.

. , , .. (1977) .. (1963). . ..

(1979), ..
(1969) .
(1985), .
( ,
, ) . .. ,
1963 .,
- .
.. ,
66

. .
.
.. , .. .. .
.. ,
[ 1994].
..
[ 1964(a), (b)],
, .

..
, -
.. ( [ 1963]).
,
.. ,
(1992). ,
. , .
. 1996
,
, . ,
.
. , :
- (24 . ) [ 1964(c)], - [ 1964], - (2 .
) [ 1987], - (5 . ) [ 1988(a)], - (25 . ) [, , 1982], - ( , .. , 22 . ) [ 2004(a)]. , ,
.
.
. 67

.
- - [ 1972],
[ 2004(b)].

- (
.. , .. ) [
1988]. , .. , 1434 , , , , , .
.
, ,
. ,
.. , -
. .. .. - . .
.. : ,
, , , , . .. - : , , .

,
, Personalia.
(1921-1994), : . , :
, . ,
. , . 50-
, , , .
: , ,
,
68

. , .
, .

.. . .
. . . . . .: , 1966 ().
.. // - . .: , 1967.
..
// - . . .: , 1974.
.. : // .
.: , 1983.
.. . .: , 1999.
.. - //
- . .: - . -, 1963.
..
// - . . .: , 1971.
.., .., .. - . .:
, 1982.
.. . .: , 1992.
.. . . . .
. . . .: , 1964(a) ().
.. . .: , 1964(b).
.. - . .: , 1964()
.. // . .: , 1964(d).
.. . .: (. . . -), 1978.
.. . .: (. . . -), 1983.
.. // -
. . .: , 1985.
.. - . .: , 1987.
.. - . .: , 1988(a).
69

.. . .: (. . . -), 1988(b).
..
- //
. .: , 1989.
.. . .: , 1991.
.. (.). - . .: , 2004(a).
.. //
: . .: , 2004(b).
.. Cognitive and Structural Aspects of Nominalization in Tai and some other
Isolating Languages of East and South-East Asia // Mon-Khmer studies. 36. BangkokDullus, 2006.
.. . .: ( ).
.., .., .. . .: (. .
. -), 1972.
.., .., .. . .: - . -,
1961.
.. . .: (. . . -), 1971.
.. // . . 4,
20, 1963.
.. - . .: , 1964.
.. . .:
(. . . -), 1969.
.. . .: - . -,
1965.
.. // - . ,
. .: (. . . -), 1970.
.. - -
// . 4, 172, 1972.
.. //
I-
. .:
(. . . -), 1977.
.. //
- . ., 1979 ().
.. (. .). - . 2 . .: , 1988.
70

.. -
-
// . VII
. .: - , 1994.
.. . .: - . -, 1961.
- ..
. , - , .
. . . . . . .: , 1980.

71

..
( , )

, 2
Remarchuk V.V.

My postgraduate studies at the Armyanskiy pereulok, 2


With a share of nostalgia, the author of the paper recalls the end of
the sixties and the beginning of the seventies of the XXth century
when he pursued his postgraduate studies at the Department of Asian
and African languages of the Institute of oriental studies of the
USSR Academy of sciences. He recollects his teachers and colleagues,
the work on his PhD thesis concerned with the problems of the
centre and periphery in the system of the Vietnamese literary language.

1959 . .. .
- 1- , , , ,
2,
(1960-1970 . )
.

72

,
, :
,
, , -, . ,
. ,
,
, , ,
- , - . ,
. , .
, , , , : ,
, ! , ,
.
( , ,
, - ( , . 62/1)
c : !
? , ,
)
, ,
( ) 1
,
( ) , - ,
19- .
1883
:

.
: , ,
.
.
,
73

, . ,
, !
, ,
. ,

. -
.
.

,
! ,
( ), , () .
-
.
,
, , , ,
. , , , , ,
.
, (
1968 ), (
)

. .
: : ,
74

, . - ,
,
, , - , ,
, ( )

( :
, (1950)
, ...)
, . , . , . . , , , : , ?

, , , , , ,
. ,
? , . - ,
,
, 2 2.
. ,
, ,
:
( 75

- ), , - ,
- . .
. - : , , ,
, .

. (..
.. ,
), ,
.
- ,
, .
( , ): ,
, - , .
, , ...
() . , - , .
. ,
,
.

, , , ,
. . , . ,
. , ,
76

, , : :
, , , , , , ,
. ? : ,
(- )

: .. .. ( , , , ).
, . ,
, : !
: .
. ?
. ,
, .. .
.. . ..
, , ,
, ,


, , . , .. .. . , !,
, , :
: , ?
: . -?
: , -- .

.
77

- - ,
.
.
- ( , !)
( ) ,
, , .
, , ,
.
, , , . - ,
- ,
, .
, -,
: , - . : .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.
, , , ; , , . ,
, ,
, .
.
(, ,
.. , ..
78

).
. : ? , , ,
,
.
!...
- ,
.
.
: , . . , . , 40-
, .. .
60- 70- , , ..
: . ,
,
. ,
,
. , .
, , , , , (. 50- .. . ).
.. , , . ( . )
: ,
-79

, !
, . ,
,
, - . ,

, , . :
! !
. :
?
:
? ! !
. . !
,
, -:
,
(
.. ).
, . , ! , , .
. , - , .. .
- , ,
- -
80

:
, ,
(, .. ).
. ,
-: , ,


,
, .
: ! , ..
. . . .
:
, ! -, , !
!

,
( , - , , ),
, , . : , , , ! , ,


, , , .
,
.
, , (
81

)
.
.
( ) .. . .
.
() , - ( .
. .). . .
. ,
. , ,
, .
, . , ( 1953
), (
, ),

.
, , .
. , . , 88- , -
,
.
, ? .
, , .
, ! !
. :
. ?!

-. : 82

! ? .
-, , -? -
? : ! , . , . , ,
,
, . , , . ,
, ,

, . . , .
! ! ! .
- ,
, .
( ),
. , :
, .. . ,
-, ,
, , ( ). ,
.
.
,
.
, ,
83

..
.
. .

, , .
. , .

, ,
,
- .
, .
. ,

, , ,
. , ,
,
, .
, ( 8 ).
,
, , ,

.. , ,
.
12 1974 . : .. , 84

, .. . .. .
, ,
( ).

,

.
,
, .
, (
) ...
, .
, .. .
,
(
). : . ,
, ,
, , , :

... ,
1965
(V ),
, (
) :
- ? (
.)
, ,
,
, 85

, , -, , ,
- , ,
,
,
, . ,
, ,

.

. , () - ,

,
, .
,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
( !). , . -- , , 1651
. . , .

. , ,
- .

,
,
. ,
, !
86

.

.
.
8 () 2008 .
1


1961 .,
. , , -
.
. . ( .. //
. .: , 1975. . 3-58), . 48 , ( , ) , , - .
,
.
2
, , . 1919
.
.
. 1920 ..
(!) .
,
(1920 .),
(1921 .).

87

..
( , )

!
Finkelberg N.D.

The Time Is Not Out of Joint!


The paper is devoted to the role of scholars from the language
department of the Institute of oriental studies of the Russian
Academy of Sciences in preserving the continuous development of
the Arabic linguistics in Russia. There are traditional and new
areas of science in the work of these scholars. Special attention is
given to the value of works by A.G. Belova, in particular to her
comments on the selected works of N.V. Yushmanov (1896 - 1946)
on general phonetics, semitology and Arabic classical morphology,
issued in 1998.

,
,
.
. , , .
. . ,
, .
, , -.
, , , , , .

,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
. , , , ,
,
. ,
, . , 7 ,
12- 19- . ,
20-
. , ,
. ,
,
.

,
, .
,
.
, ,
, . ,
, .
, -. 89

,
, .. . , . , , . - 2006 ,
-, , : , ,
,
. ,
,
, , , .
, , , ,
, , .
, , .
. , 50-

..
.
20- -.

. , , , ,
.
, , 90

. , , .
, .
. ..
..
, 1983 . 1978 -
.. , 1928 ,
. , 1983
- . , 1946 .. 1928-1936 .
, , , ,
. , .
, , .
. .. .. [ 1963; 1994]. .. , .. , .. .. [
1981; 1960, 1961, 1968, 2004; 1968; 1965,
1976, 1982]. .. , .. .. [ 1964,
1976, 1981; 1981]. , -
- ,
.. [ 1964, 1981],
91

,
, 60-
. .. , , , .
.. .. - ,
, [ 1981].
. ..
[ 1979, 1985, 1999]. .. [ 1998, 2001] .. [
1975]
.
.
1998 .. (1896
1946) ,
[ 1998]. , ,
, , - .
-
.. .. . .. ,

-,
. , . , ,
. ..
, , ,
,
, ,
. .. , 92

, . ,
,
. , ..
,
. ,
.. . , ,
,
, . .
, [ 1974; 1975;
1975; 1979; 1985; 1986; 1994;
1997] [ 1986; 1994]
.

,
.
.
, . , 2007 2008 .. ,
.
( ) (
XXI ). , ,
, , , ,
93

, .
, ( )

,

.

..
// . II, 2. ., 1965.
.. // .
. 3. ., 1976.
.. . . .: - . -, 1979.
.. // . 3.
. ., 1982.
.. . // . .: , 1985.
.. . ., 1994.
.. . .: , 1999.
.. - ( ) / . .
. . . . . ., 1974.
.. (). ., 1981.
.. . .: (. .
. -), 1968.
..
/ . . . .
. . . ., 1979.
.. . . . . . - . . ., 1986.
.. . .
. . . . . . ., 1975.
. XV
. IV. ., 1981.
94

.. -
/
. . . . . . . ., 1986.
.. . . .: -
. -, 1963.
..
/ . . . . . . . ., 1975.
.. ( ) / . . . . - . . ., 1994.
.. - ( ) /
. . . . . . . ., 1994.
.. : . .: , 1998.
.. : . .: , 2001.
.. ( ) /
. . . . . . . ., 1997.
.. // XXV
. . .: -
. -, 1960.
.. . .: - . -, 1961.
.. - . .: , 1964.
.. //
. .: - , 1968.
..
// . .: , 1975.
.. -
//
. .: , 1976. . 3.
.. - . .: , 1981.
.. - // . . 2.
.: , 2004.
..
( ) / . . . .
. . . ., 1985.
.. . , . .: , 1998.
95

2.
:

..
( , , -)

gi-
1
Baranova V.V.

Ways of grammaticalization of the verb gi- speak


in the Kalmyck language
The Kalmyk verb gi- say is the diachronic source of various
pragmatic, syntactic, and modality markers (for example, this verb
was grammaticalized into purpose clause marker and developed
constructions marking reported discourse, etc). The paper discusses one unusual way of its grammaticalization, namely,
grammaticalization of SAY into a grammatical category that T.
Kuteva calls avertive (or action narrowly averted), with the
meaning on the verge of V-ing, but did not V. This construction
differs from other constructions with gi- say not only by its formal
properties (its structure is identical to the structure of complex
predicates with a modal converb ending in -n), but also by its
connection with irrealis. It is shown that this innovation can be
explained from the context of gi- constructions with intentional,
prospective and proximative meanings. The paper gives detailed
description of relations between constructions with gi- say and
avertive with ald- loss.

1.
gi- .
.. [ 1976];
96

..
[ 1980] ..
[ 1987]. ,
( ). () ( , ).

,
. ,
,
. , 2 , .
; . . : , ,
, , , [Heine, Kuteva 2002: 261-265].

(, ),
, (
).
, , () : ,
,
, [Bybee et al.
1994: 11]. gi-
, , . gi- ( 97

.. [ 1976]), ,
. , gi- ,
,
( gi- ), .
, ()
, , gi- . , gi- ,
( , , [Rosmarier 2006]) 3 , , (polyfunctionality pattern),
[Gldemann 2006: 132]. :
, ,
gi- ;
.
, -dh
-ad
aash- , ir- , jov- , od- , or, qar- , (suu- , kevt), av- g- , ork- , tv, xaj- , b- , bol- , xl- . ( ).
( ),
. ,
od- , 98

( (2)) ,
od-
/ (1) 4.
(1)

(2)

bichkn
shovun
rg-d

-CV.ANT
nis-dh
od-v
-CV.IPFV -PST
.
suulq xamxr-dh
od-v
-CV.ANT
-PST
.

. , . gi- ,
. gi-

; .
2. gi-

gi-, kel- :
(3)

tas
kn-d
bich
-DAT NEG.IMP
.

kel-
-IMP

kel- :
(4)

neg
dkch narn
Gerl-t
kel-dh-n
-DAT
-PROG-PRS
Gerl, bi
chamd
dur-ta-v ...
.NOM .DAT
-ASSOC-1SG
: , ....
99

gi-
( (5)). gi- , ,
.
(5)

Moskva
or-xar
b-n,

-CV.PURP
-PRS
Moskva
or-dh
ter
tolqa-qi-ny

-CV.IPFV

-ACC-P.3
z-l-x
gi-n
-CAUS-PC.FUT -PRS
, ,
{} {} .

gi- , , , .
(6)

jamaran
qurvn coorxa
gixl?

-CV.SUCC
?


.
) iyy ( , , [Gldemann 2006: 133].
(7) gi ( kel-) (
, . ), (. (7b)).
(7)

tiim xudl-mudl gi-qd


kel-dh-n

-CV.ANT -PROG -PRS
- .

(7b)

Badma xudl kel-dh-n


-PROG-PRS
.
100


( gi-), (8). . , , gi-
,
[ 2007: 149].
(8)

ek-eck
namaag
dmg
-
.ACC

utl-txa
/ utl-
gi-v
-JUSS1 / -IMP -PST
.

kel ( -dh)
( -ad) gi- .
en
max-an
tadnd
... bi cug
.NOM -P.REFL .DAT
g-chk-n-v
gi-dh
kel-v
-COMPL-PRS-1SG -CV.IPFV -PST
{ } ,
().

(9)

(9)
( ). gidh gihd
: (.: , (9)),
, (10).
(10)

Badma bichg bich-ch-n


gidh
-PROG-PRS -CV.IPFV
med-dh-n-v
-PROG-PRS-1SG
, .

. . , () 101

[ 1987: 47]. gi-


-txa
, :
gi-
, , (11).
(11)

ek-ny
Badma-qan
ms-dh-na
-P.3
-P.REFL -PROG-PRS
bich
uuly-txa
gi-qd
NEG.IMP
-JUSS1
-CV.ANT
, .

gi .
gi- , : qv-qv gi- , , tash-tash gidh in- ;
gils-gils gidh xl- , .
: . ,
, , . . [Gldemann 2006].
.. , gi- , [ 1976: 96], . (12).
(12)

aq shir-d-r
naald-dh
-DAT-DIR -CV.IPFV
och
Sandh r
-CV.IPFV
.
gi-dh
tat-dh
av-v
-CV.IPFV
-CV.IPFV
-PST
, .

gi- , , gidg
(13). ,
102

. gidg
-dg, , , ,
.
(13)

eck-m
nan-d Ivan gi-dg
-P.1SG
.DAT -PC.HAB
ner
og-v

-PST
.
:

(14)

kch-t
gi-dg
books qos-ta
-ASSOC
-ASSOC -PC.HAB
alt-ar
uj-sn
utc-ta
-INS
-PC.PST -ASSOC
,
.

gi- ,
sn, , , [ 2004: 194], .
gi- (. .
.
, , [Heine, Kuteva 2002: 261265]). , , (. [Gldemann 2002, 2006]).
gi-
-n (. ). , , gi- .
gi- ( , ).
103

( ) , .
-n .
..
[ 1983: 254],
-n 5.
-n -go 6 ( -l [ 1983: 251]) gi- .
3. gi-
gi- -n ,
(15).
(15)

Badma un-n
-CV.MOD
.

gi-v
-PST

. . ,
. , , [Kuteva 2001: 77],
,
1) ; 2) , ; 3) , , ; 4) ; 5) [Kuteva 2001: 83]. , , gi- . ,
, , , ( ):
, , , , ( 104

) ,
.
gi- -n ald- , ( , . ,
).
(16)
mrn k-n
ald-v
-CV.MOD
-PST
.
gi- ald,
.. [ 1976, 1977]. ,
- , , ,
: , (.)
[ 1977: 115].
ald- , gi-
. , . . ,
/ , , ,
[ 2001: 55].

(). , , , . ,
( P, ), ( , . , (. [Lichtenberk 1995; 2006]).
ald-
,
gi- , . (17a-b).
(17a) *Uralan
champion
bol-dh

-CV.IPFV
105

(17b)

od-n
ald-v
-CV.MOD
-PST
* .
Uralan champion
bol-dh

-CV.IPFV
od-n
gi-v
-CV.MOD
-PST
.

gi- ,
ald- .
: ald-
,
gi- . (18-20) ,
( . ), ald- . (20) ald-
.
(18)
kvn
chiv-n
ald-v
/
gi-v

-CV.MOD -PST -PST


.
(19)
Ajsa bijn kraska bud-chk-n
-COMPL-CV.MOD
gi-v
/ald-v
-PST /-PST
.
(20)
Badma ger
shirchk-n

-COMPL-CV.MOD
gi-v
/ ??ald-v
-PST / -PST
{ . ,
} , {
}.
,
, 106

ald- (21a), gi- (21b).


(21a)

*bi
ger br-chk-n
.NOM -COMPL-CV.MOD
* .

ald-v
-PST

(21b)

bi
ger br-chk-n
gi-v
.NOM -COMPL-CV.MOD -PST
{ - }.

ald- gi- ( (17)) .


ald- gi- ,
gi- ,
ald- .

(21), . .
.
(22)

bi
inq-
b-dh
.NOM -PC.CONT -CV.IPFV
k-n
ald-v
-CV.MOD
-PST
.

,

. , , (analogical leveling),

[Seliger, Vago 1991: 10
11], [Andersen 1982], .
, ,
7, . ,
107

; ,
(. [ 2007]).
. /
:
(23)

bi
oda
gemn-n
.NOM -CV.MOD
- .

ald-dha-na-v
-PROG-PRS-1SG

8 ald-
-n ; , , , gi- , . (24a-b).
(24)

Badma mod xamxl-n


ald-dha-na
-CV.MOD
-PROG-PRS
1) { ,
- } / 2) * .
(24b)

Badma mod xamxl-n


-CV.MOD
- .

gi-dh-na
-PROG-PRS

.. , : , , ,

(. . . ) [ 2001:
54-55]. /
, , ,
:
.

-dh 108

-ad z- xl- ( , .
[ 2007].
(25)

Badm bichg bich-dh


z-v
/ xl-v
-CV.IPFV -PST / -PST
.

-n c gi- :
(26)

Badm bichg bich-n


-CV.MOD
.

gi-v
-PST

( ). . ,
ti , ,
(frustrated intention). (, X, ) / ,
[Gldemann 2002: 257].
gi- /
gi- .

gi-, , (27-28).
(27)

bi
r-n
ert
Elst
.NOM -GEN

or-n
gi-dh-n-v
-CV.MOD
-PROG-PRS-1SG
.

(28)

mini egch
japon
kel

.GEN .
sur-n
gi-dh-n
-CV.MOD
-PROGPRS
/ .
109

, , :
(29)

Uralan
champion

bol-n
gi-dh-n
-CV.MOD -PROG-PRS
{} .

:
(30)

alkn terz sek-n


gi-dh-n
-CV.MOD -PROG PRS
, , .

,
. . ,
, , [Bybee et al. 1994: 254].
: , , .
(31)

ora
ke-x
kerg-t
-PC.FUT
-ASSOC
un-n
gi-dh-n
-CV.MOD
-PROG-PRS
, - .


(. (31)).
( , ,
, , . (28), , P, P. 110

,
, .
(32)

tegd
ter-chn
adr-ad

-PCL.CONC
..-CV.ANT
od-n
gi-dha-n,
?
-CV.MOD
-PROG-PRS,
, ?

(33)

mrn
kch
-CV.IPFV
gi-dh-n
-PROG-PRS
- .

odn
-CV.MOD


gi- . gi-
() -n gi- (
)
ald- .
4.

( ) gi- , ,
.
gi- .
gi- , , ( )
.
(, > ,
). 111

, -, gi- ( )
. ,
-n, ald- gi- , , .
gi- (grammaticalization chain).
gi-
( , , . [ 2004]) , ,
(. ald- gi- ).

ASSOC
CV.ANT
CV.IPFV
CV.MOD
CV.PURP
PCL.CONC
PROG
PST

.. //
. . ., 2007. . 22-25
. - { . - }. : hh, 2004.
..
// . 2, 2006. . 27-65.
.. : //
. . 1, . ., 2001. . 50-88
112

.. :
//
. . ., 2007. . 146-150.
..
//
. ., 1976. . 95-103.
.. . .
, 1977.
.. . . , 1983.
.. //
( ).
, 1987. . 32-50.
. //
. ,
1980. . 91-102.
. . //
. 3, . : , 2004. . 28-74.
/ . . . .. .:
, 2007.
Andersen R.W. Determining the linguistic attributes of language attrition // The loss of
language skills / Ed. by R. D. Lambert and B.F. Freed. Rowley (MA): Newbury House
Publishers, 1982. P. 83118.
Bybee J., Perkins R., Pagliuca W. The evolution of grammar: tense, aspect and modality
in the languages of the world. Chicago London: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Gldemann T. When say is not say: The functional versatility of the Bantu quotative
marker ti with special reference to Shona // Reported Discourse. A meeting ground for
different linguistic domains / Ed. by T. Gldemann and M. von Roncador. Amsterdam:
Benjamins, 2002. P. 253-287.
Gldemann T. Complex predicates based on generic auxiliaries as an areal feature in
Northeast Africa // Studies in African Linguistic Typology / Ed. by F. K. Erhard Voeltz.
Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2006. P. 131-154.
Heine B., Kuteva T. Word lexicon of grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2002.
Hopper P., Traugott E. Grammaticalization. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2003 (1993).
Kuteva . Auxiliation. An Enquiry into the Nature of Grammaticalization. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2001.
Lichtenberk F. Apprehensional Epistemics // Modality in Grammar and Discourse / Ed.
by J. Bybee and S. Fleischman. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1995. P. 293-328.
113

Rosmarier M. Grammaticalization chains of the verb Kare to give in Kabba // Studies in


African Linguistic Typology / Ed. by F.K. Erhard Voeltz. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2006.
P. 277-301.
Seliger H., Vago R. (eds.). First Language Attrition: theoretical perspectives.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
1

2007 . . 2008 . .
0706-00278 :
, , .
2
,
, .
3
Kare (Kabba, -
) , , , , , , , [Rosmarier 2006: 284]. , -,
, .
4
( ),
. .: http://iling.spb.ru/kalmyk/Standard.
5
k-n k-tl-n -CV.MOD
-CV.TERM, , .: .
6
-go uga.
7
. . (
, ). , pas
, ,
, point mie [Hopper, Traugott 2003: 116]).
8
-dhana .

114

..
( , )

1
Grashchenkov P.V.

Complex predicates in Ossetian


The paper deals with the phenomenon of the complex predicate
formation exemplified with the Ossetian data. In the first part of the
paper the basic properties of complex predicates in Ossetian are
established. The second part studies the lexical variation in the
selection of auxiliaries. The third part describes the nominal parts
of complex predicates from the perspective of lexical classes in
Ossetian. The fourth part proposes the semantic classification of
nominal predicates based on the generally accepted event types.
The fifth part explores the argument structure of nominals used in
complex predicates and the sixth part proposes some observations
about it.

1. :
, . [ 1969; 1949, 1959; 1965;
1952, 1956; 1966] . ( ) , () () , .
1.1.
:
(1) a.


115

b.

, :
(2)

.
(.. ) :
(3)

-
* -

.
1.2.
, :

(4)
--


.
, , , , , :
(5) *-


:
(6)

-
-

1.3.
:
(7)
/

/ .
(8) *
/

/ .
(9) *
/

/ .
:
116

(10) a.

b.

1.4.
:
(11) a.

.
b. *

()
( ).
1.5.
( )
:
(12) a.
.
b. -
.
1.6.
:
(13)
-


-Lat
.
1.7.
() , . ,
:
(14)
--

Perf--Comp
.
117

,
. , , 1.1.-1.4. , ..
, ,
.
2.
, .
2.1. / ( / )
95% ()
() / (), - ; , .
2.2. ()
( , )
/
, :
(15) -
/
Perf- /
; ; ;
2.3. ()
(16)

(*)

()
.

2.4. ()

() , :
(17)
-
--

-Lat
Perf-/-Lat
.
118

2.5. (), ()

, :
(18)

.
(19)

3.
, (23) (25) [- 1970].
3.1. ,
. -
,
() ,
. :
(20) a.

b. -

Perf-
.
(21) a.


b.

.
(22) a.

b.
--

--Pl

.
3.2.
, ,
.., :
119

(23) a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

()

3.3.
:
(24) a.
,
b.

c.

3.4.
,
,
:
(25) a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

120

4.

. ,
[Vendler 1957; 1997; 1984 .] (
), , (. . , ).

, , .
, .
( , ,
..),
(, , ..).
4.1.
.
(. [Carlson 1977]):
4.1.1.
(individual level predicates)
, .
, , , : , , .
:
(26)

(27)

(28)

.Comit
.
121

,
, , . , , :
(29)

(30)

(31)


,
, , .
(stage level predicates) :
(32)

(33)

(34)

4.1.2.
,
.
(, ,
..) ( ) (, ..). , :
122

(35) a.


b.


.
c. -

Perf-
.
(36) a.

b.

.
c. c-

Perf-
.
:
(37) a.


b.


.
c. -

Perf-
.
(38) a.


b.

.
c.
-

Perf-
.
,
,
.
123

4.2.
(acccomplishments)
, , .. ,
.
:
(39) a.
, ( )
b.
( )
c.
/ ( / )
d.
( )
e.
;
5.

,
. ,
( ,
..),
. , ,
, . , ,
:
(40)
-
-

-

-Lat
-Gen -Dat
.
(41) -

-

-Gen -Dat
.
(42) -
- -


-Gen -Lat
-Gen
.
5.1.
5.1.1.
:
124

(43) a.
b.
c.
d.

() ();
; /
/ ; ()
; ()
5.1.2.


:
(44) a. ;
b. ;
c. - , ; ,
d. ; ()
5.2.
:
(45) a. () ; ()
b. ; ,
c. ;
d. ;
e. ;
f. / ; /
/
g. , ; ,
h. / ; /
k. ;
l. ;
m. ;
:
(46)

-,

.Dat

-Abl

-.

-Abl
( ), .
( ,
, )
(47)
-

-Lat
125

.
(48)


.Dat
.
(.. ,
)
: ( ) ( ). :
(49) - / -
-

-Dat / -Gen -Gen

-
-Super
(=,
) .
(50)
-

Perf-
.
(49) , , (
), . ,
(, , ) .
5.3.
, , () .
, () , ,
:
(51) - -
-

-Dat -Gen -Dat


.
126

,
.
5.4.

:
(52) ;
(53) -

Perf-
.
6.
-
6.1.
, ;
:
(54)


.
(55) (-)

Perf-
() .
,
() , , , :
(56) -

Perf-
* . / ok- .

():
(57) -

Perf-
.
127

, , , ()
. ,
( (58)) , ( (59)),
:
(58) a.

-

-Loc
.
b. *


(= , ).
(59) a.

.
b. *

.

:
(60)


(= , ).
, , , :
(61)
-

Perf-
.
6.2.
,
( ), ( ), ( ), (
) .. 128

, (. (49), (50) (51) ), () .


, ,
:
(62) , , ;

(63):
(63) a.


.
b. *

()
.
(64), , ,
:
(64) , ,

.

. . - . 1-4. .,
1959-1989.
. . - . ., 1970.
. . . . 1.
, 1960.
. . ., 1965.
. 1. . ,
1963.
. . . , 1959.
. . . , 1974.
. . . , 1965.
. . . . 1-3. ., 1881-1887.
. . -- . 1-3. ., 1927-1934.
. . . ., 1962.
129

. . - . , 1981.
. . . ., 1844.

. . . 1. .-., 1949.
. . . , 1959.
. . . . 1. , 1965.
. . // ,
. .; , . . (
). .: , 1997. . 45-112.
. . . , 1952.
. . . , 1956.
. 2. . , 1969.
. . . ., 1966.
. . . .: , 1984.
- . . .. . , 1970.
Carlson G. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. Dissertation. Amherst, 1977.
Vendler Z. Verbs and times // The philosophical review. Vol. 66, 1957. P. 143-160.
1

No. 08-06-00411-.

130

.., ., ..
(, , -)


( ,
)
Ermolaeva L.S., Kiknadze D., Khronopoulo L.Yu.

Typological similarity of Kartvelian languages with


Japanese (languages that are both topic-prominent
and subject-prominent)
Like Japanese, the Kartvelian languages can be described as both
topic-prominent and subject-prominent. A topic-prominent language
can develop into a subject-prominent one. Such a development took
place in Indo-European. Yet since the modifications which led to
the shift in Indo-European are prehistoric, Indo-Europeists will
have to look to other language families [Lehmann 1976: 454].
The paper deals with the development of the narrative case (georg.
motxrobiti) into the nominative. One of the mechanisms is described that underlies the way the marking system of narrative can
switch to a nominative one, the way a case can acquire new
functions. The paper demonstrates how the study of the history and
structure of the Kartvelian language family can contribute to the
development of the contensive-oriented typology. At the same time
the paper demonstrates the way linguistic theory can contribute to
understanding a variety of phenomena in the Kartvelian
languages, such as the otherwise unexplained distribution of the
narrative case in Georgian, Laz, Mingrelian, Swan.

. , ,
: ( 131

) (
).
.
, ( )
,
( ) . ( ) . ..
.
: ) ; )
.
1984 . .. : ,

. .

, .. ,
[ 1984: 3].
(. [Li, Thompson 1976] [Subject
and Topic 1976]),
, ,
. [
1982], , , [Lehmann 1976],
.

(., , [ 1982]).
, , .. , .. .
132

, [ 2000:
48-52; 1980: 81]. ,
(. -man>-ma, . -k, . -k, .-d, -m),
, .

- [ 1995]. ,
. . , :
(), () , [, 1982]:
(1) .:

sakana wa
tai
ga
oishii

Top Nom
= , [ : 207].

(2) .: John- in
mlika
aphita
Top Nom
Stat
= [ : 223]
. [ 1911: XLVI]:
(3) xolo

man dedaacman man


: :
:
Narr Narr
Narr

moiqu ana kmari tysi


: : :
Aorist
SO
SO

DO
Top
Subj VT
= , c.


: * ,
, man dedaacman , kmari
, man ,
moiqu ana .
,
( -
- , .. , ).
, ,
133

( [ 1995: 62]). ,
, . [Lehmann 1976].
(3) , X . man , , xolo, (. ). .: xolo mcvelman man mrkua mas [. 139: 89] , ; xolo xucesman ertman hrkua mas [.
137: 37-38] . -man>-ma,
. .
: movida bii dedastan~movida bima dedastan
[ 1974: 90-91] ; . [Fhnrich 1967]. : orma dem gaiara (e.kipiani .
: [Fhnrich 1967: 40]) . , : muk iu? 1 ?, douru luarsabik(u)
, gam(u)kortu xank(u) ,
luarsabik(u) kumortu , luarsabis gurku aiapartxad(u)
, luarsabik(u) micqinu
. 44 .
,
3- . -s [ 1999: 62]. .,
: koik ikwiden () koi
ikwiden () [ 1986: 13] (
- ). .
134

[,
1982: 228] :

. .
:
A) . .: . .:
tanaka studentia. : - . .: -
. .: tanakaa studenti.
: . .: -
. .: oni emi megobaria. : .
.: - - . .: onia emi megobari.
. .: . .: Mama movida.
: . .: - . .: Movida mama.
. (. ).
.: - . .: ons akvs es navebi.
: . (. ).
- - . .: Es navebi ons akvs.
, -a<aris ( )
, -. . aris:
tanaka studenti aris, : tanaka aris studenti.
) [
.] ,
, ,

[ 1999: 294]. .: andrei semionovii ki, romelsac
arasodes titkmis ar moepoveboda puli, otaxi gadi-gamodioda da ise
avenebda tavs, vitom gulgrilad da zizit uqurebda am pulebs [dostoevski
1977: 452]. ki , xolo.
) [ 1999: 296]. .: rac eexeba piradad sopia semionovnas
135

[dostoevsk i 1977: 456]. .



- , . .: [ 1999: 291-292]. .: qvela am paktma da cnobam raaca
azri ausaxa petr petrovics [dostoevsk i 1977: 449]. .: :
- [ 1966, .2: 152].
, , . [Comrie 1981: 121],
.
.. , ,
,
, [ 1941: 132].
,

( ), . . [Lehmann
1976], , .
. - ,

, , , , , , V (. 1982)

- ( ), -, : , 136

, (guli , srsyli ).
.
[, 1984: 267-319; 1980: 118-164].

.
.
.
.

Aorist
DO
Narr
Nom
SO
Stat
Subj
Top
VT

.. . ( ). .:
, 1999.
. { }. 2- . . 2.
, 1966.
, . . //
- , 5.
- . .VII. ,
... ., 1911.
. . . . // .. ,
. . 1, . 1. . : , 1982.
dostoevsi t.m. danaauli da saseli. targmani: ivane da ana axalenivilebisa
{ }. tbilisi, 1977.

.
// . . XI. .: , 1982. . 411-431.
.. . :
, 2000.
.., .. :
- .
I-II. : , 1984.
137

.. //
. . . 5. ., 1941. . 117-137.
..
// . 5, 1995. . 60-73.
.. // .. , ...
. .: , 1980. .78-169.
.. // : . .: Academia, 1999.
. 59-65.
.., .. : //
. .XI. .: , 1982. .193-235.
. .XI.
. ,
.. . .: , 1982.
..
( ) // : . .: (. . . -), 1984 . . 3-10.
.. . . .,
1986.
Comrie B. Language universals and linguistic typology. Syntax and morphology.
Chicago, 1981.
Fhnrich H. Georgischer Ergativ im intransitiven Satz // Beitrage zur Linguistik und
Informationsverarbeitung. 10, 1967. S. 34-42.
kiziria a. kvemdebare-semasmenlis urtiertoba kartuli enis dasavluri dialektebva mixedvit.
{- } // . .4. ,1974.
Lehmann W. From Topic to Subject in Indo-European // Subject and Topic. New York,
San-Francisco, London: Academic Press, 1976. P. 445 -456.
Li Ch. N., Thompson S.A. Subject and Topic: a New Typology of Languages // Subject
and Topic. New York, San-Francisco, London: Academic Press, 1976. P.457-489.
Subject and Topic. Ed.: Ch.N. Li. New York, San-Francisco, London: Academic Press,
1976.
1
, , , .

138

..
( , )

:
1
Lander Yu.A.

On different morphologies:
Tanti Dargwa locative forms
This paper explores complex locative forms in Tanti Dargwa, a
Northeast Caucasian language spoken in Daghestan. It is argued
that the construction of Tanti locative forms is partly based on
incorporation of nominal stems into locative markers and involves
both layered and template morphology. I conclude that the layered
and template kinds of morphology need not be strictly contrasted
within a single word.

:
, , (. template morphology)
(. layered morphology); ., , [Simpson,
Withgott 1986; Inkelas 1993; Stump 1997; 2006; Rice 2000; Hyman
2003]. , , ,
; ,
.
,
, , .

. : ,
139


,
( 39 [Greenberg 1963/1970: 140]). , , , , ,
a priori ; . . 1.
...

...

. 1. ,

:
,
, .
, ,
, (, , -
)
. ,
, , ,
( ):
(1)
arj z-dr-wa
stdent-ca-w-p
REL.A--PRS -PL-PRS-FIN:STAT
.
(.: , , -.)
,

,
.
:
. ,
, (labeling a system of affixal morphology as
templatic implies that there is no independent explanation for the ordering
of its affixes) [Stump 2006: 559]. , , 140

: , , ,
. , (., , [Simpson, Withgott 1986]
[Rice 2000; Stump 2006]), :
(i)
;
(ii)
- ( , , ,
).

, , ,
. , [Stump 1997] , . ,
, , , . [Mithun 2000],

,
. , ,
.
. -, , . -,
.
, - . 1 ; 24 ; .
141

1.

-
,
.
. [ 1971],
, [
2006] - .
: , , .
. ,
2.
( ),
qata , . 1.

,
qata
qata-li
qata-la, qata-l-la
qata-, qata-li-
qata-cele, qata-li-cele

1.


-li; .
-; . dis-b-a-li [-PL-OBL-ERG]. .
, , ( ) ( )
142

, . , ,
. (2):
niki-se
ma-urb-a-ce-r-kale
-ATR -PL-OBL-IN1-EL-DOWN
cana=b=i-ib-le
sa=b.
=N=LV:PF-PRET-CONV
COP=N
() .

(2)

(2) ma-urb-a-ce-r-kale
, , IN1 -ce,
-r -kale .
,
. 2.

SUPER
SUB1
ANTE

(-ja)

LAT (-)

UP

(-ha(le))

(-gu)

DOWN

(-sa)

HITHER

EL

(-r)

APUD1

(-u)

APUD2

(-hira)

ESS (=CL)

IN1

(-ce)

IN2

(-e)

(-ka(le))

(-se(le) / -sale)

THITHER

(-de(le) / -dale)

2. ,


, :
(- ) (, ),
(-r)
( . ),
/le/
,
-sale -dale .
143

,
, -, ( )
POST SUB2 (. 3.4
10).
75
; . , , , , .
, ,
. :
(3)

eti-d=at-ur
-N.PL=LV:PF-PRET

qu-mera
-PL(ABS)ADD

qab-li-ja-r-kale
-OBL-SUPER-EL-DOWN
...
qab-li-ja-r-kale
SUPER,
. ,

,
4. , ,
,
- .
.
2.


, , .
,
,
144

.
, : , ( ).
, , (
/), , . . ; .:
(4)

ial-li-ce-kale

d=u-ibda

-OBL-IN1-DOWN 1/2PL=.PF-PRET1
.
ial-li-ce-kale
; ,
( ).
, , 5 .
, (4)
, 6. , , , . , .
, , ,

. , -
, ; . (5), 7 () :
(5)

uma-li qal
quli=b
b=alt-un
-ERG (ABS) +LOC=N N=.IPF-PRET
.

, -
, ; ,
(5) ,
.
, . , 145

, ; , . , , , , , , . ,
(. aqua-r-ka 6) / (.
7):
(6)
dila al julda
aqua-r-ka
ani-le-e
:GEN (ABS) -EL-DOWN -OBL-IN2
ag-ur
.PF-PRET
.
sala=d
luz-une
d=ir-i.
=N.PL -PL(ABS) N.PL=.IPF-HAB
(. ) .
3.3 ,
.
(7)

3.
, ,
, , ,
(
) , ,
.
, , . .
. , ,
.
3.1.
, ,
,
. 146

. ( )
,
; . (8), ,

.
(. (9a) SUPER (9b) ).
(8)

hil

niqi-ni-r-ka

niqi-le-e-r-ka

(ABS) -LOC-EL-DOWN -OBL-IN2-EL-DOWN


tura-uq-un
PRV-.PF-PRET
.
(9)

a. turzam
dubur-li-ja=b
(ABS) -OBL-SUPER=N
.

sa=b
COP=N

b. turzam
dubre=b
sa=b
(ABS) +LOC=N COP=N
( ).

. -na (10a)
-ni (10b)(10c) 8. (10d)(10g); , ,
:
(10)

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

kisa
duca
niqi
qali
dubur
i

qali

>
>
>
>
>
>
>

kis-na
duca-ni
niqi-ni
quli
dubre
a
qale

, , ; .
amza , ; amza=b [=N] . . (11) 147

, ()
dirqa :
, :
(11)

a. drqa
e-b=ig-ulda
(ABS) PRV-N=.IPF-PRS1
.
b. du
dirq
q-an-nada
:ABS (LOC) -POT-CONV1
.

, ,
,
, . , , , ,
.
3.2.

,
, (12b), IN1 (.
(12), ):
(12)

a. klub-le-e=b
subat
b=arq-ib
(ABS) N=-PRET
-OBL-IN2=N
.
b. du
klub-li-ce w=a-ibda
:ABS -OBL-IN1 M=.IPF-PRET1
.


, , (13),
, ,
IN2 IN1:
148

(13)

a. i-le-e=b

se

abar

e=ba

(ABS) EXST=NQ
-OBL-IN2=N
? ( .)
b. i-li-ce=b

se

abar

e=ba

(ABS) EXST=NQ
-OBL-IN1=N
? ( .)
, IN1 IN2
. ,
, .
,
, , . ( )

,
, ,
.
3.3.
, , , . , .. [2003: . 12] (. [Kibrik
2003]) , , . , - .
, , ,
, / ,
,
. ,
, , , .
149

, , ,
.
, , ,
. ,

, ; .
SUPER:
(14)

iga
daqi
una
jabu
qaria
kisa
unca
uri

>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>

iga-ja=b, iga-li-ja=b
daqi-ja=b, daqi-li-ja=b
una-ja=b, una-li-ja=b
jabu-ja=b, jabu-li-ja=b
qaria-ja=b, qaria-li-ja=b
kisa-ja=b, kisa-li-ja=b
unca-ja=b, unca-li-ja=b
uri-ja=b uri-li-ja=b

3.4. ?
, (i) , (ii)
,
(iii)

, ,
(compounding) ( /) ( , ) [Geurdts 2001: 84] 9. ,
, , ,
() , , .
,
. -, /; , . 150

( ,
, ). . (15)
sala ANTE (16)
(17),
gu , SUB1 -gu:
(15)

dila jurt
dubur-la sala=b / dubur-li-sa=b
:GEN (ABS) -GEN =N
-OBL-ANTE=N
sa=b=i
COP=N
.

(16)

luz-la
gu-r-ka
d=ax-u-se
in-na
-GEN -EL-DOWN N.PL=.IPF-PRS-ATR -GEN
, -

(17)

kata
ustur-li-gu-r-se
tura=b-uq-ub
(ABS) -OBL-SUB1-EL-HITHER PRV=N-.PF-PRET
- .

-,
. . 2 1,
POST ,
.
/ hiti , :
(18)

rasul
murat-la hiti w=ax-ul-le
sa=j
(ABS) -GEN M=.IPF-PRS-CONV COP=M
.

( ) hiti; ,
:
a. dila
hiti
b. dami-hiti
:GEN
:OBL-


; , , :
(19)

151

(20)

ara-hiti
-

*ara-hiti=b
-=N

*ara-hiti-ka(le)
--DOWN

, , -, ,
, , . , hiti, , ,
10.
. ,
, ,
(.
[Lander 2010]).
4.

, .
-, . , ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, .
-,
. ,
, /le/,
152

, -, . , HITHER
THITHER /a/ /e/ ;
. -sele/-sale -dele/-dale . /a/ ( !), (. *i-li-ja-ha [-OBL-SUPER-UP] ilijahale
[-OBL-SUPER-UP]). - ,
, , , , -
, ,
( ).
, , , , ,
. ,
. , ,
,
, -, , ,

. ,
( . ) ; -
, , . ,
,
, , , .
, , , :
153

, ,
11. , . , ,
.



, . 2:

N-stem

Loc

Dir

. 2.
(N-stem , Loc ,
O , Dir )

,
, . , .
,
, . ,
. , , ,

, [Stump 1997].
154

, . ,

. ; . :
(21)

nuxa
urcul-li-ja
:ABS -OBL-SUPER
.

ag-urda
.PF-PRET1

(22)

dam umar-li-ja-r-ha
saka abur-te
:DAT -OBL-SUPER-EL-UP -PL(ABS)
d=aq-ibda
N.PL=.PF-PRET1
.

(23)

hit
uri-ja-r
haq-le
sa=j
(ABS) -SUPER-EL -ADV COP=M
.

(24)

musa-sa-r
uru-irq-ar
-ANTE-EL -[M].IPF-TH
() / .

(25)

rasul-li
dura-li-ce-r
u
s-as-ib
-ERG -OBL-IN1-EL (ABS) PRV--PRET
.

,
,
SUPER (23), ANTE (24),
IN1 (25)
( ).
, , ,
,
(. [, ( )]).
(21)(25)
, -, , ..
155

. , ,

, , . , . , . ,
, .
, ,
, , , , .
.
dubur
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

dubre
dubrekale
dubrehale
dubresele, dubresale
dubredele, dubredale
dubre=b
dubrerka(le)
dubrerha(le)
dubrerse(le), dubrersale
dubrerde(le), dubrerdale
duburlija
duburlijakale
duburlijahale
duburlijasele, duburlijasale
duburlijadele, duburlijadale
duburlija=b
duburlijar
duburlijarka(le)
156

LOC-LAT
LOC-LAT-DOWN
LOC-LAT-UP
LOC-LAT-HITHER
LOC-LAT-THITHER
LOC-ESS
LOC-EL-DOWN
LOC-EL-UP
LOC-EL-HITHER
LOC-EL-THITHER
SUPER-LAT
SUPER-LAT-DOWN
SUPER-LAT-UP
SUPER-LAT-HITHER
SUPER-LAT-THITHER
SUPER-ESS
SUPER-EL
SUPER-EL-DOWN

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.

duburlijarha(le)
duburlijarse(le), duburlijarsale
duburlijarde(le), duburlijardale
duburligu
duburligukale
duburliguhale
duburligusele, duburligusale
duburligudele, duburligudale
duburligu=b
duburligurka(le)
duburligurha(le)
duburligurse(le), duburligusale
duburligurde(le), duburligurdale
duburlisa
duburlisakale
duburlisahale
duburlisasele, duburlisasale
duburlisadele, duburlisadale
duburlisa=b
duburlisar
duburlisarka(le)
duburlisarha(le)
duburlisarse(le), duburlisarsale
duburlisarde(le), duburlisardale
duburliu
duburliukale
duburliuhale
duburliusele, duburliusale
duburliudele, duburliudale
duburliu=b
duburliurka(le)
duburliurha(le)
duburliurse(le), duburliursale
duburliurde(le), duburliurdale
duburlihira
duburlihirakale
duburlihirahale
157

SUPER-EL-UP
SUPER-EL-HITHER
SUPER-EL-THITHER
SUB1-LAT
SUB1-LAT-DOWN
SUB1-LAT-UP
SUB1-LAT-HITHER
SUB1-LAT-THITHER
SUB1-ESS
SUB1-EL-DOWN
SUB1-EL-UP
SUB1-EL-HITHER
SUB1-EL-THITHER
ANTE-LAT
ANTE-LAT-DOWN
ANTE-LAT-UP
ANTE-LAT-HITHER
ANTE-LAT-THITHER
ANTE-ESS
ANTE-EL
ANTE-EL-DOWN
ANTE-EL-UP
ANTE-EL-HITHER
ANTE-EL-THITHER
APUD1-LAT
APUD1-LAT-DOWN
APUD1-LAT-UP
APUD-LAT-HITHER
APUD1-LAT-THITHER
APUD1-ESS
APUD1-EL-DOWN
APUD1-EL-UP
APUD1-EL-HITHER
APUD1-EL-THITHER
APUD2-LAT
APUD2-LAT-DOWN
APUD2-LAT-UP

56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.

duburlihirasele, duburlihirasale
duburlihiradele, duburlihiradale
duburlihira=b
duburlihirarka(le)
duburlihirarha(le)
duburlihirarse(le),
duburlihirarsale
duburlihirarde(le),
duburlihirardale
duburlice
duburlicekale
duburlicehale
duburlicesele, duburlicesale
duburlicedele, duburlicedale
duburlice=b
duburlicer
duburlicerka(le)
duburlicerha(le)
duburlicerse(le), duburlicersale
duburlicerde(le), duburlicerdale
duburlee
duburleekale
duburleehale
duburleesele, duburleesale
duburleedele, duburleedale
duburlee=b
duburleerka(le)
duburleerha(le)
duburleerse(le), duburleersale
duburleerde(le), duburleerdale
duburlihiti
duburliguti

APUD2-LAT-HITHER
APUD2-LAT-THITHER
APUD2-ESS
APUD2-EL-DOWN
APUD2-EL-UP
APUD2-EL-HITHER
APUD2-EL-THITHER
IN1-LAT
IN1-LAT-DOWN
IN1-LAT-UP
IN1-LAT-HITHER
IN1-LAT-THITHER
IN1-ESS
IN1-EL
IN1-EL-DOWN
IN1-EL-UP
IN1-EL-HITHER
IN1-EL-THITHER
IN2-LAT
IN2-LAT-DOWN
IN2-LAT-UP
IN2-LAT-HITHER
IN2-LAT-THITHER
IN2-ESS
IN2-EL-DOWN
IN2-EL-UP
IN2-EL-HITHER
IN2-EL-THITHER
POST
SUB2


A ; ABS ; ADD ; ADV
; ANTE ; APUD
158

; ATR ; CONV
; COP ; DAT ; DOWN ; EL
; ERG ; ESS ; EXST ; FIN
; GEN ; HAB ; HITHER
; IN ; IPF ; LAT ;
LOC ; LV ; M ; N ; OBL ; PF
; PL ; POT ; PRET ; PRS ; PRV ; Q ; REL ; STAT ;
SUB ; SUPER ; THITHER ; UP . . =
- ; .

.., ..
: // Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. . ( ).
.. . , 1971.
.. ( ) // / . .. . .: .
, 1970. . 110156.
.. . .: , 2003.
.., .. . .
. .: . , 1990.
.. . .: , 2006.
..
( ) // -
. , 1983. . 191202.
.. : ? . . . 53, 3, 1994. . 3943.
Comrie B., Polinsky M. The great Daghestanian case hoax // Case, Typology and Grammar
/ Ed. by A. Siewierska, J.J. Song. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1998.
P. 95114.
Daniel M., Ganenkov D. Case marking in Daghestanian: limits of elaboration // The Oxford Handbook of Case / Ed. by A. Malchukov, A. Spencer. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2008. P. 668685.
Geurdts D. Incorporation // The Handbook of Morphology / Ed. by A. Spencer,
A.M. Zwicky. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001. P. 84100.
159

Greenberg J.H. Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of
meaningful elements // Universals of Language / Ed. by J.H. Greenberg. Cambridge
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.: , 2008. . 176183.
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1

, 2008 9 2008 . 2008


. .. . .. , .. , .. , ..
; .. ..
160

.
( 07-04-00266 ( ) 10-04-00228

).
2
. [,
1990; Comrie, Polinsky 2008; 2003; Kibrik 2003; Daniel, Ganenkov 2008].
3
IN2 -li -lee.
4
,
; ., , [ 1994],
,
: - / - (. 39).
5
, [ 1970: 152]
.
6
-
( ),
(. . , ). ,
, ; . [Meluk 2008]. , ,
.
7
, qali ;
. 3.1.
8
. , -ni, , , ; . [van den Berg 2001: 24], -na [Sumbatova, Mutalov 2003], [ 1983: 193].
9
, .
, , ,
, - ,
(. [Lander
2010]). , , ,
.
10
guti ; . kumiliguti (kumi ). , ti hiti guti (.. ,
. .).
11

, , ,
.
161

..
( , )


Liperovskiy V.P.

On the transposed negation in Hindi


Modern Standard Hindi has at its disposal negative sentences
whose predicate turns out to be out of the scope of negation though
syntactically the negative particle nah or na (usually nah) is
attached to the predicate. The negation as such applies to a constituent other than the predicate, it seems to have percolated from
the predicate down to a constituent subordinate to the predicate.
That kind of negation is considered to be transposed. Take notice of
such negation in Russian, English, French: ; I
dont see him often; My observations did not help me much; Tous
les tudiants ne sont pas venus; Il ne comprenait pas tout.


.
, ,
( ),
.

. , ( ),
, ,
( ), - 1. , , .
162

, , nah na ( nah), .
,
( ),
, , ( ), 2.
( ), ,
, (
) (
):
nambardaar akele nah aae the. unke saath ek aadmii thaa, jis ke
sir par ek jhaabaa thaa (V: 28) .
,
lekin aap yakiin maanie ki is maamle m m ne badniiyatii se
kaam nah kiyaa (V: 480) ,
,
unko vishvaas thaa ki Tauriyaa ke uupar se aahaT nah aayii
balki piiche yaa bagal se (VV: 150) ,
, -
,
ab vah kaafii haauus do baar nah aataa thaa, ek hii baar shaam
ko aataa thaa... (A: 189) ,
...,
m shikaar khelne na aayii thii (P1: 77) ,
cetan ke baRe bhaaii raamaanand ko m ne y hii 'buRhauu' kii
upaadhi na de rakhii thii (UA: 50) , ,
,
lekin itnaa yaad rakhnaa ki m yah baat kaanpur ke jvaaiNT
maijisTreT se nah kah rahaa h, m yah baat apne bhatiije va dost
gangaaprasaad se kah ruhaa h (V: 525) :
,
,
163

lekin yah nimantraN-patra use santo ne nah bhejaa thaa. yah


nimantraN-patra use bhejaa thaa raadhaakishan ne (V: 371)
.
.
, , .
, sab , ,
, sabhii ( sab),
sadaa :
sabhii patthar to kharaad par caRhkar sundar muurtiy nah
ban jte (P1: 313) , , ,
janat sadaa muuk bhii nah rahtii (Y1: 709) ,
...parivartan prakRIti kaa niyam hai. sadaa garmii nah rahtii, na
sardii rahtii hai (B: 159) ... .
, .
( ) , kam ,
, zyaadaa , , bahut , puuraa ,
, :
do man se kam jau na thaa (P1: 153)
,
jaideii ko yah khabar sunkar jvaalaaprasaad se kam prasannataa
nah huii (V: 270) ,
,
...horii ke haath ek cauthaaii se zyaadaa anaaj na lagaa (P1: 258)
... [] ,
don jhaaRiy ke biic kaa raastaa tai karne m use das sekaND
se zyaadaa samay nah lagaa (S: 86)

(. ... ),
...magar jitnaa m use jaantaa thaa, usse uske baare m merii
koii bahut acchii raay nah banii thii (MR: 81) ... ,
164

, (.
... ),
Damii ke lie puurii tasviir nah h (MR: 63)
.
,
keval ( )
( ),
. ( ) - hii , .
:
munnii keval khel-kuud aur sharaarat m hii tez na thaa, paRhne
m bhii vah ek hii zahiin thaa (G: 28)
, ,
keval naukrii ke lie hii paRhnaa-likhnaa nah hotaa (V: 726)
,
ahinsaa uske lie keval niiti nah hai, ahinsaa uskaa vishvaas hai
(V: 705) , ,
aadmii mahaz roTii nah caahtaa, aur bhii bahut-sii ciiz caahtaa
hai (P1: 330) ,
(. ).
, hii
keval :
kaviraaj jii naukar hii se chal karte h, yah baat na thii. chal-kapaT (jise ve
jiivan ko such se vyatiit karne kaa ek atyaavashyak saadhan maante the) uskii
prakRIti kaa ek ang ban cukaa thaa (UA: 497) , . ,
,
.

, , , :
vah dastaane pahankar nah aayaa (MR: 235)
(. , , ),
vah apne desh m corii yaa koii aparaadh karke nah bhaagaa
thaa (Y2: 154) , ,
165

- (. ,
- , ),
Tren ke cekar jaante h, paraanpur ke log TikaT lekar gaaRii m
nah calte (R: 25) ,
, (. ,
),
tum naashtaa karke nah jaaoge? (MR: 535-536)
, ? (. , , ?).
. , :
( , ):
maamii ne sirdard kaa bahaanaa karke khaanaa nah khaayaa (N: 29) , , ,
usne raajaa ke atul khazaane ko dekhkar bhii kuch prashansaa na kii (LK: 111)
, ;
,
:
vidhavaa kaa vilaap aur anaath kaa ronaa sunaakar ham paaThak kaa dil na
dukhaayge (P2: 37) (.
) , (=
),
nitya ke abhyaas se kivaaR urRkaa diye the par bijlii jalaakar kaam karne nah
baiThaa, phir leT gayaa (Y1: 251-252) [] ,
[ ] (. ,
), .
, , ( )
na:
m ne kuch na kahkar haath kii gDeriy uskii taraf baRhaa d (MR: 172) ,
, ,
bhuvan ne siidhe uttar na dekar kahaa (A: 21) , ,
garmii kii chuTTii samaapta hone par vah apne liye dehlii m koii kaam na dekh
laahaur meDikal kaalij m paRhaaii jaarii rakhne ke liye lauT gayaa (Y2: 33)
, (. )
,
.

( , ) ,

:
166

,
(. ) par petruukhaa akelaa
nah aayaa thaa. uske saath m thaa vorontsov jiske aane kii aashaa tak
nah thii (VR: 481),
(. )
kintu ab vah uske sirdard ke kaaraN tuurkin nivaas nah jaataa thaa
(C: 245),
,
(. ) aur yah kaa
suvyavasthaa cillaane aur jurmaane par nah Tikii thii balki yug se cale
aa rahe saamudaayik niyam par aadhaarit thaa (VR: 249),
(. ) sosnovkaa
m ve y hii nah jam gae h (VR: 250),

?! (. ) ivaan petrovic kii naaraazagii
baahar vaal se nah thii unse kyaa lenaa? vak naaraaz thaa apne log
se (VR: 252),
(. ) buuRhii
aannaa turant nah ghabraayii (VR: 154).

nah na

, ,
( ),
.

A ajey. nadii ke dviip. sarasvatii pres. ilaahaabaad vaaraaNasii dillii, 1971.


B raajendra sinh bedii. diivaalaa. niilaabh prakaashan. ilaahaabaad, 1960.
C a. paa. cekhov. laghu upanyaas aur kahaaniy. anuvaadak kRISNa kumaar. pragati
prakaashan. maasko, 1965 (... ).
G bhairav prasaad gupta. sattii maiyaa kaa cauraa. niilaabh prakaashan. ilaahaabaad, 1959.
LK bhaarat kii lok-kathaa. lekhikaa siitaa. neshanal pablishing haaus. dillii, 1959.
MR mohan raakesh. dhere band kamre. raajkamal prakaashan. naii dillii, 1961.
N naagaarjun. dukhmocan. raajkamal prakaashan. dillii, 1961.
P1 premcand. go-daan. sarasvatii pres. banaaras, 1954.
167

P2 premcand. nirmalaa. sarasvatii pres. banaaras, 1957.


R phaNiishvarnaath reNu. partii parikathaa. raajkamal prakaashan. dillii, 1961.
S shikaarii. afriikaa ke jangal m. svayambhaati pustakaalay. vaaraaNasii.
UA upendranaath ashk. girtii diivaar. niilaabh prakaashan gRIh. ilaahaabaad, 1951.
V bhagavatiicaraN varmaa. bhuule bisre citra. raajkamal prakaashan. dillii, 1959.
VR valentiin raspuutin. tiin ruusii upanyaas. hindii anuvaadak hemcandra pDe.
saahitya akaademii. dillii, 1996 (.. . .
).
VV vRIndaavanlaal varmaa. mRIganayanii. mayuur-prakaashan. jhsii, 1955.
Y1 yashpaal. jhuuThaa sac. desh kaa bhaviSya. viplav kaaryaalay. lakhnauu, 1960.
Y2 yashpaal. deshdrohii. viplav kaaryaalay. lakhnauu, 1953.

.. // ..
: . ., 1985. . 40-53.
.. // ..
- . ., 1983. .141-154.
.. // .. . ., 1977. . 209-211.
.. . // .. . . ., 1986. . 121-123.
// . .: , 1990. .354-355.
.. // .. ( ). ., 1974. . 143-159.
..
// . . 13. ., 1969. . 5-35.
Schumacher R. ber die Zuordnung der beim Hauptverb stehenden Negation // Schumacher R. Untersuchungen zum Absolutiv im modernen Hindi. Ein Beitrag zur semantischen Syntax. Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas, 1977. S. 131-148.
Singh J.D. Negation in Hindi // Linguistics. An International Review. The Hague, Paris:
Mouton, 1975, 149. P. 41-58.
Subbarao K.V. The role of particles and clitics in disambiguation in South Asian languages
// Old and New Perspectives on South Asian Languages. Grammar and Semantics. Ed.
Colin. P. Masica. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 2007. P. 153-174 (The
conjunctive participle and particles: P. 159-162).
168

, , ( vs.
) . , ,
, . , , , , :
.
2
.
: , , My observations did not help me
much , I don't see him often ,
Tous les tudiants ne sont pas venus , Il ne comprenait pas tout
. ( )
. (,
, ) : 1) (), , ; 2) ,
, .

169

..
(, , )

-

Mishkurov E.N.

Cognitive and functional aspects of word-order


in Afroasiatic languages
The paper deals with the diachronic and synchronic study of the
word-order paradigm of verbal sentences in the ancient and
modern Afroasiatic idioms, this paradigm comprising seven normal
grammatical word-order types, some inverted theme-rheme wordorder types, and some stylistically motivated word-order types.
Much attention is devoted to the topic phenomena in the languages
under study. The languages in question are identified as eventdominated languages (A. Capell) with VSO/VOS as the original
prototypical word-order. The change of the initial cognitive system
was conditioned by the substratum (Akkadian, Amharic) and adstratum (contemporary Hebrew) influence or by the transformation
of synthetic systems into analytical ones (Syriac, Arabic
vernaculars). Nevertheless, if there is no need to convey the
subject-object relationship, the cognitive prototype word-order VS
overrules the verbal sentence structure in the Neo-Semitic idioms.

1. 7 , , ,
, , .. [
1966: 340-341].
. .
: 1) VS (: ,
(),
170

-), 2) VSO (: , , -
, ,
, , ), 3) VOS (:
, , ), 4) SV (:
, , -), 5) SVO
(: , ,
, ,
-), 6) SVO (:
, ( ), , , ), 7) OVS (: ,
-) [ 1983: 13-14; 1996: 132;
1991(a): 66-67; 1965: 107; 1979: 142-143,
1982: 204-205; Gordon 1988: 262; Zaborski 1988: 492-493].
,
,
[ 1990: 55].
, , VS(O) () ,
, -,
SVO (: dm-(1) unu(2) eretam(3) liq(4)
(1)-(2) (3) ) SV (: zunnum(1)
izannun(2) (1) (2) [ 1991(b): 103; 1964:
125-126].
, XXI . .. (
III )
. ,


[ 1979: 8].
II . .. [
1998: 3].
171

.
,
, ,
VSO SOV
, : su(1) anbssa(2) gddl(3) (1)
(2) (3) [ 1991: 360, 368, 384].
, ,
.. , SOV SVO, SVO , . , , [ 1991(a): 66].
- , VSO SVO . , ,
-
. .
.. ,
. ( ) ,
(.. . ..) <>

() [
1991: 166].
172

60- .

- ,
, . ,

( . ..)
, [ 1967: 29]. SVO
. [Monteil 1960].
,
,
.
,
- ,
(. . 2).
2.
VSO
,
. -
SVO,
- .
, .. , : ()
() ();
, : avi(1) roce latet(2) oti livno el haei(3)
(1) (2) (3) [ 1990: 90].
.. , ,
[ 1991: 166].
(VSOSVO) (VSSV) 173

, : . : e`dn(1) `ezal(2) l
r d zat(3) (1) (2) (3)
[ 1979: 142]; . -: . hada-l-q(1) akal(2) fulsi(3) (1) (2) (3); . il-malik(1)
amal(2) afla kbra(3) (1) (2) ; .:
a(1) r(2) nd -m ( )(1)
(2) (3) ..[ 2004: 176-177].
,
- - VS, .: . .: ub
nuau(1) rabba khn uspr(2) (1)
(2) [ 1979: 142]; .: haya lo(1) mele ead(2)
(1) (2) [ 1990: 90]; . -: .
u-mr(1) nf-u(2) u-fr(3) wah-u(4) (1) (2)
(3) (4) . [ 1982: 108].
, ,
, - , , . , SVO,
[ 1990: 388]. , , , ,
, , - ,
.

, . . -
-
(object-dominated languages) (event-dominated languages).
, -
.
,
.
,
174


.
. ,
,
, , -.
.
(neutral-domination),
.. ( ),
(double-domination), .. ( ).
. , ,
[Capell 1965:
451-462].
, , , - ( )
. , ..
, . , [ 1983: 206-207].

- . ,
-, . ,
- .

, . , - , 175

, , , , VOS ( VSO- ), [Capell 1966: 33-34].


, - () ,

,
, , , .
.. , ,
, , ,
[ 1928: 104]. ,
,
, .
,
(), ,

, .
3. -
. , , , - .
.. , , ,
, . [ 1981:
48-49]. , - .
, : .
176

VS(O) SVO
: -
-
, , : .
qma(1) al mas(2) /(1) (2),
, .. - , .: almas(1) qma(2) (1 ) + (2 ),
: al-mas(1) qma(2) fi-l-aqqati(3)
qma(4) (1) (2), (3) (4).
. ,
,
,
[ 1967(a): 239]. ,
. VIII-IX . ..

. , ,
-, .. ,
-, .. , . -. -,
, ,
- / , .. - , .. . , / . . ,
() .
SVO , 177

, , .., - , .: . . mutamarun lamiyyun lil-falsifa(1) sa-yuqadu(2) fi-l-madnati dussildrf .


(1) (2) (3);
insnu-l-kahfi(1) kna yau(2) ka-l-ayawn (3) (1) (2) (3); .: al-addu(1) bi-l-addi(2)
yuflau(3) . (1) (2) (3) =
.. [ 1977: 113-116; 1979: 99-101].
, , SV(O) ,
,
-. , , ,
, .

.

, - VS, VSO VOS
, -
, , : . lamdu(1) hatalmidim(2) ir ada(3) (1) (2)
(3) [ 1991: 166]; .
-: .: hallaaw(1) ad hum(2) el-ayyira(3) (1)
(2) (3); .: Itgawwiz(1) ib-na(2) min bint
el-malik(3) (1) (2) (3) [
1999: 137].
.
- , , , . [ 1983: 188].

,
178

.
, ,
, [ 1983: 15].


. .. , , , .
ihhamn l-lqbayl(1), bnnun-tn s-wda(2) (1),
[ 1967:64].
, : tamayut tiuggat(1),
rasn-hnt(2) iniltan(3) di-b rra(4) (1), (2) (3)
(4).
, ;
, : .:
Ikln(1), d-autin(2) tla(3) (1), () (2) (3).
, .
[ 1983: 15-17].
(., ), [ 1983: 188, 200].
,
.
,
, . , .. , , hkm iniu bru [haxaxam evav
broo] , (.. ,
) [ 1991: 166].
179


.. . ..
, , .
, , , aer, : aer lmo(1) ani(2)
raiti oto(3) (1), (2) (3) [A
1990: 92-93].
, , .
, ..
. , , :
( ..) , , , , ,
, : an zaw yab ar-rai
<>. : ?. : uht
hd-l-walad(1) bint b bundr at-tir(2) inhaabiti-l-yawm(3) .:
(1), (2), () [ 1971: 20, 26]. , .:
silsilatun addatun(1) qarrarat lanatu-n-nari istidta-ha(2) biunwni-l-mawsati--arati . (1),
(2)
.. , ,
, addd(1) kna la-hu(2) kalbun(3) (1), (2)
(3)
,
[ 1961: 77], 180

.
, , .
: bntkum(1) r-ha(2) db-ha(3) rl-ha(4) . (1), (2)
(3) [ 2004: 252].
4. - - ()
,
, ,
, .

( ) - - , -, -, - .
- : , , , , , . (., , [ 2008]).
***
- ,
.. ,
,
. 181

,
,
[
1969: 191-192].

.. //
. .: (. . . -), 1983. .10-25.
.. . .: (. . . -), 1990.
.. . .: ,
1966.
.. :
. .: , 1996.
.. . .: ,
1999.
.. // .
/ ... . .: -, 2004. . 92-182.
.. //
. .. . . 1. .: -
-, 1971. . 19-27.
.. // . . 100- .. . .:
( ), 1981. . 48-52.
.. -
/ . . . . . . .:
, 1977.
.. // . .:
, 1990. .388.
. // . . 47. ., 1967. . 29-30.
.. // . III.
(). - . .
.: (. . . -), 1979. . 7-36.
.. // . . IV: . .1: . .: (. . . -), 1991(a). . 6-69.
.. // . . IV: .
.1: . .: (. . . -), 1991(b). . 70-109.
182

.. . .: (. . . -), 1967.
.. . . . . .
. . ., 1998.
.. // , . 2 (. 1), . 2 (.). .:
(. . . -), 1965. . 105-114.
.. . .: , 1983.
.. . .: , 1964.
. //
. .: , 1967(a). . 239-245.
. // . .: , 1967(b). . 246-265.
.. . II. .: - . , 1979.
.. . .: (. . .
-), 1982.
.. (.). . .: -,
2004.
.. : // . .: (. . . -), 1983. . 186-210.
.. //
. .: , 1990. C. 55-56.
.. . .: -, 2008.
.. . .: (. . . -), 1979.
.. . : , 1982.
..
// .
.: (. . . -), 1969. . 187-200.
.. . .: (. . . ), 1961.
.. . : -
-, 1928.
. . IV: . .1: . .:
(. . . -), 1991.
Capell A. A typology of concept domination // Lingua. Vol. 15, 1965. P. 451-462.
183

Capell A. Studies in socio-linguistics. The Hague, Paris: Mouton, 1966.


Fucus: A Semitic/Afrasian gathering in remembrance of Albert Ehrman / Ed. by
Arbeitman Yol L. Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science.
Series IV. Current issues in linguistic theory. Vol. 58. Amsterdam (Philadelphia): John
Benjamins Publishing Company, 1988.
Gordon C.H. West Semitic factors in Eblaite // Fucus: A Semitic/ Afrasian gathering in
remembrance of Albert Ehrman / Ed. by Yol L. Arbeitman (Amsterdam studies in the
theory and history of linguistic science. Series IV. Current issues in linguistic theory.
Vol. 58). Amsterdam (Philadelphia): John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1988.
P. 261-266.
Monteil V.-M. Larabe moderne. Paris.: Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1960.
Zaborski A. Remarks on the verb in Beja // A Semitic/Afrasian gathering in remembrance
of Albert Ehrman / Ed. by Yol L. Arbeitman (Amsterdam studies in the theory and
history of linguistic science. Series IV. Current issues in linguistic theory). Vol. 58.
Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1988. P. 491-498.

184

.. ( , ),
.-. (- , )

:
1
Rudnitskaya E.L., Hwang S.K.

Accusative adverbials:
destination-of-trip adverbials in Korean
In the paper, we consider variation in case marking of adverbials
in Korean with the locative/direction affix -ey or the accusative
marker -(l)ul (with special reference to destination of trip 2 (or movement) adverbials). Syntactic, semantic, information/communicative
structure, and contextual properties of both marking options are
considered, especially contexts with preference either for -ey, or for
-(l)ul. We discuss various kinds of factors that influence case
marking in these constructions, taking into account various
approaches in previous research: [Kim 2001; Han 2000; Ko 2004;
Lee 2004; Schtze 2001], etc. We conclude that besides these
semantic, contextual and information structure factors, noun phrases
that are destination-of-trip adverbials acquire syntactic properties
of direct objects and can even be nominative subjects of certain kinds
of quasi-passives. This conclusion allows us to draw a parallel between accusative marking of adverbials in Korean and promotionto-direct-object of adverbials in certain languages (Bantu, Indonesian).

1. ()
.
, , , , [Givon 1984; Haspelmath 1997;
Aissen 2003], [Kim 2001], [ . 1989: 205] . (, , )
185

: ( (1), (1), .
), ( (2),
(2), , . ..), (3), (3), . , ..3
-(l)ul ( (1)-(3)) () / () /
(): -ey //, -eykey/-hanthey
.., . . . [ 2009], [
2006: 120, 131-142],
, LOC/GOAL 4
( ) 5.
(1) . myech
payk-nyen-UL
twitteleci-ta

-- -

. Twu tal-UL
ku
sem-eyse
sal-ass-ta
- - --
()
(2) . mwul
sok-UL
tani-ta

.- -

. Kil-UL
ka-n-ta
()
- --
(3) .Na-nun
sip-mithe(-LUL)
kwumeng-ul pha-ss-ta
- -(-) -
--
10
. Na-nun Moskhupa tayhak-ey
twu pen(-UL)
-
- (-)
iphakha-yss-ta
--

, , , (
). 186

6, :
(4) Hakkyo-LUL/-EY ka-n-ta
-/- -- ()
,
, ,
, . ,
, , , .
2.

, , ( /) ,
.
, , , ()
, /
. /
, . (5-6) [Givon 2001: 225-226] 7.
(5-6) ( )
(, ) ()
(-eesha INSTR (5b))
(umupaanga saw (5b)). (umupaanga saw (5a)) n- INSTR,
.
igiti tree (5a) ,
.
(6a-b) (6b) 8.
(5) a. umugabo
man

ya-tem-eje igiti n-umupaanga


he-cut-ASP tree INSTR-saw
187

The man cut the tree with a saw


b. umugabo ya-tem-ej-eesha
umupaanga igiti
man
he-cut-ASP-INSTR saw
tree
The man used the saw to cut the tree
(6) a. umugore y-ooher-eje
umubooyi ku-isoko
woman she-send-ASP cook
LOC-market
The woman sent the cook to the market
b. umugore y-ooher-eke-ho
isoko
umubooyi
woman she-send-ASP-LOC market cook
The woman sent the cook to the market
, ( )
.
/, , .
2.1. 1: -(L)UL
(/delimiter)
, , , [Kim 2001], . [Kim 2001] ( , ,
[Wechsler, Lee 1996]) -, ( ) . , (1-)
: (1) , ; (1) . (2) (),
(2) ; (3)
(), (3)
( ).
. ,
( (4)) , , , , . ,
, , , . (4) (7) 9.
188

(7) John-un
Mary-lul
Seoul-eyse/*ul
- - -/*
manna-ss-ta
--

[Kim 2001: 8]

[Kim 2001] ,
. , [Kim 2001]

, (5)-(6) (
).
, (3), ( )
, ,

, . (8-) , .
(8), .
, . (8-).
(8) . Na-nun ecey
i
kos-ul
-
-
sip meyta-mankhum-ul
pha-ss-ta
10
-.- --
10
[Kim 2001: 6]
.

*/??

Na-nun ecey
sip meyta-mankhum-ul
-

10
-.-
i
kos-ul
pha-ss-ta
- --
10
[Kim 2001: 6]
. Na-nun sip meyta-mankhum
- 10
-.
i
kos-ul
pha-ss-ta
- --
10
[Kim 2001: 7]
189

, [Kim 2001]
[Givon 2001] ( )
, (, ). ,
(4) .
[Kim 2001] ,
(8-),
.
, [Kim 2001] ,
.
,
( 2),
( 3)
( 4).
, 3 4,
[Givon 2001] [Kim 2001].
2.2. 2: -(L)UL /
, [ 2009]
[Aissen 2003],
(
/ ). (.
), . .. , c -(l)ul , -ey ,
[ 1954: 61].
[ 2009], . (16-), (19-), (24) ,
() , .
190

,
( ). , (11) 2.4
(9-) -(l)ul -eykey/hanthey
.
-EY (16-), (18-)
3.2.
(9) . Chayk-ul
ku yeca(-HANTHEY)-LUL cwu-ess-ta
- (-)- --

(., [Martin 1992: 848])
. Ku yeca(-HANTHEY)-LUL chayk-ul cwu-ess-ta
(-)- - --
. ()
[Martin 1992: 848] 10
, / [Aissen 2003].
[Aissen 2003]
. , , , [Aissen 2003],
i/-ka,
.
( ,
Aissen, . [ 2007]). , , , (. ).
2.3. 3: /

[Choi 1937 (1983):
256; Ko 2004: 236, 238-239; Han 2000],
[ 2009]. ,
,
191

, 11. [Ko 2004], ( ) . ,


, , ; ,
-(l)ul .
(5)-(6) [Givon 2001], [Han 2000; 2009]. . 3 5 .
[Lee 2004: 140-146], ,
, , () , (,
) ,
. ( ),
[Givon 1984: 98-99 12; 2006].
4 ( -(l)ul)
, 3.
2.4. 3: ()
-(l)ul
( <>) [Lim 1980; Hong 1987:
53; Lee K.-H. 1988; Kang 1988; Martin 1992; Han 2000: 231-232; Ko
2004: 216-217; Schtze 2001; .].
-(l)ul
: (i) (10)
(10); (ii) (10).
(10) . Yenghi-ka yeppu-ci-KA/-LUL
- --/-
ani ha-ta
-
(. just) (., [Kang 1988: 33])
. Ppali-LUL
ka-kela
- -
!
[Yonsei 1998: 634]
192

. Amu kes-to
peli-ko-LUL
siph-ci
- -- -
an-uni
yatan-i-pnita
-. /--.
,
(., ., [Martin 1992: 644])
,
( ), -(l)ul (10-) , . . (11) -eykey
(. (9-) 2.2). (*-(l)ul /
??
-eykey-lul) (11-), . -ey -eykey ;
(nwui
(11)), -eykey .
, , , .
(11) . [Na-LUL o-la
l]
kkatalk-i
[-
- .] -
iss-na?!
-
() , () [.,
., [Martin 1992: 848]; - (11)]
. [na-EYKEY(-LUL) o-la-ko
[-(-)
--
ha-l]
-.]]
[ (11)]
. Mani-ka
nwui-EYKEY/??-EYKEY-(LU)L/*-LUL
- -/??--/*-
ka-ss-ta
--

[Ko 2004: 239] 13
193

. Kay-ka
cwuin-EYKEY/??EYKEY-(LU)L/*UL
-
-/??--/*-
ttwui-e-wa-ss-ta
----
14

, -(l)ul
( 3 ),
. 3 4
, ,
, .-. .
3. :

3.1. , -(l)ul
(- / *-)
, -(l)ul
(-/*-).
- ka- 15 , (. background), .. , , . [Bring 2007].
(12-);
- (13) [Lee 2004], . 4;
- , ,
, / (14);
- tw(u)i , aph ( ), /, / (15-)16.
(12)-(13) ,
(*--). --,
(11-), -(l)ul). , (12)-(15), , .
194

(12) . San-EY/*-UL
ka-se,
nongsa
-/*- - _
ci-umye
wonsiin-kathi
- _-
sa-l
swu
-.

iss-keyss-so?
-/-.

, ?
[Han 2000: 320]
*
*
. Ku-nun caki chayksang-EY/ UL/ EY-LUL
- _-/*/*-
ka-se
anc-ass-ta
-. --

[Han 2000: 322]
??
. Nay uica-EY/-EY-(LU)L/ LUL
ka-myen
- /--/??- -.
os-i
iss-nuntey
os
com
- -.
kac-ye
o-nela
-
-
, ;

[Ko 2004: 239]
(13) I
kicha-ka
Pwusan-EY/??*-EY-LUL/*-UL/*
- -/??*--/*-/*
ka-n-ta
--

[Ko 2004: 240]
(14) Ciyengi-ka chinkwu-tul-kwa
ilyoil-ey
- -- -
kwongwon-EY/*-UL
ka-ss-ta
*
-/ -
-- [Lee 2004: 142]

(15) . Yumi-ka
-

saylo

wankwongtoi-n
.-.
195

tosekwan twui-EY/*-LUL
ka-ss-ta.
.-/*- --
[.
- ];
[Lee 2004: 141]
. Kim isa-nim-un
ponsa
kenmwul
-- _
alay-EY/*-LUL
ka-ko
.-/*- -
an kyesi-pnita
.-.
,
[. - ]
[Han 2000: 320]
-/-; 3.1 3.2 , 3 4 2 ( )
.
3.2. -EY/-(L)UL: - / -
-EY/-(L)UL: -/-17
:
- , ,
(foreground) : (16)
, (foreground); (16) .
. (12-), (19-).
- , , ,
(17), (17), . (14);
-
((18), (18))
((18-), . (15-)); [Lee 2004: 141-142].
(16) . I-pen
hwyuka-ey-nun
san-UL
- -- -
ka-l-kka
kang-UL ka-l-kka?
-.- - -.-
196

? [Lee 2004: 142]


. I
pi-o-nun
nal-ey
totayche
--. -
ka-nun
eti-LUL/?-EY/-EY-(LU)L
-/?-/-- -.
ke-ya?
.-
? [Han 2000: 322] 18
(17) . Ciyengi-ka chinkwu-tul-kwa
ilyoil-ey
hoswu
- -- -
kwongwon-EY/??-UL ka-ss-ta
-/??-
--


[Lee 2004: 142]
. Cenghyeni-ka Sewul-EY/-UL ka-ss-ten
- -/ --.
moyang-i-ta
--
,
[Lee 2004: 142]
(18) . Yumi-ka
saylo
wankwongtoi-n
- .-.
tosekwan-EY/-EY-LUL/-UL
ka-ss-ta
-/--/- --
(:
; . [Lee 2004: 141])
. Kim isa-nim-un
--
ponsa-EY/-LUL/-EY-LUL
__-/-/--
ka-ko
an
kyesi-pnita
-

.-.
,
( ; [Han 2000: 322])
. Cengmi-nun ecey
-

Swuwon-ey
-
197

iss-nun
-.

chinchekcip-EY/-UL
tanyew-ass-ta
_-/- --
() [.
], (: ;
[Lee 2004: 140]).
4. , /
/.
4.1. 4 ( -(l)ul)
(16-)
(12-). , (12-) -se (ka-se). -se (X /
Y) , /background ( [background] / [foreground] (12-)). (16-) , ,
(foreground). (16)

( ). (16) eti /, , .
, (12-), , , . , , ,
, ,
(16-). (19-) ;
(19-) .
(19) . Ka-ki-nun
[eti-LUL / ?-EY]
-- [- / ?-]
ka-?
-.
?
[Han 2000: 322]
{ , ,
. , .}
. Woy
[ku elyewun
[

tey-LUL / ?-EY]
ka-yo?
-/?-] -
198

() ? [Han 2000: 322]


. Kapcaki [wullung-to-LUL / ?-EY]
ka-tani?

[_-/?-] -.
() ?
[Han 2000: 322]
{ ; ,
. , .}
4.2. 3 ( /
)

(13)-(15), , (17)-(18), .
, [Lee 2004: 140-146], , (. (8-) 2.1).
, (
) (13) (*-(l)ul) ; (17-)
(??/-(l)ul) . [Lee 2004],

19.
(14) (*-(l)ul) (17) (??-(l)ul) 20 , , ( (17)
), . , [Lee 2004] ,
.
(15-) (*-(l)ul) ( );
, (18-)
(-(l)ul). ,
, ,
(15-) ( ),
mankhum . meyta-mankhum-ul -.- (8), .
16. (18-) (,
, ) ,
199

; ,
[Lee 2004].

(20) ,
().
(20) ,
. -ey ,
; -(l)ul
. -(l)ul satali , /.
(20) Ku-ka
satali-EY/-LUL/-EY-LUL
- -/-/--
olu-n-ta
--
[Lee 2004: 140]
( -ey) / ( -(l)ul)
4.3.

, , [Givon 1984: 98-99]
[ 2006] , ,
. , , , (4), (16), (17-),
(18-).
, (4)
- (, ,
..); (16) ( ) . (18-) 3.2
;
(17) .
, , , 3.1
3.2. , .
- (.. ), -(l)ul (15-).
200

, (15) , , , (
).
- ( ,
).
, ,
(21) (21),
,
(21).
-
/ ;
. (16) (12); (19-).
(21) . Ku-nun
pap(-UL)
mek-ulyeko
-
(-)
-.
siktang-EY/?-UL
ka-ss-ta
?
-/ -
--
,
(.-. )
. Nonmwun cwunpi-lo

-
tosekwan-EY/-UL/-EY-LUL
ka-ss-ta
-/-/-- --
()
[Lee 2004:140]
. Ku-nun
kil-ul
mwulepo-lyeko
-
- -.
siktang-EY/?-UL
ka-ss-ta
-/?-
--
,
(.-. )

, , , , .
,
[Lee 2004: 140-146] (. 4.2): , (
, .
201

, - ;
, .
4.4.

,
, [Lee 2004] ( 4.2). , ,
. , . (13) (22-);
, (22-) ka-ta
(hulleka-ta nal-ta ).
, , (22-) ,
(13) (22).
(22) . I
kang-un
Hwanghay-KKACI/LO/??EY/*LUL
- _-//??/*/
hul-le-ka-n-ta 21
----
(.-. )
(.
).
. Napi-ka
kkochpath-EY/*-UL
- _-/*
nal-a-wa-ss-ta
----
(.-. )
( kkochpath- /: )
. Kaymi-ka
(caki)
kaymicip-ULO/EY/*UL
- () -//*
ki-e-ka-ss-ta
----

(.-. )
, (22-) - ,
,
202

- () , -(u)lo 22,
-ey ( (22), (22);
- () (13), (22).
(23-) , : (23-), (23) ttwui-e-tul-ess-ta ----,
.
(23) . Apeci-ka
hwoisa-EY/LUL
naka-si-ko
- -/ --
an kyesie-yo
.-.
, () ([Lee 2004: 140]; . (18)).
. Ca
ese-tul
cha-EY/LUL
- -/
tha-seyyo
-.

[Han 2000: 320]
. Chwulpal sinho-ey
swuyeng senswu-tul-i

-
--
mwul-LO/EY/*UL
-//*
ttwui-e-tul-ess-ta
----
-

(.-. , . (22), (23))
(24-) , () () ; (24) (koyangi ), tamcang -(u)lo
, -(l)-ul . (24-) ,
()-() (24)
( , , ).
(16-) (19-), . (. 4, 2.4, 4.1).
203

(24) . Koyangi-ka tamcang-ULO/EY/UL


-
-//
ttwui-e-oll-ass-ta 23
----

(.-. , . (22-))
. I
thukiha-n
say-nun
totayche
-. -

[eti-?EY/LUL/EY-(LU)L]
[-?//-]
nal-a-ka-nun
ke-ya?
---. .-
? (.-. , . (16))
. Koyangi-ka [tamcang wui-LO/EY/LUL]
-
[
-//]
ttwui-e-oll-ass-ni?
----.
? (.-. , . (22) (u)lo
(15-) ,
)
, ,
(, ), [Lee 2004], , ka-ta
. ((22), (23)) , , (9-)
2.2 (11-) 2.4, ((-)/
*
/*).
5.
:
2 2.1

, . ( (5)-(6))
( )
( 204

),
.
( , ). [Kim 2001] (8-)
,
. , . (3),
( ), .
.
, : -
, (
)? [Han 2000; Ko 2004]
. [Ko 2004] ( [Ko 2004],

).
, (. ,
[Lee 2004] 4.3 4.4).
. [Han 2000], . [Kim 2001], , ,
- . ( -
, . [Sohn 1999]),
,
.

. [an 2000: 62-64]. ,
. , , ,
.
(Goal),
/ (Theme). , (25-) ,
205

(mwues
(25) ; eti / (25) ).
(25) . - Ku-ka mwues-UL mek-ess-ni?
- - --
- Mwul-ul (mek-ess-ci)
- (--)
- ?
-
*

(.-. )

mwues-UL / eti-LUL ka-ss-ni?


. - Ku-ka
- *- / - --
- Hakkyo-lul
-
- ?
- (. ; [Han 2000: 64])
ka-ta , ,
(26), , , , - ka-ta . *ka-i/hi-ta - (26).
- (26) ci-ta ( )
(26).
(26) a. Yenghi-nun sihem cwunpi-lo
tosekwan-UL
- - -
ka-ss-ta
--

(.-. )
. *Tosekwan-i
(Yenghi-ey uyhay)
-
(- .)
ka-
ci-n-ta
-
--
(.) ...??? <>
(.-. )

, , 206

, . [Han 2000],
( 3-4), . , - , .
.
(i) (27a), .
, 3 ( 4.2), , ,
4 ( 4.1), .
(ii) - ci-ta . . (27) (26): ci-ta
- (27)
( ), .
[ 2004: 54]. , (27) , .
- (27) , hakkyo
. , ,
. ,
, .
(, )
, ,
,
( )
( ).
(27) . Ku-nun ca-ten
ai-lul
kkaywu-e
- -. - -
[hakkyo-LUL ka-key]
ha-y-ss-ta
[- -] ---
[ ]
[Han 2000: 64]
207

. Ileh-key
chwu-wun
nal-ey-nun
- -. --
hakkyo-KA an ka
ci-n-ta
-

--
[Han 2000: 64]
6.
1. , , / ( )
-(l)ul -ey
. / , , ,
( ), .
2.

-,
, ( ).
( ).
3. , -(l)ul -ey ( -ey: -ey-lul),
-(l)ul,
.





208

ASP
GOAL
INST
LOC

Aspectual
Goal
Instrumental
Locative

.., .., .., .., ..,


.., .. -2.
: , 1989.
.. . . . .
. . . .: , 2006.
.. : ? / .
, 2006 . ., 2006.
.. . .:
, 2004.
..
( ) /
: .. , .. , .. . - , 2007 . , 2007.
.. . .: - -
. , 1954.
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1

.. , .. .. , -2008 ( , 8-10 2008 .)


. 0804-00208A.
2
Destination of trip adverbials [Kim 2001].
3
(1)-(3) [ 1954: 77-78] [Kim 2001]. ,
- .
4
(LOC, GOAL)
[ 2006].
5
, , . . _ , , nongsa _ (12). . : mankhum .
(8-); -l . (12). (., , . 3.2) / ( *, / ).
6
, :
Chelswu-ka
san-ey / -ul / *-ey-lul
oll-ass-ta
- - / - / *-- --

[Kim 2001], [ 2009] , . . [Kim 2001] ,
, . 2.1 .
7
; , - . t1
this bed
( ) ( ):
() [<Somebody> slept (in) [this bed]1] () [This bed]1 was slept in t1
() [<-> )] ()
8
(5)-(7) [Givon 2001].
9
, [Kim 2001], . ,
211

()
, , ; . [ 2006: 132].
10
(10-) -hanthey (yeca-LUL) , yeca-HANTHEY-LUL.
: -l -lul (yeca-HANTHEYL). [Martin 1992] (10) , (10).
11
[Hopper, Thompson 1980] (); [Shibatani 1994; Lander 2004] .
(relevance).
12
. ,
, , . [Givon 1984: 98-99].
13
(11) . [Ko 2004] -eykey-lul (??nwui-EYKEY-LUL)
(). (11) -l -lul (nwui-eykey-l).
14
.-. ; : (.-. ).
15
, , , , [Lee 2004], . 4.4.
16
,
(15-).
, . mankhum . meytamankhum-ul -.- (8).
17
. 5.
18
-Ey-(lu)l -lul -l: eti-EY-LUL / eti-EY-L.
19
4.4.
20
(17) [Lee 2004] -(l)ul (kwongwon-UL)
(), . 5.
21
hul-le <-hulu-e -
22
-(u)lo , (
, ).
-(u)lo , . -(u)lo
((22), (22), (23), (24)),
-ey,
-(u)lo .
23
oll- <-olu- .

212

..
( , )


-
Solntseva N.V.

Demonstrative pronouns in South-Eastern languages


In South-East Asia, the simple demonstrative pronouns this and
that play a special role, being a center which unites deictic units
not only with locative meanings, but also those with temporal
meanings and with the meaning of person. The simple demonstrative pronouns are used only as adjectival pronouns. But mainly,
they are used as word-building elements in complex deictic units
with the above meanings. In fact, all complex deictics are
organized into a formal paradigm, each member of this paradigm
representing one of the parts of the sentence.

-
(), , .
.
, , ,
, : , , []
. .
[]
/
. . /,
, / [,
1990]. [, , 1961]
213

[, , 1972] , , [] , .
,
, .
()
[ 1993], ny y .
(
).

.

, ,
.
,
,
( ), .
, , . . :
,
.

: ( ),
,
( ).
,
, : , ,
, , ,
. ,
.

214

, , . :
hj21 ht35 an35 ti31 (.:
+ + + > ).
, ,
,
.
,
: ; .
: ,
.

. , , , . . : t33 pan35 kn213 pja35 ti33
min213 ciew35 hn35 ban213 t33 ,
(.: + + > + + + > + + >
+ + ).
.
,
, , , , .

, a-. ,
.
.
. a . :
215

ani1 (.: a- + ), aheh1 (.:


a- + ).


, . ,
. ,
,
.
, , aheh1
na3 .
, .

, , ,

.
, .
,
, .

nay , ( , ).
ny . , .
, ,
. ,
. : () m3

t a2 (.: + ( )); () lm4

t a2 (.: + ( )).
:
.

.
216


.
,
, , [, , 1972].

. ,
, ,
, . .

1)
;

2)

, (
);


3)

(. + )

(. + )

4)

, ,
, .
, .
, ,
. , ,
, , 217

, .
, .


.
y y .
.
y y
. , , .
: y
y . ,
.
3-

. 3-
.
: anh y (.: +
); chi y (.: + ); co y (.:
+ ) ..
,
, ci, .
, ,
, .
,
. ,
this that,
, , . , Webster 3-
: this , this this
.
.
218


.. . .: (. . . -), 1978.
.. . .: (. . . -), 1988.
.., .., .. . .: (. . .
-), 1972.
.., .., .. . .: - . -,
1961.
.. . ., 1993.
.., . : / - 1979 . . 3. .:
, 1990.
.., . : / - 1979 . . 2. .:
, 1987.
.., .., .. /
- . . 4. . .: , 2001.
.., .., .., , ,
(. ). - . 1 / -
. - . .: , 2006.
.., .., .. . / . . .. . . .
.. , [ ].
.., . : / - 1979 . . 1. .: , 1986.
- {- }. , 1960.
Thompson L.C. A Vietnamese Grammar. Seattle, 1965.

219

. .
(- )



Khamray A. A.

Prototypes and invariants in the paradigmatics of the


modern standard Arabic
The author investigates the question of correlation of invariants
and prototypes of grammatical meanings with the paradigms of the
modern standard Arabic (MSA). The main idea is to represent the
system of MSA as a two-dimensional projection of the abovementioned characteristics onto the conceptual space built around
the semantic determinants of the system of grammar.
The author comes to the conclusion that the prototypes in the
Arabic grammar show better correlation with subject-object
relations than with invariants. On the other hand, although it is
incorrect to talk about paradigms in the traditional meaning of this
word within the Arabic linguistic tradition, the register of the
correct, authoritative constructions created by the Medieval
Arabic linguists allows us to describe the MSA paradigmatically.
As a result, the grammatical phenomena of the Arabic language
could be presented as a jigsaw puzzle of projections, each area of
which relates to a specific phenomenon and/or its interpretation in
the context of the traditional Arabic or Western paradygmatics.


()
,
[
2000: 31-38, 49-50]. 220


.
, ,
() [ 1999: 407].
[ 1983: 3]

, ,
, ..
.

,
, ,
[Bouchard 2001: 248].
,
, , ,
, , .
, , ,
, , , [Newmeyer 1998: 195].
, .. , , .. [Periclev 2000: 115].
, , [ 1963: 36]. , ,
221

, , ,
, .
, , , ,
, .
, ,
. , , , , ,
,
, , ,
[ 1980: 117]. , ,
,
,
, [Heine, Kuteva
2002: 395].
, , () (), , [ 1983: 77]. , , , ,
, [Comrie 1991: 29].
, , ,
, ,

.
222

, , ,
(), , [Owens 1988:
85], , ,

.
, , , , ,
. , ,
, ,

. ,
, ,
, , , , , .
, , , , ,
...,
,
[ 1980: 6]. ,

, , . ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
(),
[ 2004: 31]. ,
, , -
() .
223

,
,
, , , . , , ,
[ 1983: 79].
,
, ..
,
[ 2001: 693].
, . , ,

,
, [ 2004:
27].
,
, (),

, ,
, .
, ,
() ,
, .
, , .. ,
. , 224

, , ,
, ,
[,
2002: 277].

()
, , [ 2002: 382], ,
, , - [MacLaury 1991: 64], . ,

, . ,
. , VCCV, faala, , , ..
, , , , [Wright 1986: 31], ,
, , ,

, .
, , ,
.
, ()
- , ,

225

,
. , ,
.
, . ,

,
,
: fal , fala ,
faala ..
, ,

[MacLaury 1991: 65],
. ,

, , , , ,
,
, .
, ,

. , ,

,
[ 2004: 275]. , , , , [ 2004: 188]. ,
[ 1974: 218].
,
,
226

, [ 2003: 9].
[Keenan, Stabler 2005: 399],
[Keenan, Stabler 2005: 411]. , i- u-
i/u-
/, , , :
mifl, fil ( ), ful
(), ( ), (), ful (
) ..
, fil , ,
ful ful : (-), , , (=
), , , (=
), , ,
(= , () ).
, . , , , , /, , -
, , .


, , , , , .
227


, , , . ,
[Walenski,
Ullman 2005: 341],
.
,
, , .
, .
, , , ,
. ,
, [Owens 2003: 738].
,

, - ,

[ 1983: 17]. - ,
, , , , , , . . , ,

[Comrie 1988: 146].
228

, , ,
, ,
:
,
,
;
, ,
,

;
, , , .

;
-
,

.

,
, , , ,

.
, , . , , ,

, ,
. ,
, 229

, , ,
, .
, , , ,
,
[ 1998: 65]. ,
, , : , , , , .
, , ,
. , , ,
,
, , , .
, , ,
, , , [ 1977: 305], . , , , ,
, [ 1977: 110]. , , ,

, fil
fail fal,


, .

,
230

, [ 1973: 221]. , [ 1977:


308]. ,
,
. [ 1977: 140].
, [ 1977: 141].

a/i. ,
, ,
,
, - [Pulleyblank 1965:
232; 1973: 230]. , :

. ,
,
/ /, , ,
:
,
, ;
,

. faala ,
faila, , ,
.
, , ,
/, , ,
,
.
, , , 231

, .. ,
, ,
. , , ,
, ,
, ,

,
.
,
, .
,
,
, , .
, ,
, , , , ,
.
, , :

[ 1977: 112]
;
,
.. , [ 1977: 139],

;

, [ 1983: 93], , , ,
232


;

[
1983: 93] , ;
(Aktionsart), ,
[ 1977: 144], ,
;
- ,
; ,
,
[ 1977: 201], b.
, ,
, , , , (, nifal
hifl ) [Mller 1995: 264, 270].
,
, ,
, /.

: - [ 1967: 210, 1998: 170, 260], , , ,
.
, , ,
,
233

- , , ,

, ,
, , . ,
,
, .

,
-
( ACT ACC . 1),
- . FH,
. ,
, ,
[ 1964: 35]. ,
- , ,
, ,

. ,
, , ,
,
. ,
G
FH,
AF BH, . , 234

, , , ,
,
, , ..
, -
( AB
. 1). , .
,
,
,
,
.
-
,
,
, , , , , ..
, .

. 1 , , . , , ,
- , , .
,
, - .
235

GD, ,
.
, , ,
.. , ,
,
,
, , [ 2001: 32], , .
- ,
C, I
AB. , ,
, / .
, ,

, : nab
( - ), arr , raf
.

- . ,
nab al-nab min mafl [Al-Khalil 1985:
36-37] raf al-raf bi al-fil [AlKhalil 1985: 118] ,
(, [ 1998: 339]). , nab .
236


, , , , ,
,
[Haspelmath 1999: 1055; 2005: 78],
, , , ..

- .

,
,

ad hoc. ,
, , , , .. , ,
,
, . , , ,
, , .
,
, . ,

,
,
. 1 GCI.
,
(. ), 237

,
, , ,

, , , ,
.
, , ,
, , , ,
, . , , , .
( . Pardeigma ,
) ,
, [ 1990: 366].
, ,
, . , ,
,
, , .. [ 2006: 16-25].
,
,
,

.
,
, , , - , , , ,
238

, ,

(FCH FDH .1). , ,
(FH), ,
, (CH, FD DH).
, ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, , ,
.
-
,
, , . ,
,
, , , , , ,
.
,
,
, , , , ,
, , , , , , , .

,
, ,
239

.
,
,
, . ,

, . , ,
, , ( , ).


.
,
,
. , , .. al
, wazn, bin a
[ 1965: 119].
(khurf aliyya)
,
,
, [ 1965: 123],
[ 1991: 197].
qiys,
,
al, .. , , , ,
, , , ,
[Hastings 2003: 284], , ,
240

, ,
.

, , , ,
,
.
, ,
, .
,
. 1
,
,
, ,
:

. 1.
.

1. , 241

, ,
..
2. , , ,

.
3. , , . 2,
,
, , ,
. , , .
,
4. , . , , .
5. , ,
. .
6. , , , -
, , . 3,
.
, a/i.
7. , , ,
,
( , ..)
8. , ,
.
9. , , ,
, 242

. , , .
10. , , , . , , , ..
, , , , ,
.

.. ( ) //
. .: , 1991. . 177-219.
.. / /
// . , , . .: , 1998. . 64-79.
.. . // . .: , 2003. . 5-36.
.. -, , //
. .: . - .- , 2004. . 181-195.
.
// . 2, 2001. . 26-38.
.. // . . II,
. 1. ., 1965.
.. // 2-
:
. ., 1980.
.. - .
.: , 1988.
.. // . .: , 2006. .15-40.
.. . .: , 1967.
.. // . .: - .- -, 2004. .
261-276.
243

.. // . .: , 1964. . 16-39.
., .. // : . .: , 2002. . 276-329.
.. . .: , 1973.
.. . .: , 1977.
.. . .: , 1983.
. . .: ,
1990.
.. . .: , 1983.
..
. .: , 2005.
.. // 2-
: . ., 1980. . 4-18.
.. //
. 4, 1963. .27-40.
.. // . . .:
, 1983. . 37-89.
.. // : . .: , 2002. . 370-389.
.. . : , 2000.
.. . .: , 2001.
.. , ? // ( ). .: - -, 1974. . 216-225.
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245

..
( , )



Shkarban L.I.

Aspects of syntactic typology of the Philippine languages


The paper discusses certain parameters of typological evaluation
of the syntax of the Philippine languages. The systematization of
these parameters may be achieved through analysis of the
interrelation between two typological approaches: (i) the integral
(holistic) typology which concentrates on the phenomenon of crosslinguistic co-variation of different subsystems (levels) in the
grammatical system, and (ii) the so-called content-oriented
syntactic typology which focusses on ways of encoding predicateargument relations in various languages.
In particular, one may speak of the grammatical relevance of the
correlation between two agents pursuing their pragmatic aims in
their correspondent actional situations, namely, the speaker in the
speech-act and the agent of the action situation denoted. The
degree of the grammatical relevance of this correlation crosslinguistically varies, which makes possible using it as a parameter
of the content-oriented syntactic typology. At the same time, this
parameter testifies to an inherent relatedness of this kind of
syntactic typology to integral (holistic) typology.

().

: (i) (-, ) , ( ) () (. , ,
246

[Linguistic typology 1997: 1],


[Comrie 1987; 1987]), (ii) , - (. , [ 1983: 37 .;
1987: 242]).
-
. . , , , , , , , ,
.
, . ( ) , , , (-) , ,
(-) . , .

.
, . (..
) .
, , () .

/
, /
, , -
(., , [ 1982 (1976); 1982 (1976); ,
1982 (1976); 1982 (1977); Schachter 1976, 1987; Schachter,
Otanez 1972; McKaughan 1973; Benton 1971(a); De Guzman 1986;
247

DeWolf 1988; Shibatani 1988; Himmelmann 1991, 2002: 12; Kroeger


1993; 1995]).
.
, ().
,
. . (,
. , predominantly pragmatically based
syntax. [Naylor 1986: 183]).

. . . .
.
, , .

(. (1), (2)) , ,
.
, , ,
. (. (3)(5)).
(1)

(2)

[Sagisag 1976: 34]


Nasa
bahay
yon
-ng
nanay
niya

.NOM
LNK

(. - )
[Constantino 1971(b): 207]
Pulis
idi
daydi
tatang ko

.NOM


(. - )
248

(3)

(4)

(5)

[Wolff 1972: XIX]


Pan
ang
iya -ng
gipalit

NOM
LNK PASS
(. , , )
[Constantino 1971(a): 12]
Ubing
ti
agsangit

NOM ACT-
(-)
[Benton 1971(): 129]
Tuka
so
angilutu
-an
to
-y
NOM PF.
-PASS

ACC

(. , , )

-
- ,
,
. , . . ( ;
) ,
, , ( ) , .
( ) .
, ()
.
.
(.,
, [Schachter, Otanez 1972: 62; McKaughan 1958:
49; Dahl 1986: 32; Gil 1993; Kroeger 1993; Himmelmann 1991;
1995; Shkarban 2000, 2004]).
, ( ; ., , [Shkarban 2004]).
,
.
249


, , ( ) . , ,
, , , .. .
. , / / .. , ,

(
; . (3)(5) .)
, . , ,
, , ,
.
. .
(6)(36):
(6) [Schachter, Otanez 1972: 79]
Mag-da-dala nang regalo sa bata ang ina
ACT-FUT- ACC DAT NOM
.
(7) [Schachter, Otanez 1972:79]
Da-dal(a)h-in nang ina sa bata ang regalo
FUT--PASS AG DAT NOM

(. ).
(8) [Schachter, Otanez 1972: 79]
Da-dal(a)h-an nang ina nang regalo ang bata
FUT--PASS AG ACC.PAT NOM

(. , ).
250

(9) [Schachter, Otanez 1972: 79]


B-um-ili nang libro sa tindahan ang maestro
-ACT ACC LOC NOM
(-)
(10) [Schachter, Otanez 1972: 111]
I-b-in-ili ko nang damit ang bata
PASS-PF- ACC NOM
,
(11) [Schachter, Otanez 1972: 313]
I-ni-luha ni Nena ang pagkawala nang alahas niya
PASS-PF- AG NOM GEN 3SG.GEN

(. , )
(12) [Schachter, Otanez 1972:320]
I-p-in-am-punas nang katulong nang kasangkapan ang basaha-ng iyon
PASS-PF-INSTR- AG ACC.PAT NOM -LNK


(. , )
(13) [Shibatani 1988: 88]
Ni-hatag si Juan sa libro sa bata
ACT- NOM ACC DAT
()
(14) [Shibatani 1988: 88]
Gi-hatag ni Juan ang libro sa bata
PASS- AG NOM DAT

(15) [Shibatani 1988: 89]
Gi-hatag-an ang bata ni Juan sa libro
PASS--PASS NOM AG ACC.PAT

(. , )
(16) [Shibatani 1988: 89]
I-hiwa ang kutsilyo sa mangga ni Juan
PASS- NOM ACC.PAT AG

(. , )
(17) [Constantino 1971(a): 20]
Basa-en na ta libro
-PASS DEM.NOM

251

(18) [Constantino 1971(a): 20]


Dawat-an na ti kwarta diay padi
-PASS ACC DET.NOM

(. , )
(19) [Constantino 1971(a): 20]
I-gatang-an na ti mangga diay balasang
PASS--PASS ACC DET.NOM

(. , )
(20) [Constantino 1971(a): 20]
Pag-puted na ti kawayan diay buneng ko
PASS- ACC DET.NOM

(. , )
(21) [Benton 1971(b): 145]
Man-tanem si Juan na ponti
ACT- NOM ACC

(22) [Benton 1971(a): 48]
I-tanem nen Juan imay ponti
PASS- AG DET.NOM

(23) [Benton 1971(a): 48]
I-tanem-an ko-y Juan na ponti
PASS--PASS -NOM ACC

(. , )
(24) [Wolfenden 1971: 13]
L-um-uto sia sang linapuhon
-ACT ACC

(25) [Wolfenden 1971: 108]
Lutu-on ko ang pangkaon
-PASS NOM
()
(26) [Wolfenden 1971: 110]
Lutu-an ko sang pangkaon ang kusina
-PASS ACC NOM

252

(. , )
(27) [Wolfenden 1971: 110]
Basah-an ko sang libro ang bata niya
-PASS ACC NOM
.
(. , )
(28) [Wolfenden 1971: 110]
I-sulat mo sa pisara ang chalk
PASS- NOM

(. , )
(29) [Mirikitani 1971: 669]
S-um-ulat ku-ng kuwento
-ACT -ACC

(30) [Mirikitani 1971: 669]
I-sulat ke ing kuwento
PASS- . NOM

(31) [Mirikitani 1971: 669]
Pan-yulat ke ing lapis
INSTR- . NOM

(. , )
(32) [Mirikitani 1971: 737]
Mag- linis ku-ng kwarto para king kapatid ku-ng lalaki
ACT- -ACC DIR -LNK

(33) [Mirikitani 1971: 737]
I-pag-linis ke-ng kuwarto ing kapatid ku-ng lalaki
PASS-BENEF- .-ACC NOM -LNK


(. , )
(34) [Forman 1971: 117]
I-sali me-ng baru i Kristi
PASS- -ACC NOM

(. , )
253

(35) [Mirikitani 1972: 170]


Mig-aral yang
Ingles i Nena
ACT.PF- ACC NOM

(36) [Mirikitani 1972: 171]
Pig-aral-an neng Nena ing Ingles
PASS--PASS AG NOM
(. ).



. , , ,
, , ,
. , , , (
). ,
,
, -.

, , , , ,
, , , , (
). , , , (-) .
-,
. :

.
. , - , 254

. .
- : .
, . , - , .

: , .
- .
, ( ,

. , ,
). - . , , , , ,
- . , , , ..
. . ,
,
.
,
. ,
255

, , .
, , , . ,
, . ,
, , , . ,

ug, - (. (37)). - ( sa (13)),
,
, - . , ,
, .
(37)

[Shibatani 1988: 98]


a. Ni-basa siya ug libro
ACT.PF-
(-) .
b. Gi-basa niya ang libro
PASS.PF- NOM
() .

*
*
*
,
. ,
(), (., ,
[ 1982 (1977)]) - ( ).
,
, .
,
. 256


: () , ( ); () ,
-
,
/ /
.

, /.
, (
, ).
, . ,
, , , , ,
, .. , ,
, .. .
, ,
, , , - .
(
, , ) . , 257


. , ( ) ( ).
, , , -
, , .
(
) ( ). ( - , , ).

. ( ) - .
,
() .
-
(., , [ 1982:
421], [ 1992: 184-185]).

. (. , , [Shibatani 1988]).
258

- ( ), ( ) . , . (., , [Shibatani
1988: 95-96]).

, .. , .
, -
.
, , - .

( ) ( ).

AG
ACC
ACT
DAT
DEM
DIR
GEN

FUT
IMPF
INSTR
LNK
LOC
NOM
PASS
PAT
PF
PL
259


.
// . . XI. .: , 1982. . 411-431.
.. . .: -
-, 1992.
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262

2.
:

..
( , )

.

( )
Kontsevich L.R.

The phonetic basis for transcription.


Sounds of contemporary Korean
(a short description of the inventory of phonemes)
The paper describes the sounds of modern literary Korean, based
on the authors many years of linguistic research on the Russian
transcription of Korean words. The description covers general
pecularities of the Korean consonant and vowel phonemes and
allophones, as well as their brief articulatory, acoustic, and
phonological characteristics. The description can be used as
additional material for the university course of Korean phonetics.


. 40 (): 19 21 . .
.
1.

1. , , , , , .
, ,
263

. , ()
. : ) CV,
) VC, ) CVC, consonant, ( ),
V vowel, ( ).
2. , , , .

:
*, *, */ . ( ).
3.
(), .
( . ).

( /, ), . . ,
(. . , .
. ) () (. .
(. ), . . ).
. 2.
4. - (11 19 ), (3
) .
5. . ( , , ,
, .) () , , , ,
()
, , , ( , , , .), (lenis)
(, , , .), (aspiratae) (, , ,
) (fortis) (, ,
) (, , , , ).
264

6. , (- ) , , ..

. , , ,
[pb/ b], ..
, . ..
p + b.
. (
) , , ,
, .. , , , , K, T, P, CH
.
,
, , G, D, B, J,
. , , .
, . , , , G, D, B
, , , (, , ).
7. ()
,
',
/', . , , ( ),
; ( , ') ( ). .
8.
(
) ( [],
NG song).
265

9. , .
10. ,
, ;
, ; : . ( ),
(. ), ( . ); .
. 1) ; 2) , ' (.
), ' .
11. ( )

/ . ; ,
, , ().
()
. ( ):
1) , '.
2)
, (, , ), ..
(), (),
[/] , [/] .
, ,
.
3) , ,
, / /,
(), , ,
, .
.
266

12.
() () ; :
. . , .
.' ' . (
.
. 2, .)
13. . . , , : # , # ( # , .. , ).
( ),
1933 ., ..
,
: #, #.
14. , . ,
(, , ), ( '), '
, .. , , , (. ),
, . .

2.
, ,
,
() ,
.
, ,
() , ,
.
267

, ..
,
.

: - ( [p],
[ph], [p], [m]), () ( [t], [th], [t],
[s], [s], [n], ' [l] []), () ( [], [h], []), () ( [k],
[kh], [k], []) ( [h]).
: ( [p], [ph], [p],
[m], / [w]), ( [t], [th], [t], [s], [s],
[n], ' [l] [], [], [h], []), ( [y]),
( [k], [kh], [k], [] ) ( [h]).
, ..
, : , -,
, (
[p], [ph], [p], [t], [th], [t], [k], [kh], [k]), (), ( [s], [s], [h]),
- ( ), : , ( [], [h], []),
.
(, ,
,
, ,
, )
(). ' [l],
([] [r]), ,
. . ( , ) (
[m], [n], []).

(.. ) (,
), .
268

( [m], [n], []), ( [r], [] ) (' [l] ).



.
, , .. ( , ),
(
[b], [d], [g], []). - , , , ,
.

( ) , ( [p], [t], [k], [s], [], [m], [n], [],
'/ [l/]), , ( [ph], [th],
[kh], [h]). , ..
, ,
, . .

( [p], [t], [k], [s], [], [h]; [ph], [th], [kh], [h],
[p], [t], [k], [s], []) ( [b], [d], [g], [], [m],
[n], [], '/ [l/]), ,
, .
(, lenis, , , ) (
[p], [t], [k], [s], []) (, ,
, fortis, , , , ) ( [p], [t], [k], [s], []).
(.. , ),
269

(, . , ),
,
, , , . , , , (
). () (+ = .)
, ..
,
().
[m], [n], []. .
-, , .. ; : [p], [ph], [p] [p / p],
[t], [th], [t], [s], [s], [], [h], [] [t / t];
[k], [kh], [k] [k / k]. , .. [m / m], [n /
n], [ / ], ' ' [l / l]; : ,
, # , ' ' ;
.
-.
( ) ( ) , ,
() (). , (. ', ', '
..). () , [n] [s] i- i ' [], '/' [] .
() () . . 270

/
/ (: , , # .) . , , () .
() :
)
() ; )
, () ; )
,
, ).
,
, : 1) ,
, .. ', ' [] / ' [] ( ), ' , () '
[']; 2) ,
, .. +
, + ; (, ) . , , ,
.
3.

( ,
):
271

[k] - . , ; . ,
. ; : # , ; # . ( ).
()
, : ) [g]
, , ;
: , ; , '
, # (); )
k
[ ] ,
; : : ; (),
( ); ) , ,
' ( ); : ,
#' .

[t] - . ; .

, .
; :
' , , ' , . ( ).
()
, : ) [d]

, , ; : , ,
' , # , # ; ; ) [ t ]
, ; :
1. ; 2. ( ), (.
) , , (),
; ) , 272

,
( ); : , , # .

[p] - - .
; . , . ; : (),
1. ; 2. (). ( ).
()
, : ) [b]
, , ;
: , ; ) [ p ] ,
; : ; , (. ) ; ) ,
, ' ( ) , , (
); : ' , ' (), # ; ) ,
[w], ..

; : ( . .)
(. ), ( . .)
(. ).

() ( , , ; , ).
[kh] - 273

; : , , (. .) , .
( ).
() [ k ]
, ; : , ().

[th] -
; : : , (. .)
, , # ,
# . ( ).
() [ t ]
, ,
; : , ,
, , .

[ph] - - ; : , ' , 1. ;
2. , # . ( ).
() [ p ]
, ; : , ; .

(, , .. ) (
, , ..
,
- , ,
, ).
[kk / k] - , , ,
; : ; 274

, , .
( , .. ).
() [k]
, ; : , , .

[tt / t] , ,
; :
, ' , #' ,
, (. .) , :
.
( , .. ).
[pp / p] - , , ; :
, , .
(
, .. ).

[s] ; :
, , # 1) , ;
2) . ( ).
(),
: ) - , , , . [sh]; : ~ , ~ ' 1. ;
2. , ; ~ ; ) , - ( )
(), '/' [ ]; :
' , ' / ' ,
' ; )
[ t ]; : (. ) ,
275

(. .) ; ,
, , ; :
(. .) , (.
.) , (. .) .

[ss / s] , ,
; : 1. ; 2. , ( ),
.
( , .. ).
[ t ], ;
: (. .) , ,
(. .) (. .);

[h] (: )

(
); : , # ( . .
) , # . ( ).
, , , , ..
+ + , , , , ; : (.
.) , (. .) .
(), .. ' [],
' [ ]; : ' ~ ' (.-.
) , ' ~ ' (.-. ) .

[] , ;
, ; :
! (. ), (.
). XV XVI . [].
276

(- )
[] , .. () o,
[],
; :
, , , # . ( ).
() , : ) [] []
, , ; :
, , # , # ;
) , [ t ]; :
1. ; 2. (), (. .)
~ , (. .) ; )
[ h ]; :
(. .) , (.
. .) .

[ h] ; : , , , .
( ).
[ t ],

; : (. ) ; , ' (. ..) .

[] , ,
; : ,
, (. ). (
, .. ).
277



.
[m] -
; : , . ( ).
()

; : , ;
.

[n] ; : , 1. ; 2.,
~ ; . ( ).
(): ) / ; : #' (. .) , #' (. .)
, (. .) ;
) , . [], :
#'
, ' , '
? (. ); )
; : ' ' ;

[]
; : , # , ~
, # . ( ). , ..

[ ]; : ~ , ~
, : ~ .
278

/' [/l] , () ' [l]


(: ' 1. ; ; 2. , ' ,
' ), -- [] ( ' )
(:
, , ,
).
( ).
( , :
, ). , *,
(
; : # , # , #' / # ' , # , # , # ()),
( , , , , , , , ; : # ,
, # , #/ # ),

, .. #,
#, #' /#', #, #, #, #,
# / #).
, .. ;
: #' (.-. #) , ' ( ). /'
' [ll] [nn]
() ' [] ' [n]; :
' (. .) -, # (.
.) , #' (. .) ,
#'/
(. .) ,
' (. .);


( ) (.
. 1).
279

1.

()

()1

() 2

ph

th

kh

[b]

[d]

[g]

[p]

[t]

[k]

[]

[] 4

[]
m

()

()

()

()

() 1

()

[] 5

l6

6
[w] 7

[y] 7

280

-
()

()

:
1

3
4
5

6
7

, . - , , [] .
; [ t ],
-.
[] /s/ i [y].
[] /h/ .
[] /n/ i [y].
[l/].
[w] [y] .

4.
() ,
, .
.., 2 . ,
, ,
. . ,
.
: 2-1
, 2-2 ).
, ( ) .
( ,
, ) () () .
281

282

'

'
'
'

'

'

' /

/ '

' / '

/ /

'

'

' /

'

'

'

'

' /'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

' / ' /

'

'

'/

/ / /

' /'

/ / /

/ ' / ' /

[]


2-1.

2.

283

()

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

/ / /

'

284

'
'
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

/ ' / ' /

' ' '

'

'

'

'

'

' /

'

'

2-2.

'

' /

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

' /

'

'

' /
'!!

'

'

'

'

/ !!

2-

285

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

/ !!

( ) (1) ,
(2) ;
: [K] + [N] -- [NGN], [K]+ [L] -[NGN] . .
() . ( ) , ..
. , ..
.
(!!) -.
.
1.
21 10 ( c ), 10 () [j] (
,
, , , , ) [w] ( ) .
(
, , , /), (
, , ) ( ) , (..
)
( , .. , , /, /, , ).
( , .. , , ) ( , .. , , , , ) ; (, , , / , , / ,
, , ,
, , , , ), ( , .) ( ).
, ,
(, , , , / ), (, ,
286

, , ) (, ). - -.
, .
, . . ,
, .
, ,
. .
.
,
( +
, + BE ..).
- , BE . / , ,
, .. / + . ,
.
() , ..
,
J (
Y [j],
[j]) - W (: # [ja]
, [twi] ( . ).

. , , .
, , .
287

2.

10 .
[] ;
; , ; :
, ( ). , # .
( ); (); 15- ().
[ / ] ,
(, , )
(); ,
, ;
; : , ,
# ; , # /
( );
(); 17-
().
(): ) ;
,
; : , # , ,
; ) , , []
[], [:]; : :
[:pt1] ; , : . , ,
, , , , . ,
, ,
: [
# #: , , :' ( 288

)];
, , ,

; ( , ).

[ / ] (,
, ) : , , ec
, , ; , , , .. - ( y - , .. ); ,
;
,
: : #O , , , ; (); 19- ().

; : , .

[u] , ;
, , ,
; , , : , ' , ,
# ;
(); 21- ().
- ,
. , ; ., ,
, (# #
; , - ).
,
, :
.
289

[ / ]
( ) , ;
, ,
; ,
; : ; , # , ; (); 23- ();
, .
(): ) ,
,
, : '
' ; ) ' , : ' .

[i]
; ,

[], , , , : 1. ; 2. , , ' ; (); , 24- ();
,
() .
[ / / ] (,
, ) ,
, ,
; ( Br), ( cat) ( mre, rgle) ;
: , 1. ; 2. , # , # ;
(), ( + ) ().
[ / ] (,
, ) ;
290

, , , , , ; ( whrend e
recht) ( mre t) ;
, ; : , ; (); ( + )
().

().

[ / ] (,
, ) ; , ,
, , ;

; (.. hren); : # / # , #/ # , ; ():
(+ ) ().
- ,
, ( ), ( ).
, ; .
# , BE . BE ()
(), .

,
BE (. ) (. WI).

[] ; ,
, ..
291

,
; ;
(.. ber); : / (), / , #
; ( + )
(). - .
(): ) , : ,
; ) , ,
, ,
, .. [wi] , , # .
, . .

-
(. . 3 4).
3.
- ( )

292

:
.
[Lee 1989: 13].
(),
( ),
. ,
, .. ,
,
.
:
i | i:
e | e: e
| :
| :

u | u:
: | :
| :
| : /

- / /
we wi.
4

( )

()

()

(-)

()

[ w]
u

()

[ y]
i

[ ]

()
()

()

293

:
.. , .. .. .
() , , .
.
.

, 10 : ( ), ()
. .
/ :
(= ) [/ ya]

[ / / y / y]
(=) [ / / yo / y]
(=) [u / yu]
(=) [ / / / y / y / y]
,
; : ,
.
E (=E) [ / e / y / ye].
/ w:
(=) [a / wa]
(=) [ / w]
(=) [ / / w /w]
(=) [ / we].
:
[i / i].
294

C.
1.
.. ( ) // . . 1. .,
1996. . 1146.
.., .. . . 1. :
- , 1997.
.. . .: , 1962.
.. ! (). : (),
1996.
.. . .1. .: , 1979.
.. // . 3, 1956. .
91103.
.., .., .. //
. . 5-6. ., 2003. . 716.
.P. //
. . . 5. ., 2007.
.P. -
// . . . .: , 1961. . 3062.
.. . .: , 1960.
.. (
) // ..
(. ). / . . .. . .: -, 2001. . 2940.
.. // . . II. ., 1916.
. 344348.
. / . . . .. .
., 1951.
.. //
( . . 236. . 6). ., 1958. . 318.
.. .
- . : - . -, 1957.
.. // -

295

: ( - ). , 2004 . 329-340.
. / . .. : - , 2004.
.. . . ., , 1952
.. . .: , 1954.
.. // . . 1.
., 1935.

2.
. // . 2006,
2. . 125157 ( . ).
. . , 1985.
, , . . , 1986.
, . . , 1997.
. . , 1988.
, , . . , 1986.
. . , 1987.
. .
. , 1949.
. , . , 1988.
. . , 2003.
, , . .
, 1984.
. . , 1992.
. . , 1979.
. . .
, 1986.
. . , 1973.
. . , 1997.
. . , 1998.
. . , 1982 (. 1 1937).
. . , 1985.
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3.
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Gim Sheon Gi. Phonetics of Korean. Seoul, 1971 (1st ed. 1937)
Haguenauer M. Systme de transcription de 1alphabet coren // Journal asiatique. Vol.
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Junker H.F.J. Phoneme im Koreanischen // Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der HumboldtUniversitt zu Berlin. Gesellschafts- und sprachwissenschaftliche Reihe. Jg. III, 1,
1953/1954. S. 2531.
Junker H.F.J. Die Umschrift des Koreanischen // Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Orientforschung. Jg. II, 1, 1954. S. 144164.
Kim Chin-Woo. The Vowel System of Korean // Language. Vol. 44, 3, 1968.
Kim Chin-Woo. Boundary Phenomena in Korean // Papers in Linguistics, 2, 1970.
Kim Yeong-gi. Korean Consonantal Phonology. Seoul: Thap chulphansa, 1975.
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297

2.
:

..
( , )



Andreeva V.A.

On the nature of words with inverted components


in Vietnamese
The article is devoted to the investigation of the nature of
disyllables with the inversion of subcomponents, widely used in the
modern Vietnamese language. The author gives consideration to
the existing views on the problem and demonstrates that inversion
of subcomponents is possible in compound words with coordination
of their subcomponents, as well as in some reduplicated words.
Being a highly productive stylistic device, the formation of units
with the inverted order of subcomponents could be qualified as a
unique way of word formation in the Vietnamese language.

, (ha ng/ng cha, bt


be/be bt, b bn/bn b, m bo/bo m ..) , , . ,
. ,
.
, . , ,
298


, [Nguyn Vn Tu 1968: 61]. ,

, ,
, . ,
, .. [Nguyn Ti CNn 1975: 9294]. ..
[ 1993: 33].
,

. ,
[o
Thn N guyn Thy Khanh 1986]. ,
, [N guyn c Tn 1997].
. [T in
ting Vit 2000] 400 , , ( ).
? , , : (
) , ; -; , ; ,
.
.
299

1. ,
, .
, ( b nng , b hng
, , nh ng ), ,
(x phng , mi xoa ,
xch l , xi mng , sen m ) ,
(b nhn , mt chc
).
.
2. ,
, ,
, ( ). . , , tnh (tnh ng/ng tnh ), trng (trng phng/phng trng ,
trng on/on trng , trng thn/thn trng
), ha (ha u/u ha ). ()
, ( ). , , ,

(ng tnh,
phng trng, on trng, thn trng).
3. , , .. -. ,
, m m, nh nh, o o; o , vnh vnh, chm chm,
tim tm, ,
, .
.
300

: (
) . :

, ( , )
. ,
,
( , , ), ,
. ( ) ,
, (lc c, lch kch, lanh chanh, lu ru).
- . , , . , : thit
tha/tha thit, thn th/th thn, vNn v/v vNn, l li/li l, n/n ,
n o/o n, lng l/l lng, tht tha/tha tht, ngNn ng/ng ngNn,
n au/au n, hng h/h hng, m mt/mt m, m mt/mt m, khao
kht/ kht khao, kht khe/khe kht, li l/l li, mng mnh/mnh mng,
ht hiu/hiu ht .
. ( [T in
t ly ting Vit 1994], 1983 [N g
php ting Vit 1983], [H L 1976]).
[N guyn Thin Gip 1999],

, , , ,
-,
,
. ,
301

[T
ting Vit 1998].
.
- .
, ,
,
, : l li, th thm, au n, o in, h hng,
khao kht, kht khe, li l, manh mi, ngi ngn, ngo ngt, ngy ngt,
ngu nghin, mng mnh, hn h, ti tm, r ri, vn vng [N guyn Th
Thanh H 2000].
, , -
( a y, ).
4. , . , ,
.

.
, 60%
. , , : .
, , , .
. , , .
, , ,
,
, .
: Nm/Nm , nhn chng/chng nhn, bnh
dch/dch bnh, ch im/im ch, kinh / kinh, v / v, cht
c/c cht, ch hu/hu ch, m ch/ch m, ngoi l/l ngoi, th
302

mt/mt th, h mt/mt h, nhp ngoi/ngoi nhp, thu quan/quan thu,


hu sn/sn hu, hiu th/th hiu, danh thip/thip danh.
.
,
, .
.
,
, . . ( /)
. (, ,
, -
, : ,
tp cht ( + = )
cht tp, cao tn ( + = ) tn cao, in trng ( + =
) trng in.
. () , . (yu thng, thng mn), (kh d, u ui, yu ght) ,
(tt ti, gt hi)
(nh ca, qun o, rung vn, sch v).
,
,
() , ,
. : (.. , 303

), (
, , , ). , ,
, , , v chng (
chng v), b m ( m b), ng cha,
cha ng. () , ,
(,
, kim tm,
ngha tnh, ngp trn, di hn .). ,
()
, -.
,
, .
? . . () ()
(gang thp/thp gang, chung thy/thy chung, en / en, l
lng/lng l, mai ma/ma mai, o n/n o, khe kht/kht khe, non
nc/nc non, son phn/phn son, sng ni/ni sng). 280
, : / 28 , / 55
, -/ 22 , -/ 18 , /-
24 , /- 15 , / 10 , / 25 ,
/ 33 ..,
70% -.
- , . -304

, , , , .

. , , ,
.
- (. [ .
2006]) . -.
, , tin a ( + = )
a tin l tin a ng To ln chu tri
,
. ngnh gang thp ( +
= ) ngnh thp
gang, :
ch gang thp/thp gang () .
chng thy (, ) thy chung.
-
, ,

. . - . , tranh u u tranh , tranh u u tranh
(, tranh u/u tranh ginh li
quyn . u tranh chnh tr ( ), u tranh yuw tng ( )
.. tranh u. .
, ,

.
305


.. .:
, 1993.
.., .., .., , ,
(. ). - . 1 / -
. - . .: , 2006.
o Thn N guyn Thy Khanh. Kh nng chuyn i trt t m tit to bin th ca
t trong cc n v t vng song tit // N hng vn ngn ng hc v cc ngn ng
phng ng. H N i, 1986. [ .
{

} // . , 1986. . 249-250].
H L. Vn cu to t ca ting Vit hin i. H N i: N h xut bn khoa hc x hi,
1976 [ . {
}. : , 1976].
Nguyn c Tn. V phng php bin son t in ng ngha ting Vit // Mt s vn
t in hc. H N i: N h xut bn khoa hc x hi, 1997 [ .
{
} // . :
, 1997. . 228-265].
N g php ting Vit / y ban khoa hc x hi Vit N am. H N i: N h xut bn Khoa
hc x hi, 1983 [ / {
/ } :
, 1983].
Nguyn Ti Cn. N g php ting Vit. H N i: N h xut bn i hc v trung hc
chuyn nghip, 1975 [ . {
}. : , 1975].
Nguyn Th Thanh H. Bn thm v hin tng t ly o c trt t [
. { - } // N gn ng {}. 11, 2000. . 41-47].
Nguyn Thin Gip. T vng hc ting Vit. H N i: N h xut bn Gio dc, 1999
[ . . { }.
: , 1999].
Nguyn Vn Tu. T vng hc ting Vit hin i. H N i: N h xut bn Gio dc, 1968
[ . {
}. : , 1968].
T in ting Vit. Hong Ph ch bin. H N i N ng, 2000 [
. { . }.
, 2000].
306

T in t ly ting Vit. H N i: N h xut bn Gio dc, 1994 [


{ }. : ,
1994].
T ting Vit / Trung tm khoa hc x hi v nhn vn quc gia.Vin ngn ng hc.
Hong Vn Hnh ch bin. H N i: N h xut bn khoa hc x hi, 1998 [
/ . . {
. .
. . }. : , 1998].

307

..
( - , )





Krylov A.Yu.

Towards the problem of the emotive category


expression means in the Arabic literary language
and the Arabic spoken languages in the Mashric
and Maghrib Arab countries
The paper deals with the conception of the emotive category and
the level of the development of this category in modern linguistics
and in the Arabic linguistic tradition. This problem is under review
against a background of the increasing interest in linguistic
interpretation of emotions in the system of the up-to-date scientific
knowledge. Describing the emotionality expression means, we
chose the method of functional semantic fields, focussing our
attention on the complex field of verbal and non-verbal means of
expressing emotions. In this research, we emphasize the universal
nature of emotive meanings and demonstrate the invariant part and
variant forms of the means used to express emotions in the Arabic
literary language and in the Mashric and Maghrib Arabic dialects,
their common and regional linguistic (lexical, phraseological,
syntactical, phonetic) and paralinguistic (phonatory, kinetic,
graphic) representation.

1.
. 308

, , , , , , , , , .
, , , , ,
.

. , , , . , .. ,
, . (),
[ 2006: 11].
, , .

( ). IX .
, , .,

[ 2004: 524]. -,
, - , ,
, .
, ,
-, [ 2004:
524-525] . , 309


.
,
, , , , , , , , , ,
., , ,
,
XVIII XIX .
,
-, . ,
, .
, .
, ..
.. .. , .
, ,
, [ 1989: 9].

,
.
[ ].

- (), ,
.. ,
(, , , , - ..),
,
[ 1990: 566-567].
,
310

[ 1990: 567].

() . ()
, ,
.
()
, , ,
. , ,
. , .

,
() , , , , -
. () ( / ), . , ,
(-, ) (-, - ) ,
,
, , .
: , .

,

, [ 1982: 9].
,
,
311

(, , , ) , (, , ).
2.

1.

,
, ,
.. , .. , .. , .. , .., .. , .. , .. .
: -
- , ,
, , ,
, , , , .
,
. , , ,
.

, ,

-
[ 2004: 225]. , ,
,
, , ..
312


(. : [ 2005: 17]).

([ harf al- u`ta:f], [ harf an ni`da:] , ( 1993: 435; 1985: 166,
793)) , ,
( :
- [ 2006: 72]).

: [
1980],
. ,
.
,
.
, .
, : ![a], ![o:] , !, !,
! ![ ba-ba-ba] --!
, : ! - -[ qa qa qa]
[uff] !, !, ! --!; !
, , ; ! [ wai] !; ...[ fa]
; ! [ a:] !, !, ! , .; ! [ a:] !, !, !, !
, .; ![a] !, !
; !`[awwa] !; ... [ m-m-m] .
; ! [ wa:] ! ; !
[sa] !, !; ! [ iss] --!; ! [ uss]
!; ! [ aa:] !, ! .
, , : [ tab] !
, ! -`[ nuqta `nuqta] -!
, ! - -[ qa qa qa] --! .
, , .: , : ![ ab-ab] ! , .

313

,
, , :
[ma`qu:lun] , [ musta`hi:lun] ,
[ a`mi:l] ., , :
`[ alat] , [ ta`ma:m] , `[ uwa],
`[ iya] , .
( ,
), ,
,
, .

, . , , ,
, ,
. ,
. , , .
[
1980] , (),
: , .
, , , ,
[`tuzz] !,
: !
!, ![ ba-ba-ba] --!, [ wa:] ,
!, ![ a`wa:] !,

; !`[ a:il] ![a`zi:m] !, !
[i`zzei] ! , , , .
: ... ...
( 1962: 10) ? ! ,
? ! ( . ...) .
314

,
, .. , .
:
) , , , , , - : ![ ta`a:l] !
[`habbes] ! , , , ; !
[`ya:lla] ! .
; !
( [err] !
, ): !

[pss-pss] -!
; !
, , , .
) , :
, : !`[ naam] !
![ la] !, ;
!`[ eiwa] !, ,
, , , ; [ ba] !, ! ; ![ wa:] ! ;
, : !`[ ukran] ! , [`sahha] - ; !
!, !, , ! [ mer`si] !, , ;
: : ![ ba-ba-ba]
--! ; !`[ mudi],
![ a`gi:ba] ! .

, :
[`barra] !, , : !
!, , , , , .
, , :
!`[ afwan] !, !`[ ukran] ! .
,
- , .
315

, , .
,
: ![a], ![o:] , ! ;
!`[ mudi] ![ a`gi:ba] !
.
- .
, , , , [`tuzz] !, .
!
, , : ! ... ...
[yo:-yo:-yo:] ! ![ ba-ba-ba] -! .
, , , ,
, , .
[`yalla]
: ![ ta`a:l] !, !
[`barra] !, !, !

[pss-pss]
!, !
-!, .
, , .

[ 1982: 99].
,
: , [ 1990: 367], .
,
,
.
, 316

, , .
, [ da`qi:q] [ at-ta`ri:f ad-da`qi:q] ,
`[ sa:hira]
[`leila `sa:hira] ., .
, , .. , ,
[ 1973: 110].
, ()
.
:
`[ iddan], `[ awi],
[bi`zza:f]; `[ abadan]
[ k`ti:r],
,
, . :
[ ba`qiia `ba:qia] .
,
. , , , .. , ,
[ 1973: 114].
- , , . ,
,
, .. ,
[a`qi:la], [ qa`ri:na] [ 2008: 97],
`[ zawja].
`[ hurma],
, `[ mara] [ ]. [ ah],
, , ,
[ ha`io:] ..
317

(, , .), , , : ..
( 2008: 36)
.


: .( 2009) , , , ,
.
, ,

.
, , , , , , .
.
. ( . epitheton ) , .. , , ,
[ 2004: 527].

, .. , .. , .. , .. .
: 1 [ta`qaddumun mal`mu:s]
, `[ azma la: `sa:bik `lau]
; : ...
...( 1962: 5) ,
... ... ( 1962: 6)
, :
:
( 1962: 43).
,
. ,
318

[ al-hi` ka:ia l-a`gi:ba],


[ al-hi`ka:ia l-a`i:ba], .

: , , , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, ( )
, , , , . , ,
- . :
. , (
1962: 6); [
1979: 45] ( : ), ,
, , : ; ;
[ ] ( :
! .),
( 1985: 277),

( 1985: 587) .
,

, .. [ 2004: 231].

:

[`assa `nabdan li-l-aw`da:i l-iqtsa:`diyya] ()
( 1985: 781) , `[ assa `nabdan] . `[ mawa] ,
:
`[ mawa `a:rima min al-istin`ka:r]
, [ a`a;ra `mawata as-`saat]
( 1985: 773) .
, -

319

. , ,
,
, :
[ ju`nu:d al-`uwa az-zar`qa: ] ,
[ as`ha:b al-`uwa az-zar`qa:] , [ u: al-`uwa az-zar`qa:]
, .
.

- , .
,
, , ,
.
, , ,
. ,
. :
[`alu `dda:d] , [ da:d], ;
`[ yadun a`fi:fa] , [ 1979: 19]; `[ luatu `dda:d]
[ da:d], ; `[ yadun
qa`si:ra] , ,
`[ yadun maf`tu:ha] ,
; `[ yadun bai`da:] ,
( 1985: 453, 917), ..
( ) ,
-, ( ) :
, .. [ 1979:
31]. , (. . + . ), :
[ ] .
320

( ) ( 1985: 383), , , .

,
( ) :
,
[ 1979: 32],
, (
1985: 695).
, , . , , , .

, . ,
[uff lak]
!`[ ya: lil-`aab] !, !
!, ![ la `mugiza wa-la `ha:ga]
! .
, ,
, (), : , .
,
.
, ,
, :
[rabb]: !
[ ya] + [ sa`la:m],

[ya: sa`la:m] !, !, !; !
[ya: `rabb] , !, ! . ! [ al-`hamdu-li`lla] ! .
,
, !`[ ya: lil-`aab]
!, [ ya: `leita] , !,
![ ya: as`fa:] !, ! .

: ![ ya:
la`ti:f] ! ;
321

![ ya: `abar] !, !, ! ... ...


[ya-ya ya: sa`la:m] !, !, ![ la
`mugiza wa-la `ha:ga] !
; !`[ u: al-`haki] !
.
, ,
: !
! [ya: `weilak], , , [ya: `wi:lak].
,
.
: !`[ ala-`malak] ! ;
, , : ![ mam`nu:nak] !, !
.
, , : , : ! [ wa`lla]
! ( - ) ,
, , , ; , : !
[`yohrib-`be:tak] !,
! , , , .
:
[ya: `rabb] , !, ! [ ya: a`lla] , !,
!
, .
, , : !
[sa`ba:h al-`eir] !, ![ as-sa`la:mu
a`leikum] !, !`[ maa ssa`la:ma] !,
; !
[b-sa`hhitak]
! .
!, !:
![ fi: ma:`lla:], ![ an-`i
nak], ![ a:trak].
.
, , ![ ya: sa`la:m] 322

,
, , , , .
,
, , .

,

.
, ( , ) , ,
, . ,
. , .. , , . , [ 2005: 10-11].
, ..
, :
, :
.
,
,

[ ].
,

.
, , . , : ![ law `kana ha`bi:bak `asal ma
tilha`su `kullu] , ,
; !
: ! `[ moak zeii i`lli fi
323

`riglak] !.
: [ as sa`ba:h la yah`ta: ila mis`ba:h]
.
. , ,
- : ![ as sa`ba:h ma `biddu mis`ba:h].

`[ labbasa al`ba:til bil`haqq] ,

[ ta`labbasa`aqnia muta`nawwia] .

, . , ., , ,
.
, [ 1979: 21].
, ,
[ 2000: 327 328].
, , , , - ,
([ mal`mu:sun] , [ mu`na:dilun] [ta`qaddumun] ,
) (

[ ar-ra`i:sun] ), :
[ta`qaddumun mal`mu:s] , [ arra`i:su al-mu`na:dil] - .
, (). `[ adabun]
, :
[ saut al-`adab] ( 2008),
[ i:l al-`adab] , [ ta`sa:ud
al-`adab] , [ ma`a:ir al-`adab]
.
324

, , [ atrun] , `[ aufun]
, `[ amnun] ,
: [ da:`irat al-atr] , ,
: ... `[ inna al-`wadu l`amanii `daala da:`irat al-atr]
; : [ iti`da:d al-`auf] , [ ini`da:m al-`amn] (- 2008) .

, ,
- ( ) , , , -, , , ,
.
- (
) .
, : ...

...
[`inna a`mi:a l-muayya`ma:t taq`ri:ban

ta`au bil-`asliha]
...[ ya `a:a yuh`tamal an uf`air
,
al-`wad] , , (-

2008)],
[ al-bul`da:nu l-mu`hibba lis-sa`la:m] .
[`aa]

[`faara] , [ mu`hibbun]

- .
,
. ,
() , . , , , . , , , . ,

,
:
325

, ( )
,
, [ 1979: 27-28] .
, .
2.

, , .
.
, .

.
, , .
, , .
, .. ,
, (. : [ 1979: 23]).
, [ sa`i:run] , [ ka`bi:run] ,
[ a`ri:dun] , [ da`i:fun] ,
[qa`wiyyun] ,
[`qa:sin] , ,
[`aswadu] , [ a`li:zun] , ,
[sinnun] ,

[ aqlun] , [ adadun] , ,
[manki`ba:ni] [ qalbun] , [ kabdun]
[ sa`i:ru s-sinn] ,
:

[sa`i:ru l-aql] ,
[ka`bi:ru s-sinn] 326

, [ ka`bi:ru l-`adad] ,
[ a`ri:du l-manki`bein] , [ da`i:fu alqalb] , `[ qa:si l-qalb] ,
[qa`wiiu al-qalb] , `[ aswadu l-kabd]

, [ a`li:zu l-kabd] ( 1985:
438, 654, 674, 828) .
,

([ sa`i:run] , [ ka`bi:run] ,
[ a`ri:dun] , [ da`i:fun] ,
[qa`wiyyun] `[ qa:sin] , ,
, `[ aswadu] , [ a`li:zun] , )
. ()
( ,
)
,
- .
: ... [`raulu a`ri:du l-manki`bein]

,
`[ imraatun ka`bi:ratu ssinn] , `[ a:bun a`li:zu l-kabd]
.

.
. ,

[ ta`qaddama
bit `talab] ,
[ talaba] .
,
, , (, ).
, - .
327

, , . .
. , , . , , , , ,
. ..
[ 2001: 190-201].
..
( . gnosis ), ,
, , .. (. [ 2001: 134136]). .
.. , ,


[ 2004: 72-73]. ,
.
,
, , .
,
, :
?,
? [ 2004: 76], , ,
, ( , , :
?, ?, ? ., :
?, ? ., : ?,
? ., : .), :
? ( 1962: 36) .
, , .
[ aw]
328

?
[ am] :
[ 2004: 78] .

:
? ( 1962: 40),
-: ,
? ( 1962: 42), -:
... -
, ? ( 1962: 55), -:
?, -:

? [ 1979: 40].
:

? () ? [ ]. , , :
.
!
. , !.
? ( 1962: 46).
, . ,
, , .. ,
( ): !
? ! ( 1962: 107).

,
: ? [ 1979: 41].

,
- .
329

, : [ i:] ,
[ e:] ?, [ mi:n] ?, [ fe:n] ? .
, , ,

: [ m`li:ha i:] ?,
[kan i: hadd fi-dda:r] - ?; :

[u`mmal `a:iz e:] ?,
[at-`tanara

[mi:n da] ?; :

`haqqi fe:n] ?, [ fe:n `haqqi t`tanara] ? [ 1979: 42].


, [ i:] -, -
,
[ fi: i: ba`yya: ari:b min u:n]
:

(-) ?,
`[ andak i: kufi`yya:t ha`ri:r] (-)
? ( 1972: 35) .
, ,
:
:
: ? ( 1962:
71). .
- , , , , : `[ inta ma`nu:n ya:
`hasan] , ?.
: , , , , :
[bad] ,
[u`mma:l] ; [ ya:] .,
, : [ um`ma:l `a:iz `e:]
? (, 1975: 36).
,
, , , , , .
, , ,
,
330

: , ,
. : ! !,
! !, !. ..
, : !
, !, ! !
; ! !, !
[ ;un`surni an`surka] , ( , ) [ 1998: 164]. .. : !`[ ayya n`ru:hu:] !, ![ )( la (ma)
tdi:r `akka] ! [ 1979: 43].
, - ..
: !
... !,
:



! ( 1985: 552).
: ! ! (
1962: 107).
, `[ keifa] , [ kam] ,
`[ inna], [ la] .: !
() !, !
! !, ! , !
[, 2004: 315-316] .

,
. : ! !, !
!, -:
! , ! [ 1979:
49], ![ 1998: 414] , ()
! .

. ,
331

- , : !
: !`[ ya:
`lau `min-al-a`ma:l],
[`u: al-a`ma:l], !`[ e: ga`ma:l da],
!`[ inu al-a`ma:l].
, !, , ,
, ,
[uff `kam ta`abtu],
., : !

[uff addi`ei ta`ba:n],
!

[uff gaddi`ei ta`ba:n].
!
[ ma], , `[ afala] :
! ! [, 2004: 316].
, , . (
) ( )
.
. , 40- , ,
[ 1979: 102].
, .. .. [ ]
() , ,
, ,
( ) [ ]. , (
) ,
:
[ ].
332


( ): , (.:
) [ 1979: 99] .

- . ,
,
, [`hatta], [ la],
[`inna],
, ,
`[ saufa lan], .

[`inna] ,

`[ uwa]
[`iya], .
:
... ,
(- 2008: 20).
[`hatta]

:
, .
`[ saufa lan] :
! [ 1979: 114].
[ la], , :
, , [ 1998: 397], (.: ) () ! [ 1979: 114].


. [-anna] [-an] , .. , 333

, , ..
,
[ 1998: 167-168]. : `[ la taki`ban]
`[ a `la tari`anna]
( ),

? [ 1998: 168],
! (
) ! [ 1979: 115].

[ la], ,
, .:
.
,
.
3. -

, ,
( ), , , , , () ,
, , .
. ,
-
. ,
.
.. , (, ,
, ) ( )
()
, , , , , , [
2004: 61].
( )

() [ ].
334

.. ,
,
[ 2004: 72].
, : , :
? : !
!. ,
, ,
, . [ ].
- , .

,
( ).

,
.
, ,
,
: .. ( 1981) [`a:sifa ma b`yidir
yi`u:f `had] , (
):

`a:sifa

ma b`yidir

yi`u:f

`had

.
.
,
335

,
.
,
: ! `[ nahnu `narifu lha`qi:qa] !
, ; ! `[ nahnu
`narifu lha`qi:qa] ! ,
- ; , ! `[ nahnu
`narifu lha`qi:qa] ! , , - .
, , .
(
),
, -,
. ,
, , : ! ! !
! ! ( , 1970: 23) 2 [`ya:lla `kullu `wa:hid
`yirga ma`ka:nu `kullu `wahid `yirga li `ulu a`wa:m `yalla b`sura `yalla
a`wa:m] , ! , ! ,
! ! ! ( ).
,
,

, , , , ,
.
,
,
: !
!`[u: al- a`ma:l] ( ), !`[ e: ga`ma:l-`da]
( ), !`[ inu al-a`ma:l] ( ),
!`[ ya-`lau min-al-a`ma:l] (),
- , :
336

`u:
`e:
`inu
`ya`lau

al
ga`ma:l
al
min-al

a`ma:l
`da
a`ma:l
a`ma:l

3.

,
, , ,
, ()
. , , , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , . , .
, , ,
.
,
.
, , ,
, , , ,
., ,
, .

.
, , , , : ! !
! ..!( , 1970: 66; . 2
337

) [`barra `barra mi `a:iza had `ena tla `barra] ! !


! ! ( ).
-
, ,
, ,
: ! ...! ...
( 1981) [b`sura b`sura ya: `si:n `ya:lla: `ya:lla: nzi:l
nzi:l b`sura nzi:l e:-e: u: bak `a:if] , , !
, , , ! --! ,
? ( ).

,
.
. :
![ mah`mu:d `walad k`ti:-i:-i:-r k`weyis] --
( ).
,
, , -:
!`[ sta:-a:-rih] !, !`[ sta:-a:-id] !
:
!
[ya: m`hamma:-a:-a:d] ! ( , ).
() , ,
[`barr-rr-rr-a] !, ! ( , ,
!
).
,
, .
, , , , , , ,
. ,
, , [ 2004: 195].
, ,
- 338

. , , , ,
. ,
, , , , , , . ,
,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
, , , , , , ..
, ( ,
), ,
, (
). , . . , (emblems)
(autonomous) [, 2004: 135].
,
, () ,
-. ,
, (illustrators), [, 2004: 141].
,
- ,
, .
,
. , , .. .. , [, 1980: 412].
, , ,
!, [`marhaba]. , , !
339

[marhab`te:n].
: !`[ marhaban] !.
![ sala:`ma:t] ! , , .
!`[ alan] !. , , ,
![ fima`lla], ![ an`inak], !`[ a:trak], ![ wa`da: an]
!, !.
,
![ assa`la:mu-a`leikum] ! ![ ya al`eikum-assa`la:m] !,
!`[ maa-ssa`la:ma] !
.
(), .

, [, 1980: 412-413].
, ,
, , , ,
, .: `[ ki:f-il
ah`wa:l] ?,
`[ki:f `sahha] ?.
,
( ), [, 1980: 413] .
.
![ ta`a:l] ! , , , ;
![ rwa:h] ! .
: , , 340

, .
, [, 1980: 413]. [`barra]
: !
`[ itla `barra] ! !, !, !
`[ ru:h `minni]
, : !
[`barra] !, !,
! . !
!, , , , .
:
, ,
,
.
: !`[ ba:i] ! [ ].
![ m`ni:h] ![ m`li:h]
- . ![ ta`ma:m] !,
! -
, , ; ![ k`weyis] !, ! , .
:

,
.
[, 1980: 414]
. : ,
![ mu `la:zim] !; !`[ ma byi`si:r
`eik] !, ![ la] !, !`[ mu `la:zim]
, ![ mam`nu:] !
, .
, .

. ,
, - ,
341

[, 1980: 414]: !`[ inu-`gult]


? ; `[ u: am-`tihki:]
? .
`[ ma:a-`qulta] ?.
, , : !`[ ba:lak]
!, !.
[ 1982: 101].
, ,

.
, , ( ), (, , ),
.
. , , ,
: ![ a`gi:ba]
!, -, ,
, : ![ ba-ba-ba] --!.
, ,
, .
,
, ,
,
,
, ,
.
: ,
,
,
[ 1990: 367].
, , , .
342

- .
, - ,
: ..
, ( 1967: 43),
!! ...............( 2009)
().

.

,
-

.
*
*
*

.
:
( )
b
z
q/
s
k
t
(. .[])
l
s
(. [] ;
m
[t] )

/g
h

d

d /z
t
z/d
(

(. [] ,

w
y

)
z /d ( )

f /v
:

:
a, i, u, e, o,

:
a:, i:, u:, e:, o:, :
343

:
[`]

:
p (. .[]);
(. . []);

v (. . []);
(. . []);

ts (. .[]);
g (. .[]).

2008 1 "325" .[ -. - 325, 1 2008 {.


325, 1 2008}].
.. . .: -
. , 1971.
... : // [-: - {: }]
// http://anhri. net/mena/amnesty/2008/pr0122.shtml. 2008.
.. - . .: , 1985.
.. - . . 42000 . .: , 1993.
.., .. 3, 4, 5-
. . .: - . , 1975.
. .[ . - { ..
}] // http://www.7akaia.net/forum/showthread.php?t=13169. 2008.
.. / :
. .: (. . . -), 1979.
.2009\9\23 [
- - - - - - - 23/9/2009 { .
,
23.9.2009 .}] // http://www.israj.net/vb/t4300. 2009.
.. . .: -
. , 1972.
.1962 . . . .[ . -
-. -. - - { . . , . 4-}]. 1962.
.1967 . . : . . [ , -, - , -. { .
. -: }]. 1967.
. .[ . - { ..
} / . , 1981].
.. . - . .:
: , 2001.
344

.[ - - { . . ,
1963}] // .., .. ( ).
. ., 1970.
!! ...............[ - - { }] // http://www.ibtesama.com/vb/showthreadt_84803.html. 2009.
. .
.3734 .2008 1988 [ \\ -.
-. - - -
- { .
/
} // -. 1988, 2008. . 3437.

.. ( ) / . - . . .: ,
1973.
.. . . 2-, . .:
, 2004.
.. . . . . . .
., 2003.
.. . .: ,
1999.
.. . .: , 1980.
.. - .
2- ., . .: , 1998.
.. : . . 2-, . .: , 2006.
.. . .: , 2001.
.. :
( ) // . . . . . . , 2006.
.. . .: , 1974.
.. ( ). . . . . ., 2005.
.. . .:
- -, 1989.
.. //
. .: -, 2004.
345

.. // . .:
-, 2004.
. . .: ,
1990.
.., .. .
.: , 1980.
.. . . II. .: - . , 1979.
.. / :
. .: (. . . -), 1982.
.. // . .
.: -, 2004.
., . . . . . .: -, 2004.
.. / . .. . .:
, 2000.
. I. . . /
. .: , 1980 // http://rusgram.narod.ru/1689-1705.html.
.. . : . . .: : , 2005.
.. //
. .: -, 2004.
.. . .: XXI ,
2008.
.. // . . .:
-, 2004.
.., .. : . 1.
: . .: -, 2004.
.. . .: , 1974.
1

. ...
.

346

() ..
( , )


( )
Markina (Kozha) K.A.

Problems of linguistic interference


(as displayed by Chinese lettered-words)
Globalization processes and phenomena are naturally reflected
by languages the humanity speaks. Changes can be seen both in
our every day conversations and in deep layers of the language
structure. The present paper is to draw attention to some interferential (typological, graphic, phonetic, morphological)
phenomena caused by Global English influence, and to consider
them through the Modern Chinese language circumstances. The
phenomena under study are concerned with the use of the so
called lettered-words zi4mu3ci2 which furnish a
spectacular example of modern languages in contact.


, , , , .

, , . ( zi4mu3ci2 ) .

,
, 347

( ). , , , . ,
-,
.
:
a) ( ,
):
WTO World Trade Organization ;
ATM automatic transfer machine ;
GB guo2biao1 ;
PSK pu3tong1hua4 shui3ping2 kao3shi4
.;
) ( , ),
(
hun4xue4er2 -), :
G ( shou3ji1) (
san1) (Generation);
IT ( jie4) (Information
Technologies);
TV ( zu2), ;
call (. to call )
..;
) , , ..
: kiss , call , ball , smile , nice
.
,
-, ,
.
348

- , . ,
,
, , ,
, .
, , ..
, [ 1979: 22].

, :
)
, .. , -,
.
,
. [ 1979: 80].
) ,
, ,
,
,
. ,
.
, .

349

,
.
, ,
,
.
1.



.

-,
,
.

,
, . - ,
.

, ,
, .
,
, .
350

2.

,
1.
-,
: . zhong1da4
, zhong1shan1
da4xue2.
,
, .
,
. ,
2.
:
, , ,
.

,
,
.
- : - (HSK [eit][es]-[kei]), , ( [mei4mei0]).
- -, ,

( ),
. 351

, -, ,
, .
.
..
[ 1927: 5]. , ..
(.. ),
,
.
,
,
, . , , .. , , .
, , , n, . ,
(mic [mik], VIP [vip], SIM [sim], SOS [sos], ZIP [zip], POP [pop] ..),
, (call, kiss, ball .), ,
[k, p, m, s, l] . , -
, F [ef], H [eit], L [el], M [em], N [en], S [es],
X [eks], Z [zed], ,
. , [wap]
WAP (wireless application protocol ) [sim] SIM (subscriber
identification module ),
,
, ..
.
352

, , , , SIM, ZIP mic, , ,



.
, ,
, ,
, .
2.

, , ,
- .
: )
,
,
; ) ,

.

: MT (= moun-tain), CN (=
chi-nese), party, baby .
,
.


( -), / . .
353



.
, .

,
, , .
, , .. : , < >
, .
, ,
[ 2002: 231].
,
, , .

, :
e (electronic + hua4 );
TV , (television + . zu2);
VAD (vitamin A + D
+ D + niu2nai3 );
Q (Question + ban3 , ;
C ( san1 + Communication,
Computer, Control , , +
ge2ming4 .
, ( ) - ,
. , 354

, , (SMS
[short message service ] + .
-), (PR [public relations ] + -) ..


. , - ,
( ) - . , , ,

-ing ( ) . , ing ( . chi1fan4 ),
ing ( . gong1zuo4 ), ing ( . kai1xin1
), ing ( . yi2han4 ). C -ing shang4wang3
, : ing.
-ed, ed [Dai Hongxia 2004: 10].
, , - zhe0, zhong1 (
, ) le0 ( / ): gong1zuo4zhe ,
kai1xin1zhong1 , chi1fan4le . ., :
GG ni3 ge1ge0 zai4 zuo4 shen2me0
( Ge1Ge0) ?

ing e-mail ! yi2han4-ing, wang4ji4le ta1 de email mi4ma3 , .


355

, , .

.
,

.
-
,
, ,
.
, , ,
- :
call mei2 ren2 call guo4 wo3 call + guo4);
call ta1 shi2shi2 call zhe0 wo3 ( call +
zhe0);
IT ? ni3 de0 qi3 ye4 IT le0 ma0?
? ( IT [information technologies ]
- le0).
, - , ,

.
.
356

.
, , , .
,
, , ,

.
, -, ,
, , .
,
.
,
, .

. . : , 1979.
.., .., .., ..,
.. - ( ) // XXV . . ., 1960.
.. //
. ., 1975. . 89-99.
.. . ., 1927.
.. // . . ., 2002. . 231-234.
Dai Hongxia. Looks Like English. The adoption of Roman alphabet into the Chinese
writing: the case with net speech. { . 357

: -}
Zhejiang University Press, 2004.
. The dictionary of lettered-words. . , 2001.
[ { }. . :
, 2001].
1

() () [ 1975: 90].

, .. [ . 1960].

358

2.
:

.., .., ..,


.., .., ..
( , )


-
: 2008 .
Kostyrkin A.V., Kanovich M.I., Modina L.S.,
Panina A.S., Tarasova E.S., Shalyapina Z.M.

The JaRAP experimental environment for studies


in Japanese-Russian automatic translation: 2008
The JaRAP environment is being developed at the Institute of
Oriental Studies (Russian Academy of sciences, Moscow) for
experimental investigations in Japanese-Russian automatic translation. The heart of this environment is a preliminary computational
implementation of a machine translation system for the language
pair in question, incorporating four basic components: the overall
translation interface and the modules responsible, resp., for Japanese analysis, Japanese-Russian transfer, and Russian generation.
Linguistic data for both languages is represented within the Entitybased linguistic framework. The paper describes some of the most
salient difficulties of Japanese-Russian translation, the overall
arrangement and operation of each of the four modules of the
JaRAP translation system, and some ways and means implemented
in it to cope with the translation difficulties mentioned.

1.

-359

. :
- ,
,
, ;
,
, - , ;
.
, -
, ,
.
,
,
, .
2.


,
, , .
.
2.1.

.

. ( 360

)
; ,
, ,
. , , ,
.
, . , :
(1)
3
(
. ):

,
,

Nom

(= )

- ,
A front came.
:
.

.
. , ,
, . ,
(2)
:
(2a)

, ,
361

(2)

, , : (2) , (2) .

, .: vs. .
2.2. -
- , .
,
, . , , . ,
: 1) ; 2) ,
, ; 3)
, .
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/ ,
, .

( . ) .
, ,
, , - .., , , , , .
2.3.

, ,
. ,
362

.
, :
(3)

Gen

, ,
, :
(3)

(3)
, , [
2004].
2.4.
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
. ( )
: ,
.
. .:
(4)


363

(5)

, , Dat

:Attr

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.
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Gen

, .
, .
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,
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364

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.
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365

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), :
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-
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366

2.7.
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.
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. , , , , ; . */ .
. , Oper1 (. [-
1984: 84]), , , . ,
. , (., , [ 2002]).
367

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, ,
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3.
,

:

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.
.
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. ,
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, [ 2007: 337-344],
, ,
.

. ,
, , resp., , -
.
.
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,
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- : , , ,
.
369

370

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()

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,
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[ 2007]. , .

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371

4.
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.

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, , resp., - (-), - (-) - (-) . .
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372

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( ).
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373

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resp., ), / , ( , ).
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374

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), , -
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375

. , -, . - .
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,
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vs. , , vs.
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[ 1974] [Fillmore 1968].
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- - (377

). ,
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:
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. , [Ginsberg 1993], [ 2000], ,

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378


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5.1.1. -
- ( ), :
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-
. , , . SOV (, , ), SVO (,
, ).
379

( ) ,

, .
..
.
, , :
(14a) <>
(14b)
, ( + , + .) :
(15a)
(15b) .
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:
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(16b) <> .
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:
(17)

Gen

Top

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: - ( ), ,
380


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6 : :

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381

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).
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(17).
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:NN{1_2}.-.R

G1[:NN{1_4}.-]

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D1[:NN{1_2}.-]

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). R .:NN{1_14}.|
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G (= governor) , D (= dependent) . G D , ,
, .
385

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.


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.

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(-) .
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, , .
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, 386

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, , .

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).
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388

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.
7.

MS DOS.
,
. .. , ,
.
, . .. ..
.
(tp.ari), : -,
, (). , ..
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389

, , [ 2000].
. - Python, Windows ,
, , ,
. : .

.
:
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).

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(Edit, Word ..).
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: . tp.rus,
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390

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391

. 7.

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()
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Dat
Gen
Nom

..
// '2000
. 2. . , 2000.
. 199-208.
396

..
// . 8, 1, 2004. . 81-144.
.. . .:
, 1974.
.., .. -
. - /
Wiener Slawistischer Almanach. Sbd. 14. Wien: T.Reuther, 1984.
..
( - ).
. . . . . .: , 2002.
.. , // . 4.
II . , 13-22 1999 .
.: , 2000. . 104-118.
.. . .: , 2007.
., .., .. .
- : . .: , 2001 (. 5.11.01
56804).
Fillmore Ch.J. The Case for Case // Universals in Linguistic Theory. N.Y., 1968. P. 1-88.
Ginsberg M.L. Dynamic Backtracking // Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research. 1,
1993. P. 25-46.

397

..
(, )



Brechalova E.V.

On the procedure estimating correlation of the formal


syntactical representation and the predicate-argument
structure of a Korean sentence
In the present paper we describe two representations of a Korean
sentence and a procedure which estimates correlation between
them. One of the representations specifies the predicate-argument
structure of a given sentence, while the other one specifies formal
relations of syntactical dominance between lexemes of the same
sentence. The estimating procedure is mainly based on 6 rules
which are called linear compositions. The predicate-argument
structure and the formal syntactical representation of the same
sentence agree with each other if we can derive the formal
syntactical representation of the sentence from its predicateargument structure using linear compositions. We see the
procedure presented in the paper as the main instrument for
analysis of Korean sentences implementing the method of analysis
through synthesis.

1.
1.1.

-
.
398

, , , .
:
. .

( ). , - , ,
1.
,
,
, ,
, -
( - ,
) 2.
,
; : , - .
.
, ( ,
) ,
-, , , , ,
, ,
. ,
, , , ( ), .

, , . , , , : , , .
, .
, , , ,
399

. :
, , , . ,
, , , , .
, -, ,
, -, ,
.
, . , W
, ,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
, .
, . 1:

. 1.

, , , ,
, , .
, 400

,
.
1.2.

.
, , , :
.
(-) , , - ( -) 3. ,
- ,
, ,
.
-
( Synt-) 4 .
,
.
, , .
, ,
.
, - (= )
(= ), .
1.3.
,
. ,
. ,
401

, .
: ,
.
, , . , -, 48 ,
(1) (2) . -,
12
,
, .
,
,
.

2.1-2.2.

, .
, :
,

, .
,
, .
(.. - ) 3.1-3.7.

, .
, - , .
402

2.
2.1.
(Synt-) , , . , , , .
(.
1.3).

; ,
, ,
.
2.2.

.
1. , ,
, .
2. (, , ..) .
3. . , L, , , ..
, , (1) , . 2.
(1) saca=ka
saca=lul
po=n=ta


po

saca

saca

. 2.

403

, (2) , . 3.
(2) ku
pam=ey=nun nay=ka cwi=lul ccoch=nun
saca=lul


kapcaki po=ass=ta

po

pam

ku

nay

cwi

saca

kapcaki

ccoch

. 3.

, . 2 po , . 3 5 .
4. , . , (2)
ccoch cwi , - , , po cwi .
- (. 5.2, 6).
5. , . 5.
6. , , ; , .
,
404

. , (3) mek phali


:
(3)

twukkepi=ka
phali=lul

mek=ess=ta

(4) ttwieka ()
matang ():
(4)

twukkepi=ka
matang=ey

ttwieka=n=ta

, , , . (3) . 4 (4) . 5:

ttwieka

mek

phali

twukkepi

twukkepi

. 4.

matang

. 5.

7.
*, : phal.li* . ,
. * - (. 6.2).
3.
-
3.1. -
- (-, -)
,
, . -
405

- (
. 3.7). , (1) (2) . , ,
, ,
-, , ,
- .
-
, , ; ,
.
3.2.
- , ,
.
-, , , , wus , cis
, kwusengha .
-, , c , :
(1) , - ,
. , hana , sok , cenchey
. - - ;
(2) , ; , P- . , , Copul, i , kath , ha ;
(3) , . ,
Belong () Cont (, );
(4) , *P(N), N
. 406

,
6.
3.3.
- , , .
-,
, , , salam , cangmi , cimcak .
-, ,
. , , Fact,
, kes , il , , cwul .
, -
(X, Y, Z...) s. ,
.
X, Y, Z ... ,
(, ).
s
, , - , . 6, - P .
s - - (. 6.1).
P

P
A

Q
B
. 7.

. 6.
407

- , . 7, P, Q ,
-.
, s, ,
. -, . 8 . 9.
elyep

na

mwuncey

. 8.
elyep
mwuncey . -, . 8, (5):
(5) na=nun i
mwuncey=ka elyep=ta

sayngak.ha

elyep

kwahakca

kwahakca

mwuncey

. 9.
elyep , s. (6)
sayngkak.ha .
(6) kwahakca=tul=un
i
mwuncey=lul

sayngkak.ha=ki=ka elyep=ta

. .
408

-
,
s .
3.4. -
,
-, ,
. ,
.
- ,
.

, - .
3.5. -
- ,
. , , . 10 . 11,
- :

ccoch

ccoch

na

. 10.
(7)

(8)

saca

saca

na

. 11.

- . 10 (7):
na=nun
saca=lul
ccoch=nun=ta


- . 11 (8):
saca=nun
na=lul
ccoch=nun=ta


409

3.6.
, ,
P-. , , ,
Compar - (9), . 12.
(9) ecey=pota te
sicangha=n saca=ka cam=i tul=ess=ta

sicangha

ca

sicangha

ca

saca

saca

saca

saca

COMPAR
S

. 12.
:
, (
-, ).
, , , ,
, .
- .

, , . WHEN,
TTAY. . 1 -, :
410

1.

WHEN

:
S
T ,

( ) TTAY . 13.

T
WHEN

TTAY
T

. 13.

(10), :
(10) phwuekh il=ul
ha=l
ttay=nun aphchima=lul

ip=ko
ha=p=ni=ta

- , *
. 14 - (10).
ha

ha

il

il

ip

WHEN

aphchima

. 14.
TTAY
-:
411

ha

ip

il

aphchima

(X, )

(X, )


(. . 15):
ip

X
TTAY

aphchima

ha

il

. 15.
4.
4.1 Synt- -:
(1) (2) - . ,
.
-,
, -
. -,
. -,
412

, ,
. (11):
(11) yeysnal
enu
maul=ey khu=n
sotong=i


il.ena=ass=e=yo

-
(11)
. 16, - . 17.
il.ena

maul

sotong

enu

khu

yeysnal

. 16.

il.ena

khu

sotong

sotong

. 17.

4.2. Synt- -
, - . (12).
413

(12)

ai=ka
panana pakwuni=lul

mek=ess=ta

- (12) . 18 . 19.
Synt-

mek

mek

ai

pakwuni

ai

panana

Cont

panana

pakwuni

. 18.

panana

. 19.

(. (, )) (. (, )) -
.
5. -

5.1. -

-
, , .
(. 1.2), ,
- . 414

, .
. , . - , ,
- .
- : - S
S, ,

-.
<P0>, K1(i1)K2,
K3(i2)K4, K5(i3)K6, ..., Kn(in)Kn+1, <P0> P-, n+1 ( Kend) ( ), , Km(im)Km+1 , Km , im , Km+1 im Km. K1
P- <P0>;
( ) P-, . , ,
3
K2 , K2
<P0>.
, - , ,
P- Synt-. , .
5.2.
,
, ( 415

1 , 2 P-, 3 -
5 ),
: (
4 Copul- 6 ).
,
, .

, .
, . P(n) , P n . ((), () )
, .. , . ,
.
1. (. 20)

P
( )

(n)

,
( )

(m)

()

( )

(n)

( )

Q
()
(), () ; , P(n) n 1,
() ; , Q(m) m 1
. 20.
, Q
, . . 21
.
M=(). , , , , mwulken ().
416

, , (.
6.5).
sinkiha

kwuha

nay

mwulken

kwuha

mwulken

mwulken

nay

sinkiha

mwulken

. 21.
:
P
kwuha

Q
sinkiha

()
nay

()

()
mwulken

M
mwulken

2. P- (. 22)

P
()

(n)

,
()

(m)

()

()

(n)

() () ; P n 1
() ; Q(m) m 1

(n + 1)

()

()

. 22.
.
-
. 23:
417

malha

choncang

,
s

malha

chikhyetul

choncang

son

choncang

s
chikhyetul

choncang

son

. 23.
:
P
malha

Q
chikhyetul

()
choncang

()
s

()
choncang + son

3. - (. 24)

P
()

(n)

,
()

()

(m)

P
()

(n)

()

()
(m)

()
(), () ; P(n) n 1
() () ; (m) m 1
. 24.

()
M

-
, -
,
. . 25
-.
,
hana mwultongi .
(. 6.5).
418

olli

choncang

mwultongi

olli

hana

mwultongi

hana

choncang

mwultongi

mwultongi

. 25.
P
olli

:
Q
hana

()
choncang

()

()

M
()
mwultongi mwultongi

4. Copul- (. 26)
P
()

Copul

(n)

()
()

Copul

(n)

Fact

()

P
()

(), () ; P(n) n 1
. 26.

(n)

()

( - ),

.
. 27 Copul-.
ciwu

wucwu

huncek

Copul

Fact

ciwu

wucwu

Copul

huncek

ciwu

wucwu

. 27.
419

huncek

:
P
ciwu

()
wucwu

()

M
huncek

5. (. 28)
P(n)

P(n)

P(n)
M

. 28.
.
tayha

nonmwun

tayha

,
kwuco

nonmwun

tayha

yeksa

nonmwun

kwuco

yeksa

. 29.
. 29 . :
P
A
M
B
tayha
kwuco
nonmwun
yeksa
6.
(. 30)
(n)
(n + 1)
P
P
()

()
Q

()

(m)

()

()

Q (m-1)

M
()

()
()

M
(), (), (), () ; n 1, m 1
m = 1, Q
. 30.
420

, , . . 31
:
Copul
Copul

Fact
elyep

sayngkak.ha

sayngkak.ha

pwun.ya

Fact
elyep

pwun.ya

. 31.
P
Copul

:
Q
elyep

M
sayngkak.ha (pwun.ya)

() () () ()

6.
,
.
: , , ,
, .
, : ( 6.1), ( 6.2),
( 6.3) ( 6.4) - - . , :
( 6.5) <Kend>
.
421

6.1. :
P- ,
s, s - P- (, s ,
). , - s
, , : - -. , , , P-, . , , (13):
(13) 1908 nyenkyeng
kwahakca=tul=un wuli unha=ka
1908


wucwu cenchey=lul kwusengha=n=ta=ko sayngkak.ha=ess=ta

1908 ,
.
- (13) . 32:
kwusengha

sayngkak.ha

kwahakca

unha

wucwu

cenchey

wucwu

. 32.
- . 32 s. s kwusengha . , , . 33:
sayngkak.ha

kwahakca

kwusengha

unha

. 33.
422

wucwu

6.2. :
Synt- -
* (. 2.2, . 7). - .
, - ,

- .
. ,
P-,
. - (. . 34) (14):
(14)
salam=i
twukkepi=ey
mwul.li=ess=ta



P-

Synt-

mwul

mwul.li*

twukkepi

salam

salam

twukkepi

. 34.

, mwul.li
Synt- . 34 . - (. . 35):

mwul

twukkepi

mwul*

salam

salam

. 35.
423

twukkepi

6.3. :
P- Synt- , , ,
- .
. .
,
. () , -, .
(15).
(15) kuleh=n=tey pem.in=ul
cap=ul
swu
iss=ul=kka?

, ?
Synt- - (15) . 36.
Synt-

-
*P(swu)

iss

kuleh

pem.in

swu

cap

pem.in

cap

. 36.
, Synt- . 36
iss () swu (), -. , - . 36 *P(swu),
( , 424

). *P(swu), . swu () . 2:
C0

P(C0)

N(C0)

swu

*P(swu)

swu

Oper1(N)

iss;
+Neg:
eps

2.
Func1(N) .
Perm1(*P (swu)) =
kanungha

, . 2.
1. C0 , . - , , .
2. P(C0)
, , .
, Oper ( //Oper) C0. swu
- , P(C0) *P(swu).
3. N(C0) , C0.
4. Oper1(N) Oper-, .
- N ,
.
Oper1 + ha , swu Oper1 . swu
Oper1 iss eps (
).
5. Func1(N) . Func1 Perm1,
.
- Synt- (15) , *P(swu) iss swu. ,
iss Oper1(N), N N(C0). N(C0) C0, swu. , ,
iss Oper1(swu). , *P(swu)
425

//Oper1(swu) (. . 2).
Oper1 //Oper1 :
A//Oper1(0)B AOper1(0)C0 | B
, //Oper1(0),
( A B),
Oper1(0), Oper1(0)
0, B Oper1(0).
*P(swu), //Oper(swu),
Oper(swu), iss. . 37.
*P(swu)

iss

Oper (swu)

swu

swu

. 37.
, s , iss ().
- .
.
6.4. :
- ,
,
- , , .
, ,
-. -

. , ,
, ,
. 3.7.
426

6.5. :

.
-, <Kend> , ,
, , ,
(. 5.2 . 21) -, , ,
(. 5.2
. 23). Synt-
- , <Kend> Synt-, ,
<Kend> ,
Synt- , <Kend> .
, .
-, , <Kend>
,
.
.
( ) P- (16):
(16)
cwuin=un
apeci=uy
ttang=ul
ppay.as=ass=ta


- - (16) . 38.

. 38.
427

( ttang
) (. . 39).
ppay.as

ttang

cwuin

ttang

apeci

. 39.
. 40.
ppay.as

ttang

cwuin

apeci

. 40.
7.
,
- .
7.1.
(17):
(17) matangsoy=nun khu=n
nwun=ul kkumppek.i=mye

pithulpithul
kel.enao=ass=e=yo

- (17) . 41, Synt-


. 42. Synt- -
(17) . 428

(. 43),
- (. 44). .

matangsoy

khu

kel.enao

kkumppek.i

nwun matangsoy
X

. 41. - (17).

nwun

kel.enao

matangsoy

kkumppek.i

pithulpithul

nwun

khu

. 42. Synt- (17).


kkumppek.i

matangsoy

nwun

kkumppek.i

khu

matangsoy

nwun

nwun

khu

. 43. .
(.
. 44) , ( ). ,
<Kend> Synt- (. . 42) , .
429

, <Kend> pithulpithul .
,
. <Kend> Synt- .
kkumppek.i

matangsoy

nwun

kel.enao

kel.enao

matangsoy

matangsoy

khu

kkumppek.i

nwun

khu

. 44. -.
7.2.
(18)

(18):
anakney=tul=un
moi=ki=man
ha=myen
eps.eci=n

mwulken=ey tayha=e
iyaki=lul
cwukopat=ass=e=yo.

, , ,
.
- (18) . 45.
iyakiha

anakney

tayha

iyaki

eps.eci

moi

anakney

mwulken

mwulken

. 45. - (18).
430

Synt- (18) . 46.

cwukopat

ha

anakney

iyaki

tayha

moi

mwulken

eps.eci

. 46. Synt- (18).


.
, P iyakiha , Synt-.
. , iyakiha //Oper (iyaki). , 6.3 (. . 47).

// Oper (C 0)
A

Oper (C 0)
A

C0

. 47.
iyakiha
cwukopat ().
. 48.

iyakiha

anakney

cwukopat

anakney

. 48.
431

iyaki

- (18), , . 49.

cwukopat

anakney

tayha

iyaki

iyaki

eps.eci

moi

anakney

mwulken

mwulken

X
. 49.

5 ,
: 1 (. 50),
2 P- (. 51), 3 Copul- (Copul ha) (. 52),
5 (. 53), 2 P- (. 54).

tayha

iyaki

,
mwulken

eps.eci

tayha

mwulken

iyaki

mwulken

eps.eci

. 50. 1. (1).
432

cwukopat

anakney

cwukopat

tayha

iyaki
iyaki

anakney

mwulken

eps.eci

iyaki

tayha

mwulken

iyaki

eps.eci

. 51. 2. P- (2).

Copul

moi

anakney

ha

moi

anakney

moi

anakney

. 52. 3. Copul- (3).

ha

ha

moi

anakney

anakney

moi

. 53. 4. (5).
433

cwukopat

anakney

iyaki

,
iyaki

tayha

ha

anakney

moi

mwulken

eps.eci

cwukopat

ha

anakney

anakney

moi

tayha

iyaki

iyaki

mwulken

eps.eci

. 54. 5. P- (2)
anakney (), iyaki (). , Synt-.
434

8.

,
- , . , , ,
. ,
, . , ,
.
,
, - ,
, - .
, :
. ,

,
, , , . , , : , , , , .
, .
, ,
; .
, -
Python
, 435

. , , - ,
. ,
, .

. // . . 5. .:
, 1970.
.. . .1. . 3- .
.: , 2000.
.. // . . 6, 1975. . 102114.
Martin S. E. A reference grammar of Korean. Rutland (Vermont) Tokyo (Japan):
Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1992.
. . -. .: ,
1974.
Cang Kiswuk. Khwulkhwul.iwa ppwungppangi [ ]. :
, 2001.
Saiensu Olcey: Scientific American Hankwukphan { Scientific American
}. http://www.scienceollze.com.
1

, , -
-, -, -, -
.. ( , , ..).
( ,
..).
2
, , , .
3
-.
4
-.
5
. [ 2000: 363-364].
6
.
. [ 1974: 78-109].

436

2.
:

..
( , )


Blinov A.A.

Standard Arabic in Tunisia


The paper examines the development of Standard Arabic in Tunisia
as revealed by its use in local press. This topic is closely connected
with the problem of regional Standard Arabic variants in every
Arab country. From this point of view Tunisia gives extremely
interesting material for research, as its regionalisms very often
have no equivalents in the Arab World. The paper is focused on
lexical, morphologic, and syntactic peculiarities of Tunisian
Standard Arabic, showing its vast difference from generally
accepted literary forms.

1.

. , 22 .
() , ,
. (, , ..),
. , 437

, , , ,
[ 1987: 90].
,
. ,

, ,
, . ,
-, , .

( ,
). ,
( 2, 3 4
).
2. ,

.
- . .
.
, ,
. , . ,
-
. .
, .
438

2.1.
2.1.1. mawf ,
mawf , , waf , , mafal.
, ,
, . ,
tawaff
, . mawf , mawf ahr mris ,
mawf as-sana ad-dirsiyya .. ,
(, ). , nihya awhir , . , , 20-30
.
2.1.2. fti
fti , mawf c , . , . : al-qid muammar al-qaf qid awra al-fti min sibtambar alam , 1. , 25
.
sra al-ftia, , ,
.

fti , . fti - , fti uktbir
, fti al-mm .. , (, ),
439

, awil
bidya .
2.1.3. falla
falla , ,
, zira. , fall
, . ( ) fall
, ,
, : , . -,
falla: kitb al-falla ar-rmiyya
, kitb al-falla an-nabatiyya , kitb al-falla al-andalusiyya .. 2 .
, , , , ,
, falla zira .
,
. ,
falla
.
fallat ard , .
2.1.4. turb
turb, , .
, , , wada turbiyya . ard (ardi) , . turb ,
440

, ,
turb al-watan, turb al-ard . ,
, , - , wazra at-tahz wa-l-iskn wa-t-tahyia at-turbiyya
, .
2.1.5. munara
munara , , , .
nara , ,
, , ,
, . ,
,
concours , . , , .
:
munara f huttat talm al-lua al-arabiyya ad-dria ,
,
munara hutta
. , , ,
hutta - ,
.
, ,
.
2.1.6. tasbr
tasbr ,
: .
sabbara ,
441

, , ,
, . ,
. ,
talb 3.
2.1.7. iha
iha
- ,

. , iha ihawiyy
, .
, -, -
.., , iht . maalliyyt , ( , -,
- -, - ..)
un maalliyya ( , - ..). iha
, .
2.1.8. nuzl
nuzl
.
, nazala , , ( ), .
funduq.
lkanda ( . locanda ) 4. , ,
. , -
.
442

2.1.9. ul ,
ul
, . ul
- ulak ayy? ? ? ?. ul
amal .
2.1.9. mawtan ,
mawtan ,
, . , unwn mawtan, . , [ 2005: 88].
,
. -, mawtaniyy -.. -, mawtan ul ,
fursat amal .
2.1.10. arf ,
arf , , , zabn aml. - .. ,

, .
. ,

, , irfn ,
.
2.1.11. fad
fad

. 443

, ,
. , , , ,

, . , makn maall ,
mintaqa , , wad (awd) ..
2.2. ,
,
, , .. . ,
: nah , ri ,
zanaqa , awz ..
, ri
, , ,
. ri
, - 5. nah , ri
. nah
,
. ,
, ri nah .

zanaqa , , zanaqa , , .
zuqq , ,
. ,
, , - , ,
.
444


, awz .
: marif
dawin , .
2.3.
,


,

,
.
- al-wazr al-awwal (. ).
, -
premier ministre ( .
).

ktib ad-dawla (. ).
secrtaire dtat -, ( ) (. , ). Ktib ad-dawla
, ,
6.
,
- .
, mukallaf bi , lad ,
. ,
ktib mm, 445

, amn
mm .
- ras al-wuzar
nib al-wazr .

, mutasarrif (.:
murif ), mutafaqqid (.: mufatti
) awn , (.: muwaaf
, ). , ,
awn a-urta , . awn.
itrt,
().
: . cadre , cadres
,
itr ,
itrt . :
, . ,

,
, .
itrt : . , itr al-aala : , , .
, itrt . ,
1975 .. 446

itrt .
,
utur, . ,
, itrt
, .
itrt ,
.
cadres .
,
kdir
(kawdir). .

,
. ,
-

, .
makama at-taqb
.
, makama zuriyya, , l tribunal
correctionnel .
( ),
, , .
: , , makama at-tamyz,
makama an-naqd wa-l-ibrm (
makama an-naqd ).
,
tadls. dallasa , , ,
, , mudallis , mudallas
447

..
. tazwr tazyf.
, dna tazyf , ,
,
. fasl ,
,
,
mdda.
- .
,
. ,
. - 24 , (wilya),
(wli).
262 , (mutamadiyya),
(mutamad). (mayaha)
(ayh) ( ).
.
1956
7, , , wli qid . , . , muatamad, ,
khiya .
2.4.
. , . nasaq
448


.
nasaq , , numuww tatwr.
muaddalt. Nasaq
am.
, tasr, ,

. , tasr , .. , , , , ,
8. , assara , tasr , sara
( -.), (-.) , asr ,
, asriyya , , ,
musir ..

, tadd tad.
hatiyya .
, 20 , , : inn natmau an yafira lan
rabbun hatyn an kunn awwal-al-muminn ,
,
( , 51, .. ). hatiyya mliyya , mliyya , hatiyya
(haty) .
arma
.
arya
.
, arya at-taqud (. 449

), arya at-talq (. ) .. . tawd , . adt wa malm ,


rusm wa darib . ,
.
2.5.
.
. , ( ), . ,
,
,
(a-ahsiyya al-qidiyya La Personnalit
de Base ). ,

.

:
.
, . , dwna
,
( ) umruk. dwna
douane , .
, diwna
,
diwniyy ,
. 450

, ,
.
, , maza . , magasin,
. ,
, , maza mara
, maz
, . , , , .
maall tiriyy .
, ( , ). : 1)
, ; 2) , .
, , ,
barlamn , snim , film , duktrh
, tilfizyn , dikttr .. , . ,
, . , sln ,
,

marid. : sayyrat sln
-, b sln - .., 451

, .
, : , . ,
sln marid.
, . aksiswar ( .
accessoire , )
, adt , . arabistk arabistique
, istirb . kliyy , .
cologique
biyy . iliktrnkiyy ,
,
iliktrniyy. ,
iliktrnk ,
(lectronique ).


dnmiyy-dnmkiyy , isttiyy-isttkiyy
,
.
,
- , ,
dnmkiyy, dnmiyy. iliktrniyy-iliktrnkiyy, , , iliktrniyy. mknk ,
,
. ,
mcanique . mknk.
, , . 452


,
, ,
. : nf , ffr , afrl , my , wn ,
wliya , t .
3.

,

.
.
.
, , , ,
, , ,
, , .
. taassala
asala .
, ,
, ,
. , , mutaassil ,
taassul ..
aara . abhara , , ,
bahara, ,
. -.,
-. atrada,

tarada ( , ).
453

-iyy, . , , , ..
, ,
-iyy, : amaliyytiyy . ,
[ 1974: 18]. ,
,
, . ,
muassastiyy , , hadamtiyy
, malmtiyy ..
, , .
,
, .
,
.
,
. , silm ,
, , (, silm itimiyya
)
. , sulta sulat ,

sulutt.
454

4.
, .
: 1) -; 2) (
); 3) ( ); 4) .
, , ,
( ),
, .. , , , , . , .
, .
: knat munsaba faala hillah aad ayan
- - (. ,
- -). munsaba ,
.
( ,
), bi-l-munsaba
- .
.
5.
, ,

. ,
, ,
. 455

, :
, ..
,
.
*
*
*

.
1. ,

h
d

z
s

s
d
t

q
k
l
m
n
h
w
y


:
a, i, u

:
, ,

/ . .. . ., 2006.

.. - . ., 1996.
.. - ( ). . .
. . . . . ., 1974.
.. / .
. . . . . ., 1975.
456

.. - / . . . . . . .: , 2005.
.. . .:
, 1987.
. . .[ ibrhm as-smarr. at-tatawwur alluawiyy at-tarhiyy. al-qhira, 1966 { -.
. , 1966}].
. . .[ sti al-usr. r wa ad f-llua wa-l-adab. bayrt, 1958 { -. . , 1958}].
1

1 1969 .
. . .
3
. ulba,
. , , .
, ,
.
4
lkanda ,
funduq .
2

. . .
,
: ras al-wuzar, amn mm, wazr al-hriiyya ..
7
38 ,
21 1956 13
.
8
asr , asr
.
6

457

..
( , )



Voropaev N.N.

Names-precedents of the Chinese discourse


and their role in forming the Chinese system of values
The paper is concerned with names-precedents (NP) of the Chinese
discourse (ChD) as a part of its precedent phenomena (PPh). PPh
are the standards of the national culture that both reflect and
designate a specific axiological paradigm and the behavior
patterns that should or should not be followed. PPh include textsprecedents (TPs), NPs, situations-precedents (SPs), and phrasesprecedents (PhPs). NPs of the ChD are familiar to every socialized
member of the Chinese lingual-cultural society. In the paper, the
term NP is used as an individual name connected with a widely
known text or with a situation-precedent. On the basis of a great
number of examples the author illustrates that NPs are widely used
in the ChD and carry a great volume of cultural and historic type
information. Many NPs are united by the same TP or by the same
SP. Thus, NPs of the ChD are often represented as a system, and
actualization of one NP often leads to actualization of another NP
and other units of language.


(). , ,
. .. ,
,
[ 1996: 151]. .. , .. , .. , ,
,
458

/ [, ,
2001: 249]. ,
, .
() ,
. (), () ().
(). , , , , ,
,
[ 1998: 34-39].
, , , , .
,
. : , , .
,
, .
, , .
,
, , .
( , ,
, ) , , ( ),
.
, -
, (
XVIII ). :
459

, Qianli ma -, .. , ( , 0,5
). .
.
,
( [ 2007]). , . , , , ( , ,
),
( ,
).
: -,
(xiehouyu), , .
,
. , [
1953; . 1979]. - [ 1977] [, 2007]. - .

[ 2004],
, .
.
, - ( Bao Gong; , (960-1127 .)
; , ) 67
.
:
460

1. Bao Gong (-)


2. Bao laoye ( )
3. Bao Wenzheng ( )
( , , , ,
, ):
1. Bao Gong banan mingchaqiuhao ( ; : ; , );
2. Bao laoyede yamen haojin nanchu
;
3. Bao Wenzheng zha Chen Shimei
gongshi gongban
, ( .
.
);
4. Bao Gong fangliang wei qiongren
zhaoxiang -
( ).
- ( Guan Gong;
(220280 .) ; - ) 98 . :
1. Guan Gong .
2. Guan laoye ( ) .
3. Guan Yunchang ( ).
4. Guan di -, .
5. Guan dawang .
6. Guan Erye (,

).
461

-
( XIV ) .
, :
1 Guan Gongde huxu meide hen
- ( ).
2 Guan laoye Maicheng daome
( ; ; , ; ) ( :
).
3 Guan laoye cha yanzhi hongshang
jia hong ( ) ( ).
.
5 Guan Dawang mai doufu renqiang
huoruan ( ) .
, ,
. , .
[ 2003: 199]. -
:

[ 2002: 5].
462

Zhanke zuzong
Jiwei pengyou dao jiujia xiaozhuo, diantangli gongde Guan Gong xiang
yinqile tamende yilun.
Jia: Xianzai xuduo jiujia fandian he shangdian weishenme dou gongzhe
Guan Gong?
Yi: Guan Gong shi ge fujiang, gong ta keyi zhaofu.
Bing: Guan Gong guo wu guan zhan liu jiang shi ge yongjiang,
gongfeng ta shangjia keyi xiaomie binan.
Jia: Zhege nimen bu dongle, kaidian zuo shengyi dou hui shuadao
zhanke, Guan Gong shi wudadaode zuzong, nimen xiangxiang, bu gong
ta gong shui

.
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463

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, , . ,
, .
207 -,
( Sun Wukong; ( XVI ),
. ( Sun
xingzhe), ( Sun dasheng)
( Sun houzi). ,
, .
.
1. Sun Dashengde wuyi
shentongguangda
.
2. Sun Wukong daishang jinguzhou mei
fa ( : (
) ,
,
).
3. Sun hou da jintou shiwan ba qian li
-
( ).
464

4. Sun houzide lian yao bian jiu bian


( ).
5. Sun hou guo Huoyanshan
xian zhen benlingde shihou daole
( ).
6. Sun hou shuaidiao jinguzhou
wufawutian
< > , ;
.
7. Sun Wukong danaotiangong
huangle zhong shen ( ). ; .
8. Sun houzide pigu zuobuzhu
( , , ).
9. Sun Wukong
shangle tian wangle ziji cong na kuai shitouli bengchulaide
, ( : ).
10. Sun Wukong chi pantao
manbuzaihu
;
( ).
193 (
Wu Dalang; ( XIV ), ).
,
. .
.
1 Wu Dalang fu du chi
ye shi si, bu chi ye shi si ,
465

( ). ( , , ,
, ,
.
, ).
2 Wu Dalang mai miancha ren ruan
huo xi ,
( ).
3 Wu Dalang pan gangzi liang tou
goubuzhao
( , ,
, ; ,
; , ).
4 Wu Dalang kan feiji yanjie bu gao
.
5 Wu Dalang lashi bu qi dui
.
6 Wu Dalang zuo yifu sheng cailiao
.
7 Wu Dalang jiao men wangba laile
.
8 Wu Dalangde fen dui bu da
.
9 Wu Dalangde guancai you duan
you xiao .
10 Wu Dalangde shouming bu chang
.
11 Wu Dalangde xifu wei renjia
yangde .

, , ,
, , , , 466

(:
). .

. .
, . . 8
2008 , ( ). , (

)
, , ,
. , .
. -
.
[www.libertine.su], ,
.
. ,
, . , ,
, ,
,
: ,

. , , . . ( Niulang, Zhin). ,
. ,
467

7 7- . , , .
, .
.
1. Niulang hui Zhin xixiangfeng
.
2. Niulang pei Zhin tiansheng yiduier
.
3. Niulang peng Zhin nan xianghui
.
, 20 , , - ,
, .
.
,
,
. ( Liang Hong, Meng
Guang). , .
[ 1999: 99]. ,
.
ju an qi
mei ( ) (:
; ,
, ,
). [ 2007].
, . , , .
468

, , . :
1. ( Bole;
: , )
[www.baidu.com].
2. ( Lu Ban) -
(Luban guoji jianzhu touzi jituan). . ( [ 2007];
[www.luban.ru]).
3. ( Hua Tuo ) : -
(Hua Tuo zhongyi kangjian julebu) ( [2007]; [www.huato-club.ru]) (
).
4. ( Ma Daha ,
; )
. ,
, , -
[http://blog.sina.com.cn/sdyxlly].
6. ( Wu Dalang)
: , , , , [www.6park.com].
7. ( Hongniang )
hongniang.com ( 19.03.2007 [ 2007]).
8. ( Dong Shi ) . 469

: , [http://czs.gzs.cn].
9. - ( Bao Gong ):
-
,
, [2007].
,

, , , .
, (), , ,

.

.. (
) // : . . . / .. .. . .: , 2007. . 58-71.
2004 [
. { . }. : , 2004].
.. . .: , 1979.
.. //
, , . . 4. . 6, 1998. .34-39.
.., .., ..
//
. . 9. . 6, 2001. . 249.
2002 8 [ { } 2002 .].
.. : ? : ,
2003.
2007/09/26 // www.luxunru.com.cn [ { , ,
} 26.09.2007 .].
470

.. -
. ., 1996. . 151
.. -. .: , 1977.
.., .. - . .: -, 2007.
1999
[ . { }. : - -
, 1999].
2007/03/19 [ { }
19.03.2007 .].
http://blog.sina.com.cn/sdyxlly.
http://czs.gzs.cn.
www.6park.com.
www.baidu.com.
www.huato-club.ru.
www.libertine.su.
www.luban.ru.

471

..
((), )



Gurevich T.M.

The culturological approach to teaching Japanese


Language reflects the world of its users. Different nations view the
world at different angles, and the Japanese are no exception.
A nations vision of the world is conveyed by this nations language,
the latter reflects not only the mode of living, but also the moral
code, the relations between people, the system of values,
determined by socio-historical factors. Thus culture is reflected by
language.
(, ) -
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. . . . .: , 1996.
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. { } // - . : , 1971.
1
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.

480

..
( , )


: , ,
Strelkova G.V.

Three incarnations of The Third Vow


by Phanishvarnath Renu: the story, translation, and film
The paper deals with Tsr kasam, artht mre gaye Gulfm a
very famous Hindi story by a classic of contemporary Hindi prose,
Ph. Renu (1921-1977), translated into Russian by the Soviet
indologist Vladimir Alexandrovich Chernyshev. The paper demonstrates the contribution of this remarkable philologist to the
research in the so called regional literature and the works of
Ph. Renu in particular, giving him due credit for making this author
well known to the Russian reader. It is also shown that the film
version of the story helps to reveal and explain some important
features and details of the story, partially omitted in its Russian
translation.


(1921-1977)

.
.. . , :
, 1976; (
), 1984; , (
), 1980 .
1 ,
. (1990). ,
481

..
. Mail acal ( 2),
(,
.. ).
,
A New
voice for New Times [McGregor 1981: 15-16], 1980
() ,
,
. ..
.
[ 1990: 27-47]. ,
(1974) (1986), Drghtap .
, , , 3. ,
, , , , ,
( ), .. . Tsr kasam,
artht mre gaye Gulfm , 4. (humr) 1959 .5.
,
, ,
(pac lamb kahniya jinh Mohan
Rke ne cun) [Rake 1960: 36-87] 6 , 1960 . , ,
[Renu 1986] 7 [Davison 2005]. ,
( ) . . , ,

482

. 1960 1966 , .
, . ..
( , ,
). ,
[ 1990: 109-113].
, : , , .. , ,
, , . .
(, 8 ) (humr)
,
: ,
Kampan k aurat k ladn
. , ,
, - ,
, , , , : , (yad vah tsr
kasam kh rah hai [Renu 1960: 71].
, (yad), , ,
.
.. ( , ):

.
: ,
, .
:
! . , , .
483


. ,
!
,
, . .
, , .
, ,
:
[ 1990: 109-110].

: ! !.. [Renu 1960: 71],
, , , ,
.
,
, , , , .
,

. ,
, (
) , , . , , , ,
, , , , .
, , (ktik) - [Renu 1960: 43]9. , , ,
- (mel, m.),
. (, ichle bs sl se
; Kontrol k zamn 10 )
: Morang Rj Nepal se
, Jogban se Biratnagar
484

).
. , 50- 70 ,
(): acalik upanys/kahn ( /) na kahn ( ), , ,
. (, ).
.
, , , , ,
. (11 , , , , , , , .) ( , , , ),
.
, ,
[Renu 1960: 51].
[Renu 1960: 55],
. - , . - ,
, .
-
des bidei ( ), , , , .
, ,
, .
( -),
, , . , , , , 485

. . 12 (hrb, . ).
( mt
) (hirman -).
, ,
,
, .

, , , 13 , , - , ,
, , [Renu 1960: 40], . 15 .
, ( ). , ,
, : mer nm?.. nm mera hai hirman! { ?.. !} [Renu 1960: 41] -?.. [
1976: 71]. ,
Tsr kasam, artht mre gaye Gulfm.
, -,
-, , .
, , .
- :
[Renu 1960: 43] ( , ). , (. -) , , , , - [Renu 1960: 49].

, . ,
,
, [Renu 1960: 40]. Campak, camp ,
Michelia champaca, ,
, 14.
, , 486

[Renu 1960: 40]. , [


1976: 72], 15. , ,
.
:
() () . , ,
( ),
, , , , 16 . , -
( )
.
,
. , , ,
,
, - ,
. , ,
, . ,
:
, . , , . 17,
, - .
? [Renu 1960: 44] . : ! . , ! [ 1976:74 ]

, .
, . , , 25 . ( 15
, ,
, ,
487

). , , ( , 18) ( ,
). - , 40,
.

, .
,
, ,
.
, , .
. . , . -,
, . , (tum)19,
(ustad, guru): , .
- , -,
, -,
[Renu 1960: 55]20. -
. ,
, [Renu 1960: 5254] [ 1976: 82-84].
( ) .
-,
( - ),
[Renu 1960: 45].
,
. , . ,
488

, , . , ,

, . .
, ,
, (ltn .
lady). , ,
, , , . , :
, , , !
,
, ,
! [ 1976: 76]
: , c , ,
: [], , ,
, , ! [Renu
1960: 46]. , , , -: ,
, . ,

, .
,
, ,
, : --, !
! [ 1976: 77]. :
kaha cal gay vah zamn! { !} [Renu 1960: 46].
- ,
, , . ,
. ,
1956 ( ) , ,
489

(Guzr hu zamn
t nah dubr) .
,
,
(, ), ,
! . , ,
, (din)
(sl), , (zamn).
Guzr hu zamn 21 .
, ,
; ;

- , .
,
,
, , ,
22, . , , , ,
- . ,

.
.
, ,
, , 23, , , . ( ),
, . , ..
. , , ,
, , .
490

, , , , , , , :
, 24. . , (!) :
, , , !.., .
, , , ..
(. ), , , , .. .
, ll ,
, .
, . , (!)
, . [Renu 1960: 47-50] 5 ,
, , , ,
25.
1) , : , ! .
[vh, kitn bahiy gte ho tum! Hirman k mh ll ho gay Renu
1960: 47]. .. :
?
. ! !

[ 1976: 77].
2) (nah, nah! pav sdhe ha, tehe nah. lekin taluv itn
ll ky hai? -! , 26,
? [Renu, 1960: 48].
, , , : ,
, - .
, , 491

. [ 1976: 77]. , ..
, , . ,
( ) .
3)
ll akh, . : , ,
[ 1976: 77].
4) ( ,
-) . ,
, .

: ,
- . -
,
[ 1976: 79].
: Hirman ne dekh,
bhagavt maiy bhog lag rah hai. ll h par goras27 k paras!.. paha
tote ko ddh-bht khte dekha hai? { , , , . -. ,
- ?} [Renu 1960: 49] (goras m.
, , , , , ; paras m. , ).
5) . , . .. , ,
. ll ll liy m /
ll re dulhiniy / pn khye { - , 28, , - }
: , . , , . , , -!
! [Renu 1960: 50].
.. :
/ , . / , /
492

[ 1976: 80]. , ,
, .
---/- , , . , .
, . ,
,
,
. , ,
, (
).
,
. . .
,
, b j [Renu 1960: 43].
, ,
-, , - , ( . .. ). ,

, . ,
, ,

. , , , ,
, ,
, , [Renu 1960: 58-59].
, ,
. , 493

()
( [ ] ). ,
, , . , -.
,
.
18
16-17 . ,
, .
. , , , ,
.
, .. - , . , , ,
, 29. , . , ,
, :
( parakh liy),
[Renu 1960: 42].
, .
.. : :
, [ 1976: 72]. , - , ,
, ,
. , ,
, -,
,
. , .
494

,
[ 2001: 361].
. : , .. , ,
, . ,
, . ,

.. .
, - , , , ,
. ,
, ,
. - , , . , , ,
, -,
,
. , (), , . ,
.. .

50-70- .
. . .. . , , : ?
, , , 495

[ 1976: 71]. ,
. 30.
.
, , ,
, , .
,
, ,
mre gae Gulfm - ,
[ 1976: 103],
. ,
, , :
, ,
, , , laukik .
, .

, 31 ,
, (..
), . - , ,
. XIX XX
, ( , , , , , , ) , ,
. ,
,

.
.. [ 1985].

-,
, XIX . [ 1985: 19-46].
Grounds for Play. The Nautanki
496

Theatre of North India [Hansen 1991]. ,


, . ,
Renus Actress [Hansen 1991: 19-23 ],

(Nautanki ahzadi). , , . : To Hiraman, it is as though one of the celestials is riding in his cart,
a reference to the practice of publicly parading the temple idol in a cart
during annual temple festivals [Hansen 1991: 21]. , ,
. [Renu 1960: 45].
.. : , , ,
! [ 1976: 75]. , ,
,
, , , , , , , .
, ,
.. , The Third Vow
,
[Hansen 1991: 73-78].
. [ 1958: 124-125].
, ,
[Saksena 1940: 351]. , ,
1853 . , -,
( ), , . ,

. ,
() , . , , , .
, ,
- 497

.. . -
,
,

, : , ,
, , , ,
. ,
, , ,
, , , , , ,
. , ,

.
, , ,
, , , . ,
[Saksena 1940: 351]. ,
.
. ,
, .
, . ,
. ( 1892 .)
32.
. - ,
, .
, (!) , 1960
1966 ., , , , , . .. , . ,
[ 1990: 105-113].
, ,
498

, , , . .
( ) , , .
(1923
1966)33. -, 34 . ,
,
. Film fare award - . , ,
. , [ 1990: 106].

,
. ,
, 1967
[ 1987: 308].


. (
, )
35. ,
, . , ,
c ( ).
,
. ,
50- . 1959
, . 499

. .
, , . 36, . ,
:


, ,

[Vaid 2003],
, , !37,
. , ,
.

500


Renu Phanivarnath. Tsr kasam, artht mre gaye Gulfm / humr. Patna: Rajkamal,
1959. P. 125-165.
Renu Phanivarnath. Tsr kasam, artht mre gaye Gulfm / humr. Delhi-: Rajkamal,
1964. P. 112-150.
Renu Phanivarnath. Tsr kasam, artht mre gaye Gulfm / re kahniya. Delhi:
Rajpal and sons, s.a. P. 120-128.

.. // . . .: (. . . -), 1974. . 13-60.


.. // . .
.: Academia, 2001. . 361-372.
: / . ..
.: , 1984.
. //
. .: . . -, 1958. . 105-136.
, ( ). .: (. .
. -), 1980.
. . .: , 1961.
. . .: (. . . -), 1976.
. . . .: , 1987.
. .: , 1976.
.. . .: (. . . ), 1985.
.. . . .:
(. . . -), 1988.
. // . 8 . 4. .: . -
-, 1956.
.. (-.). : /
. .: , 1999.
.. . .: (. . .
-), 1969.
.. . .: , 1978.
.. : . .:
, 1990.
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.. . .: , 1998.
. . 15- // . : . -
- , 1958. . 77-78.
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Literature. Canberra: University of Canberra, 1981.
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}. Delhi Ilahabad Patna: Rajkamal, 1960.
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ne cun { , // , }. Delhi Ilahabad Patna: Rajkamal, 1960. P. 36-71.
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1

.[ 1990: 194]

(cal ) . 1) , , 2) , 3) , 4) ,
. ( ).
.. 1961 .

3
, , , . ,
. ,
(kkl), Chernyshov Library, , ,
1957 . , , .
.. .
( ):
, .

502

13 1992. , , , , .
suvara samyoga .
4

, (Inder sabh),
.
.
5

, http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/gaurav
gatha/2001/magregayeGulfm/mgg1.htm. .

. , . , .. ( ),
, .
7

, 1981 , . : Renus Regionalism: Language and Form // Journal of Asian


Studies. Vol. XI, 2, 1981, , ,
( , ,
. ).
8

. [ 1999].

( ) . , ,
- , . . ( ) ,
() , (12 ) .
10

- (The
Nepal-India Treaty 1950). 1950
,
, . 1950 . .

11
, .. ,
. Forbesganj, , .
, , frbisganj [Renu 1960: 55] .
12
() , .. , [ 1990: 14-15]. Reu . , ; , ; .
.
13

: ,
, ,
.
503

14

Michelia champaca 3-5 .


, . , , , . , ,
. .
15

. night jasmine [Hansen 1991: 19]

16

. , , ,
, : , [ 1956: 44], .
17

, .
: teg , ; chiy , , ; , . ,
, . ..
[ 1976: 76, 78, 80] ,
( ), .
.
18

, ( ), , gaun ,
, (samyukt) .
19

, [Renu 1960: 42].

20

, ,
[ 1976: 86].
21
, ,
,
.. , , . ( ) ,
guzr hu zamn, guzr hu zamn
t nah dubr , -
( ). .. , .
(t hai yd mujhko guzr
hu zamn).
22

Hirman ko ek gt k dh ka hth lag hai mre gaye Gulfm! Kaun th yeh Gulfm?
hrb rot hu g rah th aj ha, mre gaye Gulfm! iiii!.. becr Gulfm! {
! ? , , : , , ! ---!...
!} [Renu 1960: 67]. .. : -
, : ,
.. , , .
504

, . ,
! [ 1976: 99].
23

. Thomas de Brujn. Under Indian Eyes: Characterization and Dialogism in


Modern Hindi Fiction // Chewing Over the West. Occidental Narratives in Non-Western
Readings. Ed. Doris Jedamski. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2008. P. 186
24

,
Mre gaye Gulfm, (, ) .
tsr kasam. tisr
kasam, artht Mre gaye Gulfm
(. ) ,
[Rake 1960]. , ,
, . ,
, ,
, .
25

, (
aru, ,
. ,
).

26
, , tehe
tehe-merhe
rste (- ) ,
lk-belk - [Renu 1960:
50], , , -.
27
goras m. , , , , , . Paras m. , .
28

29

. , , .
, (. [ 1974]). ,
() (, ),
. , - .
30


,
, . .. ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.

505

31

. [Hansen 1991: 9-16]. , ,


. http://www.jstor.org/pss/2054865.

32
.
33

, .. . , , ,
, ,
40-60 . 2005 ,
, [Sinh 2002: 146-149]. .
1958 . [ 1958: 77-78].
34

, .

35

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teesri_Kasam
. , http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=Ju7jNvnqvbM.
36
.. . .
, -
, ,
. ,
The Third Vow [Davison 2005: 2].
37
,
()
(.. ).

506

..
( , )



Shagal V.E.

Arabic studies in some European countries


The paper describes studies in the Arabic language in several
countries of Europe, primarily in France. It reviews a whole range
of fascinating linguistic and sociolinguistic facts about such
studies. The aim of the paper is to situate various studies and
names of the scholars who analyzed the islamic situation in Europe.

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518

3. :

..
( )


Edelman J.I.

Towards ways of verification of historical hypotheses


Some aspects of information on ancient Indo-European society
which are obtained by linguistic reconstruction can be verified and
made more precise by using data available in ethnological
observations of the XXth century.

,
[ 1999], [ 1989-1999] [2005-2007], ( [
2005-2006]). , - . ,
( ), , , , 1.
, ,
, ,
519

, , ,
. , ,
. .
,
.
, .. :
Amistol ,
. .
hamina- , , , ,
-istol [Morgenstierne 1942: 266].
.. ,
, , ( ).
.
: Basil (.
), Tutyr (. ), Nikkola (. ), Majrmy
kwadzn ( ), Georguba (. ) .
Amistol . ,
29 ( .. 1952 .,
[ 2006: 81], . [ I: 51).
XX XXI
, , ,
, ,
.
.
520

I.
, . (. [Benveniste 1970],
[ 1995]) .
, , ...
,
, ,

( XIX .) ,

[ 1995: 144].
, ( . : )
( )
1949 . ..
( - , , .
[ 1949: 62-63]).
, ,
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),
50- 70- XX (
), . .
1. ,
XX , , (
) ,
. (
, ).
, . .
521

, , , - ( ) , : , , , mid, muad . *hama-kat ( ) (// ) , . [Morgenstierne


1974: 44] *hama- , ; *kata ( *-
, ).
2. ,

.
, ,
., , [ 1995: 156-159, 184-186; ,
1984, II: 772-774].
: ,
( ).

siaxs , ,
.. *isiaxs-, *ii-xa-, // (. [ III: 101-102],
).
,
*mtar-, *ma- ,
*em() (. . ) [Pokorny 1959: 369-370] *adu- , *ad, , * edh- (. . ) [Pokorny 1959: 1115-1116].

, . , . , , [ 1995: 186].
522

, : , : [
1995: 172].
, , . nepos ,
[ 1995: 146].

. . ,
, , . , , ,
,
haqq-i ir, . , ()
(. haqq . haqq . ir ).
: ,
.
II.
, *daia- , , , , ; ..

. : *daia- (. *dai- ), *deva ( dev- ). *deio- , [Pokorny 1959: 183-187], . (. [ 1995: 343]).
[Mayrhofer 1992: 743],
[Henning 1977 II: 628-629], , . [ 2: 306-307].
523

( ) ,
, , ..

, . , ,
,
, : ut atar ait
dahyva ha yad-tya paruvam daiv ayadiy pasva van Auramazdah
adam avam daivadnam viyakanam ut patiyazbayam daiv m yadiyai
yady paruvam daiv ayadiy avad adam Auramazdm ayadaiy art
brazmaniy (), .
: . , ,
() . ( [ 1945: 135, 137]).
,
, ,
.
, , 2.

, , - , , , .
: . vdw | vdew, *hafta-daia // , ,
1) ; 2) [ I: 199-200],
. Avdwag
daia-
, [ I: 84].
524

.
, Dewi Safed,
, / . , , ,
( ) , , . , .
,
,
, . ,
- . ( ) . ,
, , ,
.

, .
,
.
*daia-
. [1958: 209-210;
1970: 168-170]; ,
, , , . [ 1990: 40-44, 47, 102-111], . [ 2005],
.
, , ,
, ,
.. , ..
, ,
: -, , ; -, , ,
. ,
, 525

(
).


. , ,
,
. ,
,
. , *ka-mda- ; ka-mra- , kaml ; ., ,
: kmalo ,
kamala- ; ,
*ka-mda-, ; (-.); [Sims-Williams
2007: 220]. *hain- , , :
han- , , hain- [Bartholomae
1979: 1729], hin-
( ) [Emmerick,
Skjrv 1982: 62], . [ 3: 401].
III. , ,
. [ 1995: 99 .] ,
(
), , ,
.
,
, , ,
, : .
wacajrag , , *wacar
( wr, . . .
526

bzr [ IV: 30]).


, -.
, /
, , ( ), . [ 1949: 64, 66;
IV: 28-29]. caar,
caajrag , .. kar, ar *kar-
(. [ 1949: 65, 161;
I: 286)]).
,
.
, ,

.

.. // . I. .-.: -
, 1945. . 134-140.
.. . I. .-.: - , 1949.
.. - . . I.
.-.: - , 1958. . II. .: ( ), 1973. .
III. .: ( ), 1979. . IV. .: (
), 1989.
.. : , , . : ,
1990.
.. (. .
.. ). .: , 2006.
.. ( -). . II. (
.. ). :
- , 1958.
.. 1970 ( 1927-1928 . . . .. ). : , 1970.
. . I. , , . II.
, , . . .
. .. . .. .
.. . .: . , 1995.

527

.., . . . - . . I-II.
: - -, 1984.
.. (.) . . .. . .: ,
1989-1999.
.. . .: , 1999.
.. (). , , .. . . . 1.
.: , 2005. . 2. .: , 2007.
- .. .
. .: (. . . -), 1982.
.. . . 1. .: , 2005. . 2 ( 1). .: , 2006. . 2 ( 2).
.: , 2006.
.. // . .
. 70- ... .: ,
2005. . 533-540.
.., ..
. . 1. .: , 2000. . 2. .:
, 2003. . 3. .: , 2007.
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. [ 1982], ,
, ,
. , ,
( ).

, -
, , , ,
. ,
(
). baxtbargata dw , () .

529

..
(, )



Vasilyev M.E.

Applying the lexical criterion


to reconstruction of genealogical trees
The paper addresses several issues of using the lexical criterion for
reconstructing genealogical trees. The basic approach which
involves the neighbor-joining method as its core is given careful
consideration and is shown to suffer from methodological shortcomings. As further analysis reveals, these shortcomings of the
basic method arise from its complete disregard for the statistical
nature of the raw lexicostatistical data. This factor has been taken
into account in developing a new approach which allows statistical
treatment in the course of construction and dating of a tree. The
provided examples of the genealogical analysis of the Chinese
dialects and the Romance languages prove the proposed method to
be more efficient and statistically reliable than the basic one.
Statistics: the mathematical
theory of ignorance.
M.Kline

1. .
- ,
XIX .
[, 2005: 7-20, 154-177]. , 530

,
,
,
. ,
, .. .
- , 80- XX
, , , [ 2007(a): 781]. .. - [- 1971-1984],
1
,
: -

.
[Starostin 1999] .. ,
:
1. . 2 ,
, , , , . ,
,


, [ 2007(b): 408].


.
2.
531

. (
). , , - , [ 2000: 24]. , 4-5 . .., . , - ,
, ,
.
[,
1984; 2002, Militarev 2002],
, .. [Vydrin 2009] .
, .
.
, - .
, 5-6 . -
[Starostin 1999]. , de facto
, .
[ 2007(), 2007(b);
Starostin 1999], .. .
- ,
. , -. , , , . 532


.
.
:
1.
, .
2.
3.
3. ,

. , .

,
? :
, , .
, [ 2007(a), 2007(b)], , ,
,
,
4. , , , ,
-,

, [ 2007(b)].
50- XX
, , .
. () 5:
533

1.
, .
.
2. ,
. () 6.
3. , , ..
t,
, , .
4. , ,

.
5. ,
-,
- 7.
.
,
:
N(t)=N0et,
(1)

t , , ;
N0 : N0=N(0),
;
, ( . =0,14);
N(t) N0, t, N0.

1949- (Carbon-14), . 8, , 534

, . ,

.
, .. . [ 2007(b)] :
1. 9. .
.
[ 2007(b): 416417]. 16
,
, 1400 ,
X . (.. 1000 ).

10.
.
, , , , . , , 11. , , 40% ,

20 30 . [Militarev 2005: 345].

15-17 . .., 12 9-10
. ..
2. ,
, .
535

..
3- 4- ,
[ 2007(b)].
, ,

. .. [Starostin 1999, 2000; Militarev 2005;
2007(b)],

, , ,
.
,
[ 2007(b):
429].
.
,
. , , .
: 4 . ,
,
5- - . 13
,

. , -, .. , , , [ 2007(b):
429]. ,
:
, (
536


) [ ].
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, , : -
.
, ,
, .
: . ,

.
, , 1) , 2) ( , , )
3) . ,

.

, , . .
, ,
.
537

2.
:
1) , ;
2) ,
, , ;
3) :

;
4) ,
.
, .
, 3- 4-
.
.
2.1.
, ,
, ,
,
[Starostin 2000: 228; , 2001: 148].
, , , ( ),
.
, . .
538

,
. 1. - -
NAB=0,7
)
B
; ,
, NBC=0,9
A
C
: NAB, NAC,
NAC=0,7
NBC. ,
NAB=0,7
)
( B
)
t
t
NBC=0,88
A
. , ,
C
NAC =0,68
-, ,
NAB=0,7
)
B
, t
t
A
NBC=0,860,9
,
,
C
NAC=0,68

: NAB=NAC=0.7.
. 1.
,

( NBC
, , ) NAC
NAB: , NAB=0,7
NAC=0,68 (. 1).

, :
NC=0,88 NC=0,9 . , NC=0,88
t , t, NC=0,9 (. . 1 1). ,
NABNAC (0,70,68) t. : NAB
NAC N = NAB -NAC = 0,7 - 0,68=0,02 (2 ) 539

NC, .. , NCN = 0,880,02 = 0,860,9 (. 1). ,


, : 0,56 +00,,15
14 = 0,420,71 . .
, A
, B
C , . ,
n
N i
j,
n-2 , .
Eij,
:
n

| N ki N kj |

E ij =

k =1

k i; k j; N ki N ij ; N kj N ij ,

(2)

k =1

n ; Nki, Nkj i
j k n. ,
(Beijing) (Hakka) (. . 1):
0,76 0,74 + 0,79 0,81
E P+H =
= 0,02 ,
42
..
N=0,840,02.
N ,
N 0,8 [ 2003].
1.

1,95 .

Beijing
Bai
Fuzhou
Hakka

Beijing
1
0,76
0,79
0,84

Bai
0,76
1
0,72
0,74
540

Fuzhou
0,79
0,72
1
0,81

Hakka
0,84
0,74
0,81
1

2.2.

, , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
N(t) (.
. 2). ,
N(t). . 2 , N(t)
[, 2008]:
N(t)=0,03+0,97-0,43t (1+0,43t).
0,1

0,09

0.08

0.99

0.98

0.97

0.07
0.06

0.05

0.96
0.95

(3)

N
0

0.15 0.3 0.45 0.6 0.75 0.9


t, .

0.04
0.03
10

N
11

12

13

14 15
t, .

.10.
. 2. ,
-

2.
(D),
- , .

N
t
t
t
D

0.99
0.44
0.35
0.24

0.95
0.88
0.84
0.79

0.9
1.3
1.26
1.22

0.8
1.99
1.96
1.92

0.7
2.64
2.61
2.58

0.6
3.32
3.28
3.25

0.5
4.06
4.02
3.98

0.4
4.91
4.87
4.82

0.3
5.98
5.92
5.86

0.2
7.46
7.37
7.28

0.1 0.05

10.20 14.27
9.99 13.48
9.79 12.87
0.191 0.095 0.076 0.066 0.066 0.070 0.078 0.093 0.120 0.180 0.410 1.392
541

N+0,005, 0,91+0,005=0,915 ( ), N-0,005, .. 0,91-0,005=0,905 ( ).


. 2 , , , , D=95 N=0,99, D=33
N=0,7 D=205 N=0,1. , , , E=0,5 ,
(. 4).
3.

3.1.

, tp
L1 L2, t1 t2, N(t2-t1) (. 3).
tp

t1

t2

L1

L1
N(t2-t1)=0,78

L1+L2

N(t1-tp)=0,91

N(t2-tp)=0,7
L2

. 3.

t1
t1-tp N(t1-tp), N(t)
542

(3), L1
L2 (4) [, 2008]:
N(t) = 0,2+0,8-0,14t .
(4)
N(t1-tp) L2
(. 4):
Nconst(t1-tp),
;
Nvaria(t1-tp), :
Nvaria(t1-tp) = N(t1-tp) Nconst(t1-tp) ,
L2 N(t) =0,14.
t1

tp
L1

t2

Nconst(t1-tp)

Nconst(t1-tp)
N(t2t1)

N(t1-tp)

L2

Nvaria(t1-tp)

Nvaria(t1-tp)e-0,14(t2-t1)

. 4.

,
N(t2-t1)
N(t2-t1) = Nconst(t1-tp) + Nvaria(t1-tp)-0,14(t2-t1),

N(t2-t1) = Nconst(t1-tp)+[N(t1-tp) - Nconst(t1-tp)]-0,14(t2-t1),


(5)
N(t2-t1), t1, t2, N(t1-tp) Nconst(t1-tp)
tp. N(t1-tp)
(3); Nconst(t1-tp) 1 :
Nconst (t)=0,03+0,17-0,31t (1+0,31t).
(5)
: , .
543

L1 . 3 ,
V . .. (t1=0,5 .), L2
t2=1,95 . . N(t2-t1)
OC : N(t2-t1)=N(1,45)=(0,79+0,77)/2=0,78 14.
t1=0,5 t2=1,95 (5):
0,78 = 0,03+0,17-0,31(t1-tp) [1+0,31(t1-tp)]+
+{0,03+0,97-0,43(t1-tp)[1+0,43(t1-tp)]-0,03-0,17-0,31(t1-tp)[1+0,31(t1-tp)]}-0,141,45.
Mathcad (t1tp)=1,16 :
tp=t1- (t1-tp) =0,5-1,16=-0,66 . .
, , t2=1,95 .
:
N(t2-tp)= N(1,95-(-0,66))= N(2,61)=0,7.
. : ,
(3).
3.2.

/ , , [Starostin 2000: 236, 237; , 2001: 134, 142,143]:


N , (t) = e

0,05 N , (t)t 2


20,05 N

(t) t 2

,
.
(6)
N , (t) = e
,
1,95-0,5=1,45 . :

0,05N,(1,45)1,452

N ,(1,45) = e

544

= 0,909 ,

.. 91 . t2=1,95 .
/
N,(t2-t)=0,780,909=0,709,

t2 t =

ln[N , (t 2 t )]
2 0,05 N , (t 2 t )

ln0,709
2 0,05 0,709

= 2,02 ..


tp= t2-(t2-tp) =1,95-2,02=-0,07 . .
, 400 .., tp=-0,66 . , ,
, : tp=-0,07
. .
, , , N , -0,4 t. N
.

t=-0,36 N :
N=0,78+0,03=0,81.
N=0,03 N=0,780,03=0,75 t=-0,24, (-0,4) . .
t=-0,39 N
: N=0,78-0,07=0,71.
, , , .
=0,03 tp tp= -0,4
. (. 5).
545

-0,66
-0,93

-0,4

-0,07

-0,36 -0,2

0,06

t,
.

. 5.

,

,
(. 2.1).
3.3.
,

(5) (6), a priori


, , ,
. ,
,
.
. 6.
a), ) ) 3
L1 L2 N1,2(t2-t1) ,
L1 t2 N1(t2-t1).
(. 6) N1,2<N1 (0,7<0,8) ,
t1 L1 L2
, .. t1: tp<t1.
, N1,2=N1 (. 6), L2 , ,
L1, , tp=t1. -
tp.
, N1,2>N1 (0,9>0,8;
. 6). L1 (N1=0,8),
,
N1,2=0,9, L1 L2:
546

t2-t1, L1,
L1 L2 80 , ..
N1,2N1.
t>t1, .
, , .
, , , .

,
N1,2>N1.
N1,2 ,
, N1=N1,2, .. ,
L1, L2
. , ,
, .

(. 3).
, N1,2
c , ( ). , .
(6): (0,1
. ) (1,95 .) N1=0,863
N1,2=0,89,
tp=0,2 . (!)
t1=0,1 ..

547

tp

t2

t1
)
L1

N1=0,8

L1

N1,2=0,7

L1+L2

L2

tp=t1
)

L1=L1+L2

N1=0,8

L1

N1,2=0,8

L2
t1
)

tp-?

L1

N1=0,8

L1

L1+L2
N1,2=0,9
L2
. 6. (,) ()
N1,2 N1,

548

3.

()

0,1 .

0,3 .

0,6 .

N1,

N1,2

0,2 .

-0,2 .



N1,2

0,95

0,93

0,97

0.97

0,8

0,4

0,5

0,3

0,915

0,956

0,946

0,967

0,91

0,93

0,94

0,96

,
.
, 4.3 ,
.
4.



..
, ()
549

. ()
, ,
,
.
, , , ,
. , ,
.
,
, . ,

(. 4): (Beiging), (Chendu),
(Bai), (Fuzhou) (Hakka).
4.

1,95 .

PEK Beiging
CHN Chendu
BAI Bai
FUZ Fuzhou
HAK Hakka

PEK
1
0,93
0,76
0,79
0,84

CHN
0,93
1
0,71
0,71
0,77

BAI
0,76
0,71
1
0,72
0,74

FUZ
0,79
0,71
0,72
1
0,81

HAK
0,84
0,77
0,74
0,81
1

4.1.
15


: ,
. ,
, - . 550

, , ,
.
,
[, 2005: 162-167].
. 5 ( . 4 (CHN)) ,

(PEK) (HAK) N=0,84.
5.

1,95 .

PEK
BAI
FUZ
HAK

PEK
1
0,76
0,79
0,84

BAI
0,76
1
0,72
0,74

FUZ
0,79
0,72
1
0,81

HAK
0,84
0,74
0,81
1

(. 7)
. 5 . 6: PEK HAK
/
BAI FUZ.
6.

PEK HAK

PEK+
+HAK
BAI
FUZ

PEK+
+HAK

BAI

FUZ

0,74

0,79

0,74
0,79

1
0,72

0,72
1

. 6
(PEK+HAK) FUZ N=0,79.
. 7 . 7.
551

7.

(PEK+HAK) FUZ

PEK+
+HAK+
+FUZ
PEK+
+HAK+
+FUZ
BAI

BAI

0,72

0,72

. 7
(PEK+HAK+FUZ)
BAI N=0,72 (. 7).
, 2.1.
(PEK HAK . 5) :
E P+H =

0,76 0,74 + 0,79 0,81


= 0,02 ,
42

..
N=0,840,02.
N FUZ PEK+HAK (. 6):
E F,P + H =

0,72 0,74 + 0,72 0,74


= 0,02 .
2

BAI PEK+HAK+FUZ
. 7 ,
, BAI PEK+HAK+FUZ ,
, 0,72 (. (2)).
. 7.
552

4.2.

( 2.1) ,
i j
Nij , Eij,
n (2).
, m ,
m :
E m = min{E ij}, i j,
i =1,n
j=1, n

Nkm Nk, |NkmNk|, k = 1, n , ..


.


, m
.

, ..

.
,

.

. . 5 . 8.
553

8.
Nij
1,95 . Eij

PEK
PEK 1
BAI 0,76
FUZ 0,79
HAK 0,84

Nij
BAI FUZ
0,76 0,79
1 0,72
0,72 1
0,74 0,81

HAK
0,84
0,74
0,81
1

PEK
PEK 0
BAI 0,085
FUZ 0,035
HAK 0,020

Eij
BAI FUZ
0,085 0,035
0 0,050
0,050 0
0,085 0,035

HAK
0,020
0,085
0,035
0


PEK HAK
Eij=0,02.
N E PEK HAK
- PEK HAK (. 9), c :
0,76 + 0,74
0,79 + 0,81
= 0,75; N F,P + H =
= 0,80 ;
2
2
0,72 0,80 + 0,72 0,80
E B, P + H =
= 0,08;
2
0,72 0,75 + 0,72 0,75
E F, P + H =
= 0,03.
2

N B, P + H =

9.
Nij
1,95 . Eij
PEK HAK

Nij
PEK BAI FUZ HAK
PEK 1 0,75 0,80 1
BAI 0,75 1 0,72 0,75
FUZ 0,80 0,72 1 0,80
HAK 1 0,75 0,80 1

Eij
PEK BAI FUZ HAK
PEK 0 0,08 0,03 0
BAI 0,08 0 0,05 0,08
FUZ 0,03 0,05 0 0,03
HAK 0 0,08 0,03 0
554

Eij . 9. FUZ PEK+HAK N=0,80,03. FUZ PEK+HAK . 10:


N B,F+ P + H =

0,72 + 0,75 + 0,75


= 0,74.
3

10.
Nij
1,95 . FUZ PEK+HAK

PEK
BAI
FUZ
HAK

PEK
1
0,74
1
1

Nij
BAI FUZ HAK
0,74 1
1
1 0,74 0,74
0,74 1
1
0,74 1
1

, , . 7. ,
,
. 7.
PEK
0,840,02
0,790,02

PEK

0,840,02

HAK

0,800,03

FUZ

0,72

FUZ

0,74

BAI
0,7

0,8

0,9

HAK

BAI

1,0

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

. 7. ,
:
) ;
)
555


. 8. , ,
, Nij. (CHN) c NCHN,PEK=0,93, . 4 , .
/

. 11(1-4), . 8
, . 8.
, ,
, N=0,930,07
CHN PEK PEK. ,
, =7
N=0,93 , 1 .
,
.
11.



11.1

11.2

PEK CHN BAI FUZ HAK


PEK
CHN
BAI
FUZ
HAK

0,93 0,76 0,79 0,84

0,93 1 0,71 0,71 0,77


0,76 0,71 1 0,72 0,74
0,79 0,71 0,72 1 0,81
0,84 0,77 0,74 0,81 1
556

PEK+
BAI FUZ HAK
+CHN
PEK+
1
0,71 0,71 0,77
+CHN
BAI 0,71
1 0,72 0,74
FUZ 0,71 0,72 1 0,81
HAK 0,77 0,74 0,81 1

11.3

PEK+
+CHN

BAI

FUZ+
+HAK

PEK+
+CHN

0,71

0,71

BAI

0,71

0,72

FUZ+
+HAK

0,71

0,72

PEK+
+CHN
BAI+
+FUZ+
+HAK

0,71

0,71

0,930,07

)
PEK

CHN

PEK

0,840,02
HAK
0,790,02

HAK
0,810,04
0,720,01

FUZ

0,72

11.4
BAI+
PEK+
+FUZ+
+CHN +HAK

FUZ

BAI
BAI
N
N
0,8
0,9
1,0
0,7
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
. 8. ,
: ) ; )
. . 12.
. 9.
12.


12.1

PEK
CHN
BAI
FUZ
HAK

PEK CHN
1 0,93
0,93 1
0,76 0,71
0,79 0,71
0,84 0,77

Nij
BAI
0,76
0,71
1
0,72
0,74

FUZ
0,79
0,71
0,72
1
0,81

HAK
0,84
0,77
0,74
0,81
1

Eij
PEK CHN BAI FUZ HAK
PEK 0 0,067 0,130 0,097 0,067
CHN 0,067 0 0,070 0,063 0,073
BAI 0,130 0,070 0 0,033 0,077
FUZ 0,097 0,063 0,033 0 0,043
HAK 0,067 0,073 0,077 0,043 0
557

PEK CHN
PEK 1 0,93
CHN 0,93 1
BAI 0,775 0,71
FUZ 0,775 0,71
HAK 0,84 0,77

Nij
BAI
0,775
0,71
1
1
0,775

FUZ HAK
0,775 0,84
0,71 0,77
1 0,775
1 0,775
0,775 1

Nij
PEK CHN BAI FUZ HAK
PEK 1 0,85 0,775 0,775 1
CHN 0,85 1 0,71 0,71 0,85
BAI 0,775 0,71 1
1 0,775
FUZ 0,775 0,71 1
1 0,775
HAK 1 0,85 0,775 0,775 1
12.4
Nij
PEK CHN BAI FUZ HAK
PEK 1
1 0,753 0,753 1
CHN 1
1 0,753 0,753 1
BAI 0,753 0,753 1
1 0,753
FUZ 0,753 0,753 1
1 0,753
HAK 1
1 0,753 0,753 1

12.2
Eij
PEK CHN BAI FUZ HAK
PEK 0 0,067 0,142 0,142 0,053
CHN 0,067 0 0,080 0,080 0,073
BAI 0,142 0,080 0
0 0,062
FUZ 0,142 0,080 0
0 0,062
HAK 0,053 0,073 0,062 0,062 0
12.3
Eij
PEK CHN BAI FUZ HAK
PEK 0 0,065 0,140 0,140 0
CHN 0,065 0 0,075 0,075 0,065
BAI 0,140 0,075 0
0 0,140
FUZ 0,140 0,075 0
0 0,140
HAK 0 0,065 0,140 0,140 0

CHN
0,850,07
0,840,05

PEK
HAK

0,75

FUZ

0,720,03

BAI
N
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
. 9.
,

558

. 9: N
E PEK HAK (N=0,840,05)
CHN
(N=0,850,07)
,
..


;
N=0,720,03
BAI FUZ
N=0,75 BAI+FUZ
PEK+HAK+CHN

. N=(0,72+0,75)/2=0,735,
N=0,72 -

PEK+HAK+CHN BAI FUZ, E c . . 12.1


:

E BAI, PEK + E BAI,CHN + E BAI, HAK


3
E FUZ,PEK + E FUZ,CHN + E FUZ,HAK

0,13 + 0,07 + 0,077


= 0,092;
3
0,097 + 0,063 + 0,043
=
= 0,067;
3

, FUZ
PEK+HAK+CHN.

. 9
, .
PEK+HAK+CHN (. 12.1):
N=
E=

N PEK,CHN + N PEK, HAK + N CHN, HAK


3
E PEK,CHN + E PEK, HAK + E CHN, HAK
3

0,93 + 0,84 + 0,77


= 0,85;
3
0,067 + 0,067 + 0,073
=
= 0,069 0,07.
3
=

, FUZ PEK+HAK+CHN:
N=

N FUZ,PEK + N FUZ,CHN + N FUZ,HAK


3

E = N BAI, P + H + C N BAI, FUZ

0,79 + 0,71 + 0,81


= 0,77;
3
0,76 + 0,71 + 0,74
=
0,72 = 0,737 0,72 = 0,017.
3
=

, BAI FUZ+PEK+HAK+CHN:
N=

3 N BAI,P + H + C + N BAI,FUZ
4

3 0,737 + 0,72
= 0,73.
4

,

, . 10.
559

CHN
0,850,07 PEK

PEK
0,840,02
0,800,03

HAK

a)
0,770,02

FUZ

0,74

HAK

FUZ

0,73

BAI
0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

BAI

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

. 10. ,
:
) ; )

,
, , (. 10) . ,
, 2 )
7 ). Nij , . 10,
( ): -0,150,82
.; -0,33 -0,07 .; -0,45 . .
, : , (..
) ,
. ,

.
560

4.3.


,
. ,
, Nij (. 3.1).
,
, (5) (6) Nij, . , ,
, .
, , , Nij. ,
. , .
, , Eij, Nki Nkj, , , Nij. ,
Eij, , ,
Eij , , :
n

| N ki N kj |

E ij =

k =1

n2

k i; k j .


561

,
16.
.
( 2).
. .2.2, (ESP)
(PRT) (EESP,PRT=0,013), ,
( ) (GAL) (EPRT,GAL=0,016), , ( PRT
ESP) (VAL) (EGAL,VAL=0,024),
(ITA) (EVAL,ITA=0,033). ITA VAL , ESP0,96PRT0,97GAL0,95VAL
0,93ITA. , . 11. (EFRA,PRV=0,021).
(LAT).
, .. ,
.
. 11 (
ij103).
, , , . ,
(. 12)
- -
.

562

563

14

41

33

24

16

13

. 11.

(-0,3)

58

21

564

0,14...0,6

863,3
0,46...1

903,5

1...1,47

962,2

. 12. ,

(-0,3)

1,1...1,62

972,1

-0,3 -0,2 -0,1 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9 2,0



. ,
, , , :
1)
( ): ,
, , .
2) ,
, ( ) .

Eij.
i j (Nij),
Nki Nkj.
, :
1) ,

,
() .
2) ,
, , ,
. , .

,
.
565


( ), ( ).

( ) , :
1)
( 4.3).
2) ( , ) ( 3.2, 4.2).
3)
( 2.1).
4) ,

( 3.3).
, . , ,
: , .
, ,
.

566

1
Nconst(t1-tp),

Nconst(t),
L1
L2.
L1 L2,
, , Nconst(0)=0,2.
Nconst(t) , , Nvaria(t), Nconst(t)
N(t) L1 L2, , t,
:
Nconst(t)= N(t)=0,03.
Nconst(t)
L1 L2 ,
:
Nconst (t)=0+1-t (1+t),
Nconst(0)=0+1=0,2; Nconst(t)=0=0,03. Nconst(t) N(t), ,
, 0,035
t* (. .1.1),
Nconst(t*)= N(t*)=0,035;
0.07
17.199
, 0.06
, :
N(t)
Nconst(t>t*)= N(t>t*)=0,03;
0.05
L1 L2 0.04
.
0.035
0.03
t*
N(t*)=0,035 0.02
10
12
14
16
18
20
t*=17,199, t, .

. .1.1.
Nconst (t*)=0+1-t*(1+t*)=0,035
N(t)

=0,31
Nconst (t)=0,03+0,17-0,31t(1+0,31t).
567

Nconst(t)
N(t) . .1.2.

Nconst (t)
N (t)

N (t)

0.5
0.2
0

Nconst (t)
0

10

15

. .1.2.
L1 L2
2
.2.1.

1,95 .

LAT ITA FRA PRT ESP GAL VAL PRV ROM

LAT

0.88

0.83

0.87

0.85

0.89

0.87

0.83

0.82

ITA

0.88

0.93

0.90

0.89

0.92

0.93

0.90

0.88

FRA

0.83

0.93

0.83

0.85

0.85

0.90

0.97

0.86

PRT 0.87

0.9

0.83

0.96

0.97

0.95

0.86

0.84

ESP

0.85

0.89

0.85

0.96

0.95

0.96

0.87

0.84

GAL

0.89

0.92

0.85

0.97

0.95

0.95

0.87

0.87

0.93

0.90

0.95

0.96

0.95

0.93

0.87

0.90

0.97

0.86

0.87

0.87

0.93

0.84

0.88

0.86

0.84

0.84

0.87

0.87

0.84

VAL
0.87

PRV 0.83

ROM

0.82

568

.2.2.

LAT ITA FRA PRT ESP GAL VAL PRV ROM

LAT

ITA

0.056

FRA

0.049 0.050

0.056 0.049 0.049 0.047 0.061 0.074 0.041


0

0.050 0.047 0.043 0.040 0.033 0.034


0

PRT 0.049 0.047 0.069

0.069 0.067 0.067


0

0.037

0.013 0.016 0.031 0.056

0.060

0.047 0.043 0.067 0.013

GAL

0.061 0.040 0.067 0.016 0.017

0.017 0.030 0.051


0

VAL
0.074 0.033 0.06 0.031 0.030 0.024

PRV 0.041 0.034 0.021 0.056 0.051 0.063

ROM

0.059

0.021

ESP

0.06

0.014

0.024 0.063

0.053
0.067

0.061

0.077

0.061

0.036

0.014 0.059 0.037 0.060 0.053 0.067 0.077 0.036

.., .. .
.: , 1974.
.., .. .
.: , 2001.
.., .. - . .:
, 2005.
.., .. -
. // Orientalia et Classica /
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- .. :
: 3 . .: , 1971-1984.
., . .
.: , 2003.
.., .. ; - . 2 //
. , 1984. . 3553.
.. , // . 4,
2000. . 20-31.
569

..
: , , , //
.. . -, 2002. . 20.
.. . . .. . .:
, 2002.
.. // ..
. .: , 2007(a). . 779-793.
.. - //
.. . .: , 2007(b).
. 407-447.
.. . .:
, 1963.
Militarev A. The prehistory of a dispersal: the Proto-Afrasian (Afroasiatic) farming
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Renfrew. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2002. P. 135-150.
Militarev . Once more about glottochronology and the comparative method: the OmoticAfrasian case // Orientalia et Classica /
. .: , 2005. . 339-408.
Saitou N., Nei M. The Neighbor-joining Method: A New Method for Reconstructing
Phylogenetic Trees // Molecular Biology and Evolution. Vol. 4, 4, 1987. P. 406-425.
Starostin S.A. Methodology of Long-Range Comparison // Historical Linguistics &
Lexicostatistics / Ed. by Vitaly Shevoroshkin & Paul J. Sidwell. Melbourne: 1999.
P. 1-66.
Starostin S. Comparative-historical linguistics and lexicostatistics // Time Depth in
Historical Linguistics / The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Publications.
Vol. 1. Cambridge: Blue Print, 2000. P. 233-259.
Vydrin V. On the Problem of the Proto-Mande Homeland // : / - ; . 1, 2009.
. . 5, 2009. . 107-142.

..- , -, , ,
. , .. .. , . . [ 2000].
2

.. [ 2002: 411-443], 20-
.
, .
570

3

. , [Starostin 1999], ,

.
4
[ 2007(a): 782].
5
.

. . , ( ).
. , ,
, ,
,
.
6
.
, 100 215 . 100- , . [,
2005: 12].
7
,
[, 1974: 21-25].

.
8
-14 , , , 1960- .
9

:
1. .
2. .
3. .
.
10
,
, 100- . ,
, .
, 99- , 98- ..

571

11
. , ,
.
12
,
.. .. .
13
,
[, 2008].
14
afrfinlist.dbf,
http://starling.rinet.ru.
15
(Neighbor-joining Method)
( ) . ,

. (neighbors)
,
(., , [Saitou, Nei 1987]).
16
, : /
. Nij, , . ,

, .

572

3. -
:

.., ..
( , )


(,
)
Gorelova L.M., Orlovskaya M.N.

Information structures in Middle Mongol and Classical


Manchu (typological, ethnohistorical and areal aspects)
In this paper we analyse Mongolian texts belonging to the so-called
Middle Mongolian period (XIII-XV centuries). Our analysis shows
a striking resemblance between the information structures of the
language of ancient Mongols and those in the Classical Manchu.
Both languages possess an impressive number of special topic
markers which historically originated from conditional and
temporal converbs and certain participial forms. These infinite
verbal forms are derived from the existential verbs as well as from
the verbs of verbum dicendi. Both languages also reveal the high
level of topicality in comparison with the other languages
belonging to the Altaic language family, i.e. Turkic, Modern
Mongolic and Tungusic. On the other hand, they display their
closeness to Korean and Japanese, the so-called quasi-Tungusic
languages, where both the subject and the topic are grammatically
encoded (subject and topic-prominent languages).
The proximity between the two languages, Middle Mongol and
Classical Manchu, can be typologically, historically and ethnologically motivated. Besides, both languages are spoken in the FarEastern region where all languages possess grammatically marked
topic. Therefore the specificity of Middle Mongol and Classical
Manchu can be also motivated from the perspective of areal linguistics.
573

I.


,
, XIII- XV- . , ,
1. ,
,
,
- (1160-1227) 2. , , ,
( ) - . ( XVII .),
. XVII .
, - . : , , (= ), ,
, , , ,
( ).

, ( ) ( ).
, ( -)
[ 1977: 11-12].


(. Qing, 1644-1911),
(), . 574

, , () () ,
, ,
, .
,
[Janhunen 2003(c): 31].
()
XVII . XVIII . , - ,
, ( )
(1559-1626). XVIXVII .
.
,
[ 1963: 7, 11]. , -
, , .
-
, .
, , ( ),
-
.
,
,
, [Janhunen 2003(a): XX]. ,
, (. Tang, 618-906),
,
[Janhunen 1996: 136].
575


,
,
.
II.

- , , . , - ( ), , . , , (. Qin, 221-206 ..)
(. Han, 206 .. - 220 ..) ,
, ,
. . 3.

,
, , , ,
,
, .

( , ) ,
- : (11151234), , (. Yuan, 1279-1368),
, , , , [Janhunen 1996: 134].
X-XI .
: , , , .
576

, 4 .
.

- ,
, ,
() (; . jin, .
aisin) 1115 . (Taizu).
(1124 .)
, ( )
1121 . 5 ,

, , , ,
( ) , :
.
,
, .
, ,
[Janhunen 1996: 145].
, , ,
.
,
, .
.


[Janhunen 1996: 141].
, , : (Large Script) (Small Script).
- , , ,
577

- , , . , 6.

, , ,
.
. . .
, . ,
, . [Crossley 1997: 35-36; Janhunen 1996: 141-144]. ..
[ 2004].
, ,
.
(. Zhongdu), .
(. Song, 960-1127).
1127 .,
,
( ). , (1127-1279).
, 1141 ., , , . 1165 ., [Kessler
1993: 130].

, , 100 .
XII .
- , , ,
. XII .
578

. 1214 . , . 1234 . (gdei), , 7.


XVI . , , - ,
, - .
, ,
, , (. Dongbei),
[ 1998: 34]. , . , XIV . [Crossley 1997: 14]. (. aiman) ,
(. culgan). ,
,
,
. , ,
(. Ming, 1368-1644).
,
,
(
) 1618 ., .
,
- ,
, . -
, , , , ()
8.
,
(1627-1635)
(1635-1643) (Qing Taizong; 15921643) .
1635 ., , ,
,
, . -
579

,
, - - ,
[Sinor 1981: 133; Crossley 1990: 231-232] 9.


(1368-1644) ,
[Janhunen 1996: 138]. , [Crossley 1990: 16]. ( ) ,
, [Stary 1994: 470].
- XVII . . 1644 ., - , . - , (1755 .),
.

1911 . 300 ; .
,
(1632 .).
(1599 .),
, - [ 1963: 11-15; Crossley 1997:
35-38; Gorelova 2002: 49-51].
XI-XII . , , , . (, ,
, 10) , , . (.
omo/obo) yasu(n) , ..
( ).
580

, : , , .
,
, [
2002: 143-201].
- , , .

() ,
.

. ,
11 . ,
12 .
, (Mengwu Shiwei). ,
VII . ( )
- ,
(Hulunbeier, ),
[Kessler 1993: 145].
.
.
,
(), [ 1990: 345]. ,
, 13.
, -,
, . 1189 ., , .
,
, . ,
,
[Kessler 1993: 147].
581

1206 . ( ) (khurultai) . -, , . ,

- (. Taizu),
[ 2002: 168]. , -
. XIII . ,
, , , ,

[ 2002: 143-147]. ,

, , .
-
.
. ,
20 (1207-1227),
24 (1210-1234),
(1219-1259) 44 (12351279) [Janhunen 1996: 134]. -
14. (1209
.) , () .
. -
. 1226 . ,
.
( ), 15. ,
. . - . 1229 . ,
582

. -,
(gdei-qahan), .
, ,
, (Batu). ,
,
,
. , .
1241 . [Kessler 1993:
148-154]. 1260 . - - (Kubilai)
,
XIV . (1279-1368).
.
,
, .
-,
, ,
[ 2002: 200]. , XIII . . ,
, . , [Janhunen
1996: 160] 16
, 17.
, , , (1125 .)
, (1234 .) ()
(1227 .) ,
, .
, , , 50 10 [Janhunen 1996: 135].
583

, , ,
-. - , ,

. (.
Huanghe) ,
[Janhunen 1996: 134].
,
.
, , , , , . ,
.

: ( )
[ 1989, 1990]. ,
( , )
- ,
, . - , , , , , , . , .
, ,
, ,
, ( ) ( ).
-

, ,
( ),
, ,
.
584

III.
( )
1.

-,
, .
( . 1967 . [Halliday 1967])
[Lambrecht 1994: XIII].
. , ,
,
( ) . ( )
.
, , : (theme rheme),
(topic focus), (topic comment),
(known unknown/new), (discourse-OLD
discourse-NEW) . ,
, [Dane
1974; Firbas 1966, 1974; Li, Thompson 1976; Gundel 1988; Harlig,
Bardovi-Harlig 1988; Kim 1988; Lambrecht 1994 .].

, ,
[Haiman
1978: 583; Givn 1988: 245].
( ) , ,
[Halliday 1967: 212; Li, Thompson 1976: 464; Kuno
1972: 272; Dahl 1974: 78; Gundel 1988: 210 .].
585

() [Halliday 1967: 208;


Chafe 1976: 30-33, 54-55 .].
[Halliday, Hornby . Haiman 1978: 583].
aboutness.
,
aboutness
[Lambrecht 1994: XIV] 18.
, , (scene, stage).
, , ,
[Firbas 1966; Friedman 1976; Chafe 1976: 50].
, , , [Chafe 1976: 55].

,
(presupposition), .. , , . , ,
,
[Haiman 1978: 585].
, .
, . (state of affairs), .
(presupposition of existence) [Haiman 1978: 586].
,
. ,
, .
. , , (definite reference).
.
,
[Li, Thompson 1976:
586

463, 465, 484 .; Harlig, Bardovi-Harlig 1988: 127; Kim 1988; Gundel
1988 .].
,
. , ,
(NP), ,
(specific indefinite) [Gundel 1988: 214].
, /
.
, , ,
.
,
() (non-specific, generic)

[ 2000: 287].
, , .. ,
[Gundel 1988: 210-211; Lambrecht 1994: XIV].
,
, ( ) [Harlig, Bardovi-Harlig
1988: 127; Gundel 1988: 212-213 .]. ,
. ,
,
, /
, [Gundel
1988: 212].
, ,
. ,
(relative topicality), (referential
predictability), (thematic continuity), 587

(first clausal topic), (secondary


clausal topic), (contrastive focus),
(rhematic focus) .. [Givn 1976, 1983, 1984, 1988; Prince
1980; Kim 1988; Lambrecht 1994 .].
,
, , T. Givn . , , : (topic predictability) (topic
importance). , .

,
. T. Givn ,
: () ,
[Givn 1988: 249].

-. , (, .). , . (SOV), , . - :
,
( ),
, , , .
588

2.

19
,
(clauses), (
).
,
, .
()
, .
.
, ( ).
( ) , .
, ,
, , , [Gundel
1988: 209; Lambrecht 1994: 7].
, ,
() ;
,
. , ,
(),
/ 589

. , , . , ,
( ),
[Gundel 1988: 211].

, , , (, .),
. ,

, , ,
. , 20. ,
, . , , ,
. , .
(
). (predictability) (continuity) [Givn 1988] 21. , , ,
, . , , -, .

590

3.



, , .
, verbum dicendi.
, , - , , , [Martin 2004: 228, 230] 22.

, ( / ) [Haiman 1978].
. ,
, ,
[Gorelova 2006(b)].
, ,
( ), , - , . , , ,
[Givn 1988: 267-271]. .

, - , , ,
, . ,
, 591

:
,
.
.
. , , : , , ,
.
, ( ).
, - verbum dicendi,
(
: ...,
...).
,
,
(if-clauses).

.
( ), ..
: ( , ) ( , ).
,
( . [Haiman 1978: 580; Gorelova 2006(b):
165]). (when-clauses) ( ) ,
. , ,
(given that).
592

,
,

, , 23.
3.1.

3.1.1.

ber,
-
24. ber . ()
-bar/-ber, , ( ) 25.
..
, ber () [ 1902: 133]. ,
, . ,
, ber , , ,
,

[ 1849: 182]. -
(1289 .)
IV- (1290 .), - (1305 .). ber

, : ... bide ber
andee (= endee M.O.) mrilau (=morilau M.O.) qamsay-a (UM:
37-38) ... ...; ... biden-dr ba tan-dur ber l oqilduqun (UM: 72) ...
, ...; silam-dur orobas ber qaqa mngke
593

tngri mede (UM: 48) ,


.
bar
[Rybatzki 2003: 79] [Janhunen 2003(c): 53] 26.
, .. ber, bar, [ 1941: 51-52] 27.
( ), ber,
, :
(1) qurmusta terigten ber
tegn=e
morg=mi
PN

TOP
DEM(3SG)=DAT
=PRS.FUT
terigten < terign , ; , ,
+ -ten =
;

[ 2008];
(2) bi
ber
ende
a=ju
tarqa=da=un=i

TOP

=CV

=PASS=NF=ACC

bt=ge=n

oro=ldu=suai

=CAUS=CV

=REC=1p.sg

[ ] , [ ] [ 1999: 146].
, , ber ,
. ,
(),
, :
(3) ...irgen=i
ber l aljiya=ul=un
a =juu
=ACC TOP NEG =CAUS(-qul)=CV(u)n

... ;
(4) darqan
ner-e
ber
gg=gsen

=PAST

a=juu

TOP
=PAST.PART =PAST
. ; , ;

() ;
(5) qamu qatud nkd
inu
(PL)

ber aa

(PL) <(i)=GEN TOP


594

namayi

ber gei=e

ar=a=yu

(ACC bi ) =LOC =CAUS=PRS.FUT


qatud = . . qatun . , ;
nkd = nkr , ;
arayu <ar- , + - = - (; , ) +
-yu = - ;

[
1999: 146].
,
,
- . : minu ( <
), inu ( < ), manu (< ), tanu (< ), inu (< ,
), anu ().
: ani, ni i. -

.
,
, , . ,
( - . [ 1984: 209-215;
1999: 159-161]).
, , - , , verbum dicendi, , :
brn (b- , + -run/-rn =
), bolbasu ~ boluwasu ~ boluasu (bol(u)-
+ -basu ~ -wasu ~ -asu = ); bges (b- ,
+ -ges = ); kemebes (keme, + -bes = ) 28.

bolbol, bol gegi
595

[Poppe 1970: 154]. () bol


bolbol: bol (< bol=wol < bol- + -wol = CV.COND < *bol-ba=la) [Sechenbaatar 2003: 187188]. gegi : ,
ge- (gegi < ge- + -gi = PART.AG; .:
..., ...).
,
, .
, , , ,
, : gehede < ge- + -he = PART.FUT
(-hA) + -de = DAT.LOC (-dA) [ 1979: 49]. ( ) : geeshe (geee) < ge- + -gshe (-gshA) =
PART.AG; gehede < ge- + -he = PART.FUT (-hA) + -de =
DAT.LOC (-dA) [Skribnik 2003: 119-120].
, ,
. ( -run/-rn).
, , . , , . ,
, . (
. [ 1999: 118-121]).

, (presupposition).
( -asu/-ges, -basu/-bes)
: , . ,
. 596

, , ber.
,
, [ 1984: 167-168]. ,
ber
.
,
, :
(6)

bi

b=rn

eke

eige=de=ce

c=gen (ckn)

TOP>=CV

=DAT=ABL

=DIM

qoor=u
=CV

[ ] [];
(7) nkr

b=rn

masi

mungtani=ju

TOP>=CV

=CV

ayis=u

a=juu

=PRS.FUT(=yu)

=PSR(=juu)

, ;
(8) kereyid=n Ong-qahan b=rn
=GEN -

anda

urida Yisgei qan=lua

TOP>=CV =COM(-lua)

ke'e=ld=ksen

a=juu

(keme-)=REC=PART.PAST =PAST(-juu)

-, - [ 1999: 120];
(9) Kongvusi gle=r-n

ene

taqimdaqu

tr

=CV(=r-n) / /

keme=bes ...
TOP>=CV.COND
taqimdaqu < taqi- , + -mdaqu =
;

: , ...
[ 1999: 119];
(10) siltaa

keme=bes

keme=n

irgen=i

TOP>=CV.COND =CV =ACC


597

soyu=n

sur=a=juu

=CV

=CAUS=PAST

, , ... [ 1999:
114];
(11) ene
keme= bes
boda=s
sayid=un

TOP>=CV.COND

=PL

oro=si=ul=u=san

yosun

==CAUS=PAST

PL(sayin)=GEN

bu=yu
=PRS.FUT

, [] , [ 1999: 98];
(12) mn Bingjiang Oron keme=bes
Si ning Ong =un

PN

TOP>=CV.COND PN

ded

kbegn

inu

=juqu

=PAST

=GEN

, Bingjiang Oron ( .), Si ning Ong


( .) 29.
3.1.2.
() , : bici, oci, seci, seme. ( -ci -me), bi- , , o- , ,
se- . ,
,
( . [Gorelova 2002: 404419, 427-435; 2004; 2006(); 2006(b)]).
:
(13) etuhun urs oci ehe be yabu=me fafun be neci=mbi
TOP ACC =CV ACC =IMPF

[ , ], , < * , ... ( 2: 44);


(14) manju
bithe hla-ra
nyalma oci urunak
hergen
=PART TOP

tome

gemu

getukeleme

sa-ci

aca-mbi

=CV.COND

= IMPF

598

( 2: 69);
(15) aisin menggun oci guise de
tebu=mbi

TOP

bele

jeku

oci

DAT =IMPF

TOP DAT =IMPF

tsang de

asara=mbi

[ , ]
() ; [ (
), ] ( 2: 3).
guise tsang .
.
(16) tere
seci sin=i
deo
/

TOP (si/sin = SG)=GEN .

[ , ] ( 1873: 137).
(17) uttu o=ho=de
teni niyalma seme jalan de
banji=re de

=PR=DAT TOP DAT =PR DAT

yertecun

ak

o=mbi

NEG

=IMPF>COP

.: , , ... [ ] (Gabelentz 1832:


120). niyalma , seme.
yertecun , , .. ( , ).

, bi- o-: bisirede, bihede; ojorode, ohode. bisirede
ojorode - -r (

), bihede ohode ( -h, -k; ).
.
-
,
599


, (
. [Gorelova 2002: 309-321, 354-368, 518-525]).
,
. ,
, , , ,
.
(. 17, uttu ohode
, ... ohode,
,
):
(18) ama=i
gemu tere=i
gnin be
bisi=re=de
=GEN =PART.IMPF=DAT

/=GEN ACC

tuwa=mbi
=IMPF

() , () (
1879: 201). , .
(19) saikan jaka bi=he=de
eici asara=mbi=o
eici
=PART.PRF=DAT = IMPF=INT

sain

hda be

ACC
eici eici ... ;

bai=fi

unca=mbi=o

=CV.PRF = IMPF=INT

() [ ] ,
[ ], ( 2: 10).

- - ,
.
(20) bi tuwa=ci
gwa niyalma sin=de
emu baita

=CV.COND (si/sin-) =DAT

fonji=me

o=ho=de

=CV.IMPF

=PART.PRF=DAT =ABL

si uthai da=ci

dube=de

isitala giyan-giyan=i ala=mbi

=DAT

..=GEN
600

= IMPF

daci dubede isitala ;


giyan-giyan-i ;

, - (.: ) - , ( 2: 82).
sere, serede, sehede,
se- :
(21) doro
be
getukele=ki
se=re
gnin
ACC -OPT TOP>=PART.IMPF
Tv=ki se- , (TV=ki se-);

[] (.: ) ( 1: 34);
(22) Belkutei
daha=ra
urse afa=ki
PN

=PART.IMPF =OPT

se=re=de

belkutei bejihiye=me

=PART.IMPF=DAT

PN

=CV.IMPF

hendu=me
= CV.IMPF

, , ,
: ... ( 1: 10).
serengge sehengge, ,

-ngge. , .
,

()
. ,
, ( ),
( sere, serengge, sehengge [Gorelova 2002: 404-419,
427-435; 2004; Gorelova 2006()]).
:
601

(23) tere age

se=re=ngge

muse=i

fe

TOP>=PART.NR (INCL)=GEN

adaki

kai

COP

(Mllendorff 1892: 43);


(24) menggun jiha se=re=ngge
ergen be uji=re
TOP>=PART.NR ACC =PART

sekiyen

.: () .

[ , ]
( 1879: 322);
(25) e
a
se=re=ngge
emu adali
sukdun
yin

yang TOP>=PART.NR .

kai
COP

Yin ( ) yang ( ) [ yin yang, ] , (Gabelentz 1832: 120).



. -, ,
(Tv- ki
se- - . -, , :
(26) age
bithe hla=me gene=ki se=he=ngge
=CV =OPT TOP>=PART.NR

sain

baita dabala

PTCL(FOC)

, , ( 2: 184);
(27) u
be
taci=mbi
se=he=ngge
ACC =IMPF TOP>=PART.NR

irgebun

bithe

be

ACC .=PART PTCL(FOC)

kice=re

be

, [chin. shijing] [] ( 2: 55).


602

sehengge, , u be taci=mbi
. ,
.
, , , bi -,
(. 13-15, 18-20).
, se-,

( ), - ()
(. 16, 17, 21, 23-27).
3.2. ,
c

,
( ).
, ,
, : (double subject constructions),
(left dislocational syntactic-topic constructions), ,
, , , (subject-creating constructions).
,
-ngge,
( . [Gorelova 2002: 404-419, 427-435;
2004; 2006(); 2006(b)].
( ) , ( ) ,
. .
603

3.2.1. ,

.
bici, oci, seci, ,
,

. :
(28) sin=de
aika sain
bithe bi=ci
2 p.sg (si/sin-)=DAT

=CV.COND

min=de

emu

1p.sg(bi/min)=DAT

bu=fi

udu

debtelin be

juwan

ACC

hla=ki

=CV.PRF
=OPT(1 p)
emu udu < emu udu ;
juwan bu- , ;

,
( ) ( 2: 24);
(29) emu kengse lasha
gisun bi=ci
niyalma inu

=CV.COND

gasa=ra

ba

ak

=PART.IMPF

PTCL NEG

, ( 2:
129).
(30) hing sere o=ci
hada (hada de)
hafu=mbi

=CV.COND ( DAT) = IMPF


hing sere < hing sere = PART.IMPF(se- );

, (.) ( 1:
63);
(31) si
unenggi
sa=ra=ngge
getuken o=ci

uthai

= PART.IMPF=NR

min=de

= CV.COND

ulhi=bu=me

(bi/min-)=DAT =CAUS=CV.IMPF

ala=reo
= IMP(PART.IMPF-re + PTCL(INTo)
ulhibu- , ;
604

() , , ,
(.: , ... ) ( 2: 80).
bici, oci, seci,
, :
,
( ):
(32) yaya
niyalma de
endebuku bi=ci
amba

DAT

TOP>=CV.COND

o=ci

erguven

tata=bu=mbi

= CV.COND

..12. =PASS= IMPF

o=ci

ton

ajige

tata=bu=mbi

= CV.COND . =PASS= IMPF


, , []

, , [] ,
( 2: 260).
3.2.2.

,

. ,
, : , .
,
:
, , .

.
:
(33) Bodisdv
gle=r-n:
tr=r-n
aaar
Bodhisattva =CV(-r-n)

tr=y

=CV .

k=r-n

=PRS.FUT =CV(-r-n)

k=y
=PRS.FUT
605

ber

aaar

TOP .

aaar < aa , + -ar = ,


;

: [] , [] . , .
() ,
, , .
(34) Bodoncar ... k=es
inu
k=sgei,
PN

a=asu

=CV(-ges/-basu) PPTC(3 p.s.) =IMP(1p)

inu

=suqai

kee=j

=CV(-asu/-basu) PPTC(3 p.s.) =IMP(1p) (kege-)=CV

: , , ,
! [ 2008]. , , : .
:
(35) gene=ki se=ci
uthai
gene=mbi
=OPT =CV.COND / =IMPF

se=me

hendu

=CV.IMPF> (IMP)
Tv=ki se=ci , (Tv=ki se-) ,
se- . seci :
.

, , (.: )
( 2: 76).
,
,
,
. ,
() :
(36) gene=ci
uthai gene-mbi seme
=CV.COND / = IMPF =CV.IMPF>

hendu

gene=rak

o=ci

uthai

(IMP) =PART(NEG) =CV.COND /

606

gene=rak

seme

hendu

=PART(NEG) =CV.IMPF> (IMP)

( ), , ,
, , ( 1879: 199).
3.2.3. ,

,
, , () . ,
, , (presupposed) [Gundel 1988: 219].
(given that).
, ,
, , ,
.
, , :
(37) - , , ,
;
(38) ( ),
(
, ).

,
30. : . , , .
, .
. -

607

:
(39) eyin
ki=bes
asul=qu

=CV.COND

= PART.FUT

sinal=qu=yin

jori

= PART.FUT=GEN

=PRS.FUT(-yu)

bol=u

... , , (
);
(40) Il
qan=u
erigd
Misir=un jug (. jg)
PN
=GEN PL(erig ) TP=GEN c
mrile=bes (. morila=basu) bide ber ende=e
. =CV.COND

mrile=j

qamsa=y-a

TOP =LOC

keme=n

.=CV(-j) =IMP =CV

- ,
[ 1999: 119];
(41) eige=ygen kndle=r-n
tngri=dr tenggee=n
=PTCL

=CV(r-n) =DAT =CV(-n)

taqi=qui=aa

deged

gei

.=PART.FUT=LOC NEG

,
[], [ 1999: 119];
(42) aduun=i eyin oqisiyar
ske=gl=e=r-n
=ACC . =CAUS=CONV=CV(-r-n)

mn

nasu bri

gle=r-n

=CV(-r-n)
oqisiyar < oqis , (< oqi- + -s=NF) + iyar = ;
ske=gl=e=r-n < ske- , (< s- , + -ke = CAUS) + gl = CAUS + CV(-r-n);

,
[ 1999: 120].
,
.
. , oci seci 608

,
, seci ( ):
(43) meni
juwe=nofi tetele
gemu sula
< (be/men-)=GEN =CNM

..

te=mbi
/()=IMPF
juwenofi < juwe nofi= ,
;

;
(44) ai
be
wejle=ci
sa=cin

ACC =CV.COND =IMP(-cina)


sa=cin < sa=cina , ;

ni?
PTCL.INT

? (.: /,
?);
(45) si
tuwa
weile=ci
o=joro=ngge

(IMP) =CV.COND AUG=PART.IMPF=NR

aibi
.?
aibi ? ( ) < ai ? + bi = COP;
Tv=ci o- ,
;
si tuva - (.: );

-, ? (.: , ?);
(46) bi tuwa=ci
yargiyan
i
umesi mangga
=CV.COND
yargiyan i

GEN

-, [] ;
(47) aika maimaa=ki se=ci
si bi geli

menggun

=OPT =CV.COND -

jiha

ak

COP(NEG)
Tv=ki se- ,
;

, - ,
;
609

(48) aika hoki

ara=ki

se=ci

geli

gala=i

=OPT =CV.COND =GEN

erdemu ak
COP(NEG)

- [
], - [] ;
(49) sini
ere
hendu=he
songkoi
<(si/sin- =GEN)

=PART.PRF

o=ci

muse=i

juwe=nofi omiholo=me

=CV.COND

(INCL)=GEN

=CNM

buce=rak

=CV.IMPF

se=me=o

=PART(NEG) =CV.IMPF=INT
Tv=raku semeo ,
;

, , ,
? ( 2: 254-256).
- ,
( ):
(50) taci=rak
o=ci
beje=be
=PART(NEG) AUG=CV.COND =ACC

waliya=bu=mbi=kai
=PASS=IMPF=PTCL
waliyabu , , ;
Tv=rak o=ci ,
; oci
, ;

, ( 2: 64).
IV.
1.
-
, (
) . - ,
( ) .
610

2. , - . ,
: , .
, ( ).
, , .
3.
(if-clauses) , (given that,
presupposition) , ,
, . (when-clauses) ,
.
4. , c , .
, , , : ) - , ; b) , ,
; c) , ,
, .
b) c) .
5.
,
.
611

. - , ( ). , ( , ), ,
, .
, , , ,
.
6.
, . ,
,
,
, . ,
.

ABL ; ACC ; AG ; CAUS ;


COLL ; COND ; CONV ; COP ; CV ; DAT ; EXCL
1 . ..; GEN
; FOC ; IMP ; IMPF ; INCL 1 . . .; NEG
, ; NF
(); NM ; NR ; OPT ; PART
; PASS ; PAST ; PL ; PN ; PPTC -
; PRF ; PRS ; PTCL - ; REC ; Tv- ; TOP ;
TN .
612



.. ( ), ,
, : Uyiurin mongol
sg-n darasqaltu biig-d - (UM),
( ).
.. (. 1-2), ,
VII-VIII .
: ( 1), ( 2).

(Gorelova 2002).
, :
.. . , 1879.
.. . , 1873.
Gabelentz H.C. Elments de la grammaire Mandchoue. Altenburg, 1832.

. - . , 1849.
.. (XII-XIII .) // . , 1961. . 137-155.
.. . .:
, 2002.
.. . .:
, 2005.
.. (X . 1234 ).
. ., 1975.
.. // . : .
: - , 2004. . 60-70.
.. . ., 1989.
.. . ., 1990.
. . .. : - -
, 1998.
613

.. . ., 1902.
.. XI . // . , 1966.
.. . .
, 1941.
..
// . . .. . : - -
: 1998. . 34-87.
.. () // - . , 1985. . 3-26.
.. ,
1114 1233 // . .
.. . : - - ,
1998. . 233-284.
.. . X-XI . , 1977.
.. / . .:
, 1984.
.. XIII-XIV .
// . , 1993. .74-85.
.. XIII-XIV . ., 1999.
.. - // Altaica
IX. ., 2004. . 71-91.
..
XIII-XIV . // Altaica X. ., 2005. . 114-130.
.. a-(aqu) //
V. . ., 2005. . 180-191.
.. . .:
, 2008 ().
.. . .: - . -, 1963.
.. . ., 2004.
.. . .: , 2000.
.. . ., 1941.
.. . .
: -, 1979.
.. . 1-2. .: ,
1953-1963.
.. . .: , 1964.
614

.. . -, 1977.
. . 4- (
.. ). 2- . 2. .: , 1986.
.. . .: , 1973.
.. . ., 1968.
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1

: .. / . M,: , 1984; ..
XIII XIV .. .: , 1999;
Shigeo Ozawa Genchou Hishi Moukogo Bumpou Kougi (A Grammar of the Language of
Secret History of Mongols). Tokyo: Kazama Shobo, 1993.
2
-
, ,
, . [Janhunen 2003(a): 2].
3
. (Greater Manchuria), , , (Peninsula Manchuria), (Liaodong) , (Insular
Manchuria), , .
: , ,
[Janhunen 1996: 3-8].
4
X .,
(. Heishui Mohe)
- . , , ,
. , , , , .
.
5
(. Liao) 907 1125 . (Qitan,
Khitan) , , .
, . :

617

,
. , [ 1998: 236]. , , , ,
, ,
[Janhunen 1996: 139-143].
6
VIII . 926 . . ,
.
.
, [
1985: 3-26, 1998: 236]. ,
, , ,
, [Janhunen 1996: 139].
7
[ 1966:
1975; Kessler 1993: 129-130, 148, 154; Crossley 1997: 19-20; 1964,
1998: 55-86; 1977] .
(. Jinshi). -,

1344 .
, XVII ., XIX .
.. .
, , .. , .. ,
,
[ 1998: 34-87].
8
(. sibe, . xib) ..
.. . (
.. ). Aetas Manjurica 4. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1994.
,
,

-.
. ,
,
.
.
-
(. 7-18).
9

, . , ,
(1601 .). , 618

. , .. , , . (,
, ). ,
, , , (1616 .). - .
,
, , (1642 .).
10
,

.
11
(Xiongnu, ): .
, III . ..
Modu Shanvu , ( , ). (221-206
..),
.
12
(Tujue): ,
. ,
. Ashina,
. Gktrk , (551-747 ..).
13
, ,
1155 ., - (Delin-Boldoq) . .
, . , ,
, -.
,
, . , .
14
(1032-1226).
Xixia., . . Xia, Da Xia, .. Xia. ,
VIII ., Dangxiang. - ,
, , , . , , ,
, [Kessler 1993: 1212, Janhunen 1996: 142-3].
15
1227 . - ,
. , ,
.
16
, -, ,
--, .
619

17
[ 1961; 1992, 1999-2000, 2004, 2008; Janhunen 2003 .].
18
[., ,
Reinhart 1981].
19
, . , , .
20
, ,
.
21
,

,
( ) .
22
. (. 228 230) , wa
, :
... ( - ). ,
- ,
nara. . :
(1) gakusei nara benkyoo shinasai , ! (2) resutoran-nara, Los
Incas wo susume-masu , (
).
, nara
(1).
23
, ,
.
24
, ,
(
subject topic-prominent languages) -
, , (ga wa , -ka/i -(n)un ).
25
.. .
26
. , , , , (ijar): qaqhav
bar vs. qaqhav ijar . bar , , , : tara qaqhav vs. tara

620

bar qaqhv (bui) , viragsav guimuv , vs. viragsav bar guimuv (bui) , , [Janhunen 2003(c): 53].
27
1269 . , ,
.
XIII-XIV . [ 2005: 895-904;
1977: 134-135].
28
-asu /-es [ 1999: 112].
29
, , ..
(: , 2008).
30
,
( < ) [ 1941: 65-67; 1986: 28; 1973: 54-62]. .. , . , , . , , . ,
,
[ 1941: 65-66]. .
, . ,
,
: Is he coming? (Yes.) Well then, I will stay [Jespersen 1940: 374].

621

..
( , )



Pogibenko T.G.

Problems of historical morphology of Austroasiatic


languages
The paper deals with words containing nasal infixes which are
found in all groups of Austroasiatic languages mostly as nouns
derived from verbs. It is suggested that these derivatives go back to
proto-Austroasiatic forms of dependent predication which were
used in multiverb constructions of various types. Later on, these
forms were replaced by analytical forms with the marker *ta. In the
descendant languages analytical forms of dependent predication
were driven to the periphery by new, differentiated grammatical
means, i.e. conjunctions, copulas and prepositions, having left
behind lexicalized and grammaticalized reflexes of various types.

1. ()
. ,
150 160 1.
,
. , , , , , , , , , .

(), , ().
: VI XVI .,
VII XIV .
622

, : , , - (), - .
.
(, -,
, , - (,
, -), , ). : , ,
.
, .
, , , -,
, ( 4 , 4 , 21 ), ( ), .
,

.
,
, .
, ,
. , ,
.
.
, . : - ,
, , , , - , ,
.
[Diffloth
1984: 263]. , ,
, ,
623

.
,
.
, . ,
- [Pinnow 1966].
,
.
, , , -
[Donegan 1993].
2.
, - *-n(n-), *-m-(m-), *-mn- 2.
, ( , , , , ), ,
( , ,
). ( , ). , , , ,
.
, *-n-(n-),
*-m-(m-), *-mn-
(). - - ,
, 3. , - *ta.
, ()
-m- -mn- , , . , , -m , -mn- [
1989: 14].
624

, ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
.
3. ,
, ,
. : , ta, ti, . . ,
ta, , , .
4:
(1)

ge
ta
tap
gui
ge
3PL
DPM

3PL
c-m-er
ja
ge
daa

m-
3PL
, ,
(940)

(2)

nak
ta
p-a-re

DPM
am-
vra dvr

(415)

(3)

nak
p-a-re
kalu

am-

(134)

kanu

ka
LOC

vra

p-a-re ,
, ,
74, 563.
625

ta , - . , ,
. ,
( ). , , ta
. ta , :
sre
avi
ta
po
vinayakrtti
ai
(4)


LOC
te
canlo

, ,
(910)
ta, ti : , . (), ( : ), , (, , , ). ,
.
ta,
gi gi ta,
. , - (
, ). :
a
nak
ta
pradhna
ta
no
(5)

DPM

DPM

no
no
gi
ta
pariplana
dea

COP DPM

( )
, ( ) (351)
626


, . ti,
, , ta. ta, ti *-n-, *-m- - . - *-n- *-m- , ta ti . , ,
, *-m- *-n-
, , *-m-,
, :
d-m-uk (262) d-n-uk (155)
duk , [ 1989: 24]. :
calak (138) canlakk (79) . .
chlak , , , cmlak .
ti ,
: c , ka , le
, , , pre , . ti
. , ,
, .
, ,
c , ti, , c , ta:
(6)

vva
c
ti
pre
anak

DPM

jagrma
thve
r


(211)

(7)

cmpa

a
nak

sro

mvay

satac

ta
DPM
627

ayant

c

chpa
ley

PTCL
, (
), (K227)

, , . , ,
: . tumnp ,
danep , (56),
: .
tp , , dep , , , , .
4.
, , ,
, .
. ,
, , : kmnaac , , , kaac
, .
, : kmr , , , kr , ,
. kmr

daoy tae, , : min daoy kmr (. ()
daoy m-), kmr tae ceh bntec
(. m- tae ).
, : khmt
, kht, . kht khm ,
khiw , khiw , .
,
, , 628

. dmnaal , daal , : aayu dmnaal khi (.


), tw dmnaal khni (. ).
, , , , smm (),
; (KEEK).

, : kmnh , kh
, ; kmnao , ,
kao ; kmnan ,
kan , , baw kmnan
(baw ) ,
.
, , , cmpuh () cpuh ; cmnaek ()
caek ; tumrom (tae) () , ,
trom ; kmpu . , .
728 ,
kavo . kmpu [Inscriptions du Cambodge, Vol.
5: 84]. , , kavo
, , , :
(8)

ge
ta
sak
gi
ge
ta
3PL
DPM

3PL
DPM
avicnaraka
calk ...
mahraurava ...



gi
n
ge
tel
kavo
do
COP

3PL
DPM

ge
pitmt
ge
3PL

3PL
, , , ... ,
, ...
(728).
629

, , , : cmnuh , () cuh .

,
. , , tumun,
tun ,
. ,
, :
(9)

mk
ml
wpuk mi
dal

kmpu
min
cum
ci
ASP

COP/DPM
t-um-un
um-
,


ci, . , cah
cmnah,
, :
(10)

peel
nuh
srap tae
min
borh

c-mn-ah
mnek
baan
da
-CLF
PST

mn-
mk
ct

. ,
. . [Long
Siem 1999] 630

: pik kmlaay
(. m-) pik kmcey (.
m-).
,

,
, .
, .
ta
. ta
d, ,
,
. ta, : ddael
. ta tel . , d
. , : cmnah kvl, ,
,
daoy:
(11)

sat crt

c-mn-ah
n

mn-
prkp daoy
kate
bndt
nih
ATR

dk dham
daoy
k--vl
DPM

-
, .

ti .
() , : ci tii
srla srla , ci tii coul ct
coul ct , ci tii koorp koorp .
ti ci, 631

.
5. , -
.

, *-n-, , : onosar
osar . ,
.
*-n-
, : tanid tid ,
ana aa .
-AA *ta. ,
- *ta
- ,
*ta .
, : sadom-ta-re (. ta LOC), sadom-ta-te
(. ta DIR), sadom-ta-ete (.
ta ABL), sadom-ta-in (. ta 1SG),
kaka-m-te-kin-ta-ren dasi-ko
(. . -2SG-te-DU-ta-GEN -PL). , *ta
- ,
tan, taeken.
. ta, , .
, : 1) , 2) ,
, , ,
, ,
[Hoffmann 2001: 170]. , ,
:
632

(12)

duar-in
ni-ta
-1SG
-ta
,
, ,
- .

,
:
.

, ,
. : . tumn t ,
danu (22) du , jin die die .

. : jinnai, . caay
ka jin jinnai (. ART NM ) ka-ba-jinnai
(. ART-ATR-), . c-m-aay .
*-n-
, , :
kniaw kiaw . , : kon non
, (): knn .
*ta
. ba. , - *ta.
Ba .
:
(13)

(14)

la
tei pat
ia
ka
ing
PST
OBJ
ART
la
kyllon
PST

, , .
ki
ART(PL)

mrad

633

ki
3PL

la
PST

ba
DPM

ia
ka
ksew,
ih bein

OBJ
ART

ba
ka
la
die
DPM
3SGF
PST

ia
ka
ktung
OBJ
ART
(.)
,
.
(15)

ka
ba
la
paw
biang
me
ART

DPM 2SG
PST
sniw-eh
-
, .

Ba ,
:
(16)

u
kulai
u
kit
ia
ART 3SGM OBJ
ba-heh
ba-
.

u
ART

briw

. ,
5 : u briw
babha < u briw ba bha , () [Roberts 1891 (2000): 24]. , ba
, , , : u
soh baiong u soh-iong . ,
, . u , ka
, ki , , :
ka ing bakraw (. ART ) ka ing ka bakraw
(. ART 3SGF ) [Roberts 1891
(2000): 26]6. ba . 634

, , : baiong , ba
kham iong (kham ).
Ba ban,

. . ,
7. Ban , : lah , dei , nang , ,
, .
:
(17)

u
lah
ban
3SGM
DPM
.

(18)

u
la
ong
3SGM PST
leit
noh

leit

ia
OBJ

noh
()
phi
2SG

ban
DPM

, ban ba yn,
. ,
, ba , :
(19)

ki
ong
ba
u
la
3SGPL
DPM 3SGM PST
ia
katha
shisha
OBJ

, , , .

leh

-
- *ta.
*ta
. ,
: SV VS da. , :
635

(20)

u
la
iam
3SGM PST

(21)

un
da
wan
-FUT
RHM
.

(22)

u
um
lum
ART
3SGM-NEG
.

u
ART

da
RHM

briw

jerong

eh

. da , ,
, adds uncertainty or softens an expression [Roberts 1891
(2000): 55]. , , , .
*ta ,
: da, *ta,
ba ia. :
(23) u
la
kren,
da
iam
3SGM PST

DPM

,
(24)

u
khynnah
u
la
ART

3SGM PST
ia-phet
DPM-
, .

(25)

u
Iakob
hamar
ba
u
sa

DPM
3SGM

ART
iap
u
la
ia
kyrkhu

OBJ

3SGM PST
ki
uwei-uwei-ruh
khun
ART(PL)

, , .

wan

la
RFL

, da . :
636

ka , u , ki , .
ba ,
, . :
(26)

ei
ba
kren

DPM

- *ta ba
.
. , , bad.
- *ta , : ynda , tadynda , ba , : naba, naduh ba ,
katba , haba , hadin ba .
- *ta. , da,
, ,
, :
(27)

u
Riang
u
thaw

3SGM
ART
da
u
maw
INSTR ART

la
RFL

ka
ART

kynroh

.
-
*ta - . , . Ta - : , , , . : kaa hr uu
too dh ta ; tii uun ta aa
637

; n hmaan ta bii ; n m
ta kuun dee , pai ti ta oom
. ta . ta
, ta
dee [ 2005].

. *ta
, .
,
. , ,
,
. ,
, - kato , , , k-am-ato, k-om-ato ,
. : cha komato (cha ), hen komato
(hen ), paiyuh komato ,
(paiyuh ). dak d-am-ak
, paiyuh d-am-ak
(paiyuh ),
he d-am-ak (he ).
- *ta to, ta.
, , -:
(28)

kek-no

chu
1SG(POSS)

nup

to-choich
ATR-

638

laen

.
.
.
-:
to-kuvala
to-kool

kuveh
kool

to-look

;
;

,

look

to-a
ta-vuoi
ta-look-o

a
vuoi
lok

look-o


lok

,
: aheuko(el)-lon (. -()-,
) to-aheuko(el)-lon , ; to-chokhukuo , , (. ATR . ).
*ta : , , , , , :
(29)

ramolon
chin

1SG(NOM)
no
PTCL
, .

to
o
DPM
3SG(OBL)
yih

, ,
,
:
639

(30)

asuh
on
nih to

DPM
meh
2SG(OBL)
?

(31)

to-naich
om
DPM-REZ
2SG(INTER)
?

o
;

mehe
2SG

ihih

- ,
*ta, . , ,
. , - , . , , ,
, ,
to- ( )
. ,
-
[Whitehead 1925: v]. , . :
(32)

ma-chlo
h
1PL(OBL)
ma-
.

(33)

to-look
on
ATR-
3SG
.

noh

yin
3PL(NOM)
tarik

, ,
, 8. ma-chlo , to-look 640

, , , .
-m-, , : - v-am- v = v-am-i chon
(chon ), f-am-uk fuk . . ,
, ,
, ta
9, :
(34)

ta

nau
ta
no
vel

RHM
TMP
po kularaka


(427).

, , , :
(35)

to-look
nun
ne


to-
.

tasfr

(36)

to-maolo
an
na
taoko

to- 3SG(NOM)
.

, - to - , :
(37)

to-akaha
om
2SG(INTER)
to(RHM)-
?.

(38)

peuheu

to
RHM

y-ih-ih
ih-
641

mehe
2SG(NOM)

nyo

chin
1SG(NOM)

( ?).
- ,
. , , to :
(39)

tok
ch-an-uhu-re
to(RHM)+ok (3SG) an- -RFL
pat-re
-RFL
,

(40)

chuh
yih
om
to

2SG(INTER)
DPM
o
k-in-heu
in-
;
chu
to
meh
1SG(OBL)
DAT
2SG(OBL)
, ?

no
PTCL

raan

: to-k-an-ap-to-rit , ATR-an-INSTR-, .. , to , k-an-ap kap 10.


*ta
: , , , , ,
, . :
to ihan , komayee to na () (.
GEN 2DUOBL), to he el-haap (. TEMP ). :
(41)

kap-o
in
-PASS 1PL(NOM)
.
642

to
AG

misoko

to
, (, ) :
ureh
to
yihih
ih-

RHM
o
3SGOBL
.

(42)

chin
1SGNOM

to
COMP

*ta -
, :
sol
teun
fuk

hem
roh

sol-ta
teun-ta
fuk-ta
fuk-to
hem-ta
roh-to

,
,
,

, -. , , : ta-kapah
k-am-apah
kapah .
ta, : lonto-ta l-am-onto , : l-amonto-ch (ch ).
, ,
. ,

.

, , ,
. 643

,
. *ta [Swantesson
1983: 112].

,
, .
*-n-, ,
,
: duwa nr-br (.
nr-./), br j duwa nn-kn / (. ./ 1SG nn-CLF),
km nah-bh (. nah-) [Burenhult
2000].
, . ,
,
*-mn- *ta, : mnra
t-mnra , kdn t-kdn , un mi-n-un, t-mi-n-un [Schebesta,
Blagden 1928].
*ta. :
(43)

ne
anak
ta

DPM
(216N).

piy

*ta . , t- bar , pe , pun , t : t tpe


, t tpun [Banker 1964] .
644


. *ta
.
, t()- [Schebesta,
Blagden 1928] 11.
, -n-, 12, :
(44)

a-te
hn
FUT-

ji
2 SG/PL

s-n-wak
n-

6. , - , ,
,
,
, , .
, -
: *-n- (n-), *-m- (m-), *-mn-
*ta.
.
, , .
, -, -. ,
*ta . -
.

GEN

INSTR
INTER
LOC

M
NEG
645

ABL
AG
ASP
ATR
CLF

NM
NOM
OBL
OBJ
PL

COMP
COP
DAT
DIR
DPM

POSS
PST
PTCL
REZ
RFL

RHM
SG
TMP

DU
F
FUT

.. - . : , 1984.
KEEK Khmer-English, English-Khmer Dictionary. Phnom Penh, 2000.

.
( VI - XIV .). .: , 1989.
.. . .:
, 1985.
.. .
.
.: , 2004.
.. : // . .:
, 2005. . 359-388.
.. // , . 67, 5, 2008.
. 55-62.
Banker E. Bahnar Affixation // Mon-Khmer Studies I. Saigon, 1964. P. 99-119.
Burenhult N. Unitizer and nominalizer: the /n/ affix in Jahai // The Fifth International
Symposium on Languages and Linguistics. Ho Chi Minh City, 2000.
Diffloth G. The Dvaravati Old Mon Language and Nyah Kur. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn
University printing house, 1984.
646

Donegan P. Rhythm and vocalic drift in Munda and Mon-Khmer // Linguistics of the
Tibeto-Burman Area. Vol. 16, 1, 1993. P. 1-43.
Hoffmann J. Mundari Grammar and Exercises. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 2001.
Hopper P., Traugott, E. Grammaticalization. Cambridge textbooks in linguistics.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Inscriptions du Cambodge // Bulletin de lcole Franaise DExtrme-Orient. Vol. 3-8.
Paris, 1951-1966.
Kruspe N. A Grammar of Semelai. Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Long Siem. Panyha vacanasapvitya khmae (Problmes de lexicologie Khmre). nom
Penh, 1999.
Milne L. An Elementary Palaung Grammar. Oxford, 1921.
Nagaraja K. Khasi dialects: a typological consideration // Mon-Khmer Studies 23.
Summer institute of linguistics & Mahidol University, 1994. P. 1-11.
Neukom L. Santali. Mnchen: Lincom Europa, 2001.
Pinnow H.J. A comparative study of the verb in the Munda languages // N. Zide (ed.).
Studies in Comparative Austroasiatic Linguistics. London The Hague Paris: Mouton,
1966. P. 96-193.
Roberts H. A grammar of the Khassi language. London, 1891 (Reprinted by Asian
Educational Services, New Delhi Madras, 2000).
Schebesta P., Blagden C.O. Grammatical Sketch of the Jahai Dialect, Spoken by a
Negrito Tribe of Ulu Perak and Ulu Kelantan, Malay Peninsula // Bulletin of the School of
Oriental Studies. Vol.4, 4, 1928. P. 803-826.
Swantesson J.-O. Kammu phonology and morphology. Lund, 1983.
Whitehead G. Dictionary of the Car-Nicobarese language. Rangoon, 1925.

, , , ,
. , ,
. , [ 2004]. -
[Nagaraja 1994].
2
, , .
3
, .
(lause chaining), 647

, , [Hopper, Traugott 1993].


4

.
[Inscriptions du Cambodge 1951-1966].
,
.
5
.
6
.
7
ban.
8


, : Apparently the agent form of a verb is used where attention is
specially drawn to the agent (Whitehead 1925: iv).
9
- ,
. - VOS,
SVO, , ,
, - , :
cha-a
yin
yamih
3PLNOM
()
am-
(These are the people who have come)
10

. . ,
k-an-ap ,
to. to-rit,
, .
11
[Schebesta, Blagden 1928] ,
: te-ptis ptis ,
p-n-tis. , About Karei and the Hala, ,
, , p-n-tis , ( ,
), te-ptis (
, , ). ,
, .
12
, [ 1985].

648

3. -
:

..
( , )


-
Belova A.G.

Dialectal vocabulary
in the comparative-historical perspective
The arabic dialects spoken in Yemen manifest substratum and
linguistic-contact vocabulary reflecting some cultural and
economical traditions. The local vocabulary includes certain terms
denoting creatures of the other world werewolves, witches,
sorcerers. A part of these terms go back to the ancient isoglottic
lines of the Red Sea area (witch, werewolf, magician, demon, evil
ghost). These isoglottic lines also corroborate the hypothesis of the
proximity between the cultures of Yemen and East Africa of the preliterary period.

0. ,
, .
[ 1955, 2009; 1962,
1979, 1981]. .
.
. 649



[ 1960, 1991;
1965 ].

. ,
.
,
,
.
, - .
, .
0.1. ,
,
,
, , , .
, ,
, ,
650

.
0.2.
[ 1984]. . .
, , . , , , , (,
..). ,
, .
( ),
. ,
,
.
0.3. 1988 . - . , .
.
0.4. :
() , .. ; ()
; () :
1.
1.0. - bideh/bidah/budh. .
, , , 651

. ,
, . budh , . mubadbid ( , budah), ,
[Al-Baradn 1988: 3738].
1.1. - ,
. . ,
,
.
:
(1) bdd ;
budd- ; [Kazimirski 1860, I: 9293]
. *bad , .. [Diakonoff et al. 1994: 79; Orel, Stolbova 1995: 171] 2
*bVt/ba [Diakonoff et al. 1994, 72,
73].
(2) - bd/w/y (
) ; ; [Kazimirski 1860, I: 94, 98, 99]

*bVd/bd/bdw/bdy/bd , [Diakonoff et al.
1994: 77] *bada- [Orel, Stolbova 1995: 172].
(3)
-
: bd ; , >
[Kazimirski 1860, I: 9698].
: Hbr N-Hbr bd ; ; Aram Emp bd Mhr
bd Soq bd Ethiosem Zway a-bui [Cohen 1970: 44; Johnstone
1987: 4344].
, (1) (2)
652

(3)
.
1.2.
[Behnstedt 1996:
6465; Piamenta 1990: 23]. bidah/budah .
: bidt/bud-t.
mubadbid , ;
, [Behnstedt 1996: 65]. , ,
bdd, bd/w/y, bd.
1.3.
: Gz bud
Tna Amh Har Gur buda ;
[Behnstedt 1996: 64; Leslau 1987: 86].

,
. .. ,
, . . *bAwad ; [,
1973, 238].
, .:
*bawVd ; .
, ..
[Orel, Stolbova
1995: 247].

, , . ,
.
653

2.0. , zr. .
Zr ,
.
, .
,
.
, . ,
. .
[Al-Baradn 1988: 39].
2.1. zr . . zr,
.
zr
. zr/zwr, V + w/y,
:
(1) Arab zwr ; ( > , , [Kazimirski
1860, I: 10251026]; [
1995: 212213] [Al-Qurnu: 1022]3; Sem: Hbr zr
; Ph zr , ; Aram zr , Ep SA
z(w)r Gz zora/yzur ,
; Akk zru , [Leslau 1987,
646; Zammit 2002: 211].
(2) Arab zwr , ; zr- [Kazimirski 1860,
I: 10251026]; [ 1995: 212213] [Al-Qurnu: 2230, 2572].
(3) Arab zawira ,
, .
654

(4) Arab ziwr-/ziyr- ,


[Kazimirski 1860, I: 1026].
zwr zr ; [Behnstedt 1996: 517518];
zr/zawr [ ].
2.2.
zr , . .
Zr , ( ).
zwr (II .) ( zr) [Piamenta: 195, 208].
: zehereh (fem.) [Leslau 1936: 151152], Soq zehereh < *zr.
2.3. zr
: Amh zar (< Kush) [ 1973: 129]. , * Ar
-; [ 1973: 129].
3.
, ,
.
3.0. Sir- ; ; ; sir- ; .
.
,
( ),
, . .
: Mhr abrem them hba suwer/r arahum sab sawir [Sdarabische Expedition 1909: 96, 37(4)] 4 , Mhr suwer .
saret; r sawir . sir. sir- ,
: 655

, : Mhr i h-hem ser/r mi- la-hum sir [Sdarabische


Expedition 1909: 96, 37(3)] .
[Behnstedt 1996: 540; Piamenta: 216].
3.1. *sr :
[ 1995: 219] , ., : sar- alm- [Al-Qurnu: 2637] :
bal nanu qawmun masrna [Al-Qurnu: 1515]
! [ 1963: 205].
3.2. : Akk shir- , ; Hbr sarh
[Koehler, Baumgartner 1958: 962]; Sab s3r , [Beeston et al. 1982: 38]. . Eg (?) shr.t (Med.) [Erman, Grapov 1957-1971, IV: 209].
3.3. , . sr
rs. : Gz rs , ;
aras/ars/aris , ; Gurage ara-i ; : Bed haris
, (c. Som hrsi .
[Reinisch 1895: 110]), - : Aram Syr Mnd er/arr/ar- , Ug -t-r [Leslau 1987: 243].
rs- , , aras- , ris [Kazimirski 1860, I: 407; Behnstedt 1996: 247].
budah/zr, sr .
3.4. , , sr (2),
- . sr (2)
Arab saar- , , : Akk ru Ug r Hbr aar
Aram a(a)r [Zammit 2002: 217].
656

4. , , - .
budah zr

. , ,
.
.

.
,
, zr, Ar, (. Amh zar). budah/bideh , , - .
,
, -.
-
,
[Belova 1996; Blova
2003].

-, . / . , .
. .. . ., 1984.
.. - .
.: , 1973.
.. . .: - . -, 1962.
.. // .
. II, . 2. .: (. . . -), 1965. . 480500.
.. . .: (. .
. -), 1979.
657

.. (). .:
(. . . -), 1981.
.. . . . .: - . -, 1963.
.. . VIVIII . .:
, 1995.
.. - . . . .: , 1955.
.. . .:
(. . . -), 1960.
.. ,
- // .
. . IV, . 1. .: (. . . -), 1991. . 250330.
.. ( .).
Al-Baradn Abdallah. A-aqfatu -a biyya. tarib wa aqwl yamaniyya. ( . ). Egypt: Al-Giza, 1988.
Al-Kalb, Him ibn Muammad. Kitbu l-anm. Ed. Ahmad Zaki-b (2 ed.). AlQhira, 1924.
Al-Qurnu l-Karm. Dimaq: Al-mabau l-himiyya, 1963 { .
: -, 1963}
Beeston A.F.L., Ghul M.A., Mller W.W., Ryckmans J. Sabaic Dictionary (English
French Arabic). Louvain-la-Neuve, 1982.
Behnstedt P. Die nordjemenitischen Dialekte. Teil 2: Glossar. Wiesbaden, 1992, 1996.
Belova A.G. Einige jemenitisch-afrikanische Isoglossen // Cushitic and Omotic Languages.
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium. Berlin, 1994. Eds. Cath. GriefenowMewis, Rainer M. Voigt. Kln: Rdiger Kppe Verlag, 1996. S. 3342.
Blova A.G. Isoglosses ymnites-couchitiques // Studia Semitica. Orientalia.
. . III. Ed. by Leonid Kogan. Moscow: , 2003. C. 219229.
Kasimirski A. de Biberstein. Dictionnaire arabe-franais. T. 12. Paris, 1860.
Cohen D. Dictionnaire des racines smitiques ou attestes dans les langues smitiques.
La Haye, 19701995.
Diakonoff I.M., Belova A.G., Chetverukhin A.S., Militarev A.Yu., Porkhomovsky
V.Ya., Stolbova O.V. Historical Comparative Vocabulary of Afrasian // St. Petersburg
Journal of African Studies. 3, 1994. C. 526.
Erman A., Grapow H. Wrterbuch der gyptischen Sprache. Bd. IV. Berlin:
Akademie-Verlag, 19571971.
658

Ibn al-Manzr. Lisnu l-arab. Beyrut, 19511955.


Johnstone T.M. Mehri Lexicon and English-Mehri word-list. London: University of
London, 1987.
Koehler L., Baumgartner W. Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros. Leiden: Brill, 1958.
Lane E.W. An Arabic-English Lexicon. London Edinburgh, 18631893.
Leslau W. Lexique soqotri. Paris, 1936.
Leslau W. Comparative Dictionary of Geez (Classical Ethiopic). Wiesbaden, 1987.
Orel V., Stolbova O. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. Leiden: Brill, 1995.
Piamenta M. Dictionary of Post-Classical Yemeni Arabic. Leiden N. Y. Kbenhavn
Kln: Brill, 1990.
Reinisch L. Wrterbuch der Beauye-Sprache. Wien, 1895.
Sdarabische Expedition. Bd. VII. Die Mehri- und Soqori-Sprache. Von Mller D.H. III.
Wien, 1907.
Sdarabische Expedition. Bd. IX. Mehri- und aramitexte gesamm. im Jahre 1902 in
Gischine von W. Hein, bearb. und hrsg. von Mller D.H. Wien, 1909.
Zammit M.R. A Comparative Lexical Study of Qurnic Arabic. Leiden Boston
Kln: Brill, 2002.
1

: Akk ; Arab ; Aram /- /-; Eg ; Ethiosem ; Gz


( ); Hbr (); ar ; Jibb (), ; Mhr ( ); EC
; Mnd ();
Ph .
2
[Diakonoff et al. 1994] [Orel, Stolbova 1995]
, , .
3
, .
4
.

659

..
( , )


-
Stolbova O.V.

Some bird- and fish-names in Chadic with


parallels in Hamito-Semitic and Nostratic languages
Chadic is the biggest branch of the Hamito-Semitic family, it
includes about 150 unwritten languages of Nigeria, Niger and
Cameroun. Recent publications (including those on different websites) contributed to more detailed analysis of Chadic lexical data
and to search for cognates within and outside of the HamitoSemitic phylum.
Under discussion are: 1. Names of Chadic birds of prey and their
Semitic cognates, 2. Nostratic parallels to Semito-Hamitic bird and
fish names. Chadic data is supplied with reconstructed forms and
with all the commentary needed.
The list of etymologies presented includes, inter alia, the following
ones: Semitic *rw/y- bird of prey ~ Chadic *HVr- bird of prey;
Semitic *Vl- bird of prey ~ Chadic *sVl- hawk, kite; Semitic
*day(-at-) bird of prey ~ Chadic *dVy- bird; Semitic *nVreagle ~ Chadic *sV(wV)r- hawk, kite ~ Nostratic *sru bird of
prey, Nostratic *KEr(K)V bird of prey ~ Chadic - Southern
Cushitic *kVr- hawk; Indo-European *gt-/*gd- bird of prey
~ Chadic *kad-k- vulture; Nostratic *doTgiu fish ~ SemiticChadic *dVg- kind of fish; Nostratic *[s]ArV kind of fish ~
Chadic *Vr- kind of fish.

-
150 . - ( , )
.
660


.
, .
(. [Militarev, Kogan 2004]
[Dolgopolsky 2008]), . , , .
. [Blench 2006]
[Jungraithmayr, Ibrizsimow 1994].
( , - -) .
:
(, , ..);
();
() ( ..);
(K
= k ), : ,
, ; .
. ,
[Militarev, Kogan 2004], .
, *.
I.
50
, . [Dutse, Blench 2007],

. (
), , .

, - : , , ..
661

.
(, , , ,
), . , . ,
(
).
. *yawn- *wanay- : .-. yn , ywn
, ynt , wane
[Militarev, Kogan 2004, 252]. ( ), : wn ( ) yon . ,
, ,
( .-. ).
1. - .
1.1. . *rw/y-, *awr- : er
, () ar ,
awar [Militarev, Kogan 2004, 40] ~ . *HVr/*HVwar- : . : ari ,
wara , . : ma-wrwr ;
*wVr- (> wari, wri ).
1.2. . *Vl- : sol, sala
, sila , [Militarev, Kogan 2004, 201]
~ . *sVl- , : . : sl , , ( ) li , uli ; . : alawa (, ),
selo , slak ; : . :
seleeluwa , seleelu .
1.3. . *VzVn- : .-. ozniyya ,
zn [Militarev, Kogan 2004, 51] ~
. *za < *zanVH- : . a , an-taara
, . za .
662

1.4. . *nVr- : naru ,


nr (, ), .-. nr , ,
nasr- , nsr- , , ,
nr [Militarev, Kogan 2004, 166] ~ . *sVrV, *sVwVr, : ) . irwa ; .
sara , sarsiro ; ) . saawura
, sarwura ; suura , . .
*s(V)wVr-: wr-ta, wr-te, uwle ,
. aara (< *swara) .
sy.w , ,
r ( ).
n- . .
n-/m-
: *n/mVCVCV > *n/mCVCV ( m-/n- ).
(, , . 1.8) ,
(*n/mCVCV > CVCV).
1.5. . *rV/w/hy : .-. raa , rawya , , - ( -
), [Militarev, Kogan 2004, 187] ~ . *ray ()
: . rai, raayi, rayo, raw
, . m-rwy , ly (< *ray)
; . raaya .
1.6. . *day(-at-) : .-. daa
, dayya unclean bird of prey, diy [Militarev, Kogan 2004, 64] ~ . *dVy- : . duu-t,
dio, diid, do-t, do-t; . diya-k,
, , , e, di-ka, diya-,
diyu; . did, di-t, diida, didu,
deed, ddiwe. .
1.7. .: a (a) [Militarev, Kogan
2004, 126] ~ . . kiak , . kewiye
, kuuye .
1.8. . *an(V)- : anu-
, ane , [Militarev, Kogan 2004,
663

6] ~ . . : *nkya (< *nVky-) : nkia


dyes, nkiya, nkya, nkia [Takacs 2004: 194].
1.9. .: .-. gozal , gz(z)al
[Militarev, Kogan 2004, 86] ~ . .
*zVl-k- : zlik , zlk ;
zlk o; zla , zlo , ezlem
(aigle ravisseur), ola , zla
.
.-. -k: *gVzVl- > *gVzVlVk >*zVlVk. , .

, , ,
1. .
*nVr- , *kad-k- (.
),
-.
, , ,
( )
.
2. 2
2.1. . *KEr(K)V : . *kra, .
*kerkV; iria ; Falco tunninculus [Nostr
1401] 3 ~ .-.: ) . *kVr- : . karmata
, ker ; . man-kilaku (-l- < *-r-)
kwaryata ; ) -.
krai (k- < *k-). ,
. . kukurya .
2.2. . *Vl(w)V , , : .-. *pel-, .
*pialbi, . *patV, . *pul- [Nostr 812] ~ .-.: ) .
. polopolo , b-pal ; . .
pl-a ; ) . palaeto
.
664

2.3. . *SVlwV : .-. *swAlw-, .


*/slwV , . *sl- [Nostr 1570]. .
*lw- .-. : . *lw: .-. lw
, *slw, salw 4 [Dolgopolsky 2008]; . . sala ,
. *sul-k- : sulku, sulko; .- *sal. . * Vl-, *sVl-.
. : . ewulay ,
silk .
-
(, -).
2.4. .: . *saru ( -e-) [Nostr 1891]
~ . .-. 1.4. (. *nVr- , . *sVrV, *sVwVr- ,
).
2.5. .: . *er- [Nostr 1655] 5 .
*[o]rV : . *er- , . *jor?
[Dolgopolsky 2008] ~ . . ira , zrmtm
, nzaraku,
zalaake, zeleke, naalaka (< *zVr-k-,
.-. -l- < *-r- ).
. *zVr- ( ).
2.6. . *gVlV , : . *giala, .-. *alja
[Nostr 1761] ~ . .*gul-: gule , gula-ti
, gulwa , gule , .
*guli .
2.7. . *kVt/d-: .-. *gt-/*gd-
[Nostr 261] ~ . *kad-k- : . kwad-k, kud-ak,
koodo ; . kadgwa , Pod ma-kwada
, Mada kodo , , kwadi-gw, kwadi-ga,
wadi-gw, wad (< *kwad), kutika,
gwotiki , kada-bu .
665

II.
,
- ,
. [Militarev, Kogan 2004] ,
- *abVw- (
), [Militarev, Kogan 2004,
27], *kVwVr- (. II.5).
.-.
.
1. . *doTgiu : C.: .-. dg (and dg),
dg () ~ .-. ~ . [Dolgopolsky 2008].
, : .
*dVgV : .-. *dhg'h- ~ . *diagi ( -io-) ~ . *totke ~
.-. *qau, ~ .-.*tujke [Nostr 509].
,
: . dgw , dugu-ru .
2. . .-. *tim- [Nostr 2749]
.-. *tVm-: tm.t [Erman,
Grapov 1937: 306], .-. *ta/um- , :
tamwa ; , tm
, tm , tum, tumi,
tumi , tum , if zi tum
(if ), tum .
3. . *bVV : . *bek`u, . *vagg- [Nostr
2009] ~ .-.: . beeg/, pei-te, pl.peek,
bee, . . bee (<*bVg/-) [Dolgopolsky 2008] ~
.-. *bVK-: baka , baka kedi
baka, bakwabakwa ,
bakbka, bakbga .
4. . *[s]ArV : . *sro(-gV), . *srk
[Nostr 1887] ~ . *Vr- : . *SVrV: saaroo
, Bolewa sarani ; . *VrV :
re , ire; ir-day
.
666

5. . *kVrV : . *krV, . *koru [Nostr 1732] ~ .-. *kVrV : *kwr- ( kamaru),


kuwerhor , ker , kawwara , ~ kara, kaara
, . . kaara [Militarev, Kogan 2004,
125]. :
kukkurwai (< *kur-kur-wai) ; kikura .
, -
*kVrVp- (
- - , . [Jungrathmayr, Ibriszimow
1994: 140-141]). , -p-
.
, II
,
.
(. riverian group [Jungrathmayr, Ibriszimow 1994: X1V]).
, , , , .
,

.

. ,
.
.-. -
.
.
.-. -
.
.
.
.
.
.-. -
.

.
.-
.-. -
.-. -
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1


,
: danka , danka .
2
. [Dolgopolsky 2008] - , [Nostr],
, .
3
. .
4
.
5
(. II.4), .

670

..
( , )



Titov E.G.

Etymology of some names of parts of the human body


in Amharic
The paper is devoted to the problem of Semitic vs. Kushitic origin
of the names of parts of the human body in Amharic. The author
comes to the conclusion that approximately sixty of these names
have the Cushitic origin, while only twenty names have the Semitic
origin. Another topic touched upon is the etymology of the Amharic
word gziabher God.


, , , , c . , .
, (, ,
..):
ras
nqllat
angol
gur
fit
gnbar
afna
oro

gon
n
dale
qi
gr
bat
amma

671

()
,

af
mngaga
rs
knfr
gun
mlas
lanqa
i
ag
riz
im
fal
qndb
guroro
angt
marat
tka
anqa
godn
rba
akrkari
resa
mnta
drt
ut
sga
una
gla
akal

gulbt
qurmmit
trkz
ant

krn
mdaf
at
wgb
fr
qoda
mmat
ant
ggwarra
gubbt
sanba
kulalit
affiya
lbb
fia

dm

lab

nt

hamot

lha

mraq

,
nf
;

hwas (. ahwas)

mayt

msmat

mat (= matt)

();

, ;

;
;
;

672

nbrt
tbt
hod

mnkat
mkms

,
() , ( ) ( , ):
ras
(. ras )
ayn
(. ayn )
afna (. anf )
af
p (. fm)
angt (. unuq )
(. yd )

at (ap. ibi )
fr (. zifr )
drt (ap. sdr )
lbb
(. qlb )
gubbt (. kbid )
kulalit (. kila )
dm
(. dm )
hwas (. ahwas) (ap. ash )
msmat (ap. sma)
matt ; attt , (ap. m)
mayt , (. ayn )
mddass , tdasst , ;
mnkat nkka (. gsis)
( ), , , ( , ):

nqllat
marat
gur
fit
gnbar

akal
n
tbt
nbrt
673

gun
oro
mngaga
gnl
rs
knfr
mlas
lanqa
guroro
ag
riz
im
fal
qndb
tka
ut

anqa
rba
akrkari
ant
una
qoda
resa
mnta
sga
gla

hod
wgb
gon
n
dale
qi
gr
bat
amma

();

gulbt
qurmmit
trkz
krn
mdaf
mmat
ant
ggwarra
sanba
affiya
fia
lab
nt
hamot
lha
nf

()
,


() .
bher, ,
( hzb). , bherawi nannt ; bherawi ynannt nqnnaqe ( bherawi bher -awi).
674

bher
, ,

gziabher.
gzi (, ). gzi
()
( : geta), (
: balbet), ( : g), (
: asaddari asaddr
(, - ).
, ,
(gziabher) (
, , ).
gzi bher
gzia, ,
gziabher.
, gzi
gza .
gzza : 1. ;
2. . ,
, ..
- , , ( , , ).
gziabher, , - gzer , ..
(gziabher > gzer).
(gziabher > gzer)
amlak ( amallk ; ,
mlkot ), fari , (
fr , ), geta (getan)
( ;
geta ), mdhn .
675

( )
mdhanealm (.
), qdmalm (. = ,
<> ), bezaalm (.
) ..

Brockelmann C. Abessinische Studien (I. Kuschitische Lehnwrter in den neuabessinischen) / Berichte ber die Verhandlungen der Schsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Phil-hist. Klasse. Bd. 97, Heft 4. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1950.
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international des langues africaines. Paris, 1931.
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Paris, 1947.
Cohen M. Smitique, gyptien, libyco-berbre, couchitique // Bibliotheca Orientalis.
Vol.10. Leiden, 1953.
Leslau W. The influence of the Cushitic substratum on Semitic re-examined //
XXV . I. ., 1962.
Moreno M.M. Lazione del Cuschitico sul sistema morfologica delle lingue semitiche
dEtiopia // Rassegna di studi etiopici. Vol.VII, fasc. II, 1948.
Plazikowsky-Brauner K. Ergnzungen zu C. Brockelmann Abessinischen Studien //
Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Orientforschung. Bd. I, Heft 2. Berlin, 1953.

676

3. -
:

. .
( , )


(- 19.53-54 = 11.8-9) 1

Kulikov L.I.

Notes on Hymn to Time


(Atharvaveda-aunakya 19.53-54 = Paippalda 11.8-9)
The present paper offers a translation of the Atharvavedic hymns
19.53-54 (in the aunakya recension), dedicated to Time, also
known as Klaskta. These hymns also exist in the Paippalda
recension (11.8-9). This is the only early Vedic text the subject of
which is Time, considered as a deified cosmogonic notion superior
to all other deities. The translation is accompanied by a detailed
philological and grammatical commentary.
, ,
, ...

53 54 19- () (
, -.)
(kl-); Klaskta.
(
.): 8-9 11 ;
12.2.
.
677

[Renou 1956(a): 272; Renou 1956(b): 101 .],


(Principe Suprme)
(
-. 13.2.39, / ).
, ( ,
-), 2. 10.1.7, (19.52)
(
. [Gonda 1978: 17 .]).
. .
. . [Atharva-Veda / Whitney 1905: 987-991],
19.53-54 ,
[Ludwig 1878: 191]; [Scherman 1887: 78 .]; [Deussen 1894: . I/1,
210 .]; [Bloomfield 1897: 224 ., 681 .]; [Geldner 1928: 97];
[Papesso 1933: 198 .]; [Renou 1956a: 215, 272]; [Edgerton 1965:
130 .]; [Ambrosini 1984: 172-175] [Gupta, Mohanty 2000: 26 .]
( . ). 19.53-54
[Orlandi 1997] ( ,
); 19.53 [Mylius 2002].
-. 19.53 = -. 11.8
: 1-4 (
11+11+11+11), 5 (?) (
10+9+8+8), 6-10 (8+8+8+8).
1

kl vo vahati saptrami
sahasrk ajro bhriret
tm rohanti kavyo vipactas
tsya cakr [*cakri ?] bhvanni vv

, ,
, , .
,
.
1a
(saptrami) 7
. . .
678

1c
... (tm) . ., ,
(. . 2a). ( )
[Edgerton 1965: 130, . 1], , ( ),
, , ,
3. ,
()
() (. , .). , ajro , saptrami
1.146.1. , , 19.53.3a,
, (
).
1d
(cakr) . 2a.
1d
(bhvanni)
(, : beings; , , ,
: Wesen; , , : esseri (viventi))
(: existences), (: welten);
(: worlds (or beings), : beings (worlds)). bhvana-
bh , , ,
, -,
: (, ) .. ,
, , , -.
2

sapt cakrn vahati kl e


saptsya nbhr amta nuv ka
s im vv bhvanniy +ajn
kl s yate pratham n dev

,
, () .
, ,
, , .
2a
(?) (sapt +cakr [ saptcakra
(?)] vahati) () 1.164.3
(saptcakra sapt vahanty v ()
679

) , , () [Scherman 1887: 81;


Bloomfield 1897: 682 .; Renou 1956a: 272; Ambrosini 1984: 175;
Orlandi 1997: 251, . 19], , [Deussen 1894: . I/1, 210]. cakrn, . , cakr-
. . , 1.164.3, ,
,
, , .
, -,
, (. 1ab),
(. 1c). cakr- .
, , ( ) 1d: cakr ( , ),
*cakri, . .
, ,
... [Kuiper 1931: 243] (. [Mayrhofer 1986-1996,
Bd. I: 343]), kl- () cakr- ( / ), ,
1-2, kl-: kl- *kelH- ,
, r- (. . car) cakr- (< .-. *ke-kl-o-).
2c
(+ajn) . ajt
( anyt); . ajan, . . aj , . , ,
: adorning (anointing) all these worlds.

(3)
aj , ( ., ., [Mayrhofer
1986-96: Bd. I, 54]); : Er bringt
alle Dinge zur Erscheinung. .
+
arv
praty , 3. 680

: , , (:
), (: ); .
[Bloomfield 1897:
684]. , , , ,
, .. [Deussen 1894: . I/1, 210].
, , ( , , ), , arv praty, : he,
time, including (?) all these beings 4.
5. ,
aj. , -,
: ( ) , ,
, (. ,
). . 4b s bhvanni pry ait
[] , , ,
, 6c kl ha vv bhtni [..
] .
2a, d , kl- , : e ( ) a s
( ) d. ,
( ) : ,
, , ; (.., , , )
. ,
, , 1, , .
. [Schayer 1938: 7 .] 6. , s d :
( ,
: 11+11+11+12
11+11+11+11), 2cd (s im
681

vv bhvanniy +ajn ' kl s yate pratham n dev) 3cd (s


im vv bhvanni praty ' kl tm hu param viyman).
3

pr kumbh adhi kl hitas


t vi pymo bahudh n sntam
s im vv bhvanni praty
kl tm hu param viyman


.
.
.
3a
(pr kumbh) ,
. ,
, ;
[Bloomfield 1897: 684]. ,
.
( 10.8.15 10.8.29), 9.4.6, ; . [Renou 1956(a): 272; Renou
1956(b): 102]. , ,
, (hita-) (.
. 19.53.1ab).
. ( ... ) 7, , kumbh- . , ,
( ),
.
[Achar 1998], , kumbh- , .. (A full vessel is set [up] with reference to [measurement of] time).
3b
(pymo
bahudh sntam) . .
3d
(kl tm
hu param vyman) , ,
, .
(le Temps (sige aussi), dit-on, au plus haut
firmament), : : ()
.
682

s ev +sn bhvanniy bharat


s ev +sn bhvanni priy ait
pit snn abhavat putr e
tsmd vi nnyt pram asti tja

, , () ,
() , , ;
, .
( ).
4ab
(+sn) s , ,
, , (smtlich)
(ensemble), +sn ( . . as
). .
4b
(s bhvanni
pry ait) , 2c. . 6c.
5

kl am dvam ajanayat
kl +im +pthivm ut
+
klna bht bhvya caiit ha v tihate

;
() .
()
.

,
, (., ., [
1990/2001]). . 10d: .
+
5b

(+im
pthivm)

. . . (im pthivm)
, . .,
(im pthivr ). ,
. . pthiv- -

683

. . ( : 1.34.8, 4.53.5, 7.104.11;


-.: 4.20.2, 6.21.1, 19.27.3, 19.53.5)
, ,
(dva).
5cd
(+klna
iit) kl ha ()
(In der Zeit [ist alles Gewordene und Zuknftige
enthalten]) (mosso nel tempo).
+
klna ( )

,
.
6

kl bhtm asjata
kl tapati sriya
kl ha vv bhtni
kl ckur v payati

() (?);
.
.
( ) .
6a
() (?) (bhtm) . -
+bhmim bhtm , , ,
( ); (Der Kla erzeugte die Natur) (Time created lordship). ,
, ( bhtim). , , bht- , ( :
Time sent forth the existent),
.
6c
(kl ha vv bhtni)
. 2c 4b.
6d
( ) (ckur v payati) , , ; . 10.8.18 s [] sapyan yti
bhvanni vv () ,
(. [ 2007: 115]).
684

kl mna kl pr
kl nma samhitam
klna srv nandantiy
gatena praj im

, ,
;

.
7cd

(klna srv nandantiy gatena praj im) C, , :
.. .
8

kl tpa kl jyham
kl brhma samhitam
kl ha srvasyevar
y pitst prajpate

/ , (),
,
,
.
8ab
() (kl jyham)
jyham , ( . .
8b), kl .
, , (dans le Temps est consacr le tout-puissant brahman, (oui,) dans le Temps)
(nel tempo composta la formula migliore).
8b
(brhma) , ,
( ), ., , 10.7.24 .. [ 2007:
110 .], 10.2.21 [ 2007: 243
283]. , brhma (. : sacred truth); brhma the
holy word; . 19.54.5 8.
685

tneit tna jt
td u tsmin prtihitam
kl ha brhma bhtuv
bbharti paramehnam

(), ,
( ) .
, ,
.
9b
(td) . ., -, , ; . 5cd ( ()
...). [Renou 1956b: 102] ,
(la cellule originelle neutre).
9c
, (kl ha brhma bhtv)
. 8b. - 6.15,
9 (. [Scheftelowitz
1929: 11; van Buitenen 1962: 45 .; Venkateswara Rao 2004: 9 .]).
, -,
,
(., , -. 6.1; .
[Oberlies 1998: 109]).
9d
(paramehnam) . () , , .
10

kl praj asjata
kl gre prajpatim
svayabh kaypa klt
tpa kld ajyata

,
() ().
;
.
10a
(asjata)
sj , 6a, , ( ).
686

10b
() (prajpatim)
praj-pati- ,
.
10c
(svayabh-, ) , ;
.
-. 19.54 = -. 11.9
: 1, 3, 4 , 2 (8+8+8),
5 (8+8+11+11), 6 ( . - ) (11+12). , , ,
6 ; .
: 2 3 ( ), ..
(8+8+8+8+8); , 3-5
4 . , .
1

kld pa sm abhavan
kld brhma tpo da
klnd eti sriya
kl n viate pna

,
, , .
(/ ) ,
(/ ) .
1b
, (da), , ,
.
1c
(/ ) (klna) klna
, 10 (. Instrumentalis der
Raumerstreckung [Delbrck 1888: 128 .] , ,
1.161.14 dv ynti marta ; RV 1.25.7
687

antrikena ptatm [,] ). , (, , , ), (. d).


1d
(/ ) (kl) , , ,
: (1)
( ), (2)
( ) .
2

klna vta pavate


klna pthiv mah
dyur mah kl hit

,
() ,
.
2a
(vta pavate) p
() , , ,
( ) , . , (the
wind cleanses), . ,
. [Got 1987: 207] (. [Mayrhofer 1986-96:
Bd. II, 106]), p
.
2b
()
(klna pthiv mah) ,
.. , . :
1) (mah) , .. (by time the
earth [is] great), , , (durch die Zeit ist die
Erde gro), (per mezzo del tempo grande la terra) ; 2) (pthiv mah) (through Time (exists) the great
earth), (by Time the great earth (exists)) (grce
au Temps (existe) la vaste Terre).
688

, , , , , : , ,
( ), . a b: , ,

(Instrumentalis der Raumerstreckung), .. ,
( ?) .
3

klna bht bhvya ca


putr ajanayat pur
kld ca sm abhavan
yju kld ajyata

, , , ,
.
,
( ).
3ab
, , , ,
(+klna bhta bhvya ca ' putr ajanayat pur
[ pra])
kl ha(: ()) kl ha (: ()) . 1- . - [Atharva
Veda Sanhita 1856] +mantr ( putr),
. 1- . -, kl ha
mantr ( , . : im
Kla hat der mantra, was geworden, was werden soll, vormals erzeugt;
), ( 2- .
- [Atharva Veda Sanhita 1924] . ) (kl ha). , (, ) , ( ),
, . . :
Time, [their] son, generated of old what is and what is to be; , (Le Temps, (leur) fils, a engendr jadis les choses
qui furent et celles venir) .
11 689

. , , , , (19.53.4), ,
, (Die Zeit hat einst Vergangnes und Zuknftiges erzeugt und ist auch ihr Sohn). , +klna a . (
klo ha), kl ha (+klna bhta bhvya ca) 5 , . , , -, +klna. , , , ,
, ,
19.53.8, . klna pitr
prerakea , ,
19.53.5, , ()
. ( kl
+klna)
(In Time the son (Pragpati) begot of yore that which was, and that
which shall be).
3cd
, ( ) (ca
yju) ( ) (. . ) , (. . ).
4

kl yaj sm airayad
devbhyo bhgm kitam
kl gandharvpsarsa
kl lok prtihit

,
, .
,
.
5

kl ym gir dev
atharv cdhi tihata
im ca lok param ca lok
690

py ca lokn vdht ca py
srvl lokn abhijtya brhma
kl s yate param n dev

.
, ,
, ()
() ,
() .
5ab
([a]ym
gir dev tharv) , ,
,
, ,
[Edgerton 1965: 132, . 2]; . .. 10.7.20 [ 2007: 250 282 .]. , ( )
3.

(): 3- . 2: VIII-XII /
, , .. .:
, 2007.
. . // : . .. / .
.. .. . .: , 1995.
. 94-115.
. : . .:
, 1990 ( .: , 2001).
Achar B.N.N. On the meaning of AV XIX.53.3: Measurement of Time? // Electronic
Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS). Vol. 4, 2, 1998. . 2126. (http://www.ejvs.
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CLUEB, 1984.
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commentary by William Dwight Whitney ... Revised and edited by Charles Rockwell
Lanman. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1905.
Atharva Veda Sanhita. Herausgegeben von R. Roth und W.D. Whitney. Erster Band. Text.
Berlin: Ferd. Dmmler, 1856.
691

Atharva Veda Sanhita. Herausgegeben von R. Roth und W. D. Whitney. Zweite


verbesserte Auflage besorgt von Max Lindenau. Berlin: Ferd. Dmmler, 1924.
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and the commentaries. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1897.
Buitenen J. A. B. van. The Maitryaya Upaniad. A critical essay, with text, translation
and commentary. s-Gravenhage: Mouton, 1962.
Delbrck B. Altindische Syntax / B. Delbrck. Syntaktische Forschungen V. Halle a. S.:
Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, 1888.
Deussen P. Allgemeine Geschichte der Philosophie. I. Bd. 1. Abteilung. Allgemeine Einleitung und Philosophie des Veda bis auf die Upanishads. Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1894.
Edgerton F. The beginnings of Indian philosophy. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1965.
Geldner K.F. Vedismus und Brahmanismus. Tbingen: Mohr, 1928.
Gonda J. Hymns of the gveda not employed in the solemn ritual. Amsterdam: NorthHolland Publishing Company, 1978.
Got T. Die I. Prsensklasse im Vedischen: Untersuchung der vollstufigen thematischen
Wurzelprsentia. Wien: Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften,
1987.
Gupta B., Mohanty J. (eds). Philosophical Questions: East and West. Delhi: Rowman
& Littlefield, 2000.
Kuiper F.B.J. Beitrge zur altindischen Wortforschung // Zeitschrift fr Indologie und
Iranistik. Bd. 8, 1931. . 241-266.
Ludwig A. Der Rigveda oder die heiligen hymnen der Brhmana. Bd. III. Die mantraliteratur und das alte Indien als einleitung zur uebersetzung des Rigveda. Prag: F.
Tempsky, 1878.
Macdonell A. A. Vedic mythology. Strassburg: Trbner, 1897.
Mayrhofer M. Etymologisches Wrterbuch des Altindoarischen. Bd. I-II. Heidelberg:
Winter, 1986-1996.
Mylius K. Philosophische Probleme der Hymne an die Zeit (Klaskta: AtharvaVeda
aunaka 19.53, Paippalda 11.8) // A. Ghosh (ed.), tharva (a collection of essays on
the AtharvaVeda with special reference to its Paippalda tradition). Kolkata: Sanskrit
Book Depot, 2002. . 181-188.
Oberlies Th. Die vetvatara-Upaniad. Edition und bersetzung von Adhyya IV-VI
(Studien zu den mittleren Upaniads II 3. Teil) // Wiener Zeitschrift fr die Kunde
Sdasiens. Bd. 42, 1998. . 77-138.
Orlandi Ch. Il Tempo come entit immortale // R. Arena et al. (eds). Bandhu. Scritti in
onore di Carlo Della Casa in occasione del suo settantesimo compleanno. Alessandria:
Edizioni dell'Orso, 1997. . 245-259.
Papesso V. Inni dell'Atharva-Veda / traduzione, introduzione e note di Valentino Papesso.
Bologna: N. Zanichelli, 1933.
692

Renou L. Hymnes spculatifs du Vda traduits du sanskrit et annots. Paris:


Gallimard/Unesco, 1956(a).
Renou L. tudes sur quelques hymnes spculatifs // Renou L. tudes vdiques et
pinennes. T. II. Paris: Boccard, 1956(b). . 55-103.
Schayer S. Contributions to the problem of time in Indian philosophy = Przyczynki do
zagadnienia czasu w filozofii indyjskiej / Prace Komisji orientalistycznej 31. Krakw:
Nakadem Polskiej Akademji Umiejetnoci, 1938.
Scheftelowitz I. Die Zeit als Schicksalsgottheit in der indischen und iranischen Religion:
(Kla und Zruvan) / Beitrge zur indischen Sprachwissenschaft und Religionsgeschichte 4.
Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1929.
Scherman L. Philosophische Hymnen aus der ig- und Atharva-Veda-Sanhit verglichen
mit den Philosophemen der lteren Upanishads. Strassburg: Trbner, 1887.
Varma S. The Vedic concept of time // Indian Linguistics. Vol. 27, 1966. . 115-130.
Venkateswara Rao R. The concept of Time in Ancient India. Delhi: Bharatiya Kala
Prakashan, 2004.
1

() . , . , . . , , ..
.
2
,
. [Varma 1966; Venkateswara Rao 2004].
3
In this verse Time appears to be represented by the Sun, who drives a chariot there is
some confusion of chariot, driver, and horse(s). The Sun, under the name of Rohita the
Ruddy, is identified with Time in AV. 13.2.39. . [Varma 1966: 121 .].
4
, . [Gupta & Mohanty
2000: 26], *jat *arjat (
) Time has reached all
beings. j,
*jat *arjat (
), : ();
( . 1995: 104-106); ,
,
.
5
+ajn . [Orlandi 1997: 251 ., . 21],
()
(Egli che prepara tutti questi esseri) . 3 . . . *ank ( ,
, , ); ajn 3 . . . ,
( ). aj , , ,
.
693

. ( ,
- 6.15, .
19.53.9), () ,
, . , ,
, . ()
(kl e) (kl s) . . [Varma 1966: 116 .].
7
. [Achar 1998: 22 . 9].
8
brhman; here perhaps with specific reference to the magic charms of the Atharva Veda,
which are just as familiarly brhman in Atharvan literature as are the hieratic hymns in the
Rig Veda. But it would be rash to insist, in such a passage as this, on any single meaning
(i.e. English translation) of this many-sided word [Edgerton 1965: 132, . 3].
9
dve vva brahmao rpe kla ckla ca : -.
10
. , .
11
., ., [Macdonell 1897: 21 .].

694

..
( )

,
XVIII .

Pyurbeev G.Ts.

Trade, economical and financial terms in the literary


monument of Mongolian law of the 18th century
Khalkha djirum
Social life of the Mongols in the 18th century experienced changes
caused by intensive commodity-money relations between China and
Mongolia, by active trade and money-lending Chinese capital. The
collection of laws Khalkha djirum sheds light on these processes.
The articles of the law deal with regulation of the problems attendant
on the purchase/sale process, conclusion of various bargains,
exaction of taxes etc. This legislative literary monument presents
the rather developed for that period Mongolian terminology of
trade and business spheres. The material of the monument proves
the fixed character of the terminology of trade-economical and
financial spheres, it is also demonstrated by the concrete examples
of its use in the text of the law articles.

X
, - , , - . 24 , -, -, - 1709
1770 . 1911 . .
.
. [, 1923]. 695

, . 1933-1937 ., . [ 1959].
1965 . ..
. , [ 1965].

.. [ 1931] . - [- 1958].
, [ 2002].
.
. , [ 1987, 2008]. , , . , , .

XVII XVIII . , , , , -
[ 2002: 481]. , () , VI .


.

. . .. ,
, ,
,
. ,
, [ 2002: 482].
696

- , - . , , (qudaldu-a nayima-a), (kelelcege


met zyil), (barildul-a), (tatal-a abiy-a), (nen-i
oloqu) ..

, . .
olan qudaldu-a kik arad-tur zarlau tarqaaba. Kriye gegi
burqan-u orun, aliba qudaldu-a kigi arad edr qudaldu-a kik
(XXI, I1: 319) 1 : () . .
olan qudaldu-a kik arad-un nigen il-d nige uda-a zuran-aa
piu temdeg biig abu kriyen- aar-tu ire qudaldu-a ki yabunam.
il-n dotor-a qoyii oiu piu qalau oinam. egn-dr tanu abi iregsen
aliba yauma-yi demei ai eri kmn-dr sana-a-bar zegelile
ggged, qariqu ca-tur ese oldabasu bida daaqu gei. (XXI, 2: 320).
, ,
. ,
. , -

, .
Mal ba yaun-i u tosu yabui kmn-i egn-ee qoyii cm
bayilyay-a. Ken kmn cayaa-aa dabu pangsalau yabubasu, tere
kmn yaun-i u pangsalabasu, tegn-i-in cm abuyad, pangsalai-yi
tabi taiurday-a. (XX, 4: 318).
- .
, , , , .
Yer quwara ariki degei qudaldubasu gegen- zarli-aa
dabasan-iyar toryay-a. Qudaldui-yin ariki-yi ken kmn gertegen
697

qadalabasu uutai-yin yosuar bolqu (XX, 2: 316).


, ,
. , .

- ,

. - .
1. - - (
), :
ai , , ai eriqu (XXI, 2: 320) , , baray-a (XX, 2: 316) , baray-a
abui kmn , , egeli bara-a (XVI, 10:
298) , ,
qudaldu-a ; , qudaldu-a kigi arad (XXI, 1:
319) ; , , qudaldui (XX,
2: 316) , ,
qudalduqu (XXI, 1: 319, 3: 321) , ; , niuu daldalau qudaldaqu (XXI, 3: 321) ; , ,
ariki qudaldaqu (XX, 1: 316, XXI, 3: 321)
(), () , arikin-u qudaldua kik aar
, , arikin-u caaa (XXI, 4: 322)
();
mi/mi (I, 2: 127) , ,
bere olusan yauma (XIII 14: 252) ,
nen (IV, 24: 162) , ; , tabin cai-yin
nen (IX, 10: 235) 50 , nen-i oloqu (IV, 24:
162) , , tlk (XIV, 33: 285;XVI, 11:
298) , , ;
mayiman (XVI, 10: 298) ; , ; pangslau yabuqu (XX, 4: 318) , , pangslaqu (XX, 4: 318) , ; , pi temdeg biig (XXI, 2: 320) , ,
qudaldu-a kik temdeg biig (XXI, 2: 320),
.
698

2. - -, :
barildul-a (XIII, 13: 252) , , barildul-a caaa biig ,
egrite-yin batu barildul-a caaa biig (XIII, 13: 255) , bodou abqu -. , bodou
gk (XV1, 10: 298) -. ;
bglge , bglge gk (XIV, 33: 285)
, , egeli , , egelin-du
dutasan yauma (XVI, 10: 298) ,
egeliu abqu (XXI, 2: 321) , , egelileu gk
, , egelilek (XXI, 2: 320) , ;
ri (XVI, 15: 303) , ri rik (XVI, 15: 302; XVIII, 1: 312)
; , ri nekek (XVIII,
1: 311) , , ri-yi
barii abqu (XVI, 15: 302) , gki abui qoyar (XVII,
1: 311) ; arau bayicaaqu-du baridaqu (XXI,
3: 321) , ;
sang (I, 1: 126) , iaur-un sang (VII, 9: 199),
, gegen- sang (III, 1: 148) , isayin sang (1V,3-151) , keyed-n sang (VII, 9: 199)
, sang-un yauma (1,3-128) , sang-du bariqu , sang-du talbiqu (VII, 33: 207)
;
kelelcege met yil ,, yamarba kelelcege met
yil (XIII, 19: 257) , klsn ,
, klsn-i abqu , klslek
, , temege klslek (XVII, 7: 310) ,
tatal-a abiy-a (XIII, 2: 249; XIII, 18: 256) , ,
tatal-a bolqu gei yauma (XIII, 7: 250) , , , tatari , , tatari-du
ggsen (I, 12:139) .
, 18 , :
Orus, Kitad-un ende iregsen mayiman-aa ken zegeli bara-a abui
699

kmn, een noyan-daan ayilatqai tuiyai abqu, abusan-u qariu


gk-degen mn k tuiyai gk (XVI, 10: 298).
, .
.
, mayiman ; ,
; pangslaqu , ; , pi ; , , sang . ,

.

.. . . .-., 1934 [.: 2002: 295-489].


.. . .:
, 2002.
.. (., ., .). : VIII . . ; , , , .. . ., 1965.
- . .
, 1958.
., . : //
. . 6. , 1923.
.. (., ., .). . XVI-XVII . , , .. . ., 2002.
..
VII-VIII . // . 3, 1987.
.. , VIII . // 5.
., 2008.
. Qalq-a jirum // Studia Mongolica. T. 1, f. 1. , 1959.
.. , . , 1931.
1

..
,
.
700


( , )
..

27

..

170

..

54

..

359

..

298

..

59

..

96

..

573

..

649

..

359

..

437

..

622

..

398

..

695

..

530

..

72

..

458

..

185

..

573

..

213

..

115

..

660

..

472

..

481

..

131

..

359

..

359

..

671

131

..

88

..

347

..

220

..

263

.-.

185

..

359

..

131

..

308

..

507

..

677

..

11, 359

..

139

..

246

..

162

..

519

..

347

701


17

2008
, 8-10 2008 .



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..
-