Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

7, 3, 2002

. . , . .
. . .
,
. . , . .

,
. .
. . .
,
. .
,
e-mail: snyt@catalysis.nsk.su
The 3D numerical code for simulation of non-stationary processes in gravitating systems
of N-bodies with gas is developed. The efficient high accuracy algorithm is constructed
taking into account the features of the evolution processes under consideration to provide
a fast convergence. Results of numerical simulation of development of physical instabilities
in the model of plane gravitating disk are presented.

, ,
,
[1 3].
, .

, JURRISS NAG 58717,
, 990100512, 990790418, 020100864,
, 1998 .
c . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . ,

2002.

72

73

. , .
N 1/2 , 0.1 %
. , , ,
.

.
.
(
).

1. N-


N-.
. . . .
,
. .

.
,
, ,
.
.

. , ,
.
.
.
, -

74

. . , . . , . . .

.

f
f
f
+u
+a
= 0,
t
r
u

(1)

f (t, r, u) t r u; a = .
, , :
= 1 + 2 ,
1
( , ),
, (, ,
). 2 2 = 4G,

1
2
1 2 2 2 2
r
+ 2
+
= 4G.
(2)
r r
r
r 2
z 2

( = 0). ,
2
2 :
= 2G.
z
:
R0 = 1.5 1011 ;
M = 2 1030 ;
G = 6.672 1011 2 /2 . V0 , t0 , 0
0
r
GM
V0 =
= 30 /,
R0
R0
= 5 106 = 1/6 ,
t0 =
V0
GM
0 = V02 =
,
R0
M
0 = 2 .
R0

[2]:
(r, ) =

c
0,

r
r0

r r0

r < r0 ,

75

(r0 ). c ,
(M ):
s
2
Zr0
Zr0
r
2
M = 2 rdr = 2c
1
rdr =
c r02 .
r0
3
0

3M
.
2r02

0 . vr ,
[4] vrcr = 3.36Gc / ( , 20 ).
(r) [2]
Zr0
Zr
d
ds
p
(r) = 4G
.
r 2 s2
2 s2
c =

, 20 r
(/r),
2

r
2 2
(r) = r0 0
1 .
2r02

, :

u f
f
f
u f
ur u 1
f
u = 0,
+ ur
+ 2
+

2
t
r
r
r
r ur
r
r
r

2
1 2 2 2 2
1
+
= 0,
r
+ 2
r r
r
r 2
z 2
Z
2
z=0:
= 2 = 2 f dur du ,
z

3 1 r2 , r 1,
t = 0 : (r, ) =
0, r > 1.

2.
(1), (2) .
:
g 1
1
+
(rvr g ) +
(v g ) = 0,
t
r r
r

76

. . , . . , . . .
vr
1 p Frf r
vr v vr v2
+ vr
+

+
,
t
r
r
r
g r
r
g

v v v vr v
1 p 1 Ff r
v
+ vr
+
+
=

+
,
(3)
t
r
r
r
rg r
g
g ; vr , v ; p
; ; Frf r , Ff r
. p (p =
p(g )).
(1), ,
:
a = + Ff r /mp .

(4)

Ff r = 6b(u v)
b.
: () ; ;
( ); , , , ;
.
. , ,
.
[2].

3.
,
, ,
.
Z
X
Mz =
mj rj uj + rg v dS const
j

Z
X h mj
mj i
g
g 2
2
2
2
E=
j +
+ g dS const,
urj + uj +
v + v +
2
2
2 r
2
j

,
Z
p
dg , p = ( 1)g .
=
g2

:

"

2
2 #

1
1
r
Mz 1
+
rur Mz + r
+
u Mz + rp +

= 0,
t
r r
r
r
2r
2 r

77

v 2
+
2
2

v 2
+ div v
2

2
+ div (v) = div
2 t

, [5]:
1 d2 I
= 2W + U 3P V,
2 dt2
W ; U ; P
V , I . (d2 I/dt2 = 0) .
2W + U = 0, U = (4/15)c 20 r05 .

4.
4.1.
.

,
. , .
[6],
:
vr = vrm + Frm , v = vm + Fm , x = rm + vr , y = v ,
p
rm+1 = x2 + y 2 , sin = y/rm+1 , cos = x/rm+1 ,

vrm+1 = vr cos + v sin ,

vm+1 = v cos vr sin ,

m+1 = m + .

vr , v , r, ; ; Fr ,
F , ,
; m .
, .

, .

4.2.
(3) [7]. .

. .

78

. . , . . , . . .

,
, .
, , , , .
. ,

.

4.3.

ri1/2 = (i 1/2)hr ,

k1/2 = (k 1/2)h ,

zl = lhz ,

i = 0, . . . , Imax + 1,
k = 0, . . . , Kmax + 1,

l = 0, . . . , Lmax ,

hr , h , hz :
hr =

Rmax
,
Imax

h =

2
,
Kmax

hz =

Zmax
.
Lmax


1
h2r ri1/2


ri i+1/2,k1/2,l i1/2,k1/2,l ri1 i1/2,k1/2,l i3/2,k1/2,l +
+
+

2
h2 ri1/2

i1/2,k+1/2,l 2i1/2,k1/2,l + i1/2,k3/2,l +

1
= 0,

2
+

i1/2,k1/2,l+1
i1/2,k1/2,l
i1/2,k1/2,l1
h2z

i = 1, . . . , Imax ,

k = 1, . . . , Kmax ,

l = 1, . . . , Lmax 1.

l = 0 ( )

1
h2r ri1/2


ri i+1/2,k1/2,0 i1/2,k1/2,0 ri1 i1/2,k1/2,0 i3/2,k1/2,0 +
+

2
h2 ri1/2

i1/2,k+1/2,0 2i1/2,k1/2,0 + i1/2,k3/2,0 +

4
2
i1/2,k1/2 = 0,
i1/2,k1/2,1 i1/2,k1/2,0 +
hz
hz
i = 1, . . . , Imax , k = 1, . . . , Kmax .


i1/2,1/2,l = i1/2,Kmax 1/2,l ,

79

i1/2,Kmax +1/2,l = i1/2,1/2,l .


i = 0
1/2,k1/2,l = 1/2,k1/2,l ,

i1/2,k1/2,l =

M
,
R

M , R
.
Ax = b A. , cond(A) = kAk kA1 k ,
A ,
.
A [8]:
cond(A) =

||max
1
||min

( e a A).
,
? ,
:
2
= 4,
x2

(0) = () = 0,

0 x .

h (h = /N )
i+1 2i + i1
= 4i ,
h2

i = 1, . . . , N 1,

0 = N = 0.


k =

4
kh
sin2
.
2
h
2

k = 1:
min =

4
h
sin2 ,
2
h
2

k = N 1:
max

4
= 2 sin2
h

2
2

h
4
cos2 .
2
h
2


cond(A) =

cos2 (h/2)
4
max
=
2.
2
min
h
sin (h/2)

80

. . , . . , . . .

,
,
h .
, ( ,
) , . , .
.
Ax = b
xn+1 = xn (Axn b)
(n , ).
(E A),

2
=1
.
cond(A) + 1
n :


1
1
1
1
n ln
ln
ln
cond(A).

, h.

.
, ,

:
!

1
2
2
2
n+1

+
+ 2 n+1
i1/2,k1/2,l +
2
h2r ri1/2 i1/2,k3/2,l
h2r ri1/2 h2 ri1/2
hz

1
1
n+1
i1/2,k+1/2,l (1 ) 2
n

+ 2
hr ri1/2
hr ri1/2 i1/2,k3/2,l

#
!
2
2
2
1

+
+ 2 ni1/2,k1/2,l + 2
n
+
2
h2r ri1/2 h2 ri1/2
hz
hr ri1/2 i1/2,k+1/2,l

1
n+1
n
+ 2
ri i+1/2,k1/2,l + ri1 i3/2,k1/2,l +
hr ri1/2

1 n
n+1
+ 2 i1/2,k1/2,l+1 + i1/2,k1/2,l1 = 0,
hz
, n . l = 0

!
2
2
2
1
+ 2 n+1
n+1
+ 2 2
i1/2,k3/2,0
i1/2,k1/2,0 +
2
2
hr ri1/2
hr ri1/2 h ri1/2 hz

81

1
h2r ri1/2

2
h2r ri1/2
+

n+1
i1/2,k+1/2,0

2
2
+ 2
+ 2 2
h ri1/2 hz

1
h2r ri1/2

(1 )

1
h2r ri1/2

ni1/2,k1/2,0 +

ni1/2,k3/2,0
1

h2r ri1/2

ni1/2,k+1/2,0 +

ri ni+1/2,k1/2,0 + ri1 n+1


i3/2,k1/2,0 +

4
2 n
+ 2 i1/2,k1/2,1
i1/2,k1/2 = 0.
hz
hz

.
.
.
, , ,
. , . ,
, .
, 106 20 .

5.
( ),
. [2], . ,
,
. , - , .
.
,
. ,
300 ,
.
.
, , [2]. ,
.

82

. . , . . , . . .

. 1 ( vr = 1). . , , ,
.
vr = 3
(. 2). , ,
, Q = vr /vrcr = 1.48, Q = 4.45. [9],
Q = 3 4.
[9]. ,
,
.
[10], , , ,
.
.
.
.
. 3 (
vr = 1, vr = 3). , 1 %,
0.01 %.

. 4. 1/3 . (. 4, )
(. 4, ) t = 2,
. -

. 1.

. 2.

. 3.

E,
E,
E.

83

. 4.

,
.

, .
. ,
, .
.

84

. . , . . , . . .


[1] Snytnikov V. N., Dudnikova G. I., Gleaves J. T. et al. Space chemical reactor of
protoplanetary disk // Advance in Space Res. (in press).
[2] . ., . . . .: , 1976.
[3] . ., . ., . ., . . // .
. 1989. . 157. . 599.
[4] Toomre A. On the gravitational stability of a disk of stars // Astrophys. J. 1964. Vol. 139,
No. 4. P. 12171238.
[5] Bertin G. Dynamics of Galaxies. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.
[6] . ., . . .
: , 1980.
[7] . ., . . . .: , 1995.
[8] . . .
.: , 1995.
[9] Miller R. H. Validity of Disk Galaxy Simulations // J. Comp. Phys. 1976. Vol. 21. P. 400.
[10] . ., . .
// . . . . 1998. . 38, 11.
. 1877.

13 2001 .,
23 2001 .

Оценить