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Psychosis refers to knowing the difference between: A. right and wrong. B. conscious and unconscious desires. C. what is real and what is not real. D. pleasure and pain. What percentage of people diagnosed with schizophrenia seek treatment in a mental health or general medicine facility in a given year? A. 40 percent B. 60 percent C. 80 percent D. 90 percent It is estimated that, within the United States, _____ of the population will develop schizophrenia at some time in their lives. A. 1 to 2 percent B. 5 to10 percent C. 10 to 20 percent D. 25 to 30 percent According to the study conducted by Torrey (2006), the majority of people with schizophrenia: A. are in rehabilitation centers or prisons. B. are housed in shelters or live on the streets. C. reside in supervised living facilities. D. live independently or with their family. Which of the following is NOT one of the categories of symptoms of schizophrenia? A. Negative symptoms B. Cognitive deficits C. Positive symptoms D. Behavioral deficits Which of the following is a positive symptom of schizophrenia? A. Tardive dyskinesia B. Catatonic behavior C. Anhedonia D. Avolition Most theorists view schizophrenia as a _____ disorder. A. biological B. psychological C. social D. biopsychosocial _____ are ideas that an individual believes are true but are highly unlikely and often simply impossible. A. Hallucinations B. Psychoses C. Deceptions D. Delusions

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Although she has never met the actor Chris Rock, June believes that he is in love with her. This is an example of a _____. A. hallucination B. paranoia C. deception D. delusion

10. Which of the following statements is true regarding the difference between self-deceptions and delusions? A. Delusions are possible, whereas self-deceptions often are not. B. People harboring delusions think about them occasionally, but people with self-deceptions are preoccupied with them. C. People harboring self-deceptions attempt to convince others of these beliefs, but delusional people do no such thing. DPeople harboring self-deceptions typically acknowledge that their beliefs may be wrong, but delusional . people often are resistant to arguments that contradict their delusions. 11. Which of the following is the most common type of delusion? A. Persecutory delusions B. Somatic delusions C. Delusions of grandeur D. Thought insertion 12. Fred believes that the FBI has put a wire tape on his phone and they are trying to entrap him. Most likely, Fred is experiencing a _____. A. thought insertion B. somatic delusion C. delusion of grandeur D. persecutory delusion 13. Sebastian believes his neighbor is watching him, and waiting for the chance to steal his stamp collection. This false belief would be considered a _____. A. somatic delusion B. delusion of reference C. persecutory delusion. D. grandiose delusion 14. People with _____ may believe that the comments of a local politician at a rally are directed at them. A. delusions of thought insertion B. somatic delusions C. delusions of reference D. delusion of grandeur 15. Faith believes that she is the reincarnation of Cleopatra. Faith is most likely suffering from _____. A. persecutory delusions B. delusions of thought control C. delusions of grandeur D. delusions of reference 16. Jeff believes that aliens from a parallel universe are controlling his thoughts. Jeff is most likely experiencing a _____. A. persecutory delusion B. delusion of thought insertion C. delusion of grandeur D. delusion of reference

17. A person with schizophrenia: A. will only experience delusions with the same theme. B. can only experience one delusion at time. C. always experiences a persecutory delusion. D. can experience several different delusions at the same time. 18. Religious delusions of having committed a sin are more common among individuals from _____. A. remote pacific islands B. the United States C. Japan D. Germany 19. Delusions are to _____ as hallucinations are to_____. A. perceptions; thoughts B. thoughts; feelings C. thoughts; perceptions D. perceptions; feelings 20. Hallucinations are: A. unreal perceptual experiences. B. beliefs that have no basis in reality. C. odd ways of thinking. D. thought insertions. 21. Which of the following is the most common hallucination? A. Visual B. Auditory C. Olfactory D. Tactile 22. Jerry hears voices accusing him of being a serial rapist. This is a(n) _____ hallucination. A. somatic B. auditory C. visual D. tactile 23. Judith was experiencing sleep deprivation and she thought that spiders were crawling on her skin. Judith was most likely experiencing a(n)_____. A. olfactory hallucination B. auditory hallucination C. somatic hallucination D. tactile hallucination 24. Tabitha believes that an alien being is growing inside of her. Tabitha is most likely experiencing a(n) _____ hallucination. A. visual B. somatic C. auditory D. tactile 25. It is difficult to understand what Carter is saying because he tends to slip from one topic to a seemingly unrelated topic with little coherent transition. Carter is exhibiting _____. A. clang associations B. derailment C. avolition D. alogia

26. Ethel's conversations are hard to follow. She doesn't stay on the same topic, and there is no logical transition between topics. Ethel's speech is probably an example of _____. A. derailment B. alogia C. neologism D. avolition 27. A person with schizophrenia may exhibit disorganized speech patterns that are completely incoherent to listeners. This is known as _____. A. blunted affect B. alogia C. avolition D. word salad 28. _____ are words that mean something only to the person speaking them. A. Neologisms B. Alogia C. Word salads D. Clangs 29. T.J was asked if he liked the song that was playing on the radio. His response was, "song too long, long to wrong, wrong not right, right not fight." This is known as _____. A. a word salad B. a neologism C. alogia D. clangs 30. Which of the following statements is true about the gender differences in disorganized thought and speech symptoms of schizophrenia? A. Women with schizophrenia tend to show more severe deficits in language than do men with schizophrenia. BBrain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may not affect women's language and thought as . much as they do men's because women can use both sides of their brain to compensate for problems. C Compared to women, language deficits are less apparent in men with schizophrenia owing to the fact . that language is controlled more bilaterally in men. DLanguage is more localized in men, so when the areas of the brain associated with language are affected . by schizophrenia, men are better able to compensate for the deficits. 31. An extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside world is referred to as _____ in patients with schizophrenia. A. disorganization B. catatonia C. disassociation D. withdrawal 32. Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia? A. Catatonia B. Derailment C. Avolition D. Delusions 33. A severe reduction or complete absence of emotional responses to the environment is called _____. A. derailment B. word salad C. blunted affect D. neologism

34. Stanley's parents do not understand why he has not spoken for several weeks. They are concerned that something is seriously wrong, but Stanley seems unable to communicate with them. Stanley is probably exhibiting _____. A. avolition B. affective flattening C. emotional blunting D. alogia 35. Which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia is described as an inability to persist at common, goal-directed activities, including those at work, school, and home? A. Alogia B. Avolition C. Affected flattening D. Blunted affect 36. Harry has difficulty remembering information. He cannot hold information in his memory long enough to manipulate and process it. Harry is most likely having difficulty with _____. A. long term memory B. retrograde amnesia C. working memory D. neural sensory registers 37. Schizophrenia was formerly known as _____. A. psychotic mania B. dementia praecox C. multiple personality disorder D. catatonia 38. The psychiatrist credited with labeling schizophrenia as dementia praecox was _____. A. Alfred Adler B. Emil Kraepelin C. Joseph Breuer D. Eugene Bleuler 39. Kraepelin gave the label dementia praecox to the disorder now known as schizophrenia because he believed that the disorder resulted from: A. brain trauma. B. a chronic deficit of neurotransmitters in the brain. C. premature deterioration of the brain. D. increased consumption of alcohol. 40. Which of the following statements is true regarding Bleuler's views on schizophrenia? A. He viewed schizophrenia as a result of the splitting of distinct personalities. B. He believed that schizophrenia involved the splitting of integrated psychic functions. C. He argued that schizophrenia manifests due to the merging of unassociated threads. D. He accepted that this disorder always leads to severe deterioration of the brain. 41. The DSM-IV-TR states that in order to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, an individual must show some symptoms of the disorder for at least _____. A. 2 weeks B. 1 month C. 6 months D. 1 year 42. Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia are evident: A. during the acute phase of the disorder. B. when the disorder is in remission. C. after the acute phase. D. prior to onset of the acute phase.

43. When are residual symptoms most evident? A. During the acute phase of the disorder B. During the catatonic phase of the disorder C. After the acute phase D. Prior to onset of the acute phase 44. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A. are only seen in the acute phase of the disorder. B. are most prominent in the prodromal and residual phases. C. manifest during premorbid functioning. D. are present only in the disorganized type of schizophrenia. 45. Which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia is a person most likely to overcome with the help of medication? A. Avolition B. Affective flattening C. Alogia D. Hallucinations 46. When the symptoms of schizophrenia are mixed and there is no single prominent positive symptom, the person is labeled as suffering from _____. A. disorganized schizophrenia B. residual schizophrenia C. paranoid schizophrenia D. catatonic schizophrenia 47. _____ schizophrenia is characterized by prominent delusions and hallucinations that involve themes of persecution and grandiosity. A. Paranoid B. Disorganized C. Catatonic D. Residual 48. The prognosis for people with paranoid schizophrenia is ______ the prognosis for people with other types of schizophrenia. A. better than B. the same as C. worse than D. more difficult to ascertain than 49. Erin has auditory hallucinations. Her symptoms are prominent but they did not manifest until she was in middle adulthood. This condition is most representative of _____ schizophrenia. A. disorganized B. catatonic C. paranoid D. residual 50. Berta experiences delusions of being controlled by the voices in her computer, and demands that her husband take the computer out of the house. Berta is most likely exhibiting _____. A. catatonic schizophrenia B. undifferentiated schizophrenia C. paranoid schizophrenia D. disorganized schizophrenia 51. Compared to the other forms of schizophrenia, people with paranoid schizophrenia: A. experience symptoms mostly around adolescence. B. show better cognitive and social functioning. C. exhibit extreme disorganized behavior and thoughts. D. are least likely to live independently and hold down a job.

52. The onset of Joseph's psychotic episodes has been linked to his stressful lifestyle. He developed delusions and now becomes irritated with anyone who disagrees with his delusions. Joseph is most likely exhibiting which type of schizophrenia? A. Disorganized B. Catatonic C. Paranoid D. Residual 53. Episodes of psychosis in paranoid schizophrenia are often: A. present in premorbid functioning. B. masked by disorganized behaviors. C. confused for alters seen in dissociative identity disorder. D. triggered by stress. 54. The type of schizophrenia that is characterized by disorganized thought and behaviors and emotional disturbances is known as _____ schizophrenia. A. disorganized B. undifferentiated C. paranoid D. residual 55. People diagnosed with disorganized schizophrenia: A. are emotionally balanced. B. are prone to delusions and paranoia. C. generally have coherent thought and speech patterns. D. demonstrate odd, stereotyped behaviors. 56. Kari acts like a child, speaks in word salads, and does not bathe, dress, or eat if left alone. She is most likely exhibiting _____ schizophrenia. A. paranoid B. catatonic C. residual D. disorganized 57. Lee's response to the news that the family was moving was, "Who moves you move. (Sigh) Sad, sad (Giggle). Lets' swim at the park. (Sigh) Walking home. Can we walk home from school? NO! Run home from the store? (Giggle). Lee's response represents _____ schizophrenia. A. paranoid B. catatonic C. disorganized D. residual 58. Henry was diagnosed with schizophrenia when he was 17 years old. His symptoms include disorganized speech, blunted and flat affect, and silly behavior. His diagnosis would most likely be _____. A. residual schizophrenia B. undifferentiated schizophrenia C. paranoid schizophrenia D. disorganized schizophrenia 59. Disorganized schizophrenia generally has: A. an early onset and a continuous course, which often is unresponsive to treatment. B. a late onset and a continuous course, which usually is responsive to treatment. C. an early onset and an inconsistent course, which generally is unresponsive to treatment. D. a late onset and an inconsistent course, which often is responsive to treatment.

60. All of the following are typical symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia EXCEPT _____. A. catatonic stupor B. echopraxia C. echolalia D. anhedonia 61. Uriah and Byron are roommates at a psychiatric hospital. Uriah tends to fluctuate between periods of excitement and remaining motionless for hours. Byron tends to have bizarre speech and thought patterns as well as odd behaviors. Which diagnoses would be most appropriate for Uriah and Byron? A. Uriah, disorganized schizophrenia; Byron, schizoaffective disorder B. Uriah, residual schizophrenia; Byron, delusional disorder C. Uriah, undifferentiated schizophrenia; Byron, brief psychotic disorder D. Uriah, catatonic schizophrenia; Byron, disorganized schizophrenia 62. Undifferentiated schizophrenia: A. has the same symptoms as catatonic schizophrenia. B. tends to have an early onset, be chronic, and is difficult to treat. C. is usually a milder form of disorganized schizophrenia. D. meets the criteria for paranoid schizophrenia. 63. Which of the following people would receive a diagnosis of residual schizophrenia? A Alonzo, who has suffered from several episodes of avolition and formal thought disorder, but who now . experiences only auditory hallucinations. B Barnard, who has suffered two acute episodes of schizophrenia which involved delusions and . hallucinations, but now experiences only flat affect. C. Cyrus, who has suffered from alogia and affective flattening for years, but now experiences only formal thought disorder. DDudley, who has suffered from at least one episode of acute positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but . who now experiences only visual hallucinations and loosening of associations. 64. Which of the following is true regarding the prognosis for people with schizophrenia? A. 35 to 50 percent of the people diagnosed with schizophrenia commit suicide. B. 50 and 80 percent of the people with schizophrenia will be rehospitalized at a later point in their lives for another episode. C. Most people with schizophrenia show a progressive deterioration in functioning across their life span. D. People with schizophrenia tend to suffer from fewer infectious and circulatory diseases than those without psychopathology. 65. Compared to men with schizophrenia, women with schizophrenia: A. tend to develop the disorder during their late teens or early 20s. B. are hospitalized more often and for longer periods of time. C. have poorer social adjustment when they are not psychotic. D. show milder negative symptoms between periods of acute positive symptoms. 66. Compared to people with schizophrenia in developed countries, people with schizophrenia in developing countries: A. are more likely to have a sole caretaker. B. tend to have families that are more intrusive, hostile, and over-involved. C. are more likely to remain incapacitated by the disorder in the long term. D. may have social environments that facilitate better adaptation and recovery. 67. Which of the following is true regarding sociocultural factors affecting men and women with schizophrenia? A. Deviant behavior may be more socially acceptable in women than in men. B. Men with schizophrenia tend to have better social skills than women with the disorder. C. Women who develop schizophrenia are likely to lose more social support than men. D. Men with schizophrenia have a lower risk of relapse as they are more likely than women to retain their support networks.

68. Lawrence experienced delusions and hallucinations for 2 weeks, and also had a manic episode following this 2-week period. He continues to experience delusions and hallucinations. Lawrence will most likely receive a diagnosis of _____. A. mood disorder with psychotic features B. schizoaffective disorder C. shared psychotic disorder D. schizophrenia 69. The diagnosis of _____ requires that individuals show symptoms of schizophrenia for only 1 to 6 months. A. schizophreniform disorder B. schizoaffective disorder C. delusional disorder D. brief psychotic disorder 70. Julia suddenly experienced delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech but these symptoms lasted for only 3 days. Most likely, she will receive a diagnosis of _____. A. schizoaffective disorder B. schizophreniform disorder C. delusional disorder D. brief psychotic disorder 71. Which of the following statements is true regarding delusional disorder? A. Individuals have delusions that last at least 1 month, but do not show any other symptoms of schizophrenia. B. In addition to delusions, individuals also exhibit at least one other positive symptom of schizophrenia. C. It appears to affect males more than females. D. Onset tends to be earlier in life than most disorders. 72. Individuals with _____ have a delusion that develops from a relationship with another person who already has delusions. A. shared psychotic disorder B. schizophrenia C. brief psychotic disorder D. schizophreniform disorder 73. Which of the following is true regarding the genetic factors contributing to the development of schizophrenia? A Strong evidence for a genetic contribution to schizophrenia exists and fully explains the connection . between genetics and the disorder. B All people with schizophrenia show structural and functional abnormalities in the brain including high . frontal activity and smaller ventricles. C. Prenatal and birth difficulties have been implicated as factors contributing to the development of schizophrenia. DPrenatal exposure to viruses during the third trimester of gestation decreases the risk of developing . schizophrenia as it allows the fetal immune system to build resistance. 74. According to the research of Irving Gottesman, which of the following children is at highest risk for developing schizophrenia? A. A child with two biological parents and a monozygotic (MZ) twin who are schizophrenic B. A child with two adoptive parents and a monozygotic (MZ) twin who are schizophrenic C. A child with two biological parents and a dizygotic (DZ) twin who are schizophrenic D. A child with one biological parent and a dizygotic (DZ) twin who are schizophrenic 75. What is the concordance rate for schizophrenia in monozygotic (MZ) twins? A. 12 percent for mild forms of schizophrenia B. Between 35 and 50 percent for the most severe forms of schizophrenia C. Compiled results of several studies indicate a rate of 46 percent D. 60 percent based on a study on twins born in Finland

76. When monozygotic (MZ) twins who were discordant for schizophrenia were compared with MZ twins who both had schizophrenia, researchers found that the MZ twins discordant for schizophrenia: A. possessed additional genetic material not found in members of the control group. B. had the exact same DNA structure, thereby implicating environmental factors. C. showed numerous differences in the molecular structure of their DNA. D. had few, but noticeable, variations in their genetic makeup. 77. People with schizophrenia who have enlarged ventricles: A. are more likely to be women than men. B. are less responsive to medication. C. show an increase in volume of the prefrontal areas of the brain. D. tend to have milder symptoms than other people with schizophrenia. 78. The _____ is important in language, emotional expression, planning, and carrying out plans, while the _____ plays a critical role in the formation of long-term memories. A. thalamus; hypothalamus B. prefrontal cortex; hippocampus C. hippocampus; prefrontal cortex D. hypothalamus; thalamus 79. Oxygen deprivation during labor and delivery is known as _____. A. perinatal hypoxia B. anoxia C. fetal oxygen deficit syndrome D. oxycephaly 80. Which of the following neurotransmitters is thought to play a role in schizophrenia? A. Dopamine B. Norepinephrine C. Epinephrine D. Acetylcholine 81. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the neurotransmitter dopamine, and schizophrenia? ASeveral lines of evidence have supported the original dopamine theory that symptoms of schizophrenia . are caused by excess levels of dopamine in the frontal lobe and limbic system. B Phenothiazines and neuroleptics increase the functional level of dopamine, which helps to reduce . psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. CThe new dopamine theory suggests that the traditional theory is too simple, and evidence supports that . many people with schizophrenia do not respond to Phenothiazineswhich may indicate that other neurotransmitters are involved in the disorder. D Critics of the original dopamine theory argue that the theory does not adequately explain the positive . and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. 82. Which of the following is true regarding the neurotransmitters involved in schizophrenia? A.Excess dopamine activity in the amygdala and unusually low dopamine activity in the frontal cortex play a role in schizophrenia. B. New research suggests that epinephrine, serotonin, and GABA also play a role in schizophrenia. C. New research suggests that norepinephrine, glutamate, and ACH also play a role in schizophrenia. D Excess dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway and unusually low dopamine activity in the . prefrontal area play a role in schizophrenia. 83. New research indicates that the interaction between which body chemical and dopamine is critical in schizophrenia? A. Adrenal B. Cortisol C. Serotonin D. Norepinephrine

84. According to the integrated model of the links between cognitive deficits and the symptoms of schizophrenia, abnormalities in the dopamine system, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, lead to deficits in _____. A. psychosis B. attribution C. working memory D. avolition 85. Social drift refers to: A. the impoverished social conditions that cause symptoms of schizophrenia. B. the tendency of people with schizophrenia to willingly isolate themselves, thus drifting away from social relationships. C. the likelihood that people with schizophrenia will be neglected by society. D. the tendency of people with schizophrenia to drift downward in social class. 86. Goldberg and Morrison's (1963) study of socioeconomic class and men with schizophrenia revealed that: A. men with schizophrenia tended to end up in higher socioeconomic classes than their brothers. B. men with schizophrenia tended to end up in the same socioeconomic class as their fathers. C. men with schizophrenia tended to end up in lower socioeconomic classes than their fathers. D. socioeconomic class was not impacted and thus is not a contributing factor to the disorder. 87. Which of the following is true regarding the role of environmental stressors in the development of schizophrenia? A. There is no correlation between the development of full-blown schizophrenia and environmental factors. B Stressful circumstances may not cause someone to develop schizophrenia but they may trigger new . episodes in people with the disorder. C. Approximately 50 percent of the people who present with schizophrenia have been exposed to an environmental stressor. D. Environmental stressors only affect the less debilitating symptoms of schizophrenia. 88. Which of the following statements is true regarding the psychosocial perspectives of schizophrenia? A.Several studies have shown that people with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in a small town than in a large city. B. Torrey and Yolken argued that the link between urban living and psychosis is not due to overcrowding, but to stress. CStudies have shown that first- and second-generation immigrants have a higher incidence of acute . schizophrenia symptoms than members of their ethnic group who have been in the country longer or are native to the country. D Studies suggest that many of the life events that people with schizophrenia experience prior to relapse . actually may be caused by the residual symptoms. 89. Psychosocial factors such as stress and certain types of family functioning: A. can trigger episodes of schizophrenia even in persons without an existing predisposition to the disorder. B. can cause schizophrenia only if chronic life stress and poor family functioning are both present together. C. will not affect the severity of schizophrenic symptoms if the person is on a proper dosage of medication. D. can cause a relapse in those who already have the disorder. 90. The term schizophrenogenic mother refers to: A. the classification of a mother with one or more children diagnosed with schizophrenia. B the idea that a mother is both overprotective of and rejecting toward her child, and this relationship . creates schizophrenia in the child. C. mothers with schizophrenia who have extremely poor interpersonal skills. D. a mother's hospitalization because of repeated full-blown schizophrenic episodes.

91. Jack, a 4-year-old boy, had a paper cut on his finger. His mother kissed his finger gently and said, "you are so clumsy, can't you do anything right?" This is an example of _____. A. a double bind B. thought insertion C. derailment D. expressed emotion 92. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the families of people with schizophrenia? A Families high in expressed emotion often have ideas about how the family member with schizophrenia . can improve his or her symptoms. BA family with high expressed emotion will often create stresses for the person with schizophrenia that . may overwhelm his or her ability to cope, and thus trigger new episodes of psychosis. CCritics of the expressed-emotion theory argue that the hostility and intrusiveness observed in families . of people with schizophrenia might be the result of schizophrenic symptoms rather than contributors to relapse. DFamilies tend to be more forgiving of the negative symptoms of the individual with schizophrenia than . positive emotions, because negative emotions appear uncontrollable. 93. Which of the following is true concerning expressed emotion and relapse in patients with schizophrenia? A Therapists have no difficulty changing entrenched communication patterns between patients with . schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. B Delusions and hallucinations will elicit more negative expressed emotion from family members than . blunted affect or lack of motivation. C. Expressed emotion in observed family patterns indicate that negative symptoms are probably learned behaviors. D. Interventions that reduce family expressed emotion tend to reduce the relapse rate in schizophrenic family members. 94. According to one of the cognitive perspectives, negative symptoms of schizophrenia arise from: A. a hypersensitivity to perceptual input. B. a tendency to attribute experiences to external sources. C. the need to withdraw and conserve scarce cognitive resources. D. expectations that social interactions do not matter. 95. Which of the following is a cognitive strategy for treating clients with schizophrenia? A. Teaching family members normal patterns of communication B. Training the client to attend to, and perceive, the subtleties of communication. C. Teaching patients ways of disputing their delusional beliefs or hallucinatory experiences D. Removing the client from the stressful settings where communication is difficult 96. Which of the following treatments was used in the 1930s to treat schizophrenia? A. Insulin coma therapy B. Epileptic therapy C. Seizure shock therapy D. Psychoconvulsive therapy 97. French researchers Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker found that _____, one of a class of drugs called the phenothiazines, calms agitation and reduces hallucinations and delusions in patients with schizophrenia. A. aminothiazole B. thioxanthenes C. chlorpromazine D. butyrophenones

98. Which of the following statements is true regarding neuroleptics? A. Virtually all people with schizophrenia respond positively to neuroleptics. B.If neuroleptic drugs are discontinued, the danger of relapse is minimal, as the drugs tend to be extremely potent and long-lasting. C Neuroleptics are more effective in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia but are not as effective . in treating the positive symptoms. D.People with schizophrenia typically must take neuroleptic drugs all the time in order to prevent new episodes of acute symptoms. 99. Common side effects of neuroleptics include _____, which includes slowed motor activity, monotonous speech, and an expressionless face, and _____, an agitation that causes people to pace and be unable to sit still. A. akinesia; akathesis B. akathesis; tardive dyskinesia C. tardive dyskinesia; akinesia D. akathesis; akinesia 100.A common side effect of neuroleptics that consists of involuntary movements of the tongue, mouth, or jaw is _____. A. akathesis B. agranulocytosis C. tardive dyskinesia D. akinesia 101.The side effects of neuroleptics can be reduced: A. through prolonged usage. B. by reducing dosages. C. by using them in combination with over-the-counter drugs. D. by taking the drugs at intervals. 102.Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown to be _____ in treating symptoms of schizophrenia. A. ineffective when compared to typical antipsychotic drugs B. more effective than typical antipsychotic drugs C. just as effective as typical antipsychotic drugs D. ineffective compared to ECT 103.Blanch is receiving a drug that binds to the D4 dopamine receptor and influences other neurotransmitters such as serotonin. Blanch's schizophrenia is most likely being treated with _____. A. effexor B. thorazine C. chlorpromazine D. clozapine 104.Clozapine: A. can lead to tardive dyskinesia if taken in large doses. B. reduces only the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. C. can result in a condition known as agranulocytosis. D. is suitable mostly for individuals who have found phenothiazines to be effective. 105._____ has been shown to be more effective at preventing relapse than typical antipsychotic medications. It does not induce tardive dyskinesia, but it can cause sexual dysfunction, low blood pressure, weight gain, seizures, and problems with concentration. A. Risperidone B. Clozapine C. Haloperidol D. Aripiprazole

106.Dr. Rushford's patient has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She is helping her patient learn how to initiate and maintain a conversation with others. In addition, she is also teaching her client how to gather important information by accompanying the client to selected places and demonstrating the skills necessary to accomplish this goal. This type of intervention follows a(n)_____ approach. A. existential B. cognitive C. behavioral D. psychodynamic 107._____ interventions include increasing contact between people with schizophrenia and supportive others, often through self-help support groups. A. Cognitive-behavioral B. Social C. Cognitive D. Behavioral 108.Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding family-oriented therapies? A. Families are taught about the disorder's biological causes, its symptoms, and the medications and their side effects. B. Family members learn communication skills as well as problem-solving skills to reduce the overall level of stress in the family. C Family members learn behavioral techniques for encouraging appropriate behavior and discouraging . inappropriate behavior by their family member with schizophrenia. D. Family-oriented interventions, even when combined with drug therapy, appear to be less effective at reducing relapse rates. 109._____ programs provide comprehensive services for people with schizophrenia, relying on the expertise of medical professionals, social workers, and psychologists to meet the variety of patients' needs 24 hours a day. A. Assisted living B. Deinstitutionalization C. Welfare D. Assertive community treatment 110.Which of the following statements is true regarding treatment programs for schizophrenia? A Billions of dollars are spent on mental health care per year in the United States, and much of that . money goes to services for people with schizophrenia. BMuch of the financial burden of caring for people with schizophrenia falls to state and local . governments, which lack the necessary resources, or to families, who often cannot afford the high cost of care. COnly about 10 to 20 percent of people with schizophrenia receive little or no care in a given year, and a . majority of the patients remain in hospitals until their symptoms stabilize or permanently disappear. DThe gains that people in skills-based interventions make tend to stabilize once the interventions end, . suggesting that these interventions hold more promise than traditional treatment. 111.A healer who uses a traditional method that involves a series of rituals designed to transform the meanings of symptoms for persons with schizophrenia, thus diminishing their pain, is using a ______. A. social support model B. clinical model C. persuasive model D. structural model

112.Lula is a healer who offers treatment in the form of integrating the body, emotion, and cognition or the person, society, and culture. Lula would argue that the loss of integration results in the reappearance of the symptoms of a disorder. Lula most likely follows a _____. A. social support model B. structural model C. clinical model D. persuasive model 113.The _____ model holds that symptoms arise from conflictual social relationships and healing involves mobilizing a patient's kin to support him or her through the crisis and reintegrating the patient into a positive social support network. A. social support B. structural C. clinical D. persuasive 114.What are delusions? Briefly describe the common types of delusions experienced by people with schizophrenia.

115.Describe the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

116.What are the different subtypes of schizophrenia? Briefly describe each one of them.

117.Briefly describe the other psychotic disorders that share features with schizophrenia.

118.Describe the genetic factors associated with schizophrenia.

119.Describe the structural and functional brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.

120.Briefly explain the original dopamine theory of schizophrenia. Why was it considered too simplistic?

121.Describe the psychosocial perspectives of schizophrenia.

122.Briefly describe the side effects of neuroleptics used in the treatment of schizophrenia.

123.Describe some of the characteristics of family-oriented therapy and assertive community treatment programs.

8 Key
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(p. 226)

Psychosis refers to knowing the difference between: A. right and wrong. B. conscious and unconscious desires. C. what is real and what is not real. D. pleasure and pain.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #1

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What percentage of people diagnosed with schizophrenia seek treatment in a mental health or general medicine facility in a given year? A. 40 percent B. 60 percent C. 80 percent D. 90 percent
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #2

3.
(p. 226)

It is estimated that, within the United States, _____ of the population will develop schizophrenia at some time in their lives. A. 1 to 2 percent B. 5 to10 percent C. 10 to 20 percent D. 25 to 30 percent
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #3

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(p. 226)

According to the study conducted by Torrey (2006), the majority of people with schizophrenia: A. are in rehabilitation centers or prisons. B. are housed in shelters or live on the streets. C. reside in supervised living facilities. D. live independently or with their family.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #4

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Which of the following is NOT one of the categories of symptoms of schizophrenia? A. Negative symptoms B. Cognitive deficits C. Positive symptoms D. Behavioral deficits
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #5

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Which of the following is a positive symptom of schizophrenia? A. Tardive dyskinesia B. Catatonic behavior C. Anhedonia D. Avolition
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #6

7.
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Most theorists view schizophrenia as a _____ disorder. A. biological B. psychological C. social D. biopsychosocial
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #7

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_____ are ideas that an individual believes are true but are highly unlikely and often simply impossible. A. Hallucinations B. Psychoses C. Deceptions D. Delusions
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #8

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Although she has never met the actor Chris Rock, June believes that he is in love with her. This is an example of a _____. A. hallucination B. paranoia C. deception D. delusion
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #9

10.
(p. 228)

Which of the following statements is true regarding the difference between self-deceptions and delusions? A. Delusions are possible, whereas self-deceptions often are not. B. People harboring delusions think about them occasionally, but people with self-deceptions are preoccupied with them. C. People harboring self-deceptions attempt to convince others of these beliefs, but delusional people do no such thing. DPeople harboring self-deceptions typically acknowledge that their beliefs may be wrong, but . delusional people often are resistant to arguments that contradict their delusions.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #10

11.
(p. 228)

Which of the following is the most common type of delusion? A. Persecutory delusions B. Somatic delusions C. Delusions of grandeur D. Thought insertion
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #11

12.
(p. 228)

Fred believes that the FBI has put a wire tape on his phone and they are trying to entrap him. Most likely, Fred is experiencing a _____. A. thought insertion B. somatic delusion C. delusion of grandeur D. persecutory delusion
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #12

13.
(p. 228)

Sebastian believes his neighbor is watching him, and waiting for the chance to steal his stamp collection. This false belief would be considered a _____. A. somatic delusion B. delusion of reference C. persecutory delusion. D. grandiose delusion
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #13

14.
(p. 229)

People with _____ may believe that the comments of a local politician at a rally are directed at them. A. delusions of thought insertion B. somatic delusions C. delusions of reference D. delusion of grandeur
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #14

15.
(p. 229)

Faith believes that she is the reincarnation of Cleopatra. Faith is most likely suffering from _____. A. persecutory delusions B. delusions of thought control C. delusions of grandeur D. delusions of reference
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #15

16.
(p. 229)

Jeff believes that aliens from a parallel universe are controlling his thoughts. Jeff is most likely experiencing a _____. A. persecutory delusion B. delusion of thought insertion C. delusion of grandeur D. delusion of reference
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #16

17.
(p. 230)

A person with schizophrenia: A. will only experience delusions with the same theme. B. can only experience one delusion at time. C. always experiences a persecutory delusion. D. can experience several different delusions at the same time.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #17

18.
(p. 231)

Religious delusions of having committed a sin are more common among individuals from _____. A. remote pacific islands B. the United States C. Japan D. Germany
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #18

19.
(p. 228231)

Delusions are to _____ as hallucinations are to_____. A. perceptions; thoughts B. thoughts; feelings C. thoughts; perceptions D. perceptions; feelings
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #19

20.
(p. 231)

Hallucinations are: A. unreal perceptual experiences. B. beliefs that have no basis in reality. C. odd ways of thinking. D. thought insertions.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #20

21.
(p. 231)

Which of the following is the most common hallucination? A. Visual B. Auditory C. Olfactory D. Tactile
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #21

22.
(p. 231)

Jerry hears voices accusing him of being a serial rapist. This is a(n) _____ hallucination. A. somatic B. auditory C. visual D. tactile
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #22

23.
(p. 231)

Judith was experiencing sleep deprivation and she thought that spiders were crawling on her skin. Judith was most likely experiencing a(n)_____. A. olfactory hallucination B. auditory hallucination C. somatic hallucination D. tactile hallucination
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #23

24.
(p. 231)

Tabitha believes that an alien being is growing inside of her. Tabitha is most likely experiencing a(n) _____ hallucination. A. visual B. somatic C. auditory D. tactile
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #24

25.
(p. 232)

It is difficult to understand what Carter is saying because he tends to slip from one topic to a seemingly unrelated topic with little coherent transition. Carter is exhibiting _____. A. clang associations B. derailment C. avolition D. alogia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #25

26.
(p. 232)

Ethel's conversations are hard to follow. She doesn't stay on the same topic, and there is no logical transition between topics. Ethel's speech is probably an example of _____. A. derailment B. alogia C. neologism D. avolition
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #26

27.
(p. 232)

A person with schizophrenia may exhibit disorganized speech patterns that are completely incoherent to listeners. This is known as _____. A. blunted affect B. alogia C. avolition D. word salad
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #27

28.
(p. 232)

_____ are words that mean something only to the person speaking them. A. Neologisms B. Alogia C. Word salads D. Clangs
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #28

29.
(p. 232)

T.J was asked if he liked the song that was playing on the radio. His response was, "song too long, long to wrong, wrong not right, right not fight." This is known as _____. A. a word salad B. a neologism C. alogia D. clangs
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #29

30.
(p. 233)

Which of the following statements is true about the gender differences in disorganized thought and speech symptoms of schizophrenia? A. Women with schizophrenia tend to show more severe deficits in language than do men with schizophrenia. BBrain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may not affect women's language and thought as . much as they do men's because women can use both sides of their brain to compensate for problems. C Compared to women, language deficits are less apparent in men with schizophrenia owing to the . fact that language is controlled more bilaterally in men. DLanguage is more localized in men, so when the areas of the brain associated with language are . affected by schizophrenia, men are better able to compensate for the deficits.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #30

31.
(p. 233)

An extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside world is referred to as _____ in patients with schizophrenia. A. disorganization B. catatonia C. disassociation D. withdrawal
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #31

32.
(p. 233)

Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia? A. Catatonia B. Derailment C. Avolition D. Delusions
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #32

33.
(p. 233)

A severe reduction or complete absence of emotional responses to the environment is called _____. A. derailment B. word salad C. blunted affect D. neologism
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #33

34.
(p. 233)

Stanley's parents do not understand why he has not spoken for several weeks. They are concerned that something is seriously wrong, but Stanley seems unable to communicate with them. Stanley is probably exhibiting _____. A. avolition B. affective flattening C. emotional blunting D. alogia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #34

35.
(p. 234)

Which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia is described as an inability to persist at common, goal-directed activities, including those at work, school, and home? A. Alogia B. Avolition C. Affected flattening D. Blunted affect
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #35

36.
(p. 234)

Harry has difficulty remembering information. He cannot hold information in his memory long enough to manipulate and process it. Harry is most likely having difficulty with _____. A. long term memory B. retrograde amnesia C. working memory D. neural sensory registers
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #36

37.
(p. 234)

Schizophrenia was formerly known as _____. A. psychotic mania B. dementia praecox C. multiple personality disorder D. catatonia
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #37

38.
(p. 234)

The psychiatrist credited with labeling schizophrenia as dementia praecox was _____. A. Alfred Adler B. Emil Kraepelin C. Joseph Breuer D. Eugene Bleuler
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #38

39.
(p. 234)

Kraepelin gave the label dementia praecox to the disorder now known as schizophrenia because he believed that the disorder resulted from: A. brain trauma. B. a chronic deficit of neurotransmitters in the brain. C. premature deterioration of the brain. D. increased consumption of alcohol.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #39

40.
(p. 234)

Which of the following statements is true regarding Bleuler's views on schizophrenia? A. He viewed schizophrenia as a result of the splitting of distinct personalities. B. He believed that schizophrenia involved the splitting of integrated psychic functions. C. He argued that schizophrenia manifests due to the merging of unassociated threads. D. He accepted that this disorder always leads to severe deterioration of the brain.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #40

41.
(p. 234)

The DSM-IV-TR states that in order to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, an individual must show some symptoms of the disorder for at least _____. A. 2 weeks B. 1 month C. 6 months D. 1 year
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #41

42.
(p. 234)

Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia are evident: A. during the acute phase of the disorder. B. when the disorder is in remission. C. after the acute phase. D. prior to onset of the acute phase.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #42

43.
(p. 234)

When are residual symptoms most evident? A. During the acute phase of the disorder B. During the catatonic phase of the disorder C. After the acute phase D. Prior to onset of the acute phase
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #43

44.
(p. 235)

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A. are only seen in the acute phase of the disorder. B. are most prominent in the prodromal and residual phases. C. manifest during premorbid functioning. D. are present only in the disorganized type of schizophrenia.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #44

45.
(p. 235)

Which of the following symptoms of schizophrenia is a person most likely to overcome with the help of medication? A. Avolition B. Affective flattening C. Alogia D. Hallucinations
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #45

46.
(p. 235)

When the symptoms of schizophrenia are mixed and there is no single prominent positive symptom, the person is labeled as suffering from _____. A. disorganized schizophrenia B. residual schizophrenia C. paranoid schizophrenia D. catatonic schizophrenia
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Difficult Nolen - Chapter 08 #46

47.
(p. 235)

_____ schizophrenia is characterized by prominent delusions and hallucinations that involve themes of persecution and grandiosity. A. Paranoid B. Disorganized C. Catatonic D. Residual
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #47

48.
(p. 235)

The prognosis for people with paranoid schizophrenia is ______ the prognosis for people with other types of schizophrenia. A. better than B. the same as C. worse than D. more difficult to ascertain than
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #48

49.
(p. 235236)

Erin has auditory hallucinations. Her symptoms are prominent but they did not manifest until she was in middle adulthood. This condition is most representative of _____ schizophrenia. A. disorganized B. catatonic C. paranoid D. residual
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #49

50.
(p. 235236)

Berta experiences delusions of being controlled by the voices in her computer, and demands that her husband take the computer out of the house. Berta is most likely exhibiting _____. A. catatonic schizophrenia B. undifferentiated schizophrenia C. paranoid schizophrenia D. disorganized schizophrenia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #50

51.
(p. 235236)

Compared to the other forms of schizophrenia, people with paranoid schizophrenia: A. experience symptoms mostly around adolescence. B. show better cognitive and social functioning. C. exhibit extreme disorganized behavior and thoughts. D. are least likely to live independently and hold down a job.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #51

52.
(p. 235236)

The onset of Joseph's psychotic episodes has been linked to his stressful lifestyle. He developed delusions and now becomes irritated with anyone who disagrees with his delusions. Joseph is most likely exhibiting which type of schizophrenia? A. Disorganized B. Catatonic C. Paranoid D. Residual
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #52

53.
(p. 236)

Episodes of psychosis in paranoid schizophrenia are often: A. present in premorbid functioning. B. masked by disorganized behaviors. C. confused for alters seen in dissociative identity disorder. D. triggered by stress.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #53

54.
(p. 236)

The type of schizophrenia that is characterized by disorganized thought and behaviors and emotional disturbances is known as _____ schizophrenia. A. disorganized B. undifferentiated C. paranoid D. residual
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #54

55.
(p. 236)

People diagnosed with disorganized schizophrenia: A. are emotionally balanced. B. are prone to delusions and paranoia. C. generally have coherent thought and speech patterns. D. demonstrate odd, stereotyped behaviors.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #55

56.
(p. 236)

Kari acts like a child, speaks in word salads, and does not bathe, dress, or eat if left alone. She is most likely exhibiting _____ schizophrenia. A. paranoid B. catatonic C. residual D. disorganized
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #56

57.
(p. 236)

Lee's response to the news that the family was moving was, "Who moves you move. (Sigh) Sad, sad (Giggle). Lets' swim at the park. (Sigh) Walking home. Can we walk home from school? NO! Run home from the store? (Giggle). Lee's response represents _____ schizophrenia. A. paranoid B. catatonic C. disorganized D. residual
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #57

58.
(p. 236)

Henry was diagnosed with schizophrenia when he was 17 years old. His symptoms include disorganized speech, blunted and flat affect, and silly behavior. His diagnosis would most likely be _____. A. residual schizophrenia B. undifferentiated schizophrenia C. paranoid schizophrenia D. disorganized schizophrenia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #58

59.
(p. 236)

Disorganized schizophrenia generally has: A. an early onset and a continuous course, which often is unresponsive to treatment. B. a late onset and a continuous course, which usually is responsive to treatment. C. an early onset and an inconsistent course, which generally is unresponsive to treatment. D. a late onset and an inconsistent course, which often is responsive to treatment.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #59

60.
(p. 236)

All of the following are typical symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia EXCEPT _____. A. catatonic stupor B. echopraxia C. echolalia D. anhedonia
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #60

61.
(p. 236)

Uriah and Byron are roommates at a psychiatric hospital. Uriah tends to fluctuate between periods of excitement and remaining motionless for hours. Byron tends to have bizarre speech and thought patterns as well as odd behaviors. Which diagnoses would be most appropriate for Uriah and Byron? A. B. C. D. Uriah, disorganized schizophrenia; Byron, schizoaffective disorder Uriah, residual schizophrenia; Byron, delusional disorder Uriah, undifferentiated schizophrenia; Byron, brief psychotic disorder Uriah, catatonic schizophrenia; Byron, disorganized schizophrenia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #61

62.
(p. 236)

Undifferentiated schizophrenia: A. has the same symptoms as catatonic schizophrenia. B. tends to have an early onset, be chronic, and is difficult to treat. C. is usually a milder form of disorganized schizophrenia. D. meets the criteria for paranoid schizophrenia.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #62

63.
(p. 236)

Which of the following people would receive a diagnosis of residual schizophrenia? A Alonzo, who has suffered from several episodes of avolition and formal thought disorder, but who . now experiences only auditory hallucinations. B Barnard, who has suffered two acute episodes of schizophrenia which involved delusions and . hallucinations, but now experiences only flat affect. C. Cyrus, who has suffered from alogia and affective flattening for years, but now experiences only formal thought disorder. DDudley, who has suffered from at least one episode of acute positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but . who now experiences only visual hallucinations and loosening of associations.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Difficult Nolen - Chapter 08 #63

64.
(p. 236237)

Which of the following is true regarding the prognosis for people with schizophrenia? A. 35 to 50 percent of the people diagnosed with schizophrenia commit suicide. B. 50 and 80 percent of the people with schizophrenia will be rehospitalized at a later point in their lives for another episode. C. Most people with schizophrenia show a progressive deterioration in functioning across their life span. D. People with schizophrenia tend to suffer from fewer infectious and circulatory diseases than those without psychopathology.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #64

65.
(p. 237)

Compared to men with schizophrenia, women with schizophrenia: A. tend to develop the disorder during their late teens or early 20s. B. are hospitalized more often and for longer periods of time. C. have poorer social adjustment when they are not psychotic. D. show milder negative symptoms between periods of acute positive symptoms.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #65

66.
(p. 237238)

Compared to people with schizophrenia in developed countries, people with schizophrenia in developing countries: A. are more likely to have a sole caretaker. B. tend to have families that are more intrusive, hostile, and over-involved. C. are more likely to remain incapacitated by the disorder in the long term. D. may have social environments that facilitate better adaptation and recovery.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #66

67.
(p. 238)

Which of the following is true regarding sociocultural factors affecting men and women with schizophrenia? A. Deviant behavior may be more socially acceptable in women than in men. B. Men with schizophrenia tend to have better social skills than women with the disorder. C. Women who develop schizophrenia are likely to lose more social support than men. D. Men with schizophrenia have a lower risk of relapse as they are more likely than women to retain their support networks.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #67

68.
(p. 238)

Lawrence experienced delusions and hallucinations for 2 weeks, and also had a manic episode following this 2-week period. He continues to experience delusions and hallucinations. Lawrence will most likely receive a diagnosis of _____. A. mood disorder with psychotic features B. schizoaffective disorder C. shared psychotic disorder D. schizophrenia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #68

69.
(p. 238)

The diagnosis of _____ requires that individuals show symptoms of schizophrenia for only 1 to 6 months. A. schizophreniform disorder B. schizoaffective disorder C. delusional disorder D. brief psychotic disorder
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #69

70.
(p. 239)

Julia suddenly experienced delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech but these symptoms lasted for only 3 days. Most likely, she will receive a diagnosis of _____. A. schizoaffective disorder B. schizophreniform disorder C. delusional disorder D. brief psychotic disorder
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #70

71.
(p. 240)

Which of the following statements is true regarding delusional disorder? A. Individuals have delusions that last at least 1 month, but do not show any other symptoms of schizophrenia. B. In addition to delusions, individuals also exhibit at least one other positive symptom of schizophrenia. C. It appears to affect males more than females. D. Onset tends to be earlier in life than most disorders.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #71

72.
(p. 240)

Individuals with _____ have a delusion that develops from a relationship with another person who already has delusions. A. shared psychotic disorder B. schizophrenia C. brief psychotic disorder D. schizophreniform disorder
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #72

73.
(p. 241245)

Which of the following is true regarding the genetic factors contributing to the development of schizophrenia? A Strong evidence for a genetic contribution to schizophrenia exists and fully explains the connection . between genetics and the disorder. B All people with schizophrenia show structural and functional abnormalities in the brain including . high frontal activity and smaller ventricles. C. Prenatal and birth difficulties have been implicated as factors contributing to the development of schizophrenia. D Prenatal exposure to viruses during the third trimester of gestation decreases the risk of developing . schizophrenia as it allows the fetal immune system to build resistance.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #73

74.
(p. 242)

According to the research of Irving Gottesman, which of the following children is at highest risk for developing schizophrenia? A. A child with two biological parents and a monozygotic (MZ) twin who are schizophrenic B. A child with two adoptive parents and a monozygotic (MZ) twin who are schizophrenic C. A child with two biological parents and a dizygotic (DZ) twin who are schizophrenic D. A child with one biological parent and a dizygotic (DZ) twin who are schizophrenic
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #74

75.
(p. 243)

What is the concordance rate for schizophrenia in monozygotic (MZ) twins? A. 12 percent for mild forms of schizophrenia B. Between 35 and 50 percent for the most severe forms of schizophrenia C. Compiled results of several studies indicate a rate of 46 percent D. 60 percent based on a study on twins born in Finland
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #75

76.
(p. 243)

When monozygotic (MZ) twins who were discordant for schizophrenia were compared with MZ twins who both had schizophrenia, researchers found that the MZ twins discordant for schizophrenia: A. possessed additional genetic material not found in members of the control group. B. had the exact same DNA structure, thereby implicating environmental factors. C. showed numerous differences in the molecular structure of their DNA. D. had few, but noticeable, variations in their genetic makeup.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #76

77.
(p. 244)

People with schizophrenia who have enlarged ventricles: A. are more likely to be women than men. B. are less responsive to medication. C. show an increase in volume of the prefrontal areas of the brain. D. tend to have milder symptoms than other people with schizophrenia.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #77

78.
(p. 244)

The _____ is important in language, emotional expression, planning, and carrying out plans, while the _____ plays a critical role in the formation of long-term memories. A. thalamus; hypothalamus B. prefrontal cortex; hippocampus C. hippocampus; prefrontal cortex D. hypothalamus; thalamus
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #78

79.
(p. 245)

Oxygen deprivation during labor and delivery is known as _____. A. perinatal hypoxia B. anoxia C. fetal oxygen deficit syndrome D. oxycephaly
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #79

80.
(p. 246)

Which of the following neurotransmitters is thought to play a role in schizophrenia? A. Dopamine B. Norepinephrine C. Epinephrine D. Acetylcholine
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #80

81.
(p. 246)

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the neurotransmitter dopamine, and schizophrenia? ASeveral lines of evidence have supported the original dopamine theory that symptoms of . schizophrenia are caused by excess levels of dopamine in the frontal lobe and limbic system. B. Phenothiazines and neuroleptics increase the functional level of dopamine, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. CThe new dopamine theory suggests that the traditional theory is too simple, and evidence supports . that many people with schizophrenia do not respond to Phenothiazineswhich may indicate that other neurotransmitters are involved in the disorder. D Critics of the original dopamine theory argue that the theory does not adequately explain the . positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #81

82.
(p. 246247)

Which of the following is true regarding the neurotransmitters involved in schizophrenia? A.Excess dopamine activity in the amygdala and unusually low dopamine activity in the frontal cortex play a role in schizophrenia. B. New research suggests that epinephrine, serotonin, and GABA also play a role in schizophrenia. C. New research suggests that norepinephrine, glutamate, and ACH also play a role in schizophrenia. D Excess dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway and unusually low dopamine activity in the . prefrontal area play a role in schizophrenia.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #82

83.
(p. 247)

New research indicates that the interaction between which body chemical and dopamine is critical in schizophrenia? A. Adrenal B. Cortisol C. Serotonin D. Norepinephrine
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #83

84.
(p. 247)

According to the integrated model of the links between cognitive deficits and the symptoms of schizophrenia, abnormalities in the dopamine system, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, lead to deficits in _____. A. psychosis B. attribution C. working memory D. avolition
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #84

85.
(p. 248)

Social drift refers to: A. the impoverished social conditions that cause symptoms of schizophrenia. B. the tendency of people with schizophrenia to willingly isolate themselves, thus drifting away from social relationships. C. the likelihood that people with schizophrenia will be neglected by society. D. the tendency of people with schizophrenia to drift downward in social class.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #85

86.
(p. 248)

Goldberg and Morrison's (1963) study of socioeconomic class and men with schizophrenia revealed that: A. men with schizophrenia tended to end up in higher socioeconomic classes than their brothers. B. men with schizophrenia tended to end up in the same socioeconomic class as their fathers. C. men with schizophrenia tended to end up in lower socioeconomic classes than their fathers. D. socioeconomic class was not impacted and thus is not a contributing factor to the disorder.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #86

87.
(p. 248)

Which of the following is true regarding the role of environmental stressors in the development of schizophrenia? A. There is no correlation between the development of full-blown schizophrenia and environmental factors. B.Stressful circumstances may not cause someone to develop schizophrenia but they may trigger new episodes in people with the disorder. C. Approximately 50 percent of the people who present with schizophrenia have been exposed to an environmental stressor. D. Environmental stressors only affect the less debilitating symptoms of schizophrenia.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #87

88.
(p. 248249)

Which of the following statements is true regarding the psychosocial perspectives of schizophrenia? A.Several studies have shown that people with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in a small town than in a large city. B. Torrey and Yolken argued that the link between urban living and psychosis is not due to overcrowding, but to stress. CStudies have shown that first- and second-generation immigrants have a higher incidence of acute . schizophrenia symptoms than members of their ethnic group who have been in the country longer or are native to the country. D Studies suggest that many of the life events that people with schizophrenia experience prior to . relapse actually may be caused by the residual symptoms.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #88

89.
(p. 249)

Psychosocial factors such as stress and certain types of family functioning: A. can trigger episodes of schizophrenia even in persons without an existing predisposition to the disorder. B. can cause schizophrenia only if chronic life stress and poor family functioning are both present together. C. will not affect the severity of schizophrenic symptoms if the person is on a proper dosage of medication. D. can cause a relapse in those who already have the disorder.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #89

90.
(p. 249)

The term schizophrenogenic mother refers to: A. the classification of a mother with one or more children diagnosed with schizophrenia. B. the idea that a mother is both overprotective of and rejecting toward her child, and this relationship creates schizophrenia in the child. C. mothers with schizophrenia who have extremely poor interpersonal skills. D. a mother's hospitalization because of repeated full-blown schizophrenic episodes.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #90

91.
(p. 249)

Jack, a 4-year-old boy, had a paper cut on his finger. His mother kissed his finger gently and said, "you are so clumsy, can't you do anything right?" This is an example of _____. A. a double bind B. thought insertion C. derailment D. expressed emotion
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 08 #91

92.
(p. 249250)

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the families of people with schizophrenia? A Families high in expressed emotion often have ideas about how the family member with . schizophrenia can improve his or her symptoms. BA family with high expressed emotion will often create stresses for the person with schizophrenia . that may overwhelm his or her ability to cope, and thus trigger new episodes of psychosis. CCritics of the expressed-emotion theory argue that the hostility and intrusiveness observed in . families of people with schizophrenia might be the result of schizophrenic symptoms rather than contributors to relapse. D Families tend to be more forgiving of the negative symptoms of the individual with schizophrenia . than positive emotions, because negative emotions appear uncontrollable.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #92

93.
(p. 250)

Which of the following is true concerning expressed emotion and relapse in patients with schizophrenia? A Therapists have no difficulty changing entrenched communication patterns between patients with . schizophrenia and their primary caregivers. B.Delusions and hallucinations will elicit more negative expressed emotion from family members than blunted affect or lack of motivation. C. Expressed emotion in observed family patterns indicate that negative symptoms are probably learned behaviors. D. Interventions that reduce family expressed emotion tend to reduce the relapse rate in schizophrenic family members.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #93

94.
(p. 250)

According to one of the cognitive perspectives, negative symptoms of schizophrenia arise from: A. a hypersensitivity to perceptual input. B. a tendency to attribute experiences to external sources. C. the need to withdraw and conserve scarce cognitive resources. D. expectations that social interactions do not matter.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #94

95.
(p. 250)

Which of the following is a cognitive strategy for treating clients with schizophrenia? A. Teaching family members normal patterns of communication B. Training the client to attend to, and perceive, the subtleties of communication. C. Teaching patients ways of disputing their delusional beliefs or hallucinatory experiences D. Removing the client from the stressful settings where communication is difficult
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 #95

96.
(p. 252)

Which of the following treatments was used in the 1930s to treat schizophrenia? A. Insulin coma therapy B. Epileptic therapy C. Seizure shock therapy D. Psychoconvulsive therapy
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97.
(p. 252)

French researchers Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker found that _____, one of a class of drugs called the phenothiazines, calms agitation and reduces hallucinations and delusions in patients with schizophrenia. A. aminothiazole B. thioxanthenes C. chlorpromazine D. butyrophenones
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98.
(p. 252)

Which of the following statements is true regarding neuroleptics? A. Virtually all people with schizophrenia respond positively to neuroleptics. B. If neuroleptic drugs are discontinued, the danger of relapse is minimal, as the drugs tend to be extremely potent and long-lasting. C.Neuroleptics are more effective in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia but are not as effective in treating the positive symptoms. D.People with schizophrenia typically must take neuroleptic drugs all the time in order to prevent new episodes of acute symptoms.
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99.
(p. 252)

Common side effects of neuroleptics include _____, which includes slowed motor activity, monotonous speech, and an expressionless face, and _____, an agitation that causes people to pace and be unable to sit still. A. akinesia; akathesis B. akathesis; tardive dyskinesia C. tardive dyskinesia; akinesia D. akathesis; akinesia
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100.
(p. 252)

A common side effect of neuroleptics that consists of involuntary movements of the tongue, mouth, or jaw is _____. A. akathesis B. agranulocytosis C. tardive dyskinesia D. akinesia
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101.
(p. 253)

The side effects of neuroleptics can be reduced: A. through prolonged usage. B. by reducing dosages. C. by using them in combination with over-the-counter drugs. D. by taking the drugs at intervals.
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102.
(p. 253)

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown to be _____ in treating symptoms of schizophrenia. A. ineffective when compared to typical antipsychotic drugs B. more effective than typical antipsychotic drugs C. just as effective as typical antipsychotic drugs D. ineffective compared to ECT
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103.
(p. 253)

Blanch is receiving a drug that binds to the D4 dopamine receptor and influences other neurotransmitters such as serotonin. Blanch's schizophrenia is most likely being treated with _____. A. effexor B. thorazine C. chlorpromazine D. clozapine
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104.
(p. 253)

Clozapine: A. can lead to tardive dyskinesia if taken in large doses. B. reduces only the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. C. can result in a condition known as agranulocytosis. D. is suitable mostly for individuals who have found phenothiazines to be effective.
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105.
(p. 253)

_____ has been shown to be more effective at preventing relapse than typical antipsychotic medications. It does not induce tardive dyskinesia, but it can cause sexual dysfunction, low blood pressure, weight gain, seizures, and problems with concentration. A. Risperidone B. Clozapine C. Haloperidol D. Aripiprazole
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106.
(p. 254)

Dr. Rushford's patient has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She is helping her patient learn how to initiate and maintain a conversation with others. In addition, she is also teaching her client how to gather important information by accompanying the client to selected places and demonstrating the skills necessary to accomplish this goal. This type of intervention follows a(n)_____ approach. A. existential B. cognitive C. behavioral D. psychodynamic
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107.
(p. 254)

_____ interventions include increasing contact between people with schizophrenia and supportive others, often through self-help support groups. A. Cognitive-behavioral B. Social C. Cognitive D. Behavioral
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108.
(p. 254255)

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding family-oriented therapies? A. Families are taught about the disorder's biological causes, its symptoms, and the medications and their side effects. B. Family members learn communication skills as well as problem-solving skills to reduce the overall level of stress in the family. C Family members learn behavioral techniques for encouraging appropriate behavior and discouraging . inappropriate behavior by their family member with schizophrenia. D. Family-oriented interventions, even when combined with drug therapy, appear to be less effective at reducing relapse rates.
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109.
(p. 256)

_____ programs provide comprehensive services for people with schizophrenia, relying on the expertise of medical professionals, social workers, and psychologists to meet the variety of patients' needs 24 hours a day. A. Assisted living B. Deinstitutionalization C. Welfare D. Assertive community treatment
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110.
(p. 256257)

Which of the following statements is true regarding treatment programs for schizophrenia? A Billions of dollars are spent on mental health care per year in the United States, and much of that . money goes to services for people with schizophrenia. BMuch of the financial burden of caring for people with schizophrenia falls to state and local . governments, which lack the necessary resources, or to families, who often cannot afford the high cost of care. COnly about 10 to 20 percent of people with schizophrenia receive little or no care in a given year, . and a majority of the patients remain in hospitals until their symptoms stabilize or permanently disappear. DThe gains that people in skills-based interventions make tend to stabilize once the interventions end, . suggesting that these interventions hold more promise than traditional treatment.
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111.
(p. 257)

A healer who uses a traditional method that involves a series of rituals designed to transform the meanings of symptoms for persons with schizophrenia, thus diminishing their pain, is using a ______. A. social support model B. clinical model C. persuasive model D. structural model
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112.
(p. 257)

Lula is a healer who offers treatment in the form of integrating the body, emotion, and cognition or the person, society, and culture. Lula would argue that the loss of integration results in the reappearance of the symptoms of a disorder. Lula most likely follows a _____. A. social support model B. structural model C. clinical model D. persuasive model
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113.
(p. 257)

The _____ model holds that symptoms arise from conflictual social relationships and healing involves mobilizing a patient's kin to support him or her through the crisis and reintegrating the patient into a positive social support network. A. social support B. structural C. clinical D. persuasive
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114.
(p. 228230)

What are delusions? Briefly describe the common types of delusions experienced by people with schizophrenia. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Delusionsideas that an individual believes are true but are highly unlikely and often impossible Persecutory delusionbelief that oneself or one's loved ones are being persecuted, watched, or conspired against by others Delusion of referencebelief that random events are directed at oneself Grandiose delusionbelief that one has great power, knowledge, or talent or that one is a famous and powerful reincarnated person Delusions of being controlledbelief that one's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are being imposed or controlled by an external force (thought insertion, thought broadcasting, thought withdrawal) Delusion of guilt or sinbelief that one has committed a terrible act or is responsible for a terrible event Somatic delusionbelief that one's appearance or part of one's body is diseased or altered
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115.
(p. 233234)

Describe the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Affective flattening or blunted affectsevere reduction or absence of affective (emotional) responses to the environment; may reflect severe anhedonia; people with schizophrenia who show no emotion may be experiencing intense emotion that they cannot express Alogiapoverty of speech, reduction in speaking, lack of motivation to speak Avolitioninability to persist at common, goal-directed activities Cognitive deficitsattention and memory, deficits in working memory
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116.
(p. 235236)

What are the different subtypes of schizophrenia? Briefly describe each one of them. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Paranoid schizophreniadelusions and hallucinations with themes of persecution and grandiosity Disorganized schizophreniaincoherence in cognition, speech, and behavior and flat or inappropriate affect Catatonic schizophrenianearly total unresponsiveness to the environment, as well as motor and verbal abnormalities Undifferentiated schizophreniadiagnosed when a person experiences schizophrenic symptoms but does not meet the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic schizophrenia Residual schizophreniahistory of at least one episode of acute positive symptoms but currently no prominent positive symptoms
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117.
(p. 238241)

Briefly describe the other psychotic disorders that share features with schizophrenia. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Schizoaffective disorderindividuals experience schizophrenic symptoms and mood symptoms meeting the criteria for a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or an episode of mixed mania/ depression; mood symptoms must be present for much of the period of schizophrenic symptoms; schizoaffective disorder requires at least 2 weeks of hallucinations or delusions without mood symptoms Schizophreniform disorderindividuals meet Criteria A, D, and E for schizophrenia but show symptoms that last only 1 to 6 months; a relatively rare disorder; individuals have a good prognosis have a quick onset of symptoms, functioned well previously, and experience confusion but not blunted or flat affect; individuals who do not show two or more of these features are said to be without good prognostic features Brief psychotic disorderindividuals show a sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior; the episode lasts only between 1 day and 1 month, after which the symptoms vanish completely; symptoms sometimes emerge after a major stressor; at other times, no stressor is apparent; Delusional disorderindividuals have delusions lasting at least 1 month regarding situations that occur in real life; they do not show any other symptoms; other than the behaviors that may follow from their delusions, they do not act oddly or have difficulty functioning; delusional disorder may be rare; appears to affect females more than males; onset tends to be later, with an average age of first admission to a psychiatric facility of 40 to 49 Shared psychotic disordera delusion that develops from a relationship with another person who already has delusions; usually occurs in relationships of only two people, but can occur in larger groups; apart from the delusional belief, the individual may not otherwise act oddly or be impaired
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118.
(p. 241243)

Describe the genetic factors associated with schizophrenia. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Family studiesaccording to Psychologist Irving Gottesman, children of two parents with schizophrenia and monozygotic twins of people with schizophrenia share the greatest number of genes with people with schizophrenia; as the genetic similarity to a person with schizophrenia decreases, an individual's risk of developing schizophrenia also decreases; having a biological relative with schizophrenia does not mean that the individual will develop it Adoption studieswhen a parent is psychotic, the child may be exposed to illogical thought, mood swings, and chaotic behavior; Seymour Kety and colleagues found that the biological relatives of adoptees with schizophrenia were 10 times more likely to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia than were the biological relatives of adoptees who did not have schizophrenia; the adoptive relatives of adoptees with schizophrenia showed no increased risk for the disorder Twin studiesthe concordance rate for monozygotic (MZ) twins is 46 percent, while the concordance rate for dizygotic (fraternal) twins is 14 percent; when a person carries a genetic risk for schizophrenia, many other biological and environmental factors may influence whether and how the disorder manifests itself; when MZ twins who were discordant for schizophrenia were compared with MZ twins who both had schizophrenia, researchers found that the MZ twins discordant for schizophrenia showed numerous differences in the molecular structure of their DNA; the MZ twins concordant for schizophrenia showed many fewer molecular differences in their DNA
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119.
(p. 243246)

Describe the structural and functional brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Enlarged ventriclesfluid-filled spaces, reductions in the prefrontal areas of the brain; abnormal connection between the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala and hippocampus; social, emotional, and behavioral deficits appear long before development of core symptoms of schizophrenia Damage to the developing braindelivery complications, perinatal hypoxia, viral exposure (influenza, herpes simplex), increased susceptibility during second trimester Prefrontal cortex and other key areasless activity in prefrontal cortex (important in language, emotional expression, planning), abnormal hippocampal activation, abnormalities in the volume and shape of hippocampus and at the cellular level
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120.
(p. 246)

Briefly explain the original dopamine theory of schizophrenia. Why was it considered too simplistic?

Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Original dopamine theorythe symptoms of schizophrenia are caused by excess levels of dopamine in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system Supporting evidencea group of drugs that tend to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia, the phenothiazines or neuroleptics, reduces the functional level of dopamine in the brain, drugs that increase the functional level of dopamine in the brain, tend to increase the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, neuroimaging studies suggest the presence of more receptors for dopamine and higher levels of dopamine in some areas of the brain in people with schizophrenia than in people without the disorder Simplistic naturemany people with schizophrenia do not respond to the phenothiazines; even people with schizophrenia who respond to the phenothiazines tend to experience more relief from positive symptoms than from negative symptoms; levels of dopamine change relatively soon after drug therapy begins, while changes in symptoms often take longer
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121.
(p. 248250)

Describe the psychosocial perspectives of schizophrenia. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Social driftbecause schizophrenia symptoms interfere with a person's ability to complete an education and hold a job, people with schizophrenia tend to drift downward in social class compared to the class of their family of origin; research by Goldberg and Morrison revealed that men with schizophrenia tended to end up in socioeconomic classes well below those of their fathers while the healthy brothers of the men with schizophrenia tended to end up in socioeconomic classes equal to or higher than those of their fathers Urban birthpeople with schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis are more likely to have been born in a large city than in a small town; Torrey and Yolken argue that the link between urban living and psychosis is due not to stress but to overcrowding, which increases the risk that a pregnant woman or newborn will be exposed to infectious agents; rates of many infectious diseases are higher in crowded urban areas than in less crowded areas Stress and relapsestressful circumstances may not cause someone to develop schizophrenia, but they may trigger new episodes in people with the disorder; a major stressor linked to an increased risk for episodes in schizophrenia is immigrationstudies in the United States and Britain find that firstand second-generation immigrants have a higher incidence of acute schizophrenia symptoms than individuals from their ethnic group who have been in the country longer or individuals native to the country Familyschizophrenogenic mothers dominated their children, not letting them develop an autonomous sense of self and simultaneously making the children feel worthless and unlovable; impact of double binds; people with schizophrenia whose families are high in expressed emotion are more likely to suffer relapses of psychosis than those whose families are low in expressed emotion; families often are forgiving of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia because they view them as uncontrollable, they can be unforgiving of the negative symptoms, viewing them as controllable
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122.
(p. 252253)

Briefly describe the side effects of neuroleptics used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Grogginess, dry mouth, blurred vision, drooling, sexual dysfunction, visual disturbances, weight gain or loss, constipation, menstrual disturbances in women, and depression Akinesiaslowed motor activity, monotonous speech, and an expressionless face Patients taking phenothiazines often show symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease, including muscle stiffness, freezing of the facial muscles, tremors and spasms in the extremities, and akathesis, an agitation that causes people to pace and be unable to sit still Tardive dyskinesiaa neurological disorder that involves involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or jaw; people may involuntarily smack their lips, make sucking sounds, stick out their tongue, puff their cheeks, or make other bizarre movements over and over again
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123.
(p. 254257)

Describe some of the characteristics of family-oriented therapy and assertive community treatment programs. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Families therapyfamilies are taught about the disorder's biological causes, symptoms, medications and their side effects; communication skills; problem-solving skills to reduce stress in the family; behavioral techniques for encouraging appropriate behavior and discouraging inappropriate behavior Effectivenesswhen combined with drug therapy, family-oriented therapies appear to be more effective at reducing relapse rates than drug therapy alone; psychosocial interventions must be ongoing if they are to continue to reduce the risk of relapse Assertive community treatment programscomprehensive services for people with schizophrenia, relying on the expertise of medical professionals, social workers, and psychologists to meet the variety of patients' needs 24 hours a day; helps individuals reintegrate into society, maintain their medications, gain needed skills, and function at their highest possible level; programs provide skills training, vocational rehabilitation, and social support; about 800 community mental health centers now operate in the United States, only one-third the number needed; limited funding for mental health care for the seriously mentally ill
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8 Summary
Category Blooms: Application Blooms: Comprehension Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Difficult Difficulty: Easy Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 08 # of Questions 27 19 77 2 45 76 123