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QUENTIN SKINNER

L i b e r t y before Liberalism

Cambridge University Press, 2000


15


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57
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. , . : , ,

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Q. R. D. Skinner, 1998
Cambridge University Press, 1998
.-, 2006
ISBN 5-94380-052-2

III

86

100

113

. /
. . . . ; . . . . .
.: - . - .- 2006, 120 .
([RES PUBLICA]; . 1)

ISBN 5-94380-052-2

QUENTIN SKINNER

L i b e r t y before Liberalism

Cambridge University Press, 2000


15


II

57
, ,
.
,
. , . : , ,

, ,
. ,
.

Q. R. D. Skinner, 1998
Cambridge University Press, 1998
.-, 2006
ISBN 5-94380-052-2

III

86

100

113

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Cambridge University Library, Add MS 6443/197, fo. lv.


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. 887),
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, . ('Persona moralis
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voluntate omnium habetur").
, (VII.2.14,
. 887),
('Voluntas civitatis exserit vel per unam personam
simplicem, vel per unum consilium').

11

civitas, - 1703 , civitas


state. . Pufendorf 1703, 7.2.13 14, pp. 151152.

12

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vi aut prohibetur").
16
Williams 1643, pp. 8284; [Bramhall] 1643,
p. 70; [Digges], 1643, p. 14; Filmer 1991,
pp. 267268. ,
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602.
29
. (Baron 1966). . 1975, pp. 83330 Skinner 1978,
vol. I, pp. 348, 69112, 139189. Skinner 1981, pp. 4877
Viroli 1992, pp. 126177. 0
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178.

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602.
29
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vol. I, pp. 348, 69112, 139189. Skinner 1981, pp. 4877
Viroli 1992, pp. 126177. 0
XVII . Raab 1964, pp. 102217.
30

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, . . Skinner 1983 Skinner 1990.


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178.

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0 . Peltonen 1995, pp. 74102,


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34


( 1996) 1514 1519 .

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1959, pp. 519; Pocock 1975, pp. 417422.
1681 1683 , 1698 . . Scott 1991, .^01202,361.
0 . Fink 1962, pp. 149169; Scott 1988 1991; Houston
1991.0 . Worden 1994d, pp. 144
165.

36

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1651 1652 ,
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40

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Worden 1995.

42

(Corns 1995, pp. 2627,3640) ,


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,
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Skinner 1974.

37

0 . Robbins 1959, pp. 335346, . Thomas 1977, pp. 151173 Miller 1994, pp. 373
376.
. Bailyn 1965, pp. 5593; Houston
1991, pp. 223267. Rahe
1992.
38
Gardiner 1906, p. 388. 1650-
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Worden 1994,
1994b 1994.
39

Worden 1994, pp. 6162, , ,



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45

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35

Plato Redivivus 1681 .


. Fink 1962, . 129.0 . Fink 1962, pp. 123148; Robbins
1959, pp. 519; Pocock 1975, pp. 417422.
1681 1683 , 1698 . . Scott 1991, .^01202,361.
0 . Fink 1962, pp. 149169; Scott 1988 1991; Houston
1991.0 . Worden 1994d, pp. 144
165.

36

Mercurius Politicus,
1651 1652 ,
, .40
,
1649
.41
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, 1650-
, 43 , 44 ,45

( 1651 ). de facto ( .
. .), . Wallace 1964 Skinner 1972.
40

Nedham 1767, p. xii. 0 . Frank 1980,


. 90.

41

. Frank 1980, . 86,


Worden 1995.

42

(Corns 1995, pp. 2627,3640) ,


. ,
,
. 0 , , Eikon Basilike,
. Zwicker 1993, pp. 3759.

Skinner 1974.

37

0 . Robbins 1959, pp. 335346, . Thomas 1977, pp. 151173 Miller 1994, pp. 373
376.
. Bailyn 1965, pp. 5593; Houston
1991, pp. 223267. Rahe
1992.
38
Gardiner 1906, p. 388. 1650-
. Worden 1991; Scott 1992; Pocock and Schochet 1993. .
Worden 1994,
1994b 1994.
39

Worden 1994, pp. 6162, , ,



.

43

(Worden 1994, pp. 5759, 6468) , ,


, .

44

Wither 1874. 1653 . . Smith 1994, pp. 191192, 230232.

45

[Hall] 1700. 0 .
Smith 1994, pp. 187190, 213215.

[RES-FVBLLCA]

[RES-FVBLLCA]

24

25

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[Osborne] 1811.06 "


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pp. 190191.
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48

. 1975, pp. 381383; Frank 1980, pp. 93


100; Worden 1994a, pp. 7481. 0
. Frank 1980, , pp. 1845.
(Worden 1994, . 81),
1767 . .
49
0 . 1977, pp. 6
14. 0 .
1975, pp. 4376. , , ,
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pp. 409426 Scott 1993, pp. 139163.

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1640- 1653 ,
.51

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0 1650- . Dzelzainis 1995.


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1992, pp. 8, 23. ,
.

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[RES'PVBLlCA]
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[Osborne] 1811.06 "


(1652) . Wallace 1964, . 495; . Smith 1994,
pp. 190191.
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48

. 1975, pp. 381383; Frank 1980, pp. 93


100; Worden 1994a, pp. 7481. 0
. Frank 1980, , pp. 1845.
(Worden 1994, . 81),
1767 . .
49
0 . 1977, pp. 6
14. 0 .
1975, pp. 4376. , , ,
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pp. 409426 Scott 1993, pp. 139163.

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1660 ,
II.50 ,

XVII , ,
1640- 1653 ,
.51

II
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, - . 52 ,
.
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0 1650- . Dzelzainis 1995.


" Robbins 1959, p. 32; Scott 1988, pp. 86,100101.

,
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1992, pp. 8, 23. ,
.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES'PVBLlCA]
27


(obligation) .53
, , (freedom liberty),
,
(enjoyment) .54 ,
,
vivere libero . ,
, ,
. 55 , , ( ),

53

freedom
liberty . (Pitkin 1988) , , , , -
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. 163), ,
'Liberty, or Freedome'.
e
" , ,
(restraint), (constraint), , , .
constraint , a restraint ,
.
constraint. .
Harrington, 1992, . 22. (. Neville
1969, e.g., p. 111).
. Long 1977,
pp. 5461, . Miller 1994, pp. 393395 Pettit 1997, p. 42.
55

. , , 1.16, . 152 II.2, . 229, utility , , diritti.


.

,
.56 , :
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, ,
. XVII ,
, ,
,
, . 58 .
,
( )
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,
.59
- . ,

56

. Salmon 1959, pp. 808,101108.

57

Milton 1991, p. 8; . Neville 1969, p. 85; Sidney 1990,1.2, pp. 89.

58

Milton 1980, p. 455; cp. Neville 1969, p. 130. , . , ,


, . .
Skinner 1983,1984,1986, . Houston
1991, . 137, Charvet 1993, pp. 1114.

59

Nedham 1767, pp. 87, 11.


[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

28

29


(obligation) .53
, , (freedom liberty),
,
(enjoyment) .54 ,
,
vivere libero . ,
, ,
. 55 , , ( ),

53

freedom
liberty . (Pitkin 1988) , , , , -
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. 163), ,
'Liberty, or Freedome'.
e
" , ,
(restraint), (constraint), , , .
constraint , a restraint ,
.
constraint. .
Harrington, 1992, . 22. (. Neville
1969, e.g., p. 111).
. Long 1977,
pp. 5461, . Miller 1994, pp. 393395 Pettit 1997, p. 42.
55

. , , 1.16, . 152 II.2, . 229, utility , , diritti.


.

,
.56 , :
, , , .57
, ,
. XVII ,
, ,
,
, . 58 .
,
( )
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.59
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56

. Salmon 1959, pp. 808,101108.

57

Milton 1991, p. 8; . Neville 1969, p. 85; Sidney 1990,1.2, pp. 89.

58

Milton 1980, p. 455; cp. Neville 1969, p. 130. , . , ,


, . .
Skinner 1983,1984,1986, . Houston
1991, . 137, Charvet 1993, pp. 1114.

59

Nedham 1767, pp. 87, 11.


[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

28

29

, , . 60
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,
, . 61 , , ,
, .62 , , , , , , 63
, , , , 64

,

.65 . ,
.66
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67

65

, , , , ( , , ), ,

, ,
, .
. Skinner 1978, vol. II, pp. 302348.
. [Parker] 1934, pp.
168,170171,186. (, . Tuck
1993, pp. 221253) . , , ,

( ), . , . .
[Parker] 1934, . 207.
,
.

60

Estate, ,
, . . .
XVII . Harris 1990.
61
[Hall] 1700, pp. 10,15. , , , ,
,
( J. .)
1700 .
.
62
Nedham 1767, pp. 7273.
63
Sidney 1990,111.16, p. 403; . III.21, p. 444 III.25, pp. 464465.
64

Neville 1969, pp. 122,125,131,185; . , 11.123, . 334 ( . . .).


0 . Tully 1980, pp. 163174.
.
[RES-PVBL1CA]

30

66

67

, , , .
0 . Wirszubsky 1960 Brunt 1988;
. Colish 1971;
. 1975, pp. 186
188, 196199, 392393; . Scott 1988, pp. 3542;
Houston 1991, pp. 108122; Scott 1991, pp.
201228. , . Pettit 1997,
pp. 1778.

(Pettit 1997, . 15) . ,


, .

[RES-PVBLlCA]
31

, , . 60
,
,
, . 61 , , ,
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, , , , 64

,

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.66
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65

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, ,
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. Skinner 1978, vol. II, pp. 302348.
. [Parker] 1934, pp.
168,170171,186. (, . Tuck
1993, pp. 221253) . , , ,

( ), . , . .
[Parker] 1934, . 207.
,
.

60

Estate, ,
, . . .
XVII . Harris 1990.
61
[Hall] 1700, pp. 10,15. , , , ,
,
( J. .)
1700 .
.
62
Nedham 1767, pp. 7273.
63
Sidney 1990,111.16, p. 403; . III.21, p. 444 III.25, pp. 464465.
64

Neville 1969, pp. 122,125,131,185; . , 11.123, . 334 ( . . .).


0 . Tully 1980, pp. 163174.
.
[RES-PVBL1CA]

30

66

67

, , , .
0 . Wirszubsky 1960 Brunt 1988;
. Colish 1971;
. 1975, pp. 186
188, 196199, 392393; . Scott 1988, pp. 3542;
Houston 1991, pp. 108122; Scott 1991, pp.
201228. , . Pettit 1997,
pp. 1778.

(Pettit 1997, . 15) . ,


, .

[RES-PVBLlCA]
31

,68
.
, , ,
9 . 69 ,
, , ,70 (commonwealth), 71
.72 , , .73

48
,
,
. .
177 178.
68
(Worden 1994, . 46), , , .
69
. Wirzubski 1960,
pp. 45. , , , (1642),
; ,
, .
70

, , , , .

,
(commonweal).74
, , , , .75
,
, Plato Redivivus.
, ,
, , .76 , ,
, .77
. ,
, , ,
. , , .78

Milton 1962, pp. 343,472, 561; Milton 1980, pp. 420,424,432.

71

Harrington 1992, p. 19. .


Milton 1980, pp. 407, 409, 421, 424, 429, 456, 458.
( commonwealth , res publico . , , commonwealth republic.
. . .)
72
Sidney 1990,11.31, . 303; . III.34, . 514.
73

Nedham 1767, .

74

Nedham 1767, pp. 4, 62, 69,173.


. . Sidney 1990,11.19, . 190; 111.44, . 565.

75

Harrington 1992, pp. 24, 273.

76

Neville 1969, p. 82.

77

Neville 1969, pp. 7374.

78

Neville 1969, p. 81.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES'PVBLlCA]
33

,68
.
, , ,
9 . 69 ,
, , ,70 (commonwealth), 71
.72 , , .73

48
,
,
. .
177 178.
68
(Worden 1994, . 46), , , .
69
. Wirzubski 1960,
pp. 45. , , , (1642),
; ,
, .
70

, , , , .

,
(commonweal).74
, , , , .75
,
, Plato Redivivus.
, ,
, , .76 , ,
, .77
. ,
, , ,
. , , .78

Milton 1962, pp. 343,472, 561; Milton 1980, pp. 420,424,432.

71

Harrington 1992, p. 19. .


Milton 1980, pp. 407, 409, 421, 424, 429, 456, 458.
( commonwealth , res publico . , , commonwealth republic.
. . .)
72
Sidney 1990,11.31, . 303; . III.34, . 514.
73

Nedham 1767, .

74

Nedham 1767, pp. 4, 62, 69,173.


. . Sidney 1990,11.19, . 190; 111.44, . 565.

75

Harrington 1992, pp. 24, 273.

76

Neville 1969, p. 82.

77

Neville 1969, pp. 7374.

78

Neville 1969, p. 81.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES'PVBLlCA]
33


.79
, , ,

.
, , ,
, , (power)
. ,
, .80 ,
.
, , .81
, , , .82 ,
. , il faut que
chacun soit servi a sa mode; -

79
80

Neville 1969, p. 76.



XVII , XVIII . ., . Prince 1991, pp. 22, 79,84.

81

82

( 1996,1, 2, . 120) cittadi servitu governate per loro arbitrio.

; , ,
. 83
,
. -, , , (,
)
,
.84 ,
, , .
, , . ,
, . ,
(dominations) . 85
,
, , ,
. , ,

83

Sidney 1990,111.16, . 403.

84

(consent)
. (Dunn 1969, pp. 141
147), . . 1988, II, . 8, . 3, . 95122,
317334. , , ,
, . 0 . Tully 1993,
pp. 281323.

85

Nedham 1767, pp. xxii, 3233; . pp. 2829,114115.

Nedham 1767, p. 2 passim.



.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
34

[RES-PVBLlCA]
35


.79
, , ,

.
, , ,
, , (power)
. ,
, .80 ,
.
, , .81
, , , .82 ,
. , il faut que
chacun soit servi a sa mode; -

79
80

Neville 1969, p. 76.



XVII , XVIII . ., . Prince 1991, pp. 22, 79,84.

81

82

( 1996,1, 2, . 120) cittadi servitu governate per loro arbitrio.

; , ,
. 83
,
. -, , , (,
)
,
.84 ,
, , .
, , . ,
, . ,
(dominations) . 85
,
, , ,
. , ,

83

Sidney 1990,111.16, . 403.

84

(consent)
. (Dunn 1969, pp. 141
147), . . 1988, II, . 8, . 3, . 95122,
317334. , , ,
, . 0 . Tully 1993,
pp. 281323.

85

Nedham 1767, pp. xxii, 3233; . pp. 2829,114115.

Nedham 1767, p. 2 passim.



.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
34

[RES-PVBLlCA]
35

.
, : ,
, , . , ^ .86
, , , , , ,
,
.87
,
.88 , .
,
. , , , , ,
.89
, , ( )
, . , , , . ,
, ,
, . 90
,

86

Harrington 1992, . 22.


Sidney 1990, II.5, . 99. . . . 167.
88
. , , 2001,

87

. 137138,169.
89

Harrington 1992, . 166.

90

[Osborne] 1811, . 164.

,
, ( ) ,
,
.
, ,
, , , .91
:

. ,
. ,
, ,
.92 ,
,
, .93
, , , , ,
, .94
, ,

. , , , , .95

91

Sidney 1990, II.5,p. 104.

92

Nedham 1767, pp. xv,23.

93

Milton 1962, p. 519.

94

Sidney 1990,1.5, p. 17; cf. I I . 5, p. 99; I I I . 31, p. 502.

95

Harrington 1992, p. 24; cp. Sidney 1990, II.5, pp. 102103.


[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]
35

36

.
, : ,
, , . , ^ .86
, , , , , ,
,
.87
,
.88 , .
,
. , , , , ,
.89
, , ( )
, . , , , . ,
, ,
, . 90
,

86

Harrington 1992, . 22.


Sidney 1990, II.5, . 99. . . . 167.
88
. , , 2001,

87

. 137138,169.
89

Harrington 1992, . 166.

90

[Osborne] 1811, . 164.

,
, ( ) ,
,
.
, ,
, , , .91
:

. ,
. ,
, ,
.92 ,
,
, .93
, , , , ,
, .94
, ,

. , , , , .95

91

Sidney 1990, II.5,p. 104.

92

Nedham 1767, pp. xv,23.

93

Milton 1962, p. 519.

94

Sidney 1990,1.5, p. 17; cf. I I . 5, p. 99; I I I . 31, p. 502.

95

Harrington 1992, p. 24; cp. Sidney 1990, II.5, pp. 102103.


[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]
35

36

(1516) ,
civitas libera . res publico, ,
.
, ,
,
.96
, , - (Commonaltie). 97
,
, , . 98
, ,
, ,
.99 , ,100 , , ,
.101
:

( , , , -

96

1978, . 172, . 180182.

97

Milton 1980, . 458.

98

Milton 1980, . 459.

99

Nedham 1767, . 38.

100

Milton 1962, . 343.

101

Neville 1969, . 102.

, ),
; , .102
,
, , , , .103
, , ,
. , .
, .

102
103

Sidney 1990,11.19, . 189.

, . , , , ( )

. , virtu. , virtu : , .
, corruzione, virtu.
, , (
), , , .
Skinner 1981, pp. 5673, Skinner 1983
1984.0 . Oldfield 1990, pp. 3177; Spitz
1995, pp. 341427. , , , / d'etre Libre ( . . .)
. (Milton 1980, . 455).

[RES-PVBLLCA]

[res-pvbLlca]

39

38

(1516) ,
civitas libera . res publico, ,
.
, ,
,
.96
, , - (Commonaltie). 97
,
, , . 98
, ,
, ,
.99 , ,100 , , ,
.101
:

( , , , -

96

1978, . 172, . 180182.

97

Milton 1980, . 458.

98

Milton 1980, . 459.

99

Nedham 1767, . 38.

100

Milton 1962, . 343.

101

Neville 1969, . 102.

, ),
; , .102
,
, , , , .103
, , ,
. , .
, .

102
103

Sidney 1990,11.19, . 189.

, . , , , ( )

. , virtu. , virtu : , .
, corruzione, virtu.
, , (
), , , .
Skinner 1981, pp. 5673, Skinner 1983
1984.0 . Oldfield 1990, pp. 3177; Spitz
1995, pp. 341427. , , , / d'etre Libre ( . . .)
. (Milton 1980, . 455).

[RES-PVBLLCA]

[res-pvbLlca]

39

38

, , , , , ,

.104 , ,

, 105
, .
1660- (!) ,
[ ]
, , .106
,
107 , .

. , , ,
, , .
, , , . , ,
, ,
.108 ,

, ,
.109
, 1660 ,
, .110 (
), , , . , , ,
,111 ,
(multitude). 112
XVIII (
,
).

III

. , , , - . , ,
-

104

[Osborne] 1811, . 163.

109

105

Nedham 1767, pp. ix.

Harrington 1992, pp. 22, 6466.

110

106

Milton 1980, pp. 429,447.

Neville 1969, pp. 103192.

111

107

Harrington 1992, pp. 6466.

0 . Scott 1988, pp. 4358.

108

Harrington 1992, pp. 2122.

"2 Sidney 1990,1.10, p. 31; 11.16, pp. 166170; 111.37, pp. 526527.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES'PVBLlCA]

48

41

, , , , , ,

.104 , ,

, 105
, .
1660- (!) ,
[ ]
, , .106
,
107 , .

. , , ,
, , .
, , , . , ,
, ,
.108 ,

, ,
.109
, 1660 ,
, .110 (
), , , . , , ,
,111 ,
(multitude). 112
XVIII (
,
).

III

. , , , - . , ,
-

104

[Osborne] 1811, . 163.

109

105

Nedham 1767, pp. ix.

Harrington 1992, pp. 22, 6466.

110

106

Milton 1980, pp. 429,447.

Neville 1969, pp. 103192.

111

107

Harrington 1992, pp. 6466.

0 . Scott 1988, pp. 4358.

108

Harrington 1992, pp. 2122.

"2 Sidney 1990,1.10, p. 31; 11.16, pp. 166170; 111.37, pp. 526527.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES'PVBLlCA]

48

41

. ,
, . , ,113 .
, ,
, .114
,
.
, ,115 , ,116
.117 , ,
,
.118 -

113

, ( Rahe 1992)
.

114

Wirszubski I960,
pp. 13; 1977, . 57; Worden 1994b, pp. 100101. . Houston 1991, pp. 102,108122
. . . Pettit 1997,
pp. 22, 3132 .

1,5

. 1996,1,1,. 117 ,
principio libero.

116

, 1,1, . 116, , origine libera.

117

, 1,1, . 120, , servitu.

118

[Hall] 1700, p. 15.


.

, , .119 , , ,

.120 ,
, - .121
, ,
,
, . , ,
.122

De statu hominis, , , , , .123 ,124

(
16511652 ) . Armitage 1995, . 207 .
Milton 1980, pp. 407,409,422,488489.
Sidney 1990,1.5, p. 17.

Garnsey 1996, pp. 2526,6465,9097.
2002,1.5.3, . I, . 117, 'Summa itaque de iure personarum
divisio haec est, quod omnes homines aut liberi sunt aut servi'
, .
(Wirszubski 1960,
pp. 13) (Brunt 1988, pp. 283284).

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

42

43

. ,
, . , ,113 .
, ,
, .114
,
.
, ,115 , ,116
.117 , ,
,
.118 -

113

, ( Rahe 1992)
.

114

Wirszubski I960,
pp. 13; 1977, . 57; Worden 1994b, pp. 100101. . Houston 1991, pp. 102,108122
. . . Pettit 1997,
pp. 22, 3132 .

1,5

. 1996,1,1,. 117 ,
principio libero.

116

, 1,1, . 116, , origine libera.

117

, 1,1, . 120, , servitu.

118

[Hall] 1700, p. 15.


.

, , .119 , , ,

.120 ,
, - .121
, ,
,
, . , ,
.122

De statu hominis, , , , , .123 ,124

(
16511652 ) . Armitage 1995, . 207 .
Milton 1980, pp. 407,409,422,488489.
Sidney 1990,1.5, p. 17.

Garnsey 1996, pp. 2526,6465,9097.
2002,1.5.3, . I, . 117, 'Summa itaque de iure personarum
divisio haec est, quod omnes homines aut liberi sunt aut servi'
, .
(Wirszubski 1960,
pp. 13) (Brunt 1988, pp. 283284).

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

42

43

,
.125
, , , , , . , ,
. , , , , ,126 ,
- , .127
, . , ,
, ,
. 128
? , De statu hominis
, ,
%

1 ;
40.
" 2002,1.5.4, . , .117, 'Servitus est... quo quis dominio
atieno contra naturam subicitur'.
26
1 , , 41
( ), , . . Garnsey
1996, pp. 2526.
27
,
( 1997, . 2, . 363441), (. 1, . 226
286), (. 2, . 586) (. 2, . 213302).
128
,
. . 1997, 7879, . 2, . 12.

: , sui iuris,
, ,
.129 ( ) 1 3 0 , , 131 , , .132
, . 133
, in
potestate domini, .134 ,

, . 135 , , , in potestate,
.136

129

2002,1,6, . I, . 125. ; De his qui sui vel alieni iuris


sunt, 0 , () .

110

2002,1.6.3, . I, . 127: 'Item in potestate nostra sunt liberi


nostri... quodiusproprium civium Rohtanorum est'
, ; , .
. Brunt 1988, pp. 284285.

111

2002,1. 6.1,. I, . 125: 'atieno iurisubiectae sunt'.

132

2002,1. 6.1, . I, .125: 'in aliena potestate sunt'.

133

Pettit 1997, pp. 32-35.


1.6.2, . I, . 125.

135

1997, , 37, . 10 ( , , . . .).

136


. . , 2002,2.9.2, . I, . 227; 9.4.33,
. , . 467; 11.1.16,. , . 571; 48.10.14. . 41,
, 41.1.10
41.1.63.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
44

[RES-PVBLlCA]
45

,
.125
, , , , , . , ,
. , , , , ,126 ,
- , .127
, . , ,
, ,
. 128
? , De statu hominis
, ,
%

1 ;
40.
" 2002,1.5.4, . , .117, 'Servitus est... quo quis dominio
atieno contra naturam subicitur'.
26
1 , , 41
( ), , . . Garnsey
1996, pp. 2526.
27
,
( 1997, . 2, . 363441), (. 1, . 226
286), (. 2, . 586) (. 2, . 213302).
128
,
. . 1997, 7879, . 2, . 12.

: , sui iuris,
, ,
.129 ( ) 1 3 0 , , 131 , , .132
, . 133
, in
potestate domini, .134 ,

, . 135 , , , in potestate,
.136

129

2002,1,6, . I, . 125. ; De his qui sui vel alieni iuris


sunt, 0 , () .

110

2002,1.6.3, . I, . 127: 'Item in potestate nostra sunt liberi


nostri... quodiusproprium civium Rohtanorum est'
, ; , .
. Brunt 1988, pp. 284285.

111

2002,1. 6.1,. I, . 125: 'atieno iurisubiectae sunt'.

132

2002,1. 6.1, . I, .125: 'in aliena potestate sunt'.

133

Pettit 1997, pp. 32-35.


1.6.2, . I, . 125.

135

1997, , 37, . 10 ( , , . . .).

136


. . , 2002,2.9.2, . I, . 227; 9.4.33,
. , . 467; 11.1.16,. , . 571; 48.10.14. . 41,
, 41.1.10
41.1.63.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
44

[RES-PVBLlCA]
45


,137 , ,
obnoxius,
. obnoxius , ,138
, ,
, , .13 ,
, Bellum Catilinae ,
,
... , ... , , [\*. -

137

, , , , . , ,
in potestate, . ., .
, 3.12.7, 1998, . 219; , 3.22.4,
1998, . 64. , in potestate,
. , 1989,8.15.8, . 1, . 380 , 1989.37.34.4,. 3,
. 185.
138
2002,11.3.14. II, . 581; 18.1.81, . , . 599; 26.7.57,
. IV, . 645; 34.1.15, . V (2), . 155; 46.1.47; 48.15.1.
139
( , , ) : . , . 2,14
goodwill
( ), ; , .
140
1999,20.6-7, . 456. Sallust 1931,20.6-7, . 34: 'postquam
res publico in paucorum potentium ius atque dktionem concessit.. ceteri
omnes... eis obnoxii'. ,
obnoxius , . .
1989, 7.30.3, .1, . 349 37.53.4. . 3 . 260.

, .141 De Beneficiis
,
obnoxia, .142 obnoxius
, ,143 , , .144
,

. , civitas libera
. 145
146 ,
, ,
.147 , 141

, 20.6-7.C. 456, libeitas.


142
, 0 , 1998, . 63 Seneca 192835,
voL I I I , p. 164, servitude , 'corpora
obnoxia sunt et adscripta dominis'.
143
. ,,, 1969,14.40, . 269 , 1969,
11.7, . 181182.
144
1969,14.1, . 252.
145

0 civitas libera . Wirszubski 1960, pp. 912.

146


1600 ,
. . Livy 1600 .
Collinson 1987, pp. 399402; Collinson 1990,
pp. 1828.

"' . 1989, 3.38.9, . 1,. 148; 6.20.14,. 1,. 301;


6.40.6, .1, . 319.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
46

[RES-PVBLlCA]
47


,137 , ,
obnoxius,
. obnoxius , ,138
, ,
, , .13 ,
, Bellum Catilinae ,
,
... , ... , , [\*. -

137

, , , , . , ,
in potestate, . ., .
, 3.12.7, 1998, . 219; , 3.22.4,
1998, . 64. , in potestate,
. , 1989,8.15.8, . 1, . 380 , 1989.37.34.4,. 3,
. 185.
138
2002,11.3.14. II, . 581; 18.1.81, . , . 599; 26.7.57,
. IV, . 645; 34.1.15, . V (2), . 155; 46.1.47; 48.15.1.
139
( , , ) : . , . 2,14
goodwill
( ), ; , .
140
1999,20.6-7, . 456. Sallust 1931,20.6-7, . 34: 'postquam
res publico in paucorum potentium ius atque dktionem concessit.. ceteri
omnes... eis obnoxii'. ,
obnoxius , . .
1989, 7.30.3, .1, . 349 37.53.4. . 3 . 260.

, .141 De Beneficiis
,
obnoxia, .142 obnoxius
, ,143 , , .144
,

. , civitas libera
. 145
146 ,
, ,
.147 , 141

, 20.6-7.C. 456, libeitas.


142
, 0 , 1998, . 63 Seneca 192835,
voL I I I , p. 164, servitude , 'corpora
obnoxia sunt et adscripta dominis'.
143
. ,,, 1969,14.40, . 269 , 1969,
11.7, . 181182.
144
1969,14.1, . 252.
145

0 civitas libera . Wirszubski 1960, pp. 912.

146


1600 ,
. . Livy 1600 .
Collinson 1987, pp. 399402; Collinson 1990,
pp. 1828.

"' . 1989, 3.38.9, . 1,. 148; 6.20.14,. 1,. 301;


6.40.6, .1, . 319.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
46

[RES-PVBLlCA]
47

,
.149 , , ,
, , imperium , imperium .150
, ,
.
, . 151
, , , ,
.152

in potestate,
. 153 , , ,
. 4epfy

^.154 -

,
. , libertas, ,
. 155
,
. 156
, , :
,157 , . 158
, . ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
. 159
, I

155

1989,35.32,. 3,. 174 'quaesuisstat viribus, nonexalieno

arbitrio pendet'.
148

1989,2.1.7, . 1. . 64;4,24.4-5, .1, . 197.

149

1989, 2.3.2-4,. 1,. 66; 3.45, . 1. . 153.

150

1989, 2.1.1, . 1,65. ,

156

Harrington 1992, pp. 20,30. . XVII : Houston 1991, pp. 108110.

157

Harrington 1992, p. 10.

158

Neville 1969, pp. 81, 97,126. 0


. Scott 1988, pp. 3035. , ,
, -
1640- , ([Parker] 1934, . 185).

159

., , Milton 1962, . 529; Sidney 1990,11.27, pp. 263270.

155

1989,1.17.3, . 1> . 25; 1.46.3, . 1, . 51, 2.1.1, . 1, . 64;


2.9.2-6, . 7071; 2.15.2-3, . 7576.
152
1989,1.23.9, . 1, . 30; 3.37.1, . 1, . 146; 3.61.1-3, . 1,
. 167; 4.15.6; . 1,. 191.
153
1989, 5.20.3,. 1, . 250; 8.19.12, . 1, . 383.
154

1989,42.13.12,. 3, . 428.
.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES'PVBLlCA]

48

49

,
.149 , , ,
, , imperium , imperium .150
, ,
.
, . 151
, , , ,
.152

in potestate,
. 153 , , ,
. 4epfy

^.154 -

,
. , libertas, ,
. 155
,
. 156
, , :
,157 , . 158
, . ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
. 159
, I

155

1989,35.32,. 3,. 174 'quaesuisstat viribus, nonexalieno

arbitrio pendet'.
148

1989,2.1.7, . 1. . 64;4,24.4-5, .1, . 197.

149

1989, 2.3.2-4,. 1,. 66; 3.45, . 1. . 153.

150

1989, 2.1.1, . 1,65. ,

156

Harrington 1992, pp. 20,30. . XVII : Houston 1991, pp. 108110.

157

Harrington 1992, p. 10.

158

Neville 1969, pp. 81, 97,126. 0


. Scott 1988, pp. 3035. , ,
, -
1640- , ([Parker] 1934, . 185).

159

., , Milton 1962, . 529; Sidney 1990,11.27, pp. 263270.

155

1989,1.17.3, . 1> . 25; 1.46.3, . 1, . 51, 2.1.1, . 1, . 64;


2.9.2-6, . 7071; 2.15.2-3, . 7576.
152
1989,1.23.9, . 1, . 30; 3.37.1, . 1, . 146; 3.61.1-3, . 1,
. 167; 4.15.6; . 1,. 191.
153
1989, 5.20.3,. 1, . 250; 8.19.12, . 1, . 383.
154

1989,42.13.12,. 3, . 428.
.

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160

Macaulay 1863, vol. I, pp. 108,110, , Rapin


173233, vol. I I , p. 406, col. 2, ,
. , . Forbes
1975, pp. 233240. .

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, , . .
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, ,

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1778 .
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1966, pp. 195196.


161

. Neville 1969, . 149.

Milton 1962, . 377.

163
164

Milton 1962, pp. 377, 389.


Milton 1962, p. 462. ( ,
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.

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160

Macaulay 1863, vol. I, pp. 108,110, , Rapin


173233, vol. I I , p. 406, col. 2, ,
. , . Forbes
1975, pp. 233240. .

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, , . .
, , XVIII . ,
, ,

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1778 .
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1966, pp. 195196.


161

. Neville 1969, . 149.

Milton 1962, . 377.

163
164

Milton 1962, pp. 377, 389.


Milton 1962, p. 462. ( ,
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167


,
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168
[Osborne] 1811, . 164; . Nedham 1767, pp. 2830,4245,97
99; Milton 1962, p. 458.
169
Milton 1962, p. 458.

170

Milton 1962, . 410.

171

Milton 1962, . 409.

172

Milton 1962, . 579.

173

Neville 1969, . 128; . . 110.

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[Osborne] 1811, . 164; . Nedham 1767, pp. 2830,4245,97
99; Milton 1962, p. 458.
169
Milton 1962, p. 458.

170

Milton 1962, . 410.

171

Milton 1962, . 409.

172

Milton 1962, . 579.

173

Neville 1969, . 128; . . 110.

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174

. Neville 1969, pp. 174175.



, . . Sidney 1990,1.10, pp. 301,11.16,
pp. 166170; . Neville 1969, pp. 173195. (Sidney 1990,
11.19, p. 188) : ,
, (Neville 1969,
. 141) .
176
, 1996,1,2, . 120, , 'governate per loro arbitrio come republiche come principato'.

175

177

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178

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175
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[Hall] 1700, p. 3.

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174

. Neville 1969, pp. 174175.



, . . Sidney 1990,1.10, pp. 301,11.16,
pp. 166170; . Neville 1969, pp. 173195. (Sidney 1990,
11.19, p. 188) : ,
, (Neville 1969,
. 141) .
176
, 1996,1,2, . 120, , 'governate per loro arbitrio come republiche come principato'.

175

177

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178

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175
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II

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civitas libera , , . 5
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1991, . 21,. 2, .166.


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3
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Constant 1988, pp. 309,316317, . , 1993; 2001, . 164173.
4
5

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. 6
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in superbiam dominationemque se convortit'.

1999, . 449 (Sallust 1931, 7.3, pp. 1214): 'Sed civitas


incredibile memoratu est adepta libertate quantum brevi creverit'.

1999, . 449 (Sallust 1931, 7.2, p. 12): 'Nam regibus boni


quam malisuspectioressuntsemperque eis aliena virtusformidulosa est'.

0 grandezza . Skinner 1981,


pp. 5057; Skinner 1990b, pp. 138141.

10

Machiavelli 1960, II, 2, p. 280: 'Ma sopra tutto maravigliosissima a


considerare a quanta grandezza venne Roma la si liberd da'suoi /?e.
La ragione facile a intendere: perchdnon il bene particular ma il bene
comune quelle chefa grandi le citta. Esanza dubbio questo bene
comune osservato se nelle republiche. ..Al contrario intervene
quando vi uno principe, dove il piu delle volte quello che fa per lui

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1991, . 21,. 2, .166.


. . .

Filmer 1991, . 275.


3
, , , . .
Constant 1988, pp. 309,316317, . , 1993; 2001, . 164173.
4
5

., , Scott 1993, . 152, .


. Skinner 1990b.

. 6
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1999, . 449 (Sallust 1931, 6.7, . 12): 'regium imperium,


quod initio conservandae tibertatis atque augendae rei publicaefuerat,
in superbiam dominationemque se convortit'.

1999, . 449 (Sallust 1931, 7.3, pp. 1214): 'Sed civitas


incredibile memoratu est adepta libertate quantum brevi creverit'.

1999, . 449 (Sallust 1931, 7.2, p. 12): 'Nam regibus boni


quam malisuspectioressuntsemperque eis aliena virtusformidulosa est'.

0 grandezza . Skinner 1981,


pp. 5057; Skinner 1990b, pp. 138141.

10

Machiavelli 1960, II, 2, p. 280: 'Ma sopra tutto maravigliosissima a


considerare a quanta grandezza venne Roma la si liberd da'suoi /?e.
La ragione facile a intendere: perchdnon il bene particular ma il bene
comune quelle chefa grandi le citta. Esanza dubbio questo bene
comune osservato se nelle republiche. ..Al contrario intervene
quando vi uno principe, dove il piu delle volte quello che fa per lui

[RES-PVBLlCA]

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1650- . , (commonwealth for increase) , 11


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,

offenda la citt,e quelle chefa per la cittoffende lui'. .


1996, II, 2, . 229.
11

Harrington 1992, p. 33.

12

Nedham 1992, p. 33.

13

Nedham 1767, p. xxvi.

42

Bellum Catilinae.
, , , , . ,
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14

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bonis initiis malos eventus habuit'.

15

. Armitage 1995, pp. 206214.

16

Harrington 1992, p. 44.

17

(Worden 1991, pp. 467468), , , , ,


.

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1650- . , (commonwealth for increase) , 11


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offenda la citt,e quelle chefa per la cittoffende lui'. .


1996, II, 2, . 229.
11

Harrington 1992, p. 33.

12

Nedham 1992, p. 33.

13

Nedham 1767, p. xxvi.

42

Bellum Catilinae.
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bonis initiis malos eventus habuit'.

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. Armitage 1995, pp. 206214.

16

Harrington 1992, p. 44.

17

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1996,1,16, . 152.

20

1996, , 2, . 232.

21

Harrington 1992, . 20. : ,


, .
. Sidney 1990,1.5, . 18; . 11.27, . 263; 11.28, . 270.

22

Nedham 1767, p. v.

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1996,1,16, . 152.

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1996, , 2, . 232.

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Harrington 1992, . 20. : ,


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22

Nedham 1767, p. v.

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26

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27

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Nedham 1767, pp. 4849.

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33

1997, XIX, pp. 177191.

34

. ., , Rapin 173233, vol. ,


. 431, col. 1, , , .

35

Milton 1962, p. 454.

36

0 ,
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37

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33

1997, XIX, pp. 177191.

34

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35

Milton 1962, p. 454.

36

0 ,
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39

Harrington 1992, pp. 820.

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Harrington 1992, pp. 820.

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0 .
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46

. Pettit 1997, pp. 7778.

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0 .
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Paley 1785, pp. 446447.


1768 . . Priestley 1993, pp. 3233 . Canovan 1978 Miller
1994, pp. 376379.

, , , , ,
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1997, pp. 2427, 51, 69, 113, 273 . Pettit 1993 1993b
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Paley 1785, pp. 446447.


1768 . . Priestley 1993, pp. 3233 . Canovan 1978 Miller
1994, pp. 376379.

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1997, pp. 2427, 51, 69, 113, 273 . Pettit 1993 1993b
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1776 ., Long 1997, pp. 54
55. . Miller 1994, pp. 393397.
,
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. Spitz 1995, pp. 179220, Patten 1996
Pettit 1997, pp. 2731.
*
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. 66; . . 55, 56., 104, 271). , , . ,
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, .57

53


1776 ., Long 1997, pp. 54
55. . Miller 1994, pp. 393397.
,
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. Spitz 1995, pp. 179220, Patten 1996
Pettit 1997, pp. 2731.
*
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. 66; . . 55, 56., 104, 271). , , . ,
, . , , , .
. Wirszubski 1960, pp. 79,
, libertas .

55

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Pettit 1997, pp. 66,110,273. . Pettit 1997, pp. 51,148, , , , , , - , .
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.

56

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1996, pp. 25,44.

57

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74

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58

0 ,
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MacCallum 1991 , .

59

. . 1985, pp. 4142;


Schneewind 1993, pp. 187192; Pettit 1997, pp. 3233,3839.

60

1991, . 2, . 167.

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,

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62

(Scott 1993, pp. 155163), ,


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63

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64

Sidney 1990,11.16, pp. 402403; . 111.21, . 440.

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76

77

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0 ,
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MacCallum 1991 , .

59

. . 1985, pp. 4142;


Schneewind 1993, pp. 187192; Pettit 1997, pp. 3233,3839.

60

1991, . 2, . 167.

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62

(Scott 1993, pp. 155163), ,


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63

Harrington 1992, . 20.

64

Sidney 1990,11.16, pp. 402403; . 111.21, . 440.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

76

77

, ,
.
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1523 .65 , VIII, ,
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. 72
II
1660 ,
, ,

68

More 1965, . 56: 'nisi quod absurdissimus quibusque dictis assentiuntur


& supparasitantur eorum, quos ut maxime apud principem gratiae,
student assentatione demererisibi'. (Mop 1978, c. 126).

69

More 1965, p. 54: 'Hoc [sc. 'ut inservias regibus'] est... una syllaba
plusquam servias'. (Mop 1978, c. 124).

70

. Adams 1991 Worden 1996, pp. 217224.

71
65

. Elton 1960, pp. 254255,262263.

66

Roper 1963, p. 9.

67

Mop 1978, . 125.


.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
78

0 , . Archer
1993.

72

0 . Javitch 1978; , , . Smuts 1994, pp. 2540.


[RES-PVBLlCA]
79

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, ,

68

More 1965, . 56: 'nisi quod absurdissimus quibusque dictis assentiuntur


& supparasitantur eorum, quos ut maxime apud principem gratiae,
student assentatione demererisibi'. (Mop 1978, c. 126).

69

More 1965, p. 54: 'Hoc [sc. 'ut inservias regibus'] est... una syllaba
plusquam servias'. (Mop 1978, c. 124).

70

. Adams 1991 Worden 1996, pp. 217224.

71
65

. Elton 1960, pp. 254255,262263.

66

Roper 1963, p. 9.

67

Mop 1978, . 125.


.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
78

0 , . Archer
1993.

72

0 . Javitch 1978; , , . Smuts 1994, pp. 2540.


[RES-PVBLlCA]
79

.
,
. ,
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, . 73
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76

Sidney 1990,11.28, . 271.

77

Sidney 1990,11.19, . 185.

78

Sidney 1990,11.27, . 266.

73

Sidney 1990,11.19, pp. 187188.

79

Sidney 1990,11.25, . 256.

74

Sidney 1990,11.25, p. 252; 11.19, p. 188.

80

Sidney 1990,11.28, . 271.

75

Sidney 1990,11.11, p. 140.

81

Sidney 1990,11.28, . 274.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[KS-PV&LlCA]

80

81

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,
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76

Sidney 1990,11.28, . 271.

77

Sidney 1990,11.19, . 185.

78

Sidney 1990,11.27, . 266.

73

Sidney 1990,11.19, pp. 187188.

79

Sidney 1990,11.25, . 256.

74

Sidney 1990,11.25, p. 252; 11.19, p. 188.

80

Sidney 1990,11.28, . 271.

75

Sidney 1990,11.11, p. 140.

81

Sidney 1990,11.28, . 274.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[KS-PV&LlCA]

80

81

. , , , , ,
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:
,
. 82
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1625 ,
obnoxious,84 1652 ,
, ,
obnoxious .85 -

82

Sidney 1990,111.19, . 435.

83

obnoxiousness
. . 1989, 23.12.9, . 2, . 117.

84

Bacon 1972, . 131.

85

Wither 1874, . 5:
Although, I peradventure, may appear
On some occasions, bitterly severe,
To those, in whom, I private-failings see,
Which, to the Publike may obnoxious be.

1680 .

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, , obnoxious
,
.
, ,
,
.87 ,
, .
;88 ;89 , ,90 . , ,
. , , ;91 , ;92 , .93

86

[F.,C.] 1812, . 217.

87

Harrington 1992, . 36; . Neville 1969, . 185.

88

Nedham 1767, . 16; Neville 1969, . 121.

89

Neville 1969, . 167; Sidney 1990,11.19, . 186; 11.25, . 257.

90

Milton 1962, pp. 344, 392; Milton 1980, p. 424; Sidney 1990,11.25,
p. 255; 11.28, p. 272; 11.28, p. 277.0 . Burrow, pp. 8693.

91

Milton 1962, p. 455; Milton 1980, p. 425; Neville 1969, p. 190; Sidney
1990,11.14, p. 161; 11.27, p. 269.

92

Milton 1980, pp. 425426,460461; Sidney 1990,11.25, pp. 251,


254255; 11.28, pp. 272, 274, 277.

93

Harrington, 1992, p. 5; Milton 1980, pp. 426427; Sidney 1990, III.34,


p. 515.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

82

83

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:
,
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obnoxious,84 1652 ,
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obnoxious .85 -

82

Sidney 1990,111.19, . 435.

83

obnoxiousness
. . 1989, 23.12.9, . 2, . 117.

84

Bacon 1972, . 131.

85

Wither 1874, . 5:
Although, I peradventure, may appear
On some occasions, bitterly severe,
To those, in whom, I private-failings see,
Which, to the Publike may obnoxious be.

1680 .

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,
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, ,
,
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;88 ;89 , ,90 . , ,
. , , ;91 , ;92 , .93

86

[F.,C.] 1812, . 217.

87

Harrington 1992, . 36; . Neville 1969, . 185.

88

Nedham 1767, . 16; Neville 1969, . 121.

89

Neville 1969, . 167; Sidney 1990,11.19, . 186; 11.25, . 257.

90

Milton 1962, pp. 344, 392; Milton 1980, p. 424; Sidney 1990,11.25,
p. 255; 11.28, p. 272; 11.28, p. 277.0 . Burrow, pp. 8693.

91

Milton 1962, p. 455; Milton 1980, p. 425; Neville 1969, p. 190; Sidney
1990,11.14, p. 161; 11.27, p. 269.

92

Milton 1980, pp. 425426,460461; Sidney 1990,11.25, pp. 251,


254255; 11.28, pp. 272, 274, 277.

93

Harrington, 1992, p. 5; Milton 1980, pp. 426427; Sidney 1990, III.34,


p. 515.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

82

83

,
.
. XVIII
XIX
. ,

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. , ; ,
; , .
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. 95 ,
96 -

94


, (1749). . .

95

0 , . Miller,
1994, pp. 379399, Pettit 1997, pp. 4150.

96

(Blackstone 176569, vol. I, p. 130)


,
. , . Lieberman 1989, pp. 3640.

, 97
.98 XIX , , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
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,
, , ''. , , ,
,

,
.100
, , .

97

0 , , . Long 1977, pp. 5 1 ^ 5 7 .

98

0 . Long 1997, pp. 178191;


. Austin 1995, pp. 159160; . Austin 1995, pp. 229234.

99
100

Sidgwick 1897, p. 45.


Sidgwick 1897, p. 375.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

42

85

,
.
. XVIII
XIX
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. , ; ,
; , .
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. 95 ,
96 -

94


, (1749). . .

95

0 , . Miller,
1994, pp. 379399, Pettit 1997, pp. 4150.

96

(Blackstone 176569, vol. I, p. 130)


,
. , . Lieberman 1989, pp. 3640.

, 97
.98 XIX , , ,
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, , ,
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,
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,

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, , .

97

0 , , . Long 1977, pp. 5 1 ^ 5 7 .

98

0 . Long 1997, pp. 178191;


. Austin 1995, pp. 159160; . Austin 1995, pp. 229234.

99
100

Sidgwick 1897, p. 45.


Sidgwick 1897, p. 375.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

42

85

Ill

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, , , ,
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1680- .3
1960- , , -

. Warrender 1979. .

Collingwood 1939, . 16.

Laslett 1988, pp. 4566.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

86

87

Ill

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1960- , , -

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Collingwood 1939, . 16.

Laslett 1988, pp. 4566.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

86

87


.4 ,
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.
, -
ex post facto.
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, , ,
, , .6 ,
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? 7
, ,
( ) , .

, 1968 (. Dunn
1980)
(. Dunn 1969).

Namier 1955, p. 4.

Butterfield 1957, p. 209; . Acton 1906a, p. 3.

., , Brooke 1961, pp. 2122, 2425.


, ,
.8
. ( ) , , , .
,
, ,
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, .9
, - ,
.
(1991), .10

. , , -

. : 1985,
pp. 134 1987.

. Skinner
1974.

10

Elton 1991, p. 12.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

88

87


.4 ,
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.
, -
ex post facto.
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? 7
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, 1968 (. Dunn
1980)
(. Dunn 1969).

Namier 1955, p. 4.

Butterfield 1957, p. 209; . Acton 1906a, p. 3.

., , Brooke 1961, pp. 2122, 2425.


, ,
.8
. ( ) , , , .
,
, ,
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, .9
, - ,
.
(1991), .10

. , , -

. : 1985,
pp. 134 1987.

. Skinner
1974.

10

Elton 1991, p. 12.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

88

87

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. Warrender 1979, . 939,


.

12

Gunnell 1982, . 327.

13

Tarlton 1973, . 314.

, ,
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II
, (state) , .
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Acton 1906b, . 57. (1967) Elisabethan Puritan Movement,


.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

90

[RES-PVBLlCA]
91

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. Warrender 1979, . 939,


.

12

Gunnell 1982, . 327.

13

Tarlton 1973, . 314.

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II
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14

Acton 1906b, . 57. (1967) Elisabethan Puritan Movement,


.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

90

[RES-PVBLlCA]
91

.
: ? ?
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; , , - .16 ,
( , ) , , . ,
, ,
, . , ,
, . ,
, , .

. . , , (corporations
sole),17 , .18 ,

15

Skinner 1997.

16

, . , , 1980
Runciman 1997, pp. 33, 223261.

17

1900
1903 . . Maitland 1911, vol. I l l , pp. 210243,244270,
304320. 0 , , . Burrow 1988, pp. 135145.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
92


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18

0
, . Garnett 1996, pp. 171172,212214, Runcimann
1997, pp. 96107,118123.

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15

Skinner 1997.

16

, . , , 1980
Runciman 1997, pp. 33, 223261.

17

1900
1903 . . Maitland 1911, vol. I l l , pp. 210243,244270,
304320. 0 , , . Burrow 1988, pp. 135145.

[RES-PVBLlCA]
92


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18

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1997, pp. 96107,118123.

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,

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21

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22

2001, . 167169.

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2001, . 183, . 126, . . , ( ) , ,


. , . ( ),
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1986, pp. 232235. , (
) , . Taylor 1979.

24

2001, . 126, . . . . 133,


.

25

2001, . 169.

[res-pvbllca]

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95

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1986, pp. 232235. , (
) , . Taylor 1979.

24

2001, . 126, . . . . 133,


.

25

2001, . 169.

[res-pvbllca]

[RES-EVBLlCA]

94

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87
.

[RES-PVBLlCA]

[RES-PVBLlCA]

98

Bacon, Francis (1972). Essays, ed. Michael J. Hawkins, London.

Blackstone, W i l l i a m (176569). Commentaries on the Laws of


England, 4 vols., O x f o r d .
B o l i n g b r o k e , H e n r y St J o h n , V i s c o u n t ( 1 9 9 7 ) . Political Writings, ed. David A r m i t a g e , C a m b r i d g e .


, ( 1 9 9 1 ) .
.

, :

( 2 0 0 2 - 2 0 0 4 ) . : , . IV ( 2 ) . [ , ,
. . .].
, ( 1 9 9 3 ) . ' ', , 2.
, ( 1 9 8 9 ) . ,
3 ., : .
,
.

(1988).

, ( 1 9 9 6 ) .
, , :
, . 1 0 9 - 3 9 8 .
, ( 1 9 9 2 ) . , : , , , : , . 220
241.
, ( 1 9 7 8 ) . , : .

, ( 1 9 9 7 ) . , 2 ., : .
, ( 1 9 9 7 ) . , 3 ., : .
, ( 1 9 9 9 ) . , ; , , : ; A C T .

[ B r a m h a l l , J o h n ] ( 1 6 4 3 ) . The Serpent Salve, n. p.


C o n s t a n t , B e n j a m i n ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns in Political Writings, e d .
B i a n c a m a r i a F o n t a n a , C a m b r i d g e , pp. 309328.
Digest of Justinian, The (1985). Ed. Theodor M o m m s e n and Paul
Krueger, translation ed. Alan Watson, 4 vols., Pennsylvania.
[Digges, Dudley] (1643). The Unlawfulnesse of Subjects taking
up Armes against their Soveraigne, in what case soever, London.
Englands Absolute Monarchy

(1642).

London.

[F., C.] ( 1 8 1 2 ) . A Letter to his Grace the Duke of Monmouth in


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24, 67, 70
, 61
, 22
, 88
72, 73, 75, 8 4 - 8 5
, 24
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