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Cycle Detection

Cycle ?? Many algorithm detects the cycles in graphs.

As a side effect WFIalgorithm() is used for cycle

detection. Which is cubic algorithm and too inefficient. One such algorithm is obtained directly from depthFirstSearch().For undirected graphs, it is enough to add one line in DFS(v) to detect cycle and report them:

Cycle Detection in Digraph


For digraph, the situation is bit more complicated,

since there may be edges between different spanning subtrees, called side edges.

Shortest Paths
Finding the shortest path is a classical problem in

graph theory, and a large number of different situations have been proposed. Edges are assigned certain weights representing, for example, distance between cities, time separating the execution of certain tasks, costs of transmitting information between locations, amount of some substance transpose from one place to another.
When determining the shortest path from vertex v to

vertex u, information about distance between intermediate vertices w has to be recorded.

Single Source Shortest Paths


The two general algorithm used as:

1. Dijkstra algorithm: Not worked in negative weight. Complexity is O(|V|^2). Using heap complexity is O((|E|+|V|)lg|V|). 2. Ford algorithm: Can work for negative weight also. Improved Dijkstra algorithm. Does not permanently determines the shortest distance until it process whole graph. Complexity is O(|V||E|)

Dijkstra Algorithm

Dijkstra algorithm example

Dijkstra algorithm example

Dijkstra algorithm example

Ford Algorithm

All Pair Shortest path problem


Task of all pair shortest path problem is more

complicated then task of single source shortest path problem. The algorithm is designed by Warshall and implemented by Floyd and Ingerman known as WFIalgorithm(); This is cubic algorithm i.e.(|V|^3).

Floyd algorithm
This algorithm can be implemented using dynamic

programming.

Floyd algorithm

WFIalgorithm

WFIalgorithm