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297 (470)

86.38
18

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Russia and Islam.
: http://www.carnegie.ru/ru/pubs/books.
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18

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2007. 192 ., .
ISBN 9785824308884

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297 (470)
86.38

ISBN 9785824308884

Carnegie Endowment for


International Peace, 2007

, 2007


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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versus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Contra et pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vox populi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
7
10
11
14
23
30
37
42
52
55
62
65
77
83
92
92
96
103
110
121
125
135
136
138
141
147
155
162
167
177
180
186
190

Table of Contents
About the author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter One. Islam as It Is in Todays Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantity and Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Achieving Full Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Islam in Opposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tradition versus Modernity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Islam and the State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter Two. Islam as We Perceive It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contra et Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Islam through the Eyes of the Reader and Observer . . . . . . .
Leafing through the Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vox Populi from the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Politicians on Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter Three. The State and Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From Christianization to Communization . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Governors, Presidents and Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The State and the Islamic Opposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Army . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter Four. Islam and Foreign Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
At the Eternal Crossroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Face to Face with Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Islamism as a Threat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Russia as Mediator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Long Road to the Organization of Islamic Conference . . .
Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusions. What Lies Ahead? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biblyography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary (In English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the Carnegie Endowment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
7
10
11
14
23
30
37
42
52
55
62
65
77
83
92
92
96
103
110
121
125
135
136
138
141
147
155
162
167
177
180
186
190


,
, ,
, .
1974 . 
. . . . 
13 , : (.,
1991), Islam in Central Asia ( . . ,
Reading, 1994), (., 1996), 
(., 1998), 
(., 2001), :
, ( . . ,
., 2002), Russias Restless Frontiers: The Chechnya Factor in
PostSoviet Russia ( . . , Washington D.C.,
2003), (.,
2006).


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LonguetMarx F. Le retour de limam // Nouveaux mondes. 1998.
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Marx / CRES. Geneve, 1998. P. 174.
61
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Engelhardt G. N. Militant Islam in Russia Potential for Conflict //
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77
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500 // . 2006. 10 (167).
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17
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18
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19
http://forum.astrakhan.ru/lofiversion/index.php/t896750.html.
20
A Test to Multiculturalism // The Wall Street J. 2004. Dec. 1012.
21
. // . . 2005.
1 (39). . 42.
22
: 
, 2004. ., 2005.
. 4344.
23
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24
. : //
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25
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26
/  . 
. ., 1994. . 31.
27
http://thames2.alfa.fake/levadad/QueryView.aspx.
28
Rouleau E. Le terrorisme et lislamisme // Le Monde Diplomatique.
2001. Nov.
29
. 2005 : //
. . 2005. 23 .
30
.
31
http://thames2.alfa.fake/levadad/QueryView.aspx.
32
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33
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. //
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Time, New York.


Foreign Policy, Washington D.C.
The Independent, London.
The National Interests, Washington D.C.
Nouveaux mondes, Geneve.
Sunday Express. London.
VIP, Moscow.

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! (http://islam.com.ua/forum/
index.php?act=idx).
(http://www.evangelie.ru).
 (http://www.electorat.info).
The SIPRI Arms Transfers Database (http://web.sipri.org/contents/
armstrad/at_data.html).

186

Summary
The subject of this volume is the relationship of Russian society to
Islam today that is, what the Russian authorities want from Muslims
and Islam, which they regard as both a subject capable of independent
action and an object to be manipulated for domestic and foreign policy
ends.
Russias rulers are domesticating Islam, trying to render it
compatible with state policy. They seek to secure the political loyalty
of Muslims. The state is establishing control over religious and religious
political activity. Finally, the state wants to remove and be done with
opposition which carries out its programs under Islamic slogans. This
pertains to Islamists who have come to be termed Wahabbis in Russia,
but not to them alone.
But Islamic radicals are not going to disappear from politics or
religion. Oppositionist Islam does not yield to guidance from outside;
its adherents act according to their own logic, sensing the sympathy
of a significant part of Islamic society behind them. They are very
skillful at manipulating the idea of social justice and at criticizing
corruption and collaboration among the official Muslim clergy.
The loyalty of Muslims to state authority is not limitless, as many
perceive a hypocritical attitude toward Islam on the part of secular
politicians. Muslims are upset by the political activity of the Russian
Orthodox church, whose ambitious reach is expanding in all directions.
Xenophobia is on the rise in Russian society, and part of this is
seen in antipathy toward Islam. While it would be inaccurate to say
that the situation has now reached critical mass, the dynamic of the
growth of Islamophobia is such that it has already deeply penetrated
the consciousness of a significant sector of the population. This is
stimulated by both domestic conflicts within Russia, in which a tinge
of interconfessional tension is at work, and by the international
situation.
For the ruling class, terrorism is becoming a convenient instrument
for conducting domestic politics in a way which suits its interests. The
war against terrorism becomes a pretext for strengthening the
authoritarian elements of the system, putting pressure on the opposition
and limiting the freedom of mass media.
The Muslim world remains one of the important vectors of Russian
foreign policy. Two approaches may be discerned here: treating the

Summary

187

Islamic world as a homogenous civilcultural community, and


interacting with separate states on the basis of practical mutual interests.
Russias policy towards the Muslim world has been ambiguous; it
might be called contradictory and ideologized, but it has also been
distinguished by a certain pragmatism.
Russia values its relationship with the Muslim world because it
provides an opportunity to demonstrate independence in foreign affairs.
Moscow has its own opinion on Iran, Syria, Palestine and Uzbekistan.
The Kremlin feels that having its own particular views in this area
enhances Russias authority in both the West and in the Muslim
South.
Russia is not taking part in Americas proposed great moderniza
tion project aimed at the democratization of Muslim society and the
creation of a new image of Islam. Moscow considers such an
undertaking pointless and even dangerous, as it leads to conflicts.
Russian politicians support Europe and America, naturally, in efforts
to purge Islam of radical excesses. But if the West is calling for the
creation of a new Islam, Russia would rather see the old, traditional
one, as the latters values, once reestablished, will serve as a barrier
against the oppositionist tendencies within the Islamic movement.
While inveighing against religious radicalism at home and
supporting its partners in the territory of the former Soviet Union,
Moscow nevertheless cooperates, when dealing with the larger outside
world, with forces whose practices and ideology are openly Islamist
and even extreme.
It should be stressed that the religious component in the
consciousness of Russias Muslims is going to grow. Relations between
the two largest confessions in Russia and thus the stability of
Russian society in general will depend on the harmony achieved
among Muslims between their Islamic identity and a secular one.
Consolidation of religious selfidentification will not lead, however,
to the integration of Muslim society, which will remain diverse. Two
major groups will continue to make up its core the Tatars (Tatar
Bashkirs) and the Muslims of the Northern Caucasus each of which
will retain its specific features and remain oriented towards the resolution
of its own problems, both secular and religious.
The Islamic radical movement will become more unified,
consolidating itself under the common slogans of Shariaization and
a call for the support of world Islamism, which Russias Islamists
consider themselves a part of and indeed have been in recent years.
Russian Islamists have felt a joyous excitement over the successes of
their likeminded brothers in the Middle East, Iraq, Afghanistan and

188

Summary

finally Europe everywhere the 21st century Mujaheddin are fighting


to the death. It is more than likely that the participation of Russian
Islamists in conflicts beyond Russias borders will increase.
The prospects for Islamism in Russia depend on both domestic
factors and the international situation. The Islamists sense the
authorities weaknesses acutely, at the local and federal levels, even
when the authorities try to hide them. One sign of weakness, in fact,
is the authorities almost exclusive reliance on force. Terrorism will
remain in Russia, although it will take different forms and its
dimensions will be more limited. Seizing hostages and setting off
bombs in public transport have not produced the results their initiators
expected, and terror will thus become more refined.
The state will continue to treat Muslims and Islam with sympathy
in public, while in reality regarding them with skepticism and vigilance.
There is no other tone for the state to adopt or indeed that it wants
to adopt.
The authorities will retain control any way they can over spiritual
boards and centers, although the attempt to join them into a single
structure will not be repeated. The major part of the Muslim
community will remain loyal to the federal authorities.
The Islamic opposition will continue to be suppressed. After its
relative success in the Northern Caucasus, the federal authorities are
unlikely to think it appropriate to begin a dialogue with the Islamists,
except after their capitulation (as happened with part of the Chechen
Mujaheddin.)
The Islamic factor will retain its significance for Russian foreign
policy if only because it will support the thesis of Russias special
relationship (as opposed to that of the West) with the Muslim world.
This connection with the Muslim world will serve as a milepost on
the road to a multipolar world and a sign of Russias independence in
foreign policy. Russia will position itself as a partly Muslim state
and, at the same time, as an intermediary between the Muslim world
and the West.
Moscow will continue to act as a mediator between the West and
radical Islam (although the advantages gained from such mediation
have been dubious to this point). Moreover, if RussianAmerican
relations continue to worsen, then playing the radical Islam card
will become even more likely on Moscows part. But at the same time
the Kremlin will stick to its concept of the presence of a Muslim
threat.
Russian specialists and politicians often make pronouncements
about the Islamization of the country, about the inevitability of Russia

Summary

189

becoming a Muslimmajority society. Similar judgments can be found


in the publications of Russian Muslims. And from Muslims abroad
one also sees statements to the effect that sooner or later, Russia will
surely see a change of religions. This volume deals with the current
problems of Russias Muslims, limiting prognostic calculations to 5
10 years in the future. Neither in the shortterm nor by 2050, which
many take as a kind of chronological watershed, will there be any
reason to speak of the Islamization of Russia.

190



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191

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