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Heat-resistant Steels

Steels that stand out for their special resistance to the oxidising effect of gases at temperatures above approximately 600C are deemed to be creep-resistant. A steel is classified as creep-resistant if it does not exceed 1 g/m2*h on average at the temperature x the weight of metal oxidised and does not exceed 2 g/m2*h at the temperature (x + 50C) for a stress duration of 120 h with four interpass cooling processes. Information and references to scale resistance or highest working temperatures such as those contained in SEW 470 for example should only be used as a reference point. The temperature ranges for use are lower under unfavourable conditions, e.g. in sulphurous or reducing gases, especially with high steam content or with possible settling of corrosive dust. It is also necessary to allow for possible -phase precipitation. The following table shows the most important creep-resistant steel groups classified according to the crystalline structure. microstructure ferritic austenitic typical steel grade X10CrAl7, X10CrAl13, X10CrAl24 X12CrNiTi18-9, X15CrNiSi25-20, X12NiCrSi36-16

ferritic-austenitic X20CrNiSi25-4

Welding of Heat-resistant Steels


The ferritic chromium steels are joined using predominantly austenitic filler metals or with the same alloy composition as the base depending on the conditions of practical use. A preheat and interpass temperature ranging between 200 and 300C is recommended for thicker cross-sections. It is subsequently possible to improve the ductility properties reduced by the formation of coarse grain and carbide precipitations by performing a heat treatment of 700 to 750C. Steels with ferritic-austenitic microstructure are usually welded with filler metals of the same composition as the base without preheating or postweld heat treatment. Allowance must be made for the constitutional tendency towards hot cracking exhibited by fully austenitic chrome-nickel steels and filler metals. In the temperature range between 600 and 900C care must be taken with possible embrittlement due to the precipitation of intercrystalline phases. Filler metals of the same alloy composition as the base are used sometimes although nickel-based filler metals are also used.

Bhler Schweitechnik Austria GmbH. - Mat-Heat_Resistant.doc

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