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HTML ( ) Creative Commons:

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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

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<html>
<head>
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<title> -</title>
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http://www.microsoft.com/rus/windows/ie/default.mspx

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http://www.apple.com/ru/safari/

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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


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<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title>Lorem ipsum</title>
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<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> alt</title>
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<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> alt</title>
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<p><img src="images/arena.png" alt=" IE" width="400" height="101"></p>
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<title>HTML</title>
<meta name="description" content=" HTML ">
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<title>HTML</title>
<meta name="keywords" content="HTML, META, , , ">
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16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

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25

26

27

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black

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navy

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olive

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purple

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red

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6.1.

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<title></title>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
</head>

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<body bgcolor="teal" text="#ffffff">


<p> </p>
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IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
</head>
<body>
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IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
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<body>
<p><img src="images/figure.jpg" alt="- " width="100%"></p>
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
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<body>
<p><a href="http://htmlbook.ru/html/body"> BODY</a></p>
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
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<p><a href="images/xxx.jpg"> !</a></p>
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
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7.2. <br>

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<h1> </h1>
<h2> </h2>
<h3> </h3>
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
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HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
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. 7.5.

. 7.5.


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, .
7.6 ,
7.6.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><b> :</b> <i>H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub></i></p>
</body>
</html>

. 7.6.

. 7.6.


, , (&)
(;). . 7.1 .
. 7.1.

&nbsp;

&#160;

&pound;

&#163;

&euro;

&#8364;

&para;

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&copy;

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"

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""

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>

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- .
, HTML-, ,
. , , ,
. , , ,
.
, , ,
. <a>. .
<a href="URL"> </a>

href URL (Universal Resource Locator, ), ,


, , <a> . ,
<a> </a>, . 8.1
-.
8.1.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="dog.html"></a></p>
<p><a href="cat.html"></a></p>
</body>
</html>

.
dog.html, cat.html.
. 8.1. , ,
.

. 8.1.
, , , href ,
. ,
. , 8.1 Safari ,
(. 8.2).

. 8.2.
, , ,
, . ,
.

, .
, . ,
. , Firefox
(. 8.3).

. 8.3. Firefox


, .
( http://) .
.
8.2 .
8.2.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="http://htmlbook.ru"> HTML</a></p>
</body>
</html>

<a href="http://htmlbook.ru"> HTML</a>


htmlbook.ru.
(, http://htmlbook.ru/css/), .
, .
index.html.
, ,
. ,
. .

, href ,
. .
1. (. 8.4).

. 8.4
. .
<a href=" .html"></a>

,
, .
2. (. 8.5).

. 8.5
, ,
(/), .
<a href="../ .html"></a>

.
3. (. 8.6).

. 8.6
, ,
.

<a href="../../ .html"></a>

.
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. 8.7
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<a href="/ .html"></a>

, . ,
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, "// " .
, <a href="/course/"></a> , course,
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- .
. , .
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<a>
, ,
. , <a> , ,
. 8.3 .
8.3.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<a href="lion.html"><h1> </h1></a>
<h1><a href="lion.html"> </a></h1>
</body>
</html>

8 <h1> <a>.
<h1> , . 9
.


href <a> , ,
.

target

, . ,
target <a>. .
<a target=" ">...</a>

, name.
, . .
_blank .
_self ( ).
_parent -, , _self.
_top , ,
_self.
8.4 , , .
8.4.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="new.html" target="_blank">
</a></p>
</body>
</html>

target <!DOCTYPE>, <!DOCTYPE>


, HTML target .
, , ,
.

title

. ,
, . .
<a title="">...</a>

. .
8.5 , title .
8.5.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="zoo.html" title=" ..."></a></p>
</body>
</html>

. 8.8.

. 8.8.

,
.


-. URL
mailto: ( 8.6).
8.6.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="mailto:vlad@htmlbook.ru"> </a></p>
</body>
</html>

href <a> mailto, .


-, ,
. ,
, , .
, (?)
subject=" ", 8.7.
8.7.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="mailto:vlad@htmlbook.ru?subject= HTML">
</a></p>
</body>
</html>

(Subject) .


-,
. ,
.
name
<a> ( 9.1). href
(#) .
9.1.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a name="top"></a></p>
<p>...</p>
<p><a href="#top"></a></p>
</body>
</html>

<a name="top"> </a> ,


, . #, ,
, . , name href (
).
.
, ,
. , .
C , - .
href <a> # ( 9.2).
9.2. -
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="text.html#bottom"> </a></p>
</body>
</html>

text.html,
bottom.
- , , .


: ,
<img>. HTML , ,
.
.
1. - , ,
. , .
2. , , 800 .
, .


- GIF JPEG. ,
, ,
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PNG-8 PNG-24. PNG
GIF JPEG.

GIF

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) , . GIF


8- , .

2 256, 24- .
GIF . ,
.
,
.

, , , , , .

JPEG

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) ,


. JPEG 24-
. , JPEG .
, , .
JPEG . ,
.

16 ,
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.

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PNG-8

PNG-8 (Portable Network Graphics) GIF.


, , .

8- (256 ) , .
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GIF, .

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PNG-24

PNG-24 , PNG-8, 24- JPEG,


. GIF PNG-8, , , ,
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16,7 . , - .
,
, .
- , ,
, PNG-24 .

, , ,


- <img>, src
. .
<img src="URL" alt=" ">

URL (Universal Resource Locator, ) .


, .
-. ,
sample.gif images .
( /), , . ,
http://baklan.narod.ru, , /images/bird.jpg, , ,
http://baklan.narod.ru/images/bird.jpg. ,
-, .
http (http://), .
, -
.
(../) , - ,
. . 10.1 index.html,
pic.gif. index.html ../images/pic.gif.
, , : ../../../images/pic.gif.

. 10.1.
, , ,
. . 10.2, pic.gif index.html
images/pic.gif.

. 10.2.
10.1 -.
10.1.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><img src="http://webimg.ru/themes/cloverfield/images/ref_collage.gif"
alt=" "></p>
<p><img src="/example/images/home.png"
alt=" "></p>
<p><img src="images/home.png"
alt=" HTML-"></p>
</body>
</html>

, GIF JPEG.



.
(. 10.3). (. 10.4).

. 10.3.

. 10.4. -
, , , , .
HTML-.
alt <img>, 10.2.
10.2.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">

<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><img src="images/robot.jpg" alt=" " width="300" height="388"></p>
</body>
</html>

, alt , .
.
title ( 10.3).
10.3.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> title </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="index.html"><img src="images/home.png"
alt=" " title=" "></a></p>
</body>
</html>

, alt title ,
. , .
, title alt, .


HTML <img> width () height ().
, .
, . 10.6 , 100111 .

. 10.6.
, HTML- , 10.4.
10.4.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><img src="images/figure.jpg" width="100" height="111" alt="-"></p>
</body>
</html>

, ,
(. 10.7). ,
, (. 10.8).
, .

. 10.7.

. 10.8. ,
, .
, . ,
.. , .
,
.
. 10.9 , . 10.6, .

. 10.9. ,
10.5.
10.5.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><img src="images/figure.jpg" width="200" height="222" alt="-"></p>
</body>
</html>

,
. ,
. - .
, . . 10.10 , 54
8 8 , 150 .

. 10.10.
(

) ( ).
, , ,
.


, .

.
<ul>, , <ol>,
. <li>.


, ,
. <ul>,
<li>, .
<ul>
<li> </li>
<li> </li>
<li> </li>
</ul>

</ul>, . </li>
, , .
11.1 HTML -.
11.1.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<hr>
<ul>
<li></li>
<li> </li>
<li></li>
<li> </li>
</ul>
<hr>
</body>
</html>

. 11.1.

. 11.1.
, . .
: ( ), .
type <ul>. . 11.1
. 11.1.

HTML

<ul type="disc">
<li>...</li>
</ul>

<ul type="circle">
<li>...</li>
</ul>

<ul type="square">
<li>...</li>
</ul>

, .

11.2.
11.2.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><strong> </strong></p>
<ul type="square">
<li> ( : , , ).
- ;</li>
<li> ;</li>
<li> , ;</li>
<li> ,
( : , , , ).</li>
</ul>
</body>
</html>

. 11.2.

. 11.2.


.
<ol>, .
<li>, .
<ol>
<li> </li>
<li> </li>
<li> </li>
</ol>

<ol>,
(1, 2, 3,...), 11.3.
11.3.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><strong> </strong></p>
<ol>
<li> ( );</li>
<li> ( );</li>
<li> .</li>
</ol>
</body>
</html>

. 11.3.

. 11.3.
, , .
:
(1, 2, 3, ...);
(A, B, C, ...);
(a, b, c, ...);
(I, II, III, ...);
(i, ii, iii, ...).
type <ol>.
. 11.2.
. 11.2.

HTML

<ol type="1">
<li>...</li>
</ol>

1.
2.
3.

<ol type="A">
<li>...</li>
</ol>

A.
B.
C.

<ol type="a">
<li>...</li>
</ol>

a.
b.
c.

<ol type="I">

I.

<li>...</li>
</ol>

II.
III.

<ol type="i">
<li>...</li>
</ol>

i.
ii.
iii.

, start <ol>. ,
type, start .
11.4 , .
11.4.

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<ol type="I" start="8">
<li> XLIV</li>
<li> XVI</li>
<li> XXI</li>
<li> I</li>
</ol>
</body>
</html>

. 11.4.

. 11.4.

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6


.
<dl>, <dt>, <dd>.
11.5.

11.5.
<dl>
<dt> 1</dt>
<dd> 1</dd>
<dt> 2</dt>
<dd> 2</dd>
</dl>

, , , ..
11.6 .
11.6.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<dl>
<dt></dt>
<dd> ,
- : ,
, ., .</dd>
<dt>HTML-</dt>
<dd> , ,
. .
HTML-.</dd>
<dt></dt>
<dd>C -,
.</dd>
</dl>
</body>
</html>

. 11.5.

. 11.5.
, , .


, , ,
-.
, -. , ,
HTML ,
, , . ,
. , ,
, .

, .
, . C
, .
- <table>. ,
. ,
<tr> <td>. ( 12.1). <td>
<th>. , <th>,
. , , <td>
<th> .
12.1.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> TABLE</title>
</head>
<body>
<table border="1" width="100%" cellpadding="5">
<tr>
<th> 1</th>
<th> 2</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td> 3</td>
<td> 4</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>

. 12.1.

. 12.1.

<table>
,
, <table>, <tr> <td>.
<table>, .

align

. : left ,
center right . left right,
.

bgcolor

border

. .

cellpadding

. ,
. cellpadding ,
. cellpadding .
, , .

cellspacing

. border,
.

cols

cols , .
, .
cols .

rules

, . ,
. ( cols), (rows)
(groups), <thead>, <tfoot>, <tbody>, <colgroup> <col>.
border.

width

. ,
. , , ,
, width ,
. , ,
.

<td>
, <td>, ,
<table>.

align

. : left - ,
center right .

bgcolor

. bgcolor <table>
.

colspan

, . ,
. , , . 12.2.

. 12.2. ,
. 12.2 ,
colspan.

height

.
height . . height , ,
. , , ,
.

rowspan

, . ,
. , , . 12.3.

. 12.3. ,
. 12.3 ,
rowspan.

valign

.
. : top , middle
, bottom , baseline ,
.

width

.
, .


. , -
, , . -
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.
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. ,
,
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cellspacing.
,
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.
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, , .
, . , ,
, .


- align
<table>. , ,
, , 100%. align ,
<img>. 12.2
.
12.2.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<table width="200" bgcolor="#c0c0c0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5" border="1" align="right">
<tr><td> </td></tr>
</table>
<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diem nonummy nibh
euismod tincidunt ut lacreet dolore magna aliguam erat volutpat.</p>
</body>
</html>

.
. 12.4.

. 12.4. ,
,
. , ,
. :
.


colspan rowspan <td>. colspan
. rowspan, ,
. ,
. , <td colspan="3"> , <td>
<td colspan="2">...</td><td>...</td>. ,
. 12.3 , ,
.
12.3.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> colspan</title>
</head>
<body>
<table border="1" cellpadding="5" width="100%">
<tr>
<td colspan="2"> 1</td>
<td> 2</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td> 3</td>
<td> 4</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>

. 12.5.

. 12.5.
, colpsan,
. - , .
. 12.5.
colspan rowspan 12.4.
12.4.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<table border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<td rowspan="2"></td>
<th colspan="2">Internet Explorer</th>
<th colspan="3">Opera</th>
<th colspan="2">Firefox</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>6.0</th><th>7.0</th><th>7.0</th><th>8.0</th><th>9.0</th><th>1.0</th><th>2.0</th>
</tr>
<tr align="center">
<td></td>
<td></td><td></td><td></td><td></td><td></td><td></td><td></td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>

. 12.6.

. 12.6.
. Internet Explorer , Opera
Firefox , .
.


, .
12.5, height.
12.5.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<table width="100%" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<td width="100" valign="top">Duis te feugifacilisi. Duis autem dolor in hendrerit
in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat.</td>
<td rowspan="2" valign="top">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer
adipiscing elit, sed diem nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut lacreet
dolore magna aliguam erat volutpat. Ut wisis enim ad minim veniam, quis
nostrud exerci tution ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea
commodo consequat. Duis te feugifacilisi. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis
nostrud exerci taion ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex
en commodo consequat.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td height="40">Lorem ipsum</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>

. 12.7.

. 12.7. Opera 9
HTML 40 ,
, , . , height
. , Opera,
. ,
. .
. -
, .
, 100%.
12.6 .
12.6.

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<table width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<td width="150" valign="top" bgcolor="#f0f0f0">
<table width="100%" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1">
<tr><td bgcolor="#ffffff">Lorem</td></tr>
<tr><td bgcolor="#ffffff">Ipsum</td></tr>
<tr><td bgcolor="#ffffff">Dolor</td></tr>
<tr><td bgcolor="#ffffff">Sit</td></tr>
<tr><td bgcolor="#ffffff">Amet</td></tr>
</table>

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

</td>
<td valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffee">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer
adipiscing elit, sed diem nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut lacreet
dolore magna aliguam erat volutpat. Ut wisis enim ad minim veniam, quis
nostrud exerci tution ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea
commodo consequat.</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>

. 12.8.

. 12.8.
, 150
. , 100%.
. 12.8, , - .
.


,
. HTML <caption>,
. ,
<caption>, - .
,
. <caption>
align, .
left . Firefox , Internet
Explorer Opera , .
right Internet Explorer Opera
. Firefox .
center .
.
top center, HTML 4
.
bottom .
12.7 , . , <caption>
<table>, .
12.7.

HTML 4.01

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<table width="100%" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0">
<caption> </caption>
<tr>
<th>&nbsp;</th><th>2003</th><th>2004</th><th>2005</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td><td>43</td><td>51</td><td>79</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td><td>29</td><td>34</td><td>48</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td><td>38</td><td>57</td><td>36</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>

(. 12.9).

. 12.9. Safari

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6


, .
-. ,
,
.

- , .
, , .
- .

.
.
, .

. ,
,
.

, HTML.

- , . JavaScript
.

, , ,
, . , ,
, . , , ,
, . ,
, , . ,
, ,
.

, , ,
.

, , .
.

.
, .

, ,
. ,
, . ,
, , .
, . , ,
.
, .


, , HTML
. -
. , , , .
<frameset>, <body>
. <frame>, HTML-,
(. 13.1).

. 13.1.
HTML-:
, .
, , ,
.
, . 13.1.
: index.html , menu.html content.html
. index.html ( 13.1).
13.1. index.html

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
</head>
<frameset cols="100,*">
<frame src="menu.html" name="MENU">
<frame src="content.html" name="CONTENT">
</frameset>
</html>

.
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">

<!DOCTYPE> , , .
<head> . ,
, HTML- .
cols, 100
, , .
, .
<frame> HTML-, src.
, menu.html ( 13.2), content.html ( 13.3).
, name.
13.2. menu.html

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body style="background: #f0f0f0">
<p></p>
</body>
</html>

, .

13.3. content.html

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p></p>
</body>
</html>

(. 13.2).

. 13.2.
<frameset>, , .
rows, ( 13.4).
13.4.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
</head>
<frameset rows="25%,75%">
<frame src="top.html" name="TOP" scrolling="no" noresize>
<frameset cols="100,*">
<frame src="menu.html" name="MENU">
<frame src="content.html" name="CONTENT">
</frameset>
</frameset>
</html>

, <frameset> rows ,
<frameset>,
13.1. ,
, scrolling="no" noresize.


HTML- , .
.
. target <a>.
, , name ( 13.5).
13.5.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
</head>
<frameset cols="100,*">
<frame src="menu2.html" name="MENU">
<frame src="content.html" name="CONTENT">
</frameset>
</html>

CONTENT. ,
target="CONTENT", 13.6.
13.6. menu2.html

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body style="background: #f0f0f0">
<p></p>
<p><a href="text.html" target="CONTENT"></a></p>
</body>
</html>

.
:
_blank ;
_self ;
_parent , , -
, _top;
_top .


, , .
frameborder <frameset> 0. Opera
, . framespacing="0". ,
<frameset>, , .
( 13.6).
13.6.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
</head>
<frameset cols="100,*" frameborder="0" framespacing="0">
<frame src="menu.html" name="MENU">
<frame src="content.html" name="CONTENT">
</frameset>
</html>

, frameborder framespacing HTML.


, , - .
, , bordercolor, <frameset>
<frame>. ( 13.7),
border. Opera .
13.7.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
</head>
<frameset cols="100,*" bordercolor="#000080" border="5">
<frame src="menu.html" name="MENU">
<frame src="content.html" name="CONTENT">
</frameset>
</html>

bordercolor border <frameset> HTML.


.
, (. 13.3).

Internet Explorer
Opera
Firefox
. 13.3.
Opera , Internet Explorer
, Firefox .


,
. -, .
scrolling <frame>.
: yes , no
( 13.9).
13.9.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title></title>
</head>
<frameset cols="100,*">
<frame src="menu.html" name="MENU" noresize scrolling="no">
<frame src="content.html" name="CONTENT">
</frameset>
</html>

, , .
scrolling="no" .
scrolling , , ,
.


. ,
-. , -
-. . 13.4 .

. 13.4. -
HTML- . .
<iframe>, src,
( 13.10).
13.10. <iframe>

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><iframe src="hsb.html" width="300" height="120"></iframe></p>
</body>
</html>

width height.
hsb.html. , ,
.
, .
name, <a> target ( 13.11).
13.11.

HTML 4.01

IE 7 IE 8 IE 9 Cr 8 Op 11 Sa 5 Fx 3.6

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"


"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title> </title>
</head>
<body>
<p><a href="rgb.html" target="color">RGB</a> |
<a href="cmyk.html" target="color">CMYK</a> |
<a href="hsb.html" target="color">HSB</a></p>
<p><iframe src="model.html" name="color" width="100%" height="200"></iframe></p>
</body>
</html>

, color.
<iframe> <!DOCTYPE>.


- .
, -,
. - , ,
W3 (www.w3c.org) .
, , ,
.
. .

HTML- ,
, , . , ,
-. ,
, -. ,
- .
, , .

, ,
.
. , , -.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language, ).
- . XML ,
HTML . - XML ,
, . HTML XML,
, HTML.

, - .
, HTML.

, -.

,
. , , .
, .

, , , . ,
. ,
, , . ,
, . ,
, , ,
.

,
-. , -, (.. ,
) , .
, , . , Internet Explorer (IE)
, HTML CSS , Firefox
Opera. , IE ,
, .
, , :
, .
.
,
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-? , .
- , . ,
,
, .


- .
. ,
.
.

validator.w3.org

http://validator.w3.org , ,
. : ,
.

, ,
(. 14.1).

. 14.1.
, http://htmlbook.ru Validate by URI ( ) Check ()
, .
, , .
, , , http://htmlbook.ru http://htmlbook.ru/index.php.
HTML- (. 14.2).

. 14.2. -
, ,
(. 14.3).

. 14.3.

, , , Validate by File
Upload ( ), . 14.4.

. 14.4.
HTML-, Check .
.

.
(. 14.5).

. 14.5. HTML-

HTML Validator Firefox

Firefox
, .
. -
, . HTML Validator.
, W3C,
.

http://users.skynet.be/mgueury/mozilla/

.
1.
Firefox > . (
xpi) . .
2.
Firefox > ... ,
.
3. extension
, Firefox ( c:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox)
extension, . .

. HTML Validator
Firefox.
- , Mozilla
Firefox
http://forum.mozilla-russia.org/doku.php?id=general:extensions_installing

HTML Validator

- HTML Validator ,
, .
. 14.6.

. 14.6. ,
(. 14.6) , ,
(. 14.6) , .
(. 14.6) , .
. -, HTML- >
(. 14.7).

. 14.7.
- (. 14.8), HTML-.

. .

. 14.8. HTML Validator


,
HTML, . ,
.
, .
http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/ HTML 4.01 ,
, .
:
<!DOCTYPE>;
( );
;
, ;
.
.

<!DOCTYPE>

<!DOCTYPE> ,
-. <!DOCTYPE> ,
.

, - ,
. , ,
.

, . ,
<style>, <style type="text/css">.

,
HTML, -.
, . ,
, . <marquee>
Microsoft .
.

:
,
;
, , : <strong><em></strong></em>.
</strong> <em>, </em>;
.
.
.
,
.

HTML ,
.

, ,
. -, . , XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language, ),
HTML. XHTML .

- ,
, , .

, ( <p>)

. , , , <div>.

<!DOCTYPE>

HTML- <!DOCTYPE>, .
, . ,
, <!DOCTYPE>.


, ,
, . HTML Validator Firefox,
.
http://www.htmlpedia.org/wiki/HTML_Tidy,
. ,
.

Notice: entity "..." doesn't end in ";"

&lt; .
&nbsp;
&nbsp

Notice: numeric character reference "..." doesn't end in ';'

&#8212; .
&#8482;
&#8482

unescaped & or unknown entity "&..."

(&) ( href <a>),


. &nbsp;
&amp; &.
<a href="http://www.htmlbook.ru/content/?id=30&amp;text=1"></a>
<a href="http://www.htmlbook.ru/content/?id=30&text=1"></a>

& &amp;.

missing </...>

.
<head><title></title></head>
<head><title></head>

missing </aaa> before <bbb>

, .
<bbb> <aaa>.
<p><span></span></p>
<span><p></p></span>

discarding unexpected <...>

, . :
, ; , .
<div><div></div></div>
<div></div></div>

<div><div></div>

Notice: nested emphasis ...

, .
<p><b></b></p>
<p><b><b></b></b></p>

replacing unexpected ... by </...>

.
<p><b></b></p>
<p><b></span></p>

... isn't allowed in <...> elements

, .
<head><title></title></head>
<head><body></body></head>

HTML- .

missing <...>

. , , ,
<tr> <table> <td>.
<ol><li></li></ol>
<ol></ol>

Notice: inserting implicit <...>

- .

Insert missing <title> element


<title>.

<head><title></title></head>
<head></head>

<title>.

Multiple <frameset> elements

<frameset> .
<frameset>, .
<frameset ...><frame ...>
<frameset ...><frame ...></frameset>
</frameset>

<frameset ...><frame ...></frameset>


<frameset ...><frame ...></frameset>

<frameset>.

<...> is not approved by W3C

HTML.
<span style="white-space: nowrap;"> </span>
<nobr> </nobr>

Error: <...> is not recognized!

HTML.
: <p></p>
: <p><adres></adres></p>

Trimming Empty Tag

.
<p></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p></p>

<a> is probably intended as </a>


<a> .

<a href="http://htmlbook.ru"> </a>


<a href="http://htmlbook.ru"> <a>

... shouldn't be nested

<form> . - .
<form action="gb.php" name="guestbook"></form>
<form action="gb2.php" name="guestbook2"></form>
<form action="gb.php" name="guestbook">
<form action="gb2.php" name="guestbook2"></form>
</form>

Text found after closing </body>-tag

</body>.
<html>
<head><title></title></head>
<body><p> </p></body>
</html>
<html>

<head><title></title></head>
<body><p> </p></body>
<b>!</b>
</html>

</body> .

Adjacent hyphens within comment

HTML <!-- -->.


, .
<!-- - -->
<!--- --->
<!-- -- -->

SYSTEM, PUBLIC, W3C, DTD, EN must be upper case

<!DOCTYPE> , : SYSTEM,
PUBLIC, W3C, DTD, EN.
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<!doctype html public "-//w3c//dtd html 4.01 Transitional//en" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

<!DOCTYPE> .

Warning: missing <!DOCTYPE> declaration


<!DOCTYPE>.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">


<html>
<head>
<title></title>
</head>
<body>
<p> </p>
</body>
</html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Untitled Document</title>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>

<!DOCTYPE> .

Too much <...>-elements

, . <html>, <head>, <title> <body>.


<head>
<title></title>
</head>
<head>
<title></title>
<title> </title>
</head>

<...> inserting "..." attribute

.
<style type="text/css">
<style>

... attribute ... lacks value

.
<a href="link.html"></a>
<a href></a>

... attribute "..." has invalid value "..."

. ,
. , id name ([A-Za-z]) ([0-9]),
(-), (_), (:) (.). ,
([0-9]).
<div id="layer1"> 1</div>
<img src="images/pic.gif" width="200" height="120">
<div id="2layer"> 2</div>
<img src="images/pic.gif" width="200px" height="120px">

<...> missing > for end of tag

: , ,
> .
<p> </p>
<p> 0&lt;p .</p>
<p </p>
<p> 0<p .</p>

.
< &lt;.

<...> proprietary attribute "..."

, Internet Explorer .
height <table>.
, HTML http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/index/attributes.html
<table style="height: 100%">
<table height="100%">

. 14.1.
. 14.1.

<body>

marginwidth=0, marginheight=0, leftmargin=0, topmargin=0

style="margin: 0"

<table>

height=100%

style="height: 100%"

<table>

nowrap

style="white-space: nowrap"
<td nowrap>

<td>

background="abc.gif"

style="background-image:url(abc.gif)"

... proprietary attribute value "..."

HTML Internet Explorer .


, align="absmiddle" <img> .
<p><img src="hello.gif" alt="" align="middle"></p>
<p><img src="hello.gif" alt="" style="vertical-align: middle"></p>
<p><img src="hello.gif" alt="" align="absmiddle"></p>

... dropping value "..." for repeated attribute "..."


.
<img src="image.jpg">
<img src="image.jpg" src="image.jpg">

... unexpected or duplicate quote mark

.
<img src="image.jpg">
<img src=image.jpg">

... attribute with missing trailing quote mark

, .
<p id="my_id">
<p id="my_id"">

... id and name attribute value mismatch

, id name ,
.
<a name="elm" id="elm">
<a id="elm">
<a name="abcdef" id="db1">

name id .

Notice: replacing <...> by <...>

:
;
;
.
<p></p><br>
<p></p></p>

<p>abc<br><table>...</table></p>

... anchor "..." already defined

name . name .
<form name="my_form1" action="test1.php"></form>
<form name="my_form2" action="test2.php"></form>
<form name="my_form" action="test1.php"></form>
<form name="my_form" action="test2.php"></form>

, .

<...> is probably intended as </...>

HTML, .
<em>, !</em>
<em><em>, !</em></em>

<...> lacks "..." attribute

, , , .
<form action="my_action.php">
<form>