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1. ,
1.1. ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. M . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6. ? . .
1.7. . .

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2.


2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15
16

3.


3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21


. ,
, ,
, . , , ,
, , ,
, , .
,
. , ,
, .
, , , , , .
.
, . ,
,
.

, 2000

1. ,
1.1.

1. x, y X
(x, y) R, x y ,

1. (x, y) = 0 x = y;
2. (x, y) (x, z) + (y, z) x, y, z X,
X (x, y).
1 , 2 .
1.1. , 1, 2 ( )
3. (x, y) = (y, x) 0 x, y X.
. z = x.
(x, y) (y, x) x, y X. x y .
2 y = x . 
X ;

. :
, , , ( ) . . .
1.2. X . ,

0 x = y,
(x, y) =
1 x 6= y
X ( X ).
. 1 . . , (x, y) = 1, x 6= y, (x, z) + (y, z) = 0.
(x, z) = (y, z) = 0 x = z y = z,
x 6= y. 
1.3. (x, y) X. ,
1. 1 (x, y) = (x, y)/(1 + (x, y)),
2. 2 (x, y) = ln(1 + (x, y)),
3. 3 (x, y) = min{1, (x, y)}
.
1.2.

1. n 1:
(
Rn =

x : x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ), xk R, k = 1, n,
(x, y) =

n
X

(xi yi )2

1/2

)
.

2. p- :
(

X
lp =
x : x = (x1 , x2 , . . .),
|xi |p < ,
1

(x, y) =

X

|xi yi |p

1/p

)
, p1 .

3. [a, b] :
(
C[a, b] =

x = x(t), t [a, b] ,
)
(x, y) = max |x(t) y(t)| .
[a,b]

4. p:
(
Lp (a, b) =

x = x(t), t (a, b),

x(t) (a, b) ,
p
Z b
1/p )
|x(t) y(t)|p
.
1, (x, y) =
a

1.1. Rn , lp ,
C[a, b], Lp (a, b).
1.2. (x, y) = sup |x(t) y(t)|
tT

M (T ) , T .
1.4. f : R R,
(x, y) = |f (x) f (y)|?
. , , f .
, f (x) = f (y)
x = y, .. f .
1.3. M
1. : B(a, r) = {x X : (x, a) < r}.
2. : B(a, r) = {x X : (x, a) r}.
3. M : B(a, r), , M B(a, r); diam M = sup {(x, y) : x, y M } M ; (x, M ) =
inf {(x, y) : y M }, (M, K) = inf {(x, y) : x M, y K}
x M M K .
6

4. M X: x M r > 0 B(x, r) M , . .
M , , M .
M X a X ,
B(a, r), r > 0 x M, x 6= a; a MT
M , > 0 , B(a, ) M = {a}.
M M , M
.
5. M X: M = M .
6. M K K : K M . , M
X, M = X; M ,
X , M .
7. X ,
.
8. M MT:
T
M = {x X : > 0, M B(x, ) 6= , (X \ M ) B(x, ) 6= }.
1.3.
S
S
1. M N = M N ;
2. M = M .
1.4. , M M =
(X \ M ).
T
1.5. A, B X , A B = . ,
(A, B) = 0?
1.4.

{xn } X :
1. x X, (xn , x) 0
n , (x = lim xn xn x);
n

2. , (xn , xm ) 0 n, m .
1.5. , .
. {xn } x.
,
(xn , xm ) (xn , x) + (xm , x) 0.
. 
2. , .
7

. , , ,
, , .
1.6. , .

X
1.7. xn X
(xn , xn+1 ) . ,
n=1

{xn } . ?
. , . 1.2 , .
Q
(x1 , x2 ) = |x1 x2 |. xn = (1 + 1/n)n Q , lim xn = e .
1.5.

XIX . ,
.
.
3. K X ,
{xn } K , x K.
1.8. , .
1.9. C[0, 1],
.
M X , M .
A - M , x M y A , (x, y) < .
> 0 M -, M .
, M
M . Rd ; C() o , (x, y) = max |x(t) y(t)|.
t

M C() , > 0 : |x(t)| x M


t . x(t). M , > 0 > 0, : t1,2 , |t1 t2 | <
|x(t1 ) x(t2 )| < x M . , t1 , t2 ,
x = x(t) M . K C()
K.
1.10. ,


K = x = x(t) : x(t) = et , t [0, 1], [1, 2]
C[0, 1].
C() :


K = x = x(t) C() : |x(t)| t , |x(t)| t .
8

1.6.

() .
. , , ,
, . . .
4. E R , :
x E 7 kxk 0 ,
1. kxk = 0 x = 0 ( );
2. kxk = || kxk R ( );
3. kx + yk kxk + kyk ( ).
kxk (, ) x E.
, :
(x, y) = kx yk. , . 1.11.5 . , (
) xn E x E , kxn xk 0,
n .
,
( ). , . 1.2, :
P
1/2
1. Rn . kxkRn = ( n1 x2i ) ;
P
p 1/p
2. lp . kxklp = (
, p1;
1 |xi | ))
3. C[a, b]. kxkC[a,b] = max |x(t)| ;
atb

Z

4. L (a, b). kxkLp (a,b) =

1/p
|x(t)| dt
, p 1.
p

E ,
E , . :
1. A E, B E. A + B = {a + b : a A, b B} E
2. L E , x, y L, R:
x + y L, x L.
3. x0 + L, x0 E, L ,
.
4. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . E , n N
n
X
ci xi = 0, ci R ci = 0, i = 1, 2, . . . , n.
i=1

x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
9

5. L E
n
X
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn L , x L ci R, i = 1, 2, . . . , n : x =
ci xi .
i=1

ci x ; n
L, n = dim L; L n- . n N L
n , L
, dim L = .
6. , x, y E,
[x, y] = {x + y : 0, 0, + = 1}.
A E , [x, y] A x, y A.

, , ,
. , L
, n = dim L < , L = L, L . L = L ,
. L
E, dim L = ,

{xi }
i=1 L L, x L {ci }i=1 R:
n
X
X
x=
ci xi , .. kx
ci xi k 0 n .
i=1

1.11. L n, [a, b]. , L C[a, b]. .


1.12. C[a, b] ?
1.13. , .
E -
x E. kxk1 kxk2 , : , > 0, kxk1 kxk2
kxk2 x E.
,
E (.. ), E
( ) . ,
.
X Y, X Y , kxkY kxkX x X, x.
X Y , .
, , .
L E, L 6= E:
> 0 y E, kyk = 1,
kx yk > 1 x L.
(y E ).
10

1.7.

V R. V , .
x, y V (x, y), :
x, y, R
1. (x, y) = (y, x) ();
2. (x, y) = (x, y); (x + y, z) = (x, z) + (y, z) ();
3. (x, x) > 0, x 6= 0 ( ).
V .
. V C ,
1 (x, y) = (y, x).
V .
-
|(x, y)|2 (x, x) (y, y),

f (t) = (x + ty, x + ty) 0 t R.
( t = (x, x)/(y, y), y 6= 0).
, x y .
, ( )

p
kxk = (x, x),
, , ( ) .
x, y; = (d
x, y), = arccos{(x, y)/(kxkkyk)}. ,
x y V (xy), (x, y) = 0; z V
, (z, x) = 0 x M V , M ( M ).
5. () V ,
, .
, . . .
.
, a
kx yk2 + kx + yk2 = 2(kxk2 + kyk2 ) x, y V,
:
1
(x, y) = (kx + yk2 kx yk2 ).
4
11

1.14. , .
.
n

1. R .

(x, y) =

n
X

xk yk , x = {xk }n1 , y = {yk }n1 .

k=1

2. l2 .

(x, y) =

xk yk , x = (x1 , x2 , . . .), y = (y1 , y2 , . . .).

k=1
2

3. L (), R . (u, v) =

u vdx ( ).

M V ,
x V y M ,
p
(x, M ) = kx yk = (x y, x y).
y x M, y = PM (x). ,
x = PM (x) , x M . M
H V , , x V :
x = u + v, u H, v H ,
u = PH (x), v = PH (x)
kxk2 = kuk2 + kvk2 .
1.15. , H
Y , H .
x = PH (x) + PH (x) x V V = H H ,
V H H . ,
{x1 , x2 , . . .} V
1. , n N {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } ;
2. , (xk , xj ) = 0 k =
6 j, xk 6= 0.;

1, k = j,
3. , (xk , xj ) =
0, k 6= j.
, , ,
. e1 = x1 /kx1 k. ,
qk = x k

k1
X

(xk , ej )ej , k = 2, 3, . . . ,

j=1

ek = qk /kqk k.
12

x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = det(xk , xj ) 6= 0. .
{e1 , e2 , . . .} V .
ck = (x, ek ), k = 1, 2, . . . x V
{ek }. x V :

|ck | kxk2 .

k=1

{ej } , ck = (x, ek ) = 0 k , x = 0. . . ,
, {ej }, , , , V ,
x V
X
x=
ck ek , ck = (x, ek ).
k

{ek }
X
|ck |2 .
kxk =
k

, .
() .
1.16. ,


1
1
1
1
, sin t, cos t, sin 2t, . . .

2
L2 (, ).

2.

2.1.

E, F - () .
F
A : D F , D E, x0 D, Axn Ax0
E
, xn D, xn x0 ; , D = D (A) , F .
, , D,
.
6. A : D F, D E , D-
E , R (C), x, y D : A (x + y) = Ax + Ay.

13

A : E F , kAxkF CkxkE x
E, C x.
.
2.1. , A : D F
x0 D D, , .
L (E, F ) , E,
F , x E,
R ( C) : (A + B)x = Ax + Bx, A(x) = (Ax), : kAk = sup{kAxkF ; x E, kxkE = 1}, .
L(E, F ) , F
(). E . L(E, F ) .
2.2. , kAk = sup{kAxk, kxkE 1} = inf{C : kAxkF
CkxkE x E}.
kAxkF kAk kxkE .
An L(E, F ) A
{An x}, x E, Ax F (
, An A n , An x Ax x E). , ,
. . E = V -
P
{e1 , e2 ,. . . }. An : V V, x V, An x = n1 ci ei ,
ci = (x, ei ).
An x x n x V
, , An I, (I- ) () . , {An } , ..
kAn An+p k = sup{kAn x An+p xk, kxk = 1}
kAn en+1 An+p ee+1 k = ken+1 k = 1 n, p > 0.
, L(E, F ).
( ). E- , F , An L(E, F ) {An x} F x E. () {kAn k} .
-.
. E, F - , A, An L(E, F ). An
A ,
{kAn k} An x Ax (n ) x L, L-
E.
, ,
.
. A : D F, D E, E- , F - , A L(D, F ), D = E. A L(E, F ) ,
= Ax x D, kAk
= kAk.
Ax
14

A A .
A : D F A, ker A = {x D :
Ax = 0}.
A(D) = Im(A) A , ,
F .
2.3. A, B L(E, F ), A 6= 0, B 6= 0. Im(A) Im(B) = 0. ,
A B L(E, F ).
L(E, E) = L(E) :
(A B)x = A(Bx) x E.
, L(E)
A0 x = Ix = x, An x = A(An1 x) x E, n N.
2.4. , A, B L(E) kA Bk kAk kBk, kAn k kAkn , n N.
2.2.

A : E F ( ) ,
y Im(A) F x E,
y = Ax, .. Ax = y .
B : Im(A) E, , , B
Ax = x x E B A = IE , IE ()
E. B A.
2.5. A : E F , ker A = {0}.
. .
Im(A) = F , .. A
E F , B, F , A
A1 ; A1 Ax = x x E, AA1 y = y y F .
, E, F .
A : E F , Im(A) = F , ker A = {0}, , A1 L(F, E).
:
kAxkF mkxkE x E,
()
m > 0 x.
2.6. (*). , kA1 k

1
.
m

.
. E F , A
L(E, F ), Im(A) = F , M E . A(M ) F
.
, E F .
( ).
15

. A L(E, F ), E F , ker A = {0}, Im(A) =


F . A1 L(F, E).
, A, E F , A1 , A1 .
,
E F .
2.7. E, F
Ax = y, A L(E, F ). ,
y F x E y F .
A L(E, F ) ,
:
kB Ak <

1
B 1 : F E.
kA1 k

()

2.8. , (**) ,
kB 1 k

kA1 k
.
1 kB Ak kA1 k

, E = F, A = I, B = I C, C L(E), kCk < 1,


k(I C)1 k
2.3.

1
.
1 kCk

() G(A) A.
7. A : D F G(A) =
{{x, Ax}, x D} E F .
E, F . A ,
xn D, xn x, Axn y x D, y = Ax, , G(A)
Z = E + F z = {x, y}, x E, y F ,
(z1 , z2 ) = kx1 x2 kE + ky1 y2 kF .
2.9. 1) A L(E, F ), A .
2) A A1 , A1 . .


( ). E, F , A : E F
. A ().

16

3.
3.1.

1.
1.
(x, y) =| arctg(x) arctg(y) |?
2. C[0, 1] xn (t) = tn tn+1 ?
3. , , ..
kx + yk = kxk + kyk x 6= 0, y 6= 0, y = x, > 0.
2.
1.
(x, y) =| ex ey |?
2. C[0, 1] xn (t) = tn t2n ?
3. : kxn k 1, kyn k 1, kxn + yn k 2 n .
, kxn yn k 0.
3.
1.
(x, y) =| x3 y 3 |?
n+1
n+2
2. C[0, 1] xn (t) = tn+1 tn+2 ?
3. , kxk kx yk y L x
H L H.
4.
2
1. , {sin(nt)}
n=1 L (; ) .
2. C[0, 1] ?
3. , L2 (1, 1) : f1 (t) = 0, f2 (t) =
1, f3 (t) = t.
5.
1. C[0, 1]
Z 1
M = {y(t) =
et+ x( )d, x(t) C[0, 1]}?
0

2. C[0, 1]
Z 1
L = {x(t) :
x(t)dt = 0}?
0

3. , {xk }

:
P
a) Pk xk ;
) k kxk k .

17

6.
1. [0, 1] ,
x(0) = x(1)?
2. .
R1
3. , L2 (0, 1) L = {x(t) L2 (0, 1) : 0 x(t)dt = 0}
L .
7.
1. M R .
AM = {x(t) C[0, 1], x(t) M t [0, 1]}
?
2. C[0, 1] x0 (t) = t
.
3. , L L2 (0, 1), L = {x(t) L2 (0, 1) : x(t) = 0 .. [a, b] [0, 1]}
L .
8.
1. xn (t) = sin(t + n), t [0, 1]
C[0, 1]?
2. C[0, 1] x0 (t) = t2
.
3. , P (t) , P (1) = 0
L2 (0, 1).
9.
1. ,
q
x = (1 , 2 , ...), 22 + 32 + ... 1
l1 .
2. , {x l2 , x = (x1 , x2 , ...) : |xk | 1/k} l2 .
3. RL2 (0, 1) x(t) = t2
1
L = {x L2 (0, 1) : 0 x(t)dt = 0}.
10.
1. ?
2. l2
(x, Ln ) x = (1, 0, 0, ...)
P
Ln = {x l2 : x = (x1 , x2 , ...), nk=1 xk = 0}.
3. L2 (0, 1)
.

18

3.2.

1.
Rt
1. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = 0 x( )d .
Rt
2. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = 0 x( )d + x(t).
3. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = x(t)/t
D = {x C[0, 1] : limt+0 t1 x(t)}. , A .
2.
Rt
1. A : L2 (0, 1) L2 (0, 1), Ax(t) = 0 x( )d .
Rt
2. , A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = 0 x( )d + x(t) ,
A1 .
3. A- . , ker A .
3.
Rt
1. Ax(t) = 0 x( )d C[0, 1]. An ,
kAn k K n /n! K > 0.
2.
A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) =
R 1 s+t
1
x(t) + 0 e x(s)ds A .
3. A, B : E F , A , B
D(A) D(B). , A + B .
4.
Rt
1. A : L2 (0, 1) L2 (0, 1), Ax(t) = t 0 x( )d .
2. A, B : E E , D(A) = D(B) = E, AB + A + I =
0, BA + A + I = 0. , A1 .
3. H V .
5.
1. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = x(t2 ).
2. A L(E), Nk = ker(Ak ), k = 0, 1, 2, .... , N0 N1 ... Nk Nk+1
..., Nk = Nk+1 k, Nk = Nk+1 = Nk+2 = ....
3. , An x(t) = x(t1+1/n ), n N
C[0, 1] , An L(C[0, 1]) An
n .
6.
1. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = t2 x(0).
2. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = x00 (t) + x(t)
D(A) = {x C 2 [0, 1] : x(0) = x0 (0) = 0}. A A1 .
3. E . , L(E) .

19

7.
1. A : l2 l2 , Ax = (x1 , 2x2 , 3x3 , ...).
2. A, B : E E , D(A) = D(B) = E, AB = BA. ,
B , A, B L(E), kABk kBkAk
1 k .
Rt
3. A1 , A : C[0, 1] C 2 [0, 1], Ax(t) = 0 e|st| x(t)ds?
8.
R 2
1. A : L2 (0, 2) L2 (0, 2), Ax(t) = 0 sin(t + s)x(s)ds
2.
x(t) + Ax(t) = y(t),
R, y C[0, 2] , A .
3. A : E F . ,
, D(A) ||| x |||= kxkE + kAxkF .
9.
Rt )
1. A : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], Ax(t) = t 0 x(
d .
1
2. ker A E, A : E F , ,
A ?
3. An x : C[0, 1] C[0, 1], An x(t) =
R t Pn k
Rt
[
]x(
)d,
n

Ax(t)
=
e x( )d ?
0
k!
0
0
10.
1. A : C[1, 1] C[1, 1], Ax(t) = 21 (x(t) x(t)).
2. A, A1 L(E) k = kAk kA1 k A.

Ax = y:
1 kAx yk
kx xk
kAx yk

k
.
k kyk
kxk
kyk
3. A : E E
kxn k = 1, Axn 0 n . , A .

20


[1] ( ..). ., . 1972. 544.
[2] .., .. . ., . 1965.
[3] .. . ., . 1980.
[4] .., .. . ., .
1979.
[5] .., .., .. . ., . 1984.

21