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..

1998

81.2
449

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449

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, 1998. 264 .
ISBN 5-02-018008-4
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09.02.98. 20.08.98
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ISBN 5-02-018008-4

1998

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133 435 360


6 803 465
33 888 939
20 304 464
17 415 827
1 956 115
17 015 782
33 286 771
15 719 398
10 950 826
2 544
1 371 932
30 562 706
37 668 132
23 323 518
55 528 992
439 234 771

30,37
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4,63
3,97
0,45
3,87
7,56
3,58
2,49

162 577 612


8 958 977
44 792 722
25 875 252
21 707 918
2 438 360
21 938 231
42 251 207
19 855 450
16 449 573
2 212
1 676 728
37 690 020
44 752 926
28 607 874
68 374 747
547 949 809

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11 158 977**
50 503 085
33 189 039
26 887 837
3 174 684
25 952 966
49 624 847
22 881 053
18 558 400
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1 946 278
44 730 389
54 226 227
35 323 282
78 830 625
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43 880 640
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29 011 237
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16 317 715
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789 416
686 217
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(72,74)
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(100,00)
33 919 882
(100,00)
12 873 434
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4 257 575
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5 947 299
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36 839 222
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25 244 369
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52 000 069
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62 230 282
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1 409 239
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1 326 748
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747 071
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26 171 262
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16 723 153
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34 135 701
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VIII


VIII

48 089 281
(100,00)
2 034 242
(100,00)
110 549 826
(100,00)
54 207 652
(100,00)

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597 862
(100,00)
440 837
(100,00)
101 818
(100,00)
6 174 632
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(100,00)

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(30,66)
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(99,39)
446 406
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33 687
(84,83)
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(0,80)
70 605
(69,34)
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(0,61)
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(57,85)
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1961 .,
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1971 .,
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, [The Times of India.
31.10.1973].
, 1971 .
44 953 . (

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,

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7121 . [305, . 333].
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38 782
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50 456
31 428
20 858

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1961 .

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32 372
20 156
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, .
1961 .

1971 .

1981 .

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5,9
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449 184
264 695
478 761
9 233
10 132
303 259
3 069 153

1 372
410
225
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8
224
2 632

315
945
408
714
437
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601
488

181
38
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2 064
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59

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[311, . 20].
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1951 .,
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1951 . 42%
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31.10.1973].
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31.10.1973].
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1961 .
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6693 . , .. 2,2 [305, . 333
335].
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1951 .,
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1951 .

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1971 .

1961 .

7 842,7
2 818,4
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%
16,88
6,07
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:
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,
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, [451; Patriot.
18.12.1987].
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1966 . ,
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3,5 . 1961 . 64 . 1971 . [305,
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,
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[100, . 143163]. ,
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[100, . 140141].
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22.12.1978].





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, , , , ,
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1961 .,
:
3247 . , 737 ., 648 .,
265 ., 220 ., 177 .,
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, ,
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221 . ,
46 . [305, . 333336].
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1961 .

1971 .

1981 .*

1659
574
444
96
38

1907
639
536
102
15

2105,1
631,9
539,2
99,4
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' 1981 . [311].


,
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1971 . 221 . .
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64



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[30, . 188; 47, . 125126].
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[New Age. 14.05.1989].
1989 .

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512 ., 180 . [304, . 79157].
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195 . [305, . 333334].
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549
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[304, . 8991].
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: , ,
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2 /

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66

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1961 .

1971 .

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831

1299
837

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[30, . 189].
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9.11.1989], ,
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1989 .

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[69, . 216246; 28, . 254282; 58, . 110124;
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1947 .,
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, 389 (
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, 93
[60, . 442445].
1947 .
,
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1949 . , 26 1950 .
[60, . 537543].
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. 146].
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(Central Institute of Hindi,
),
1959 .



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Indian Languages), 1969 . ,
(Central
Institute of English and Foreign Languages),
. ,
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[313, . 1].


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[502, . 442446].

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1956 ., 1950 .
: ,
,
[502, . 443].


1957 . [339, . 237].
1969 .
[339, . 248],

1975 . [339, . 246]
(. . 16).
,
,

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, .
(18771956), 78

. 1950 .
,
[154, . 76].
,
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[154, . 76].
1953 .
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(18871961) ,
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[154, . 76].

1959 .

[154, . 76].



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[154, . 76].
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[502, . 443446].
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.
1960 .
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79

16


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/

1951

1) ,
.
8.10.1949 .

1950

1950
1957

1952
1956

1969
1975

2) 1950 .


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1956 .

1956 .


.

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1968


1966 .,

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1969 . [339, . 152].

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14.02.1989] .., ,
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1971 .
820 . , (
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1951 .
[331,
. 142144].
25 1957 .
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. 350 ,
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147]).
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1957 .
85


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1958 .
.
,
. 347
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[Indian Express.
04.03.1979].
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12.11.1973].
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[-. 10.11.1976].


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. 69].

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[-. 12.09.1984].
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20.11.1988]. ,
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1,5 . ; ( )
: ,
3 . [492, . 180182;
205206, 246247].

:
, .
1960/61 ,
.

, .
, , 1978
(. . 24).
, ,
,

. -
,
, 11 ( , ,
, , , , ,
, , , )
(, ) [324, . 44].
, ,
,
, .
,

, .
, 1970/71
23 .
130

24

,
1978 ., . [285, . 6668)

I.

,
II.

. -

366
318
448
175
67
29
35
1

135
179
59
49

16
64
69

28
13

197
160
54
15
25
17
2

76
13
6

99
21
21

42
12
15

2
1
3

97
3

98
1

13
2

1
2

1
1
2
1

4
5

4
1

6
1

37 [285, . 40]. ,
,
:
, , , , , .,

- (, , ..),
(, )
( ) (
) [285, . 41].
,
, ,
9*

131


, ,
, . ,
2 . ,
9 ,
1,5 . , 3 ,
90 900 ,
28 , :
167 569 26
[285, . 41].

, ,
.

, ,
V VI
.
- (
, , , , ),
- ,

,
[285, . 100102].

, ,
.
.
,
,

,

. , ,
, , ,
-,


.
, ,
, , ,
,
,
. ,
70- 97 . ,
132

, 85 .
12 . ; 36 . ,
, 34 .
1,5 .
(. . 25).
25

, 1978 ., . [285, . 105]




-I-
+
+

+

+
+

34 626
21 072
2 415
41

1 653
6 752
989
185

85 373
26 480
2 339
514

11 991
5 684
973
503

5 360

3 345

3 329

1 843

916

275

2 676

907

298

463

1 623

764

56

185

1 178

1105

1970/71
24 .
70- 27 [285, . 4142].
.
,
, , . , ,
175 ,
3 ,
3 ,
24 37 891 ,
16 61 379 [285, . 43].
,
26 582 20 .
, ,
,
, ,
, .
133

,
,
[324, . 6465].
IIIIV
V VI ,
,
, .. 45 68 ,
-
,
.

,
, , , ,
,
. , , , ,
,
.
,
, ,
3 2 ,

. 2 6 .
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
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. , ,

-.
,
,
,
,
,
:
,
. ,
,
, .

134


,

,

,
,


[285, . 12].

(VVIII IX )

.
,

.
,
.

,

.
.

- , ,
, .
, ,
, 40% ,
, ,
,
[391, . 661].
(
) ,
, , ,
,
, ,
, , , -
.
,
, .. , 60-
. ,
60- 45
, 19 . [391,
135

. 667], ( )
18 ,
6 . ,

[492, . 185, 207];
13
2,5 . ,
(8) (. 1,8 .)
[492, . 179].

, 1960/61
10 ,
400 , 3 19
, 1,8 .
[492, . 180, 223, 246].

,
: 1960/
61 40
8,6 . 174
, 275 . , ,
, (, ,
) :
(7 135
230 . ) (20 14
10 . ) [492,
. 187, 222223, 248].

. ,
44
1,3 . [492, . 167, 199] (

).
5
7 3,3 . [492, . 191, 234, 248],
:
76 ,
, , [492,
. 173, 201].
,
, ,
(..
), ,
, -, , -
.
136


, ,
:
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
(
),
.
, , .
, ,

, ,
(English medium schools),
17 [468,
. 49].

, , :
, ,

.
,
.
,
1100 , .. V 8
(449 , 285 , .315 61
). ( 700),
( 700), , ( 650),
( 650), ( 600), ( 400),
( 350), ( 350) ..

( ,
): 100,
66, 19.
,
: 21 ,
19.
(7)
( ,
, ):
- 8, 4,
2 [285, . 6365].

,

137

. ,
:
( ), .

(,
, ).
IX
, XI XII
.
, ,
,
,
, , . ,
60- , ..
,
20 .
,

, , , ..
[400, . 44, 47].

.
, ,
-

,
, ,
,
.
,
,
-
,
. , ,
,
" ...

, , [400,
. 18].

,
. ,
- ,

,
138

, ,
.
,
,
"
",
[The Statesman.
23.04.1989].

,
,
.


.
( , ,
) ,
-,
,
.



,
,
(,
, ) ,
, .
,
(
) ,
, .

. ,
1941 ., .. 6 ,
14,6% ( ,
8586 ),
1951 ., .. ,
16,6%, 1961 . 24%, 1971 .
29,4%, 1981 . 36,23% [383, . 48].
139


: 1991 .
52,11% [438, . 423].

,
, ,
, ...
, , ,
, ,
[71, . 17].
,
60,1 . 1951 . 275,5 .
1981 .,
, ,
( 15 35 ):

25,4 . 110,1 . [384, . 68]. 1991 .
352 . [438,
. 423].
,
,
.
,
, ,

[438, . 389].
,
,
,

, ,
.
,
,
. ,
20- ( 1951 1971 .)
90 .
298 388 . [414, . 211],
( 1971 1981 .)
50 . 1981 .
424,3 . [383, . 48].

, (
. 26).
140

26
,
( . )
1901 1981 .*,
. [521; The Economic Times. 20.01.1989]

1901
1911
1921
1931
1941
1951
1961
1971
1981

233,1
248,2
246,7
273,4
312,0
353,1
428,1
533,3
665,3

12,6
14,7
17,7
26,0
50,2
58,9
102,6
157,3
241,0

222,5
233,5
229,8
247,4
261,8
294,2
323,5
376,2
424,3

5,3
5,9
7,2
9,5
16,1
16,7
24,0
29,3
36,2

* . 1901
1941 . .
, ,
,
. , 1901 1981 . 222 .
424 ., .. [The Eco
nomic Times. 20.02.1989].
1991 .,
324 . [438, . 423],
7 (
). ,
491,8 . ,
41,7%.
,
80- , 1947 .
,
- [New Age. 02.09.1988].
,
59- [New Age.
04.09.1988].
1964 . ,
,
... 37%
[282, . 370].
, 15 44 ,
,
80- 144 . , 67,4%
141

, [421,
. 21].
, 15 19 ,
(54%)
[Link. 12.12.1986].
,
:
, ,

,
[400, . 15].

.
, 1991 .,
, 90,59%;
, 38,54%
( , 1971 .,
20,0%), . [438, . 425].
, ,
, ,
. , 1981 .

24,05%; 26,01%,
27,4, 27,82%, ..
,
.
, 36%.
,
, 42%, , ,
, 60%

[438, . 389] (. . 27).
1991 .
,
.
,
,
. , 1981 . *
(75,95%),
(73,99%), (72,6%) ..
,
1981 . 208,9 . 290,6
,
[310, . 120123] (. . 28).
142

27
,
19611981 ., 1991 .

**

1961

1971

1981

199

17,6
18,4
17,1
15,2

21,6
20,0
22,0
18,8
26,7
31,3
56,7

27,4
26,01
27,82
24,05
35,84
41,94
61,06

41,71
38,54
43,45
38,81
55,33
63,54
76,09

17,1
52,7

* 1991 . , . [438, . 425].


** 1966 .

28

, 1981 .
/

69
52
34

12
4
6
290

823
138
108
885
850
237
196
240

154
467
292
874
902
569
414
672

18 163
14 504
8 203
30 383
4 605
1 777
3 783
81 421

410
202
670
715
649
201
611
458

%
26,01
27,82
24,05
27,40
35,84
41,94
61,06

51
37
25
80
8
2
2
208

659
634
904
502
245
460
412
821

744
265
622
159
253
368
803
114

%
73,99
72,18
75,95
72,60
64,16
58,06
38,94


1991 ., - ^ .
, ,

.

, , 1981 ., 20% ,
; ,

143

( 1981 . 80% ,
), . ,
1981 ., 24,05%,
50,8%,
16,4%. ( 26,01%)
51,8%, 22,3%,
( 27,4%) 45,9 23,3% .. [310,
. 120123].
, ,
,
. ,
1951 .
50,5%, 19,1%,
17,1 2,0%. 1981 .
, ,
54,44%, 35,4%,
35,82 9,86%.
1991 ., ,
52,11%,
63,86%, : 39,42% [438,
. 423].

,
: , ,
.

,
.
,

", 1968 .,
[]
[] ,
,
[414, . 208].

.

, 1949 . [414, . 205],
,
1952 . [535, . 12], 0 '
: (1960 .), (1962 .), (1965 .)
(1972 .) [282, . 375; 421, . 3].
144




,
,
, ,

.
,

. , 1948 .
.

,
.

: ,
,
[421, . 23].

, 2 1978 .
,
[438,
. 536].
1976 . ,
, .
1976 .
:
( ,
, )
.


.



.


. , 50-
, , ,

[414, . 205].
10

3. 161

145

29

( . ),
1961 1971 ., . [414, . 210]

1971 .

1961 .

I ( 5 14 )

33,66

29,5

80,32

70,5

52,33

34,9

97,36

65,1

II ( 15 24 )

26,33

36,0

46,88

64,0

43,01

47,5

47,59

62,5

33,9

50,61

66,1

24,5

42,67

75,5

III ( 25 34 )

19,23

28,5

48,19

71,5

IV ( 35 )

26,27

22,3

91,77

77,7

26,0
36,62


,
.
60-
, , ,
.. [414, . 206].

,
,
, (.
. 29).
, ,
, ,
, . , 1952/53
44 595 ,
, 1 088 784 ,
, .. 1953/54
39 965, 948 847 [341, . 302].
, ,
140 . ,
:
11 362
2891, , 261 899
60 490 [341, . 291292].

:
, ,
( 1859 2164),
58 505 ( 56 596 1909 )
69 307 ( 66 976, 2331),
49 547 1645 ,

[341, . 289].
, ,
,
, 1953/54
200,
5 .
.

2 . [341, . 294].
,
(.
. 30).
10*

147

30
,
1952/53- 1953/54 , . [341, . 302-303]

1952/53

1953/54

, ,

1952/53

1953/54

1952/53

1953/54

1953/54

1 859

2 164

56 596

66 976

1 909

2 331

49 547

1 645

11 362

2 891

204 883

55 559

57 016

4 931

19 745

3 425

96

179

2 089

4 122

370

882

1610

385

220

200

11275

10 620

1755

1755

10 620

1755

859

628

17 376

5 266

17 256

5 153

4 045

3 177

70-
80- ,


, ..
.


, 6 14 ,

. ,
, ,
, .
.
, 573 842
25 194 ( 4,39% )

(614 , 1435 35 ).

, 14
35 : 17 942 ,
3,13% [286,
. 194]. 1978 . 590 . ,
.

6 14 ,
.
6631 , 1,16%
[286, . 192].

35 :
2673 ( 0,47% ),
56 928 [286,
. 195].

12 ., ..
.
70- , 50- , ,
: ,
,
. , 1978 .
6 . ,
14 35
( ! / 3 149

), 200 . [286, . 194195],


,
6 14 (.. V4
), 46 . , 300
,
35 , 8,5 . [286
. 195].
, , 50-

, : 1953/54
,
, 1960/61 :
7702 , 303 263
, [391,
. 495], 1978 .
. ,
, 1978 .
200 ( 8
6 14 7
35 ), 6 .
[286, . 192195].

,
,
. , 1953/54 ,
,
200,
12 . ,
1961 ., :
4 .,
71 . [391, . 816],
70- ,
2,2 .,
55 . [286, . 346347,
356357] (. . 31).
, ,
.

1978 .
,
250 . ,
200 . ,
, .. 14 35 [286, . 356
357].
150

31

, 1978 .

/1


14

14
35

35

184

199

266

416

53

735

654

1 151

421

2 226

1 566

6 352

288

7 918

23

211

31

265

282

32

424

68

35

101

8 664

867

12 156

2 627


, , , ,
,
, 6 .
[386, . 354355] (. . 32).
32

, 1978 .

6
14

14
35

35

286

5 717

98

6 101

6 366

11 386

527

18 279

15 321

,31 408

8 191

54 920

46 502

200 338

8 627

255 467

539

6 922

646

8 107

1 705

7 764

652

10 021

2 141

386

2 527

265 676

19 127

355 522

70 719

151

,

, ,
, ,
: 12 . ,
350 . ( 3 / 4 , ,
),
, ,

.

,
2000 .

.
1958 .
, . 1958 .
,
,

(Central Board of Workers' Education),

,
.
,

.
1964 . 22
25 ,
[535, .65]

,
, ,
,
[535, . 111
112].
(,
, , )
.
,
,

, , , ,
, 1964 .
89,8% , 81,7, 152

60,4, 51,3%, , ,

79%, ,
,
95% [535, . 69].

.

,
,

.
,
,
, ,
:

.
, ,
,
.
,
, 1957 .
2,1%
( ), 4,2%
6,2% [535,
. 4546].



60-
1961 1981 .,
,
,
-, ,

1544 (. . 33).
,
1961 1981 .
( 131 .
!961 . 139 . 1981 .).
153

33

15 44 ,
19611981 ., . [414, . 211]
I

1961

1,

% *

131 095,4

69,3

1966

144 359,1

67,4

1971

157 710,2

65,5

1976

154 425,0

56,2

1981

139 443,2

44,3

,

15 44 ,
,
.

:
1961 1971 .
: 2 5% .

. , ,
, 1% [414, . 212].

(,
10 14 29,6 49,75%,
15 24 23,69 47,47% ..),

,
, ,
25 34 ( 89,7 . 1951 .
98,2 . 1971 .; . . 34).


,
,
. , 2 1978 .
..
,

154

34

,
19511971 ., . [512, . 386]

, .

9,7
20,8
33,6

32,6
28,5
33,9

29,6
42,26
49,75

14,4
26,3
43,0

46,3
46,9
47,6

23,69
35,97
47,47

25,4
45,6
69,0

89,7
93,1
98,2

22,09
32,4
41,27

55,3
105,8
158,1

293,3
334,4
387,4

16,67
24,03
29,46

I. 10 14
1951
1961
1971
II. 15 24
1951
1961
1971
III. 25 34
1951
1961
1971
IV.

1951
1961
1971

[438, . 536].
65 . 1535 .
, ,

[414, . 209].
,
,
: ,
, , ,
.

,
1988 .
,
8 550 ( 55
) .
,

80 . :
155

30 . 1988 1990 . 50 . 1991


1995 . [Hindustan Times. 15.01.1988].

(National Literacy Mission),
1988 .
XX . 80%
15 35 , . [438, . 524].
, . ,
",
, ,
,
XXI ! [New Age. 01.10.1989].

, 1535 ,
.
,
, -

[459, . 22].

,
,
,
,
, (
),
[535, . 4, 15].
, , , , ,
:
, 2%
98% [437,
. 125].
,
1989 .,
100-
,
.
...
, , ,
, ,
XXI ! [New Age. 05.11.1989]
, 80-
,
[New Age. 21.10.1990].
156



.

.

,

,
, , ,
. ,
.

, , ..
:
,
,
. ,
, ,

,
,
.
.

,
,
[324, . 7].

, ,
, , ,
.

, , ,
-
.



.
,

,
( )
.
157




.

(teachers training schools)
(teachers training colleges),

(.
. 35).
35
,
19501981 ., . [383, . 49)
/

1980/
81 .

1950/
51 .

1955/
56 .

I960/
61 .

1965/
66 .

782

930

1138

601

897

53

107

478

1272

500


.
. , 1950/51 1978/
79
2,5 538 . 1950/51
1295 . 1978/79 [382, . 47]. 1980/
81 50 .
[383, . 49].
,

. 30- 1950/51
1980/81
10 85 .
830 . [383, . 49].

.

126 . 1950/51
902 . 1980/81 .

1982/83 [392, . 258] (. . 36).

158

36

( , .),
1951 1981 ., . [383, . 49], 1982/83

1950/51 .

1960/61 .

1980/81 .

537 918

714 555

1 345 376

85 496

345 228

830 649

856 389

126 504

296 305

902 332

993 115

1982/83 .*

1 389 356

* 1982/83 . [392, . 258].


,
, ,
, (
) ( ),
( . ) (
), - (
-) ( ) [380, . 335].

,

( ;
,
) 46 ,
. , , 1978 .,
20 ,
12, 11, 3,
[392, . 259].
,
.
,


,
,
.


.
,
. , 159

, , ,
, ,

. , ,
.
, 11
,
, ,
( ),
,
.
,
()
(), -
, ,

[391, . 880].

.

, 1956 .

(Hindi Pandits Training Course).
,
.
,
, :
, ,
( []) ( [
]), [391,
. 439].

, , ,

, ,
[391, . 440].
,
,
,
:
( ): ,
, (
) [391, . 668].
160

, ,
. ,
:
, [391, . 731
732].
,


, (
10%) ,

, ,

. , 1950/51 ,
,
58,8% , ,
1960/61 , 64,1%,
1980/81 87,4%.
:
1950/51
(53,3%)
; 1960/61
66,5%; 1980/81
89,4% [383, . 49].

,
:
, ,
, ,
, ,
( I IV )
52 [515, . 74].

, .
,
.
, .
. ,
, ,
, .
,

,
,
.
11 . 161

161

...
, ,

. ,

: ,
... ,
(.. . ..).
,
,
[225, . 174] ( . ..).
, ,
,
..,
,
.
,
: -
, ,
.
,

. , ,
,
( ,
),
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,

,
, .,
, , , :

. ,
,
, - ,


, ,

,
, 162


.
, .
, ,
,
:
,

.



,
,
, ,
,
,
, -, , . ,
,

, ,

. ,


. ,
. ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
:
1857 .
:
, .
, 1887 .
XX .
: (1915), (1916),
(1917), (. --, 1918),
(1920).
*

163

2040-
. : (1921), (1922), (1923),
(1926), (1946) [382, . 517520].

.
, 80-
1951 . ( 27 133)
[383, . 49]; 1982/83 ,
137 [392, . 258], 1985 . 150 [384, . 70].
( 1950 1980 .) ,
, 11 .
1950/51 360 .
, 1980/81
3990 . [383, . 49], 1985 .
5 . [384, . 69].

5,5 ,
: 13,6 2,2
[351, . 11].

17 23 (. . 37).
37
,
19511981 ., . [383, . 49]

, .



17-23

1950/51 .

1960/61 .

1980/81 .

1982/83 .*

27

45

132

137

360

890

3990

4750

0,8

1,8

4,8

1982/83 . [392, . 258].


,
,
. ,
1950 1980 .
13 . 1950/51
542, 1122,
164

, 1980/81 ,
7311 [383, . 49].
1982/83 8011 [392,
. 258].


- . , 1950/51
18,5 .
, 1960/61
42 . , .. ,
250 . [392, . 258],
. . 38.
38
-
, 19501979 ., . [383, . 49]

1950/51

18 648

1960/61

41 759

+124,5

1968/69*

91 069

+ 118,3

1978/79*

249 399

+ 175,1

* [392, . 258].

,
- ,
, 13 ,


,
,
.
,
.
,

,
, [351, . 98], ,
, ,
.

. 400,
65 . .
165

, 40
, 4 .
[383, . 52].

,
,
, .

:
,
(1956), (1956),
(1957)
[382, . 517520].
1971 . 36
,
.

. , ,
1971 . 11
, 10, 7,
3, 2,
1 [539, . 13], . . 39.
39
,
, 19701971 ., . [539, . 13, 509514]

.
166

1952
1960

1961
1962
1917

1970

10

- .

-
.

. .
- .
- .

- .

I960

1968
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1947 ., , ,

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1978 .
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(
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: 187


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,
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[-. 08.05.1985].
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(12 506) 2,5
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1978 .
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9030 . . 9706 . . )
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1989 .

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1993 . 2224 ,
5316, . [385, . 275].

1981 .
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614
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190


1984 . , : 1984 .
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3063) [384, . 224].
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1981 . ( ).
1981 . 2395
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1981 . 737, 1982 . 763 (
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187 [384, . 232].

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[383, . 165].

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1961

1971

1981

1982

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1
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1982 .) 9 . 13*

195

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19751983 .,
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1975/76
1976/77
1977/78
1978/79
1979/80
1980/81
1981/82
1982/83

5 650
5 845
6 030
6 216
6 405
6 667
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7 149

3 367
3 332
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3 744
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4 146
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10 562
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11239
11 682

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1951 1955 . (2835 ,
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1982 ., 155 (
763).
. 47,
80- 90- : 1990 .
196

200 , 1991 . 215.



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1995 . 157.

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[383, . 151].


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[294, . 6870].

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[The Statesman. 23.10.1989].


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of India. 21.08.1989].
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[338, . 83].
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.
206


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.

1959 .,
1965 .
70- .
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.
1979 . 8 :
, , , , , ,
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1979 . 6%
15% [382, . 143].
70- , , ,
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50 80 [528, . 3].

1975 ., 1975 . 1976 .

,
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.

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15
1982 .
1982 ., .. IX
, 20
. , 1983 .
,
,
41 [383, . 156].
1983 . 221 790 .
(6,8% ) 125 . (19,1%
), . [383, . 156]. 1993 .
207

85% 90% , . [385bf


. 270271].
1986 . 11
5 10
. ,
159 .
1 1986 . 70%
[384, . 222].

, ,
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[383, . 157
158].
,
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900 . , ,
, ( 290 .)
(250 .) [382, . 143]. 1981 ., ..
,
1700 . [383, . 154].
1981 .,
, ,
500 . ,
.
, ,
, , 350 .,
, ,
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.. {/{0
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.
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. [385, . 274].
208

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[338, . 46].

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Times of India. 14.03.1989].
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, [The Times of India.
14.03.1989].
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209

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1954 .
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, , , .
1954 .
: 85%
13,1% [502, . 451].

,
,
. , ,
1976 ., .. ,

, , ,
212

/ (30,91%) , ,
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, ,
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.

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,
( ) 1954 .
(
50,4% , 52,4, 89,67%
..),
.
, , 1954 .
(100,0%), 98,2% (
1,3%),
95% ( 5%) .. [502, . 451455].

,
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, . 348 ,

(1) ,

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(3) , ,
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[51, . 223].
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213



( ),
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.
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[34; 41, . 3648].
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19 , 1939 .
V3 [34, . 40].
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[34, . 4243].
1947 . ,

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. 214

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[476, . 122123].

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215


[476, . 121 123].
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( , . . 49).
49

,
19691972 ., . [19, . 171]

1969 .

1970 .

1971 .

1972 .

1969 .

1970 .

1971 .

1972 .

6507

6724

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6396

6635

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18,55

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30
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216

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,
, . , 1969 .
6507 , ,
5300 (.. 81,45%), 1970 .
6724 5656 (84,12%), 1971 . 7619
6376 (83,69%), 1972 . 8424 7935 (82,34%).

: 1969 .
86,37%, 1970 . 90,44, 1971 .
90,18, 1972 . 89,86%.
, ()
, ,
4
/ 5 ,

9
/ 1 0 .
60- 70- .
70-:
, , , 7500
,
1980 ., 14%
, 86%
[281; The Times of India. 04.01.1980].
(, . ..)
, 217

,
.,
, ,
[339, . 177178].


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- ,
,
, , ,
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, ( )

[351, . 144].
1970 .
,

,
218

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, , ..
,
1972/73
.
-
,
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30%, ,
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60% [339, . 128-129].
70-
,
,
100% ,
[339, . 129].
.
10
:
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, , ,
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, ,
, , ,
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, .
,
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,
, ", ,
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[398; The Statesman. 17.09.1987].
, , :
,

.

. ,
1956 ., , 219

,
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, ..,
, [502, . 106].
1956 .
,
. ,
[502,
. 107].
1956 .
.

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,
,
.. [502, . 107].


, ,

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: ,
, .

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. ,
,
. 5060-
,
.

(1951 .).
1960 .
( ).
1959 . ,

-
.
1964 . (
) (
),

, 220


[262, . 300301].
1967 .
, -.
,
.
, ,
.


[19, . 97].


: , ,
, ,
.
, ,
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,
. 1952 .
,
.
.
.
.
.

[502, . 120].
1955 .
.
,
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6 18 .
[502, . 120 121].

, ,

,

[413, . 45].
221


, 20 .
, , 1956 .
2,5 ., .. 12,5%
.
75 [502, . 121-122].
1975 .
: ,
,
, 320 .
57,3% ,
, ,
172 . , 53,8%,
1965 1975 . ,
,
50,7 59,6% ,
[19, . 99100).
, ,
,
,
(. . 50).
50
,
,
19651975 ., . [19, . 99]

1965/66
1966/67
1967/68
1968/69
1969/70
1970/71
1971/72
1972/73
1973/74
1974/75

4 888
3 131
3 533
2 166
6 760
6 954
5 723
5 188
5 383
5 183

8 371
5 875
5 378
4 371
5 937
7 184
6 287
5 922
5 120
4 913

9 382
7 398
6 332
6 061
6 082
7 207
6 469
5 490
5 695
4 306

1 038
915
840
919
1 121
1 368
1 283
1 388
1 388
1 139

201
203
183
278
427
548
408
258
193
152

24 240
17 522
16 266
13 765
20 327
23 261
20 170
18 246
17 779
15 693

48 909

59 688

64 422

11 399

2 851

187 269

26,2

32,0

34,2
222

6,1

1,5

100,0

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+ 47,6
+ 14,4
-13,2
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-8,6

,
60- ,
.
1969 .,
14 . ,
1965 .
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( 47,7% 1969/70 14,4% 1970/71 )
.
(1971 1975) , 1975 .
1969 .
,
, ,
1967 . ,

.
,

-
: 1975/76 , 90% ,
,
[373, . 41].
,
,
, - ,
. , 1987 . ,
,

, , ,
,
[The
Statesman. 27.05.1987].
, ,
, (,
,
),
.
,
.
,
, [The
Statesman. 27.05.1987].
,
? 223

. ,

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,
.
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,
, [373, . 42].


.

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[413, . 45].
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224

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...

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[51, . 233].

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( , ..)
.

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, ,
,
[19,
. 102].

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(1976/77) ,
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225

[339, . 238],
10 [339, . 240],
, (!)
[339, . 245].
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- , 1976 .


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25 1977 ., ,
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[19, . 102].
,

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-
.


, ,
,
, ,
, ,
, -

.
, , ,
, .,

( , , ..),
, 226

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( )
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[339, . 237],
1985 . [339, . 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ] , 1980 .

[339, . 245].

,
. 1972 .
, ,
, , ,
[339, . 233234].
, ,
.
1961 1970 .
,
. ,
1961 .
,
1965 . ,
.
,
(, , ) .


, ..
. ,
,
26 1968 .
[339, . 234].
.
,
,
1978 ., 75%
,
, [339,
. 234235].
15*

227


, .
1970 .
20%
(,
100%) [339, . 235].
.
1947 . ,

, 30 , 1978 .,
,

( )
1 1980 . [339, . 235236].
[] ,
1957 .,
(
).
, ,

,
, ,
..
, 1964 .,
,

.
.
,
,
,
,

[339, . 238].
,

,
1975 .,
, 1977 . [339, . 238].

,
1948 .,
1950 .
1960 .,
60- , , 228



[391, . 502].
, , ,
15% ,
, , ..

[339, . 242], ,
.
1948 . ,
,
, -
.
,
,
, . 1971 .

[339, . 244].

,
: ( ), ,
,
[339, . 244].
( ),



[339,
. 244].
1977 .
,

[339, . 244].
60-
,
[391, . 636] ,
,

,
,
[339,
. 239].
229

,
: 1978 . 80
90% , 50
75% 40%
, [339,
. 239].


, ,
,
[391,
. 814815J.
,
,
: 1957 ., .. ,
,
, 80-
,
,
[339, . 240].
, 20
, 1966 .,


1967 .,
[]
, 1969 .
,
, ,
, ,
, , -,
, ,
, , .


,
.

,
,
.
,
,
(
Gazette), . [339, . 248].
230



,
.

( 1978 .) , 75%
[339, . 249250].

. ,
,
80-

[339, . 250].

1965 .,
1975 .,

[339, . 246].
1968 .

.
,
[339, . 246].
1971 .
[339, . 246].

1972 .
10 ,
.
1975 .

,
. 26 1978 .
,

[339, . 247248].
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
:
, 231

. ,
63,28%,
()
52 55%, ()
48,57% [444, . 149150].
,
. , (..
) - 60%,
48 52% [44,
. 151].
,
.

.

.
,
. ,
,
3 / 5 (, 59
61%) ,
*/ 5 ( 19 22%),
2%
[444, . 152].
,
,
(. . 51).
51



( 19741975 .), . [444, . 151]

(
)

49,39

48,5

47,34

46,73

59,4

60,69

53,28

52,42

()

60,08

52,45

69,8

60,54

0,68

6,47

6,27

6,81

22,28

23,09

1,99

21,37

22,22

23,08

38,18

39,6

232


, , ,

,
.

. 1968 .
,
,

.
,
, -
.
, ,
,
, ,
, , ,
,
.
,
, , ,
,
,
[339, . 245246].
,

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,
. ,
, ,

.
( ,
) ,

( ,
) [339, . 238240, 244245, 249
250].

,
-, ,
, , .

233




, .
,
,
: ,
,
. ,
( 720 .,
1981 .),
, , .
60-
,
, [391, . 554].

. ,
, , ; , -,
, , 1981 .,
4,2 . , ,
.
,
, ( ),
1956 . ,
1956 . .

[391, . 701].
.

, ,
, . ,

,
, ,
,
. , (,
, ) 1979 .

,
...
, ,
[The Times of India. 12.02.1979].
234


,

, ,

- .

, ,

(, , ). ,
1963 .
(
), ,
, .
,

,
,
[493, . 241].

( ),
, ,
[493, . 253].
.



.
.
,

, ,
.

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,
: ,
;
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, .
, (, 235

, ) ,


, , ,

,
, , ,
- ,

,
[300, . 186]. 70-
, , , ,

,
[300, . 233].
80- , , :
, 1980 .
[-. 12.07.1980],
1989 .
[The Times of India.
04.10.1989].

, ,

.

- ,
,
. ,

, (
),
,
.
,
,
, ,
.
,
,
.

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XX .,
236

40- 60- ,
1966 .
,
1972 .,

[100, . 154163].



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(
) ,
.. , , [100, . 127,
140141].

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,

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,
.
237

100 ,
95 ,
.

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.
,
(-),
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I (- ), 1975 . .


, .. .

: II 1976 . III
1983 .
,
, 1978 .
..,
,
.
, ... ,
( .
..), , ,
[Hindustan Times. 25.02.1978].


, .
,
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. , -,
,
-
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,
1955 .
,
, 238

,
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[502, . 106],
,
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1961 .
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.

AL
BSO(A)S
CIL
UAL
IL
JAS
JRAS

American Anthropologist
Anthropological Linguistics
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
Contemporary Indian Literature
International Journal of American Linguistics
Indian Linguistics
The Journal of Asian Studies
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
244

I.
1. . .
., 1975.
2. . .( 1970.
3. .., .. . ., 1973.
4. .. . ,
. .., 1935.
5. .. - . - . . ., 1937.
6. .. . . . 7.
.., 1939.
7. .. (, ). ., 1934.
8. .. .
. . . 4. ., 1954.
9. .. . ., 1972.
10. .. : ,
. . ., 1970.
11. .. . ., 1984.
12. .. . ., 1963.
13. .. .
. 1941, 2.
14. ..
. . ., 1965.
15. .. . ., 1984.
16. .. . , 1967.
17. . . 18. , 19551969.
18. . ., 1960.
19. .. (
.). ., 1982.
20. P.P. . .
. 3. ., 1961.
21. ., . . . , 1967.
22. .. . ., 1978.
245

23. .. . .,
1971.
24. .. . ., 1963.
25. ..
. ., 1970.
26. .., ..
. . ., 1972.
27. ..
. ., 1976.
28. .. . ., 1977.
29. A.M.
. ., 1948.
30. A.M. . . 1963.
31. A.M. .
. ., 1965.
32. A.M. .

. , 1970.
33. A.M., .. (
1961 .).
. . XIV. . 3. ., 1972.
34. ..
. : . ., 1974.
35. : .
. . 1986.
36. .. . . 1958, 13.
37. .. XVIII .
... , 61. ., 1963.
38. .. . .
. XIX. . 4. ., 1977.
39. .. XVIII XIX . ., 1961.
40. .. , , . ., 1960.
41. : . ., 1974.
42. . ., 1968.
43. ( .). ., 1964.
44. .. . ., 1968.
45. ..
. , 1967.
46. . . ., 1974.
47. .. - .
., 1978.
48. .. . :
. ., 1974.
49. .. . , 1982.
50. .. .
. ., 1970.
51. ( ). ., 1965.
52. . , 1977.
246

53. .
. . ., 1967.
54. . ., 1963.
55. - .
, 1977.
56. . ., 1977.
57. . ., 1982.
58. .. . . 1976.
59. . . 1961.
60. . ., 1959.
61. . . 6. . , 1972.
62. . . 7. . . 1975.
63. . ., 1969.
64. .. . ., 1965.
65. A.M.
. . , 1959.
66. . ., 1972.
67.
. ., 1970.
68. . . 1983.
69. .. . ., 1977.
70. .. .
. . XIV. . 3. ., 1972.
71. ..
1971 . . . XIV. . 3. , 1972.
72. .. . ., 1981.
73. .. . ., 1976.
74. .. . ., 1963.
75. .., .. ( .). M.f 1954.
76. A.M. . . .
. ., 1970.
77. A.M. . .,
1980.
78. . ., 1965.
79. .
. . 1951.
80. . . 1975.
81. .. . ., 1978.
82. .. .
-
. ., 1966.
83. ..
. ., 1976.
84. . . V . . 1967.
85. . . XII. . . 2.
., 1972.
86. . . XIV. .
. 3. ., 1972.
247

87. . . XIX. .
. 4. , 1977.
88. . ., 1981.
89. ..
. . ., 1972.
90. . ., 1985.
91. ..
. .( 1979.
92. . (
). : . ., 1971.
93. .. ( ). ., 1961.
94. . . (
.). ., 1977.
95. . ( ). .,
1960.
96. .. . . ., 1968.
97. .. . ., 1965.
98. . ( ):
. . . XIX.
, 1977.
99. . . ., 1969.
100. .
( 1947 .). ., 1978.
101. .
. 19851986. . ., 1987.
102. .
( ).
. . 1967.
103. . -. .
, 1968.
104. . .
. ., 1969.
105. . - . .
1972, 9.
106. .
. ( ).
., 1971.
107. .
. .
. 1974.
108. . . ., 1983 ().
109. .
. .
, 1976.
110. .
. ., 1981 ().
111. .
. . 1968, 2.
248

112. .
. . ., 1983.
113. .. . . 1972,
9.
114. ..
. . ., 1970.
115. .. .
. M.f 1985.
116. .. ( XVII .).
, 1974.
117. . ( .). . 1956.
118. .. . ., 1976.
119. .. ?
. ., 1967.
120. . . 1968.
121. . ., 1977.
122. - . ., 1977.
123. . ., 1967.
124. ..
. . ., 1979.
II.
125. . - ( ). , 1926.
126. .
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