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update 01.08.13

2002
1.038 87.2 90

" ' 2000


" "
"". ,
.


..
: .. , .. ..
.. -..

:
- , .. ,
- , .. , ..

90 : . .: ; . 2002. 1376
. ( ).
ISBN 985-6656-20-6. ISBN 985-428-461-1.
" " , .
, , , ,
, . , - .

ISBN 985-6656-20-6 ISBN 985-428-461-1


1.038 87.2

" ". " ", 2000


. .., 2002 "", 2002

........................................................................................................................18
.....................................................................................................................................................19
AFTER-POSTMODERNISM ()

...............................................................................................................19
(Abbagnano) (19011990) , ,
" ". .........................................................................................................................................20
. .....................................................................................................................................22
,
. .....................................................22
(Augustinus Sanctus) (354430) ,
,
...................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
(Avenarius) (18431896) ,
................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
(. autos nomos ) ,
, . ....26
( )
( ) (. autos );
................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
(. , gnosis ) ,
, ,
. ..........................................................................................................................................30
(. adaequatus ) , , , ,
........................................................................................................................................................................ 30
(Adorno), - (Wiesengrund-Adorno) (19031969) ,
, , . ........................................................................................................................................31
() (19101989) ,
.......................................................................................................................................................................32
(. accidentia , ) , ,
, , , ( , ), ....................................................................................................................................................................... 35
(Alain de Lille, Alanus ab Insulius) (1120/1128 1202/1203)
, , , , "Doctor Universalis". ................................................35
(Alexander) (18591938) -. ................................................35
(Albert) (. 1921) , , . ............................................................37
(Albertus Magnus) (1193/12071280) , ,
, , "Doctor Universalis" ("
"). .................................................................................................................................................................................. 40
(Althusser) (19181990) , . ............................................................................................................................................................................... 40
, (Amaury) (. . 1206) -. 42
(500428 ..) ( ) , , 30
, . .........................................................42
(610540 ..) ( ) , . ......43
(585525 ..) ( ) , . ...........................43
-
20 ., , . ...................................................................................................44
" " ("The anatomy of human destractiveness", 1973)
, . 46
(Anselm) (10331109) , , 1093
(). : "", " "
("Proslogion"), " " . .........................................................................................................................48
" "
. ................................................................................................................................48
- , (. )
.............................................................................................................................................49
(1) ,
, - .................................................................................................................................................50
,
7 . .. 6 . . .....................................................................................................................54
- ,
(. )
............................................................................................................................................................................ 61
(. , peiron , ) ,
"". ............................................................................................................................................62
(Apel) - (. 1922) ,
. ....................................................................................................................................................... 63
(. , ) ,
. .............................................................................64
- ,
........................................................................65
(. a posteriori, . ) , ,
, a priori ("" ). ..................................................................65

(. a priori, . ) ,
, , . .........................................................................................................................65
" "
; ..........................................................................66
(384 322 ..) -. ..........................................66
(Aron) (1905 1983) , , . .......................69
" " ("L'archeologie du savoir", 1969) , ,
" " ..................................................................................................................................................... 70
(. arche typos ; , ) ,
" ", . .....................................78
( . atheos )...............................................................................................................................78
(. attribuo , ) ,
, ...................................................................................................................................................79
...............................................................80

.....................................................................................................................................................81
(, -) ,
- ...............................................81
(Barth) (18861968) . ..................................................................................................83
(Barthes) (19151980) , -. ......................................85
(Bataille) (18971962) , , , , ,
, . .................................................................................................................................................................86
(18951975........................................................................................................................88
(Bachelard) (18841962) , , , . ...................89
(Babbage) (17921871) , , 1830-
, 1940- ..................................................96
" " ("Escape from Freedom", 1941) ,
,
. ...........................................................................................................................................................98
,
" " (1961). ..............................................................................99
(Bohme, Bohm) () (15751624) , , .
. 10 , ...........................................................................100
(Bentham) (17481832) , , ,
.........................................................................................................................................................................101
(Benjamin) (18921940; - ,
) .......................................................................................................102
(Bergson) (18591941) , ,
- ..............................104
"" ("Le Bergsonisme", 1966) .....................................................................................109
(1874 1948) ...................................................111
(Berkeley) (16851753) .................................................................114
(Bernard de Clairvaux) (10911153) , .
, ........................................................................................115
,
- ...117
(Bloch) (18851977) , .
" " " --"......................................................................................119
(Baudrillard) (. 1929) , , ..............................................................122
(Bollnow) (19031991) ......................................................................125
(Bolzano) (17811848) , , , ....................................127
(Bonaventura), (12171274) ......127
(Boethius) (480524, ) , , .........................................................................128
(Brentano) (18381917) .
............................................................................................................................................................................ 128
(Brentano) (18381917) .........128
(run) (1548 1600) , . -,
(1576)...................................................................................................................................................134
(Bradly) (1846 1924) , ,
....................................................................................................................................................... 135
(Brunschvicg) (18691944) ......................................................................137
" " ("Die Zukunft einer Illusion", 1927) ,
................................................140
" " (19431951, 1951) .........................................................141
(Bourbaki Nicolas) (1936) ..................................................................................................................143
. ......................................................................................................................................144
(. 1924) , . ...............................................................144
, (
.....................................................................................................................................................................145
" " ("Sein und Zeit", 1927) . .................................................................146

" . " ("L'Etre et le nant. Essai d'ontologie phnomnologique".


Paris, 1943) ............................................................................................160
. ............................................................................................................................165
(Bacon) (15611626) , ,
. ..........................................................................165

...................................................................................................................................................166
" " ("Introduzione all'esistenzialismo", 1942) . ".."
. ...166
(. omnipraesentia) , ...........................170
(Weyl) (18851955) , ,
(1927).........................................................................................................170
, 1920-
. .......................................................................................................................................................................... 172
" " (. gaya scienza) (1)
, 1112 ................................173

.................................................................................................................................................... 174
,
............................................................................................................................................178
" " , ...............................................180
(Vico) (16681744) ...............................................................................181
(Windelband) (18481915) , , ......................................182
(Wiener) (18941964) , ()...............................................183
(. virtus , ) ,
. .......................................................................................................185
, , (. virtual reality virtual , virtue
, ; . . virtus , , , , , ,
; . realis , , ) .............................................................186
(. vitalis , ) (1) ,
,
......................................................................................................................................189
(Wittgenstein) (1889 1951) - ,
(19391947), . ..............................................................................189
,
. .....................................................................................................................................................192
(Voltaire), (Arouet) (16941778) ,
, , ........................................................................................193
(Wolff) (16791754) , ,
.....................................................................................................................194
,

.......................................................................................................................................................... 195
-- ,
; .........196
" " () (. Afterpostmodernism), " ",
..............................................................................................200
" ("La Rebelion de las masas", 1930) --. ,
" ". ......................................201
, ,
.................................................................202
(, ),
.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 203
" . " (19511952). ..........................................204
(. vulgaris ) ,
19 . ................................205

...................................................................................................................................................206
(Galilei) (15641642) ,
, , , , ............................................................................................................................................207
(. harmonia ) ,
( , )
...............................................................................................................................................209
( ) ,
, , - ...........................................................209
(Hartmann) (18821950) .............................................................................210
(Hartman) (18421906) ,
19 . .............................................................................................................................212

(Gassendi) (15921655) .......................................................214


() (Guattari) (1930 1992) . ...........................214
(Hegel) (1770 1831) , ,
- ......216
(Gdel) (1906 1978) ,
, ...........................................................................................................................219
(Gehlen) (19041976) ,
. ....................................................................................................................................................................... 221
(Helvetius) (1715 1771) ,
,
18 . ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 223
(Hlderlin) (17701843) ,

20 . .............................................................................................................................................................. 224
(Helmholtz) (18211894) 19 .
(, , ) . ..........................................................................................................................226
(Hempel) (19051997) , .
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 228
(I) : " ", "
", " " , , "
". .....................................................................................................................................229
(Guenon) (1886 1951) ,
. . ...................................................................................................234
/ , "" (1969)
" " .....................................235
(544/540/535483/480/475) ,
. ...................................................................................................................................236
(Herder) (17441803) - ..................................................237
(. hermeneutike ) ,
() . ..................................................................238
,
. ..........................................................................................................................239
(18601904) , " .... 239
(Goethe) (17491832) , , ........................240
(. heteros , nomos , ) ,
,
............................................................................................................................................................................. 241
(. hile , morphe ) (
19 . ) ........................242
(. hyle , zoe ) ,
, , , ......................................................................................................244
(Hubert) (1862 1943) , , ,
20 . ...........................................................................244
(. gnosis , logos ) ,
, , . .......................................................246
(. gnosis , ) -
............................................................................................................................................................................ 247
(Hobbes) (15881679) . .........................................249
" : " ("La voix et le phnomne". Paris,
1967) . .....................................................................................................................................................250
(Holbach) (17231789) ,
, ...................................................................................................................................................... 252
(Gonseth) (18901975) , ,
"" (),
. ............................................................................................................................................................... 252
"" ,
(7060-, 4 . ..). ...................................................................................................................................255
,
. ......................................................................................................................................258
(. humanitas ) ...................................................268
(Humboldt) (1767 1835) , , ,
, (1810). .................................................................................269
(Husserl) (18591938) , ,
20 . ..............................................................................................................................270

...................................................................................................................................................278
DIFFERANCE , "
, " ()...........................................................................................................278
(Dante Alighieri) (12651321) ......279
(. , , , ) , , :
, ; , , , .................................281

" ". ..................................................................................................................281


(Darwin) (18091882) ,
. ................................................................................................................................................282
, . ........283
.................................................................................................................................283
(. deus )
. ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 283
(Descartes) (. ; Renatus Cartesius) (15961650) ,
, , ................................................................................................................................................284
, . ..287
(Deleuze) (19251995) . .....................................................................................289
(. demiourgos " ", .. , -)
, - - ..................................................294
(460 370 ..) , -,
. ............................................................................................................................................................................... 295
, ,
.....................................................................................................................296
(Derrida) (. 1930) , ,
" " (1980 1990-). ................................................................................................................................299
(Destruktion) . .................302
(. determino )
...........................................................303
() (James) (1842 1910) ............................................304
(Gentile) (18751944) , , "
" (""). ....................................................................................................................................................305
, , .................................................................................................................................................306
" . " ("Dialektik der Aufklaerung. Philosophische Fragmente",
1947) . .........................................................................................................307
, . 309
(. dialogos )
, ........................................................................................................................................310
20 .,
"". ..............................................................311
(Diderot) (1713--1784) , , ,
. ........................................................................................................................................................ 311
(Dilthey) (18331911) , ...........................314
( 23 .) , .............................................................317
(. 404 . 323 ..) , .
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 318
(discursus: . discere )
, . ...........319
(. dispositif , "", , )
, ..............................................................................................................................322
, ....................................324
,
. ..................................................................................................................................................325
(. doctor) : doctor angelicus
( .) ...................................................................................................................................326
,
(" ") -
( ). ......................................................................................................................326
(65 . ..), 4 .
.., "" . .....................................................327
, .................................................................................................................327
(. dualis ) ...........................................................................................................................328
. .........................................................................................................................329
(Dussel) (. 1934) , , ,
" ". ...........................................................................................................................329
(Dewey) (18591952) , ,
. ................................................................................................................................................................ 334
(During) (18331921) , . .........................335

E...................................................................................................................................................336
( 330277 ..)
................................................................................................................................................................................... 336
- ,
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 337
" " ("Die Europischen Revolutionen und der Charakter der
Nationen". Jena, 1931) -. ..........................................................................................................339

.................................................................................................................................................342
() (18801940) , , , .
.................................................................................................................................................................................... 342
(Buridan) (. 1300 . 1358) , (
). .......................................................................................................................................................... 343
(Zizek) (. 1949) , . ............................................................................344
(Lebenswelt) ,
................................................................................................................................................................ 346
" "
" ". ....................................................................................................................................................... 347
(Gilson) (18841978) ,
, -. ....................................347
(Girard) (. 1923) , , , ,
" " . ............................................349
( " ")
,
. ...................................................................353
" " , . ........355
(. 490 . 430 ..) , (65 .
.., . , ). ..........................................................................................................................................359
- (346/336/333264/262 ..) ( ). .......................360
, ..........................................................360

..................................................................................................................................................362
( , Averroes) -
(11261198) , ........................................................................................................................362
( , Avicenna) ..........................................................................363
, , .....................................364
(. idalisme . idea ) , 18 .
, ..................................................................................................................................................... 368
( ) ,
, , ; .........................................................................................370
(. identificare , . identifico ) (" ") .........................................................................371
, , , ,
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 376
,
( ). ...........................................................................................................................................378
" ?" (" have or to be?", 1976) , "" ""
..............................................................................................379
(. immanens ) , ,
, ; ......................................................................................................................380
(. heterores, . alterritas) ....................................................................380
", , " ("Autrement qu'tre ou Au-del de l'essence", 1974)
. ............................................................................................380
", " (" , ") ("Autrement que savoir", 1988)
, . (G.Petitdemahge) . (J.Rolland) .............................................................................381
,
. .................................................................................................................................382
,
(. , . , . , . .). ................383
(. intelligibilis ) ,
. .................................................................................................................................................384
(. intentio , ) . 384
(InterNet) (. - ) , ...........................................................384
,
................................................................................................................................................................................ 386
,
. .......................................................387
( , .. "") (. 675 750)
, , .............................................................................................389
(Duns Scotus) (1265/1266 1308) ,
..........................................................................................................390
(810877/887) . , , . 393
(. irrationalis , ) ,
, -.
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 394
"" ( 400). ...............................................395
- (. ),
, ................................................397

" . " (1960), ...................400


( ) ,
- . .............409
( ) ,
. ............................................................................................................412
,
............................................................................................................................................412
(. itra ) ,
, .................................................................................415

...................................................................................................................................................416
KRITIK (.; . critique; . ; . criticism . kritike ) ...............................416
(. kalos kai hagatos ) -
, , ................................................................419
(Campanella) (1568 1639) , , . ..........420
(Camus) (19131960) , , , . ............................420
(Kant) (17241804) , ....................................................421
(Cantor) (18451918) , , ,
() , 19 20 .
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 424
, "
" (..). ..................................................................................................................................................425
(Carnap) (18911970) - ................................................427
(18821952) . , ..................429
( , Cartesius . ) ,
...................................................................................................................................430
(Cassirer) (18741945) . .........................................................433
(. imperativus ) , ..............437
(. causalis , causa ), , ,
..................................................................................................................................................437
,
"" " .....................................................................................................................................................437
[. kybernetike (techne) " "] ,
" , ..." .................438
. ..................................................................................................................442
, . .......................................................................................................442
, .......................442
. .........................447
(Klein) (18491925) ,
20 . .................................................................................447
(Cohen) (18421918) ,
. ........................................................................................................................................................448
, (Kierkegaard) (18131855) .........................................506

..................................................................................................................................................508
(Lacan) (19011981) . "
" .......................................................................................................................................................................508
() ( ) (Lakatos) (19221974) -
, . ...................................................................................................................512
(Lamark), ( ) (17441829)
, ( 1793). .....................................................................514
(Lamettrie) (1709 1751) , . ........................514
- (65 . ..) ,
; .................................................................................................................................................515
(Laplace) (17491827) , , , ,
. ..............................................................................................................................................................516
"" ( ) ( ,
1651). .................................................................................................................................................................. 516
(Levinas) (12.01.1906 25.12.1995; ..............................................................................................518
(5 . ..) ( ). .
. ................................................................................................................................................................ 524
(Leibniz) (1646 1716) , , , , ,
................................................................................................................................................................................ 524
" " ("Vorlesungen zur Einfuehrung in die Psychoanalyse". Wien, 1916
1917......................................................................................................................................................................................... 525
" " ("Vorlesungen zur Phnomenologie des
innern Zeitbewubtseins", 1905) . ............................................................................................................526
(Lessing) (1729 1781) -, , ,
. ....................................................................................................................529
, ,

20 . , .......................................................530
(Lyotard) - (. 1924) , " ",
"", ................................................................................................................................530
(17921856) ,
( ), , . ...................................................................................................................533
" " ("Loguque du sens". Paris, 1969) . (" 1" " 2"
)...........................................................................................................................................534
"- " ("tatus Logico-philosophicus")
......................................................................................................................................536
,
....................................................................................................................................................................... 542
(. logos) , , , ..............................543
,
........543
,
................................................................................................................................................................................... 544
, .............................................................................................545
, ..................................................................545
(Locke) (16321704) -, ,
- ...............................................................................................................547
(Lotze) (18171881) , , , .
................................................................................................................................................................................ 548
(Lewis) (18981963) , , ; ........................550
, , .......................................................................................................................................553
, (Luther) (14831546) , ,
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 556

M..................................................................................................................................................559
Das MAN (. Man - ) , " "
(1927) ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 559
MODERN (. die Moderne, . Modernit) . .......................................................................................559
(. maieutike ) ,
....................................................................................................................................................... 560
(Maimonides), (
) (11351204............................................................................................................................................................ 560
(Machiavelli) (14691527) , ,
................................................................................................................................................561
(Malebranche) (1638 1715) ,
. ....................................................................................................................................................................562
(19301990) . ........................................................562
- , 3 .
311 . . ...........................................................................................................................565
, ........................................566
(Maritain) (18821973) , . ...........568
(Markus Aurelius Antoninus; 121180) ( 140),
(161180),.........................................................................................................................................570
(Marx) (18181883) , , . ..........................................................571
1920 ., -
, ...................................................................................................572
(Markuse) (18981979) - ,
..........................................................................................................................................................574
(Marcel) (1889 1973) ,
, . .........................................................................................................................575
(. materialis ) , .......................577
(. materia ) , ..............577
(Mach) (18381916) . (1860). .............579
(Meyerson) (18591933) . ............581
(Meinong) ( 18531920) , . .............584
,
....................................................................................585
- (Merleau-Ponty) (1908 1961) ,
. ................................................................................................................................................................ 586
( "", "", " ")
, ,
,.................................................................................................................................................................... 587
(. meta ta physika : ,
, ............................................................................................................................589
"" ,
("-") "". ................................................................................................................591
, ...............................................................592

" " .....................................593


1) : ,
, 2) ...............................................................................................................................597
(. methodos -, , ) , ...............598

. ................................................................................................................................................................................ 599

. ..................................................................................................................................................................599
" " ( 1818, 1844 1859)
. ......................................................................................................................................................600
" . " ("Le mythe de l'ternel retour. Arhtypes et
rptition. Paris, 1949"; ; . ., 1998) , ................................................................603
, ..............................................................................................604
(. modus , , ) , 1718 . ..................605
(. monas , ) ,
. .............................................................................................................606
"" , .............................................................609
(. monos ) .........................................................................................................................................610
(Montaigne) (15331592) , , .......................611
(Montesquieu) , , (1689 1755) .........612
MOP (More) (14781535, VIII) . -
(15291532). .........................................................................................................................................................................613
(Mounier) (19051950) . ..........................................................................613
(Moore) (18731958) , . ............................615

H..................................................................................................................................................616
" " ("Surveiller et punir". Paris, 1975) . ....................................................616
(. narrare , .. ) .......................620
" " ("La violence et le sacr". Paris, 1972) , ...............................................622
..............................................................................................625
(Natorp) (18541924) , . 626
(. natura ) , ..................................................627
, ,
...............................................................................................................629
" " ("Wissenschaft der Logik") , ..............................................................632
" " (1910) , ..................635
(. Wissenschatslehre) 1. , ....................................................................641
" " ("Negative Dialektik", 1966) , ..........................................................643
(Neumann von) (, ) (19031957) , (). ..........................648
. ....................650
" " .........................................650
-
18 19 ., ............................................................653
(. )
, ................................................................................................................................................................................ 654
, .............................................661
.................................................................................................................................................................. 662
- 36 ., ............................................663
. ........................................................................................................................664
, ...................................................664
( ) ,
19401970 ...............................................................................................................................................666
" " ("Das Unbehangen in der Kultur", 1930) , .................670
", " ("De la Grammatologie". Paris: Les Edition de Minuit, 1967)
. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 671
- "" ...............................672
(. nihil ) .
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 672
(Nicolaus Cusanus) ( (Krebs)) (14011464) ....................674
" " ( ). ...........................................677
(Nietzsche) (18441900) , ............................................................................679
(Novalis) ( (von Haardenberg) (1772 1801)
, , ...........................................................................................682
" " ( 1704, 1765).
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 683
( . nomad ) .............................................................................................685
(. nomina , nominalis ...........................................................686
,
. ............................................................................................................................................................................. 687
(. noesis , noema ) ,
.....................................................................................................................688

,
(.), ...................................................................................................................................................688
(Newton) (16431727) , , , ....................................691

..................................................................................................................................................694
- ,
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 694
(. 1943) - , , ......696
" " ( : 413427). 697
" . " ("The One-Dimensional
Man. Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society", 1964) . ....................................................698
, ("")
, ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 698
, . ............................698
, .......................................699
(. occasio , sio-nalis ) -
17 ., ...................................................................................................................................................................700
. . .......................................................................................................................700
" " ("L'il et l'esprit". Paris, 1964) - .......................700
(. on, ontos , logos ) : ................................................................702
------ , ........................................705
, -
- . ........................................706
l ) ,
, , , . .............................................................................................................................707
" " ("An essay concerning human understanding", 1690)
, ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 707
(. 185254) , , , . ...................709
-- (Ortega Gasset) Xoce (1883 1955) . .......................................................711
(. ortos , doxa ) .............................................................................................714
- ,
.................................................................................................................................................................................. 714
" " ...........................................................................................................................715
" " ("Die Grundbegriffe der Metaphysik") . ...................716
" " ("Des choses caches depuis la fondation du monde". Paris, 1978; avec J.M. Oughourlian et G.Lefort) ......................................................................................................................718
" " ("En dcouvrant l'existence avec
Husserl et Heidegger", 1949) . .....................................................722
, (" ", 1932......724
,
. ....................................................................................................................................726
,
,.....................................726

..................................................................................................................................................727
(. paradeigma , ) .......................................................................................................727
(. Paracelsus " , ") ,
(Hohenheim) (14931541) , ............................................727
(Pareyson) (19181991) . .......................................................................728
( 6 5 . ..) ...................................................................................729
(Pascal) (16231662) - ,
. ........................................................................................................................................................................ 729
(Putnam) (. 1926) . ....................................................................730
(. patres ) - 28 .,
. ........................................................................................732
. .........778
" . " ("Jenseits von Gut und Bse", 1886)
, ................................................................................................................................................................................... 779
" " ( " "; "Moriae Encomium, sive Stultitiae Laus")
. ........................................................................................................783
, (, ) ,
() . .................................785
(. pragma , ) , , , . .....................787
( . prae , forma , : praeformo , )
. .......................788
" " ("Spectres de Marx") , 1993, ......789
" " ("La transparence du mal". Paris, 1990) . ............................................793
("") (412 485) -.
. .................................................................................................................................................................797
(. prolegomena )

, .......................................................................................800
(. propaideio ) - , .. , - , ................................................................800
. -
, . ......................................................................800
(480410 ..) ...........................................................................................801
" " ("Against Method. Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge", 1974)
, ..................................................................................................................................................801
- ( . , )
5 6 ., . ........................................................806

..........................................................................................................................................................807
" " (1921), ............807
(Poincare) (18541912) , ,
........................................................................................................................808
,
.................................................810
" , " ("La route antique des hommes pervers". Paris,
1985) , ........................................................................................................................................................812

...................................................................................................................................................815
RESSENTIMENT (. "") , (.
) . .............................................................................................................................................................. 815
" " ("Diffrence et Repetition", 1969) . ......................................................816
,
() ....................................................................818
" . " ("Reason and Revolution. Hegel and the rise of
social theory", 1941) ...............................................................................................................................818
( . dessemination ...............................................................................................................................820
(Russell) (18721970), , - .................822
" " , .......................................................................825
" " (1844) . ................................................................828
" "
(1755). .......................................................................................................................................................................... 830
(. ratio ) ................................................................................................................................833
(. realis , ) ...............................................................................................835
(. realis , ) ........................................................................................835
( . res ) 1) ( ......................................................................................................836
, , , ,
. ...........................................................................................................................837
,
, . ...................................................................................................840
(. rhizome ) ,
, ..................................................................................841
(Ricoeur) (. 1913) , (1956),
, 30 . ..........................................................844
(Rickert) (18631936) ,
. .....................................................................................................................................................................846
(Roger Bacon) ( 1214 1294) ...........................................................................................846
" " ("Die Geburt der Tragnedie aus dem geiste der Musik", 1872) ............847
(Rosenzweig) (18861929) -. ....................................................851
- (Rosenstock-Huessy) (18881973) ......................................................851
(Rawls) (. 1923) , .............................858
, 1819 .,
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 859
(Rorty) (. 1931) . ..........................................................................................861
(Rothacker) (18881965) , -,
................................................................................................................................................................865
, ,
. .....................................................................................................................................................866
(Rousseau) - (17121778) -, ,
, , , . .................................................................................................................870

...................................................................................................................................................874
(Sade) -- (1740 1814) , ,
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 874
(Sullivan) (18921949) , ;
. ....................876
(--) .............................................................................................................................877
(1) ....................................................................................879
(15571633) , , ,

, (), . ...............................................................879
(Sartre) (19051980) , ,
, . ....................................880
(Swedenborg) (1688 1772) - -. ..883
, ......................................................................884
"-" (-, -, -, - ................................................................................................886
,
...................................................................................................................887
.....................................................889
(. sexus ) , .................................................................890
(200250) . .............................................................................897
(Sellars) (18801973) , 898
(semanalyse) " "; ,
.............................................................................................................................................................................. 898
(. sema ) , ; .............................................................................900
(. semeion ) , ,
, ..............................................................................................................901
..............................902
(Lucius Annaeus Seneka) (. 465) .............................................902
- (Sen-Simon) - (17601825.........................................................................................903
(. sensus , )
: .................................................................................................................................................................................... 904
(. simulacres, simulation )
.........................................................................................................................906
,
. .....................................907
" " ("Le system des objets", 1968) , ............................................909
" " ("System des transzendentalen Idealismus". Tubingen, 1800)
, .........................................................................................................................913
" " ...........................................................................................................................................916
..................................................................................................................................................................... 917
............................................................................................................................................................................. 918
................................................................................................................................................................. 922
(17221794) , , , . ........................923
1415 ., ......................................................924
("") , ""
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 925
( , -),
..........................................................925
" : " ("Les mots et les choses: une archologie des sciences humaines",
1966) . ............................................................................................................................................................ 926
", " ("Contingency, Irony and Solidarity". Cambridge, Mass., 1989)
.......................................................................................................................................................................... 928
" " ,
. ...........................................................................................935
" " ,
, ............................................936
" "
-
.......................................................................................................................................938
, "
" . ...................................................................................................941
" " ("Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte", 1949) . 942
(-, -) ...............................................................................................................................943
................................................................................................................................................................ 948
..............................................................................................................................................952
..................................................................................................................................................952
........................................................................................................................................................................... 953
( 470399 ..) , ............................................................................................954
..............................................................................................................................................956
(. solus ipse ) ,
(), , , .............................959
(18531900) . ............................................................................960
(Saussure) (1857 1913) ,
, 20 . .........................................962
1920 .....................963
....................................................................................................................................................................... 964
(. sophia , , ) ,
, ......................................................................................................................................................... 965
,

, ..........................................................................................................................................................967
( ) ., ,
., ........................968
(Spencer) (18201903) . ...........................................................970
" " (, "
", , 2001) ... .......................................................................................................................972
(Spinoza, Espinosa) () (16321677) . .976
. ...................................977
" .
" .. .........................................................981
(. 1934) - . ........................983
, (
), 4 3 . . .....................................................................................................983
" . " (1914)
. ...........................................................................................................................985
,
() ...................................987
" " ("The Structure of Scientific Revolutions", 1962) ,
. ....................................................988
(Suarez) (15481617) ,
. ...............................................................................................................................994
(. substantia , , )
. ....995
(. subjectus , objectura )
.............................................................................................................................995
................................................................................................................................................................................ 996
(. haecceitas quidditas ) .............999
(. schola , . scholastica )
- , .....................999

.................................................................................................................................................1004
: "
" ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1004
" " ("L volution cratrice", 1907) . ......................................................1005
(Teilhard de Chardin) (18811955) ,
(1899), ( 1911), . ............................................................................................1008
. ......................................................................1010
,
- . ......................................................................................1011
(. telos , ; teleos logos )
. .....................................1012
, ..........................1013
- (. ),
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1014
,

(. ) . ...........................................................................................1018
(. theodicee . theos dike ) ..................................................................1021
" . , " (, 2000) ,
, .................................1022
" " ("Teoria e storia dlia storiografia", 1917) , ..............1024
" " ("Thorie de l'intuition dans la phnomnologie de
Husserl", 1930)
. ...............................................................................................................................................1029
(Tertullianus) ( 160 220)
. ..........................................................................................................................................................................1030
,
,
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1032
. ..............................................1033
(Toland) (16701722) ,
. .................................................................................................................1033
" " ("Die Traumdeutung". , 1900) , ............................................1034
(Thorn) (. 1923) ,
............................................................................................................................................................................. 1034
" . " ("Totalit et Infini. Essai sur l'Extriorit", 1961)
, ..............................................................................................................1036
........................................................................................................................................................1041
" " (1690). ..............................................................1044
,
.....................................................................1045

, ..........................................1047
( ) ,
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1048
"
" ................................................................................................................................................................................. 1048
-
, . ........................................................................................1049
( ,
, ..............................................................................................................1051
,
" .........................................................................................1053
,

. ..............................................................................................................................1055
.
, ..........................................................................................................................1056
" " ,
.......................................................................1057
(. transcendens , )
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1058
(. transcendens ) ,
, .
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1059
(Trendelenburg) (18021872) . .........................1059

................................................................................................................................................1060
(Whitehead) (1861 1947) , , , . .........1060
(Ockham, Occam) ( 1285 1349) , , . ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1062
(. universalis ) . ...................................................................................1063
(.: ou , topos , .. ", ")
/ , ..........................................................................................1064
, "doctor ecclesiae".
.................................................................................................................................................................................. 1065

................................................................................................................................................1066
( 640/625 547/545 ..) ( ),
" ". 585 .. , ......................................................................1066
(Feyerabend) () (19241994) - .
, ..................................................................................................................................................................1066
(Feuerbach) (1804 1872) . .........................................................1067
,
" " . .....................................................................................................................................1068
20 . . ,
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1070
" " ("Phnomnologie de la perception". Paris, 1945)
-, ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1073
" " ("Phnomnologie des Geistes") , ..........................1077
(. phileo , sophia ; ) ,
..........................1082
- ,
, , .................................................................................1084
- ,
19 . ..................................................................................................................................................................1085
" " ("Philosophy and the mirror of nature", 1979) . .........1086
" " (1904). ................................................................................................1090
" " ( 1821). ..............................................................................1091
1) ,
. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1094
" " ("Philosophische Untersuchungen")
. .................................................................................................................................................1097
(Fichte) (17621814) ; , , ...................................................................................1106
(Fischer) (18241907) 19 ., .............................................................1108
(1882 1937) , - .........................1109
, ....................................1113
(Thomas Aquinas) (1225/12261274) ,
13 . , .......................................................................................................1113
, ,
- ................................................................1117
" : "

(1938), . ............................................................................1119
(18771950) . ...................................................................................1122
(Frege) (18481925) , .
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1125
(Freud) ( ) (18561939) , , ,
, . . ...............................................................................1126
(Fromm) (19001980) - , , . ...............................1127
(Foucault) (-) (1926 1984) , .
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1129
"" ("Foucault", 1986) . . " "
(" ", " "), ..1137

X.................................................................................................................................................1143
(Habermas) (. 1929) ,
......................1143
(Heidegger) (18891976) , 20 . ......1155
(. chaos ; chasco ) ,
. .................1166
, , ................................................................1166
(Hengstenberg) - (. 1904) ,
. ..............................................................................................................................................1167
,
,
. .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1169
(Horkheimer) (1895 1973) . ................................................1171
(orny) (18851952) - , ,
. ................................................................................................................1172
(Chrysippos) (281/278208/205 ..) . "
" . .........................................................................................................1173
(. l'hubris . ubris , , ) ..............1174

................................................................................................................................................1175
"" , "", "", "" ., "", ..
, ...................................................................................................................1175
(Cicero) (10643 ..) , , . .......................................1178

................................................................................................................................................1179
,
. ....................................................................................................................................................... 1179
" . " ("Man for Himself, 1947) ,
, ....................................................1181
" " ("Moses and Monotheism", 1939)
, .....................................1182

, ............................................................................................................................................1183
, .. (, ,
) ; ........................................................................................1184
, . .................................................................1189
" ?" ("Qu'est-ce que la philosophie?", Les Editions de Minuit, 1991)
. .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1192

...............................................................................................................................................1203
(Schweitzer) (18751965) - -, , , ,
, , . .............................................................................1203
(Scheler) (18741928) , ,
- , . ......................................................................1204
(Schelling) (1775-1854)
- . ..................................................................................................................1208
( ) (1866 1938) ,
- 20 . ......................................................................................1211
(. schizein ) .
. " " (1972
1980), .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1212
(Schiller) (17591805) , , ,
.........................................................................................................................1217
(Schlegel) (17721829) , , ,
. ..................................................................................................................................................... 1218
(Sleiermacher) (17681834) , .
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1219
(Schlick) (18821936,
) , . .................................................................................................1220

(Schopenhauer) (1788 1860) , ,


, .........................................................................................................1222
(Spengler) (18801936) ,
, - . .....................................................1224
(18791937) . ............................................................1226

.................................................................................................................................................1228
(. eidos , , ) ,
, ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1228
(Einstein) (1879-1955) - 20 .,
, .................................................................................................................................1229
(. exegeomai ) .........................................................................................................1232
[. ex(s) istentia ], ,
20 . ......................................................................................................................1234
(, . exsistentia, ex-sisto, ex-sistere , ,
, , , , , ) ,
. .......................................................................................................................................1237
(Eckhart) , (. , ) (12601327/1328)
-, , . ..................................................................................1239
(. elementum , ; . stoiheia, stoihos , ..
) (,
, , ) " " (. quinta essentia " ") . ................1240
(Eliade) (19071986) , , .
20 . ........................................................................................................................................1240
(. emanatio ) ,
. ..............................1242
, (490/487/482 430/424/423) , ,
, , . .................................................1243
(. empeiria ) ,
, . ..................................................................................1244
(Engels) (18201895) , , ( )
" ". ...................................................................................................................................1244
(. enkyklios , " " ; paedia , ,
) ( ) . ...........................1245
" " ("Encyklopadie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse",
1817) " " " " ,
. .....................................................................................................................................................1246
(. aion ) . ........................................................1249
(. Epictetus , "") (50
125/135/138?) , . ...................................................................1250
(341270 ..) - , .
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1251
(Erasmus Roterodamus), (Desiderius Erasmus), (
) (14691536) , ,
, . ..................................................................................1252
" " - , "
". .............................................................................................................................1252
" " ("Eros and Civilization", 1955) .
( " "), .......................................................................1253
(. ethika: ethos , , , ) ........................................................................1254

...............................................................................................................................................1259
(Hume) (17111776) , , , . .....1259
(Jung) ( 18751961) , , .
.................................................................................................................................................1260
(.) (lustin) ( 165) ,
......................................................................................................................................1262

.................................................................................................................................................1262
,
........................................................................................................................................1262
,
, , ............................................1264
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, ....................................................................................................................................................................1270
" " ("Ich und Du". Berlin, 1923; ; . ., 1993, 1995) ,
, . 1273
,
, (.) ,
, (.). .......................................................................................................................................................1275
(Jaspers) (18831969) , . ....1276

................................................................................................................1278

.....................................................................................................................1282
(Heisenberg) (1901 1976) -,
. (1932). ...................................1282
( -
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.......................................................................................................................................................................... 1284
, ...............................................................................1287
" , " ("Novum Organum Scientiarum")
. ...........................................................................................................................................1289
(Ficinus) (14331499) ,
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1290
(Schrdinger) (18871961) -, ,
...........................................................................................................................1291

" "......................................1293
1.............................................................................................................................................................................. 1293
2.............................................................................................................................................................................. 1294

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