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Copyright O G. & G.T.V. Gush, 2000 Introduction @ Brian P. Copenhaver, 2000


Published in 2000 in the United States of America and Canada The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA 16802 First published as volume 22 of Studies of the \Tarburg Institute, The \Tarburg Institute, IJniversity of London, I9>8

All rights

reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher or copyright holder.

ISBN

O-27 r-O2045-8

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A CIP catalog record for the book is available from the Library of Congress
Coaer

illustration: Satarn taith the zodiac signs of Aquarias and Capricorn

(Bridgeman

Art Library/ B iblioteca

Estense, Modena)

Printed in Great Britain

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CONTENTS

Cuaprnn

FrcrNo's MAGrc rN THE 16rn cENTURY II. Condemnations 7. G. F. Pico

v.

145
1,46

Johann \fiet Thomas Erastus 2. Champier & Lefdvre d'EtaPles 3. Jean Bodin 4. Del Rio

752
1.56

767

177 178

PART
Cnaprnn vr. Tnrnsraxs 1. Telesio

III
1Bg

2. Donio 3. Persio 4. Francis Bacon Crraprnn vrr. CaupeNELLA 7. Campanella's magic & Urban VIII 2. Campanella's defences & theory

193
195
1,99

203 205

of astrological
21,3

magic
3.
Campaneila

4. Music & words in Campanella's magic

& the angels

224 230

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pl ap aqaa7 aq] pu? s1o{a4ao,p aabrnry ry ap a/a/r0.1 eql loazgpN sreqsrlqnd atp :y961 '(sasnlp sa? raanq) aT 'seurnlorr o^\l osor{t Jo : uonf,ellof, eql vL) aJtys dAX np ats?LcJ 7a anbrntrg w paqsrlqnd '..ulrld elTswry ep enbrqdro luzq3 oT,, puz 'eg6l'sanb&oJonsalp sa/puuh, ur pegsr1qnd '..crsn1,Atr pu? snlurdS s6ourf,Td,, 'eurul 3to Jo dle8tq stsrsuof, >looq srgl Jo rerdzqr ]srg aql
solf,rtJz orN] CIUO/A,EIUOd

I
INTRODUCTION
D.P. \TATKER AND TTTE THBORY OF MAGIC IN THE RENAISSRNCE

Aby \farburg, whose remarkable library in Hamburg became the core of the \Warburg Institute of the University of London, shaped twentieth-century scholarship more than the small volume of his finished work might suggest. Warburg's influence on cultural history was especially profound, and - long before the study of magic had become fashionable or even reputable - he identified magic as a core problem in the development of \Testern culture. Thus, when Daniel Pickering \Talker's Spiritual and Demonic Magic appeared in 1958 as volume 22 of the Studies of the \Tarburg Library, it advanced a program of research initiated by \Tarburg himself. Walker had been a Senior Research Fellow at the \Tarburg in 1913 but was not elected to a permanent appointment there until 1961. He held rhe Warburg's Chair in the History of the Classical Tradition from 197 5 unril he retired in 1981, after which he remained active during the four years before his death in 1981. Before coming pefmanently to the Warburg, \Talker's work at [Jniversity College, London gfew out of his student research at Cxford on musical humanism, mainly French, a topic on which he began to publish in the early 40s. This early musicological material has been collected by Penelope Gouk in Music, Spirit and Language in the Renaissance (London, Variorum, 1985). His first impoftant study of magic, 'Orpheus the Theologian and Renaissance Platonists,' appeared in rheJournal of the lYarburg and Courtauld Institutes in I9t3. Five years later \Talker finished Spiritual and Denronic Magic froru Ficino t0 Campanel/a, a ground-breaking book that remains the basis of contemporary scholarly understanding of the theory of magic in postmedieval Europe. His previous career in musicology laid the foundations for its first chapter, on 'Ficino and Music.' \Talker's technical and practical understanding of music enabled him to see how this art provided an important part of a physical theory of magic, and he had come to see that renaissance magicians, since they were pious Christians, needed such a rheory if they were to make claims for a natural magic, as distinct from rhe demonic magic that all good Christians must renounce. His key insight about music was that its physical medium, air, resembled what the Stoics and other ancient thinkers had called pneurna in Greek, spiritus in Lacin, and had often used as the conceptual link between lightly embodied

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XI

NOII)NCIOUINI

t
INTRODUCTION
later figures. His comments on Pietro Pomponazzi and Thomas Erastus are especially important for the contrast that they offer to Ficino's theory. Although Ficino wanted a natural magic, he left himself prey to the demons through his Orphic singing. Pomponazzi's response, motivated by his fidelity to Aristotelian natural philosophy, was to exclude the demons entirely, ?is a matter of philosophical principle, leaving only the physical channels of spiritus, imagination and occult qualities to explain magical effects. If Pomponazzi's magic was entirely natural, Erasmus insisted that it was altogether demonic, removing astral influence from its usual role in producing occult qualities and
replacing the stars with the God who created them. Before \Talker clarified all this in little more than rwo hundred pages of clear, simple, sometimes reticent prose, Anglophone readers curious about the history of magic depended mainly on the copious, learned but tendentious eight volumes of the History of Magic and Experinrental Science by Lynn Thorndike. Thorndike's polemical chapters on Ficino, Pico and other figures studied by \Talker are hostile to the concept of a renaissance in European history and contemptuous of that period's most eminent thinkers. \Talker's approach is, on the one hand, fairer to the renaissance but, on the other hand, startlingly innovative in taking magic seriously as a feature of European high culture. Guided by \Tarburg's approach to the transmission of classical high culture, \Talker was well equipped to understand how Ficino, Pico and others had integrated their interest in magic into their humanist classicism, depending on the latter to legitimate the former. Although Eugenio Garin had long since established this for Italian scholars, in Anglo-American scholarship it was \Talker who put magic on the same plane with other issues of central concern to renaissance humanists, thus preparing the way for Frances Yates's epochal work on Gimdano Brano and the Heruutic Tradition a few years later, in I9&. Because of what \Talker and Yates wrote in the late 50s and eady 60s, eady modern occultism began to attract more and more attention and eventually emerged as a key problem in eady modern European cultural history. Because of its initial celebrity and the debate on the Hermetic tradition in literature and science that it kindled, more people know Yates's Bruno than \Talker's Magic, but of the two it is \Talker's book which has better stood the test of time and learned criticism. It has been and is to be treasured by scholars and students of cultural and intellectual history history of science, history of philosophy, art history literature, religious studies and other fields. BRIAN P. COPENHAVER

UCLA
November 1999

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I. FICINO AND MUSIC

to be a deliberate limitation of the meaning of spiritus to a normal, medical sense: it is a cofPofeal vapour, centted in the brain and flowing through the nefvous system; it is the first instruntent of the incotporeal soul, an instrument for sense-perception, imagination and motof-activity-the link between body and soul 1. Fot now, then, let it remain something
This
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like the "esprits" of Descaftes' Traitd des Passinns 2, with which

most modern readers will be famtliar. The spirit of the studious is especially likely to need cafe, because their constant use of it in thinking and imagining consumes it. It has to be replaced from the subtler part of the blood, s. and this renders the remaining blood dense, dty and black In consequence such pefsons ate alrl'ays of a melancholy tempefament 4. The spirits which derive from a melancholy humour (black bile) ar:e exceptionally fi.ne, hot, agile and combustible, like brandy u. They afe, thefefore, liable to ignite and produce a tempo fafy state of mafiLa or exaltation, followed by extteme depression and lethatgy, caused by the black smoke left after the fire. If, however, melancholy is propedy tempered with a little phlegm and bile, and a lot of blood, then the spirits will glow, not burn 6, and make possible continuous study of the highest order. These extfemes of madness and stupidity, ot of contem& capere possunt, negligere penitus videntur. Instrumentum eiusmodi spiritus ipse est, qui aind medi.os .rrpoi quidam sanguinis, pufus, subtilis, calidus & lucidus

definiiur. Atque ab ipso cordii calore, ex subtiliori sanguine procreatus volat ad cerebrum, ibique animrrs ad sensus tam interiores, qu)m exteriores exercendos assidud ,riir.rr. Quamobrem sanguis spiritui servit, spititus sensibus, sensus denique rationi." 1 I know of no modern work on mediaeval and Renaissance pneumatology. Good starting-points for the former would be Costa ben Luca's De Animae dv Spiritus discrilnine (usualiy attributed to Constantinus Africanus, Opera, Basileae, t\26, p.308) and Albertui Magnus, De Spirita dz Respiratione (Op. Omn., ed. Borgnet, \rol.'iX, Paris, 1890, p. 213); for the latter, Fernel, Pfusiologia Lib. IV (h[edicina, Paris, 1,554, p. 102), and Bertacchi, De Spiritibas,Yenettis, 1584. For ancient sources, ,"" i. V"rt"k", L'Euolution de la doctrine du Pneama du Stofcisne d S.Auguslin,Pais,
Passim. 2 Discartes, Les Passions de l'Ame, Paris, 7649, art.8 seq. 3 Ficino, Op. Onn., p. 497 (De Tr. V.,I, iv). 4 Ibid.; cf. Panofsty * Saxl, Dtirer's 'Melencolia I', Berlin, 7923 (Studien Bil:/. lVarbarg,II). 5 Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 498 (De Tr. V.,I, vt). 6 lbid., pp. 497-8 (I, ,r).

1945,

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's1uouo2 Jaq!7 'uuuacr.Ly)

g9g i..rnluzrtpnI undrcaz.rd E]ue..,oJ srlu.uru' snrFlds zlr] urlue f,aEH .aurr.|-'1,[iltJt? 'snloalap snburnropo 'slJae anbtsoutrunl r.rnd lauBlz soo pE urz,nb snrlod sollnu pz anbell 'snqlluuJoqBl runrlJlrnld snrtrtds lpowsnla 'slsoluaEur lsa Ilu3uro{u nurxEr.lr sulrPnb ureptnb fstlzrutuz sn]trlds 'rs] snrnc,, : (nt,rx 'I]it gzg i.,lzrulrqxe Jelucruaqa-\ uJnuJIu? tnb 'snqluteuz,{q eJo snpueueJ ' ' ' unrursst}de sopuzJeua8 soncrds.red si.ralar ae.rd snll.rrds pu 'ulntopo 'alzns 'run.lep 'a,r.e1 runut,r urgnb '1sa snrlualu,L [ruer1 -oqf,uzlatu 'rs] ruclsad ruuq snsJelpz uratns IIqlN,, : (* 'D Z0g .d ,.r*O .d6 .B.e I '(,{loqruzlaru lsuru8u serporueJ .rog sadrcer .rrrxx-rrr,rx .I) g-g0g i(spoo1 (sntrro3.slylg ztly.ullnllcl:selsoq Jo lsll'x'I) I0g l(.,snuruog snurlnl?J,V'srleltzg urnJosorpnls andrcaurd anburn|,, 'lll 'I'.A .rJ 0O) 66V .d ,.uu6 .d6 .B.a z 'AI 'ddv e 'Li-Zt "bas 97 'll-t .dd '.uo .do .l*rs ?p ,t1s3oue.1 acg r

i s l?uollzr eqt ol uoszer dq pelreruol 'elqrsues eql ol esues qtla ped\opue 'Surrrq eqt ol Suyrg snr{t pu? urrz.r\ .lrrrds f,ruoru -rcq eqt o] sSuos f,ruourrer{ '1vuae dlallluo peapw sr r{f,ry.r\ turds aqt ol s8uos relree eq illa ruF{} nod op lgpgeueq ,nor{ 'ay{ rnod o} I"rf,uaueq dpzer8 etv aJII alqereSa,r dlararu dq pepqxe srnod?A eqt JI .dllrrt-+
(r{}JoJ : setrJt\ er{ os pu? sqreq f,EEruots 'asuef,ur 'eurzr\ Jo osn eql SuryuerurroreJ JaUV .lrruruz Jo I?trA 'lrrrds Jo spuDl reLISrq oa] eql Jo r{}oq Jo Jeq}re uo aq o} prus sr uor]f,? stl pu? ']uullodr,ur ]sour eq] peJsprsuof, eg ol surees f,rsnlu ]ueuqsrrnou J.o ssddr aeJr{t eqt JO 'dltuelsrsuor uIeqt doldrua rou 'lPrap ur suon3unsrp ssaq] tno >lJo/K tou seop ourf,rd tn[J 'r fBruruu pu? lslra 'lvtntvu olur strJrds eqr Jo uorsr^IP ploJeeJrl] oq] o] puodseJJos ol 3p3ur serurleruos eJ? eseql 's f,rsnru pw (yE duuns 'ernd puu sJnopo (spooJ )\rewota pue ourrt :s8urq];o seddr aeJrll uo set?Jluaf,uof, eq ]rJrds eql SuldSrJnd puu SurysTJnou Jod 'a eurrS?J pu" ]eIP uo af,rlpz poll?lep selrS ourf,rd dloqruzlau Jo slrrod oLI] pro^E ol puz rurds eq] Jo r{tFer{ eqt elrosard oI

'drnrratrq

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PUE snua^ 'ralrdnf 'ung eq] : sleuzld u8ruaq aq] Jo ef,uenuul or{} Surrrzrrle Jo sJEIoLIJS JoJ ef,uuuodrur ar{r (eos II?qs o1K s? 'arueq ! , lcafqns oJz sf,rlor{f,uslaru r{]Trla ol (uJnJuS touzld er{} Jo af,uanBui pepeuuof, esJnof, Jo etv 'snrua3 aArlBId

qtla

IUOAHJ. IIUIdS-f,

ISNT\I

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

That is to say, the peculiar Powef of music is due to a similarity between the matetial mediunr in which it is ttansmitted, air, and the human spirit, to the fact that both are living kinds of arr, moving in an highly organized way, and that both, through the text of the song ) calr carry an tntellectual content. \7e c^Ir get c\earu picture of this connexion ftom other ^ u'ritings of Ficino; for it is a theory which he expounded many times, and which he must have considered of gfeat importance, since he even inserted it into his version of Iamblichus' De Mltsteriis 1 and into an unavowed borrowing from St. Augustine's De J[usica 2. For example, in a letter to Antonio Canisiano, who had asked why he combined musical and medical studies, Ficino justifies himself by citing examples of the therapeutic power of music (beginning with the Biblical atchetype: Saul and David),
and goes on:
the 3, feeling the and cogitation of the mind, the impetus of the phantasy of the heart,and, together with the ait they have broken up and tempered, strike the aeial spirit of the hearer, which is the junction of the soul and body, they easily move the phantasy, affect the heart and penetrate

Nor is this

surprisin

g; for, since song and sound arise from

into the deep recesses of the mind

a.

that a soflg, being the product of mind, imagination and feeling, should, if transmitted, feact on

It is in fact not sufprising

ex vita duntaxat vegetali magnopere vitae vestrae pfosunt, quantum profuturos existimatis cantus aerios, quidem spiritu fread: spiritui, as in ed. of 1489] prorsus aetio, harmonicos harmonico, calentes adhuc vivos, vivo, sensu praeditos sensuali, ratione conceptos rationali?" I Ibid., p. 1885, cortespondirig to Iamblichus, De M13s., III, ix, x. , Ibid., i. tZS (T'beologia Platoiica, VII, vi), from "Videtur mihi . . ." is quoted verbatim frim Augustine, De Musica, VI, v, 10 (Migne, Pat. Lat.,32, col. 1169). Cf. infra p.7. 3 On Ficino's use of this term, see Kristeller, Tlte Pbilosopfu of Marsilio Ficino, New York , L943, pp. 235,369 seq.; when distinguished from imagination, it is a higher faculty, which forms "intentions" (v. infta p. 10, note L). a Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 651: "Neque mirum id quidem: nam quum cantus sonusque ex cogitatione mentis, & impetu phantasiae, cordisque affectu proficiscatur' atque ,rtu .o* aere facto [read: fracto, as in Ficin o, Epislolae , Venetiis , 1495, fo 24 v] & temperato, aereum audientis spiritum pulset, qui animac cotporisque nodus est, facile phantasiam movet, afficiique cor & intima mentis penetralia penetrat". Cf. u u.ty similar exposition (also in a medical context) in another letter, Op. Omn.,
p. 609.

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'rs1z,t\-31su1 'rnodz^-llaurs (71r.-ffs1.7Baq 'ar5r-lq3ls :;ep.ro Eurpuacsap -qf,nol ur 'sluaurale aql qll,t\ pelzlf,oss? aJ? sesues er{l aJaq.r\ '11 .c 'A '.tE]O ,tuwatauoS ut 'ruu03) gggl'd .o*O 'd6 'oulorg Je 'lr{Ers yo ,{czwa.rdns eqt uO .TZ.d zryur j3 z '6-909 'dd'996I 'ouotJoq7 o{osoJlg o//a!t ot!/p) aloarzlg...ourf,rg .I{ Ip vzuavvd rp olund It e eluazzruaf,rav oursruBsoEy,T,, 'uewzttayl il0g 'gIE 'ZlZ,g-VL,Zt, .dd..lrt .do 'a1aqre6 3r i(,r, 'XI "plql) ZIZ'0^'IIL''tr/rl .paqJ) LLl .d,.unto.dp .ourorg r

slrn? sneJe?,, Sunnlqsqns 'lrrrds er{} q}F&\ JEe oq} ur t1E slq} seglluopr eq 'pesn ]ou st sry?lds rure] oql qlrya uI 'froeql sn{t Jo uortrsodxe s.eurJsnSov rno Surddor sr ourf,rd uer{A 's sef,uzqrn}slp Ir.;,rcE dreurpro .{q palqnoJtun sr lr lur{} os tI urqtra daep Jas 'rz sulsluof, tae 3q] weJoqa f u snoutulnl ,{lprfualod sr tuarzdsuzr} Sureq q)lrlA 'Jewzn 'e1]olsrry qtla 'JO ', (..prnbqz runsowtunl,,) snourlunl Surtlreruos surzluof, ade eq] ourer{f,s sFi} uJ .pesues sT IEI{/K sz ef,uE}sqns etuBs aq} Jo sl uzSro-esuos eq} q3rrlra. ot Surprorc? uouusues Jc droaqr E sldop? serunewos ourf,rd '1srrg
aqr dlSuots aJoru stlalJe tr tpqt asuas I"ntrallatur tsoru 'rsaq8rq aql tou sr Surreaq asn?faq dlasr:ard sr lr 'paapul lsasuas aqt Jo dq::erarq eqt ur Ja^a.ol dlrressa:au lou qSnoqr ,p;ra,rlod ssel-seuo e^rlrPn? usqt lrrrds aqt uo tJaJJa lnya,to.od ssal 3 p"r{ suorssa.rdrrrr I?nsr^ t?qt paJaprsuol ourJrc d,{^ suos?eJ alqrssod o^a.t aJ? aJer{I 'rg8rs gll^tr ueq] UeI eJ? eA 'txat stl o] Sur.tro 'op uur f,rsnur qIFIA 'luotuoc FnlJellolul uB ]rursuzJ] ]ouuzf, deqr lSurrueq ol JoIJeJuI erz (qono] 'fleurs 'alszl) sesuos Je,t\ol eoJr{} eql dq/r\ oes o} q8noue dsze sl tI 'r trrrds Jo puFI ouros erv Elvp-esues II? Jo urparu eqt Pu? 'trrrds eq] Jo su?eru fq tl uor]Esuos //p's.ourcrg w uouo Pu? 'lFlds 3o tdeouor eqr Eurdoldura salSoloqcdsd ]sour ur of,urs cvonavaldxe oruos spoeu slqJ 'lrrrds oq] w puFI eurzs erl] Jo sr 'Jrz 'ruupeur sll asn"f,aq 'sesuas Jer{}o aqr q8noJqr pe}}rursu?Jt Burqrduz u?q] ]f,olre ra8uons szr{ 3rsnur wq} sr sezrszqdure sr{zrn1z oullld " r{rlqiN lurod aql 'lq8rur erntf,rd r ro Tooq z sz tsnf .sanlnrz3r aseq}
IUOIHI
IIIIIcIS-OISflW
'zueuJ 3r{t Jo aloqa.

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

spiritus" for Augustine's "id quod in eo membro [r.. auribus] simile est aerl" L. Thus, whereas visual impressions have no direct contact with the spirit, but have to be transmitted to it by a sense-o tg tt of another natufe, sounds, being moving, animated airz, conrbine directly with the spiritus aereus in the eat, and, without changing their nature, are not only conveyed to the
soul but also affectthe whole spirit, dispetsed throughout the body.

But even this does not quite satisfactorily account for the peculiar difference between sight and hearing. For the spirit, especially in its higher kinds, is often thought to be of a nature more akin to light, fire or the quinta essentia of the heavens, than to air; and, as we shall see when dealing with the De Vita coelitils
comparanda, Frcino

did perhaps sometimes think the human spitit In this case, it r,vould be of the same nature as was of the medium of light. The second, more fundamental reason why sound affects the spirit more strongly than sight is because it transmits rnovement and is itself moving; whereas sight is conceived as transmitting only static images. The following passage from Ficino's commentary on the Tintaeus explains this quite fully, and may be taken as his own opinion, since it owes little or nothing to Plato a. He asks why Plato said the soul was similar to musical consonance 5, rather than to any harmoniously composed object perceived by othet senses, and answets: Musical consonance occurs in the element which is the mean of all this kind 3.
1 lbid. 2 Cf . infra p. 10. 3 Cf. infra p. 13 note 1, 38. a The conception of the peculiar penetration of sound may, as Hutton ("Some English Poems in Praise of Music", Englisb tr'Iiscellan_y, 2, ed. A{ario Praz, Rome,
1951, p. 2t) suggests, owe something to the short passage on hearing in the Timaeas (67 a): "Sound \r'e may deline in general terms as the stroke inflicted by ait on the brain and blood through the ears and passed on to the soul; while the motion it causes, starting in the head and ending in the rcgioa of the liver, ts hearlng" (ttans. F. X,{. Cornford, Plato's Cosmolog-y, London, 7937,p.275; cf. pp.320 seq.), contrasted with the passage on sight (T.inaeus,45 b; Cornford, pp. 152 seq.). Cf. Timaeus Lorus, 70t a, passage cortesponding to Timaeus 67 a,b:ut ending: "iv ai co0cor,q ]sc. <iolvl nve0pa, oS ri xivaor"q &xovd'. tctL." 6 Ficino is referring to the division of the aninta mandi into harmor,ic intervals

(Tinaeus,35 b-36 b).

wupunb BJnu ruetrElrlznb ruaurJoJlror .red : Jelrauns llqurul ruauoltrrradrualuo: .led :JelueureqJ,L lr.rlcuad'urnlolu slrau srlllqns unsdt tad snbtuap :ulaluew ur 1t3z .ruau -e11zrgtu3ls .rcd :urnruluu )p InuIS tunsuas i)We'tunloagz .rad :urnpou anbsl.rod.ror eEuJrLrE runeJee run.nltds l?lrouof, uJ:.tea runlzogr.rnd .rcd : snd.rof, lelour ruztrsod nlour uI ulEJnlEU ufaetev red uratrns snluaf,uo3 'luerlauad e{upul Iurluz urqnb 'luz11t}11 funnsues uluarunJlsut snttod 'et1elJ'alzw eplu^ Isenb 'urnllzl 'urn1sn8 'urntrez;1o pz o.rel ezn) 'luelos soruIUE eJaaou; urnru d oepr : Jnlunpuaqarddz snrdazs ?Jnwu reJ snbsqu tulos uaut8ztur .red rg 'ellulga sluollour anbsqz ueur?l '1uns opotuurzponb z.rnd ts rg 'luzloeds uraptnb runsrl pz aunb uaJeleuJd 'lrnr8uoc oruruz urnc strut.rd ur enboapl : seluolPnz sourIUE ut l.raj.rad (g11ueuoS a.r.Is 'sllueu?f, aAIS 'agruluz rueuollslrSor anburnnsucs wnlf,eJlz 'snlzruluz tsznb Jnllrnques aznb r1p relul urnuussllod snluaJ -uor ponb appv 'rlrqnloleJ nlrnf,Jrf, ur ordrrur;d sruoBoru runl 'runJal ezrpeur tunl 'aJlueluor euuJIUE ulce IIS LunJIur uou ln ::r.iluc.Lo;d sJ.rnz pu ruaJlnllqJo rucptnb JUnq T, 'tunlotu enbtad 'otperu LUrlrurrro IJOUI olueuala rrl urglluuuosuof, uruJISnW :f,auq pE;n1epuodseg,, :(rrr,rxx 't'.tut1 u1 .uru02) tgnl .d,.u*O.d6 .ourcrg I '(pios uzu;nq) 'bes u gy'Qpunru oratuo)'bes q 99 'snaorut1 eql tuory dllca.rrp JLuof, oslz ,izru Inos eql Jo uorloru Jslnf,Jrf, eql z 'Q71 'bas 901 'dd "rI 'W {o'sopqrT':ra11a1sr.ry 3c ldgdosopqd (.s1sruolz14 c3uussrtsucg Jeqlo puz) s.oulll.{ ul lcrro} Iv}ueurepunJ z sr srql r

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I?uJetxo

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'sdertuoo 'sesues aqr dq pelref,Jed esle 8urq1f,uv uerll eJour 'punos Izrrsnur

IUOgHI

J.I'ITIdS-f, IS Ny\I

10

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

surface-images of things; and it powerfully affects the whole of us-the musical sound by working on the spirit, which links body and soul, and the text by working on the mind or intellect. The powet of this effect is due to sound being movement, whereas

vision is static. Nor,v man's whole moral and emotional life


consists of actions of the body and motions of the spirit and soul,

and these can be imitated in music and transmitted by it. Ficino writes in the De T,'ita coelitits coruparanda:
Remember that song is the most por,verful imitator of all things. For

it imitates

the intentions 1 and affections of the soul, and speech, and also reproduces bodily gestufes, human movements and moral char acters, and imitates and acts everything so powerfully that it immediately provokes both the singer and hearcr to imitate and perform the same things 2.

The matter of soflg, he continues, is "wafnt air, even breathing, and fii a measufe living, made up of articulated limbs, like an animal, not only bearing movement and emotion, but even signification, iike a mind, so that it can be said to be, as it wefe, kind of aeriaL and rational animaL" Nfusically moved ait is ^ alive, like a disembodied human spitit 3, and therefore naturally has the most powerful effect possible on the hearer's spirit. One likely soufce for this distinction between heating and other senses is the Ps. Atistotle Problems, rvhich Ficino was probably reading at this time, since one of them is the stattingpoint of the whole theory of melancholy in the De Triplici 1 "Intentiones" probably in the scholastic sense of the l1rst stage of universal-

ization from sensc-impressions; cf. I{risteller, Phil. of M. F., p.235. 2 Ficino, Op. Omn., p.563 (De Tr. I/..III, xxi): "Momefito vero cantum esse imitatorem omnium potentissimum. Hic enim intentiones affectionesque animi imitatur, & vetba, refert quoque gestus motusque cotporis, & actus hominum, atque mofcs, tamque vebementer omnia imitatut, & agit, ut ad eadem imitanda, vel agenda, tum cantantem, tum audientes suhito provocet . . . matetia ipsa concentus purior est admodum, coeloquc similior, quam matetia medicine. Est enim aer etiam hic quidem calens, sive tepens, spirans adhuc, & quodammodo vivens, suis quibusdam articulis artubusque compositus, sicut animal, nec solum motum ferens, affectumque praeferens, verim etiam significatum efferens quasi mentem, ut animal quoddam adreum & tationale quodammodo dici possit. Concentus igitut spiritu sensuqe plenus . . . virtutem . . . trajicit in cantantem, atque ex hoc in proximum audientem . . ."; cf. ibid., p. 234 (Theo/. P/at., X, vii). 3 Ibid.: "Cantus . . . fermd nitril aliud est qu)m spiritus alter".

'rurssud ?B 6-gt 'dd '6691' Er.zdpl'rylsaw aaqrstqraxrg rap u! soc.ll7 uoa ail/a7 apq 'weqy uuEurraH :.bes 6 .dd .U ,Z-\V6I ,matnay tlsnry ',.seunluer qt71 f,1tza puu qtgl or{t ur ursruurunlJ Izf,rsn1^L, ..reri1z2X .cI .CI aas 'JISnur 3o ta-laod luf,Iqlc aql JoJ sof,Jnos [BJrssBIf, Jarpo ug ...5ariorlg rrronorol

1n

no r:,rcrlr,odX pt qg ngxrg[. rr:,r.dgng '5o6k ?3o1r Lgk :5rc]ndst 1nx lorlnX 3o l,ox ?g ^ld .XIX..plql \nx de:rog [r17rl inx iorlgnd .os] rrroge )rcsh^tx 1rg k,, :62 I .62, LZ.XXX ,sualqotrl .allotsrry z

'(ll.J rl

palonb sr urelqord srr{t eraq/r\) .bas 96


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'i 'XXX

'altolsrry

.s4

'e ]l Jo f,Iwluoldluds are ro (:ogb) Jo])vtvq) Iuroru E alraq suor]f,? pu? .eJnluu eru?s eq] JO Aw SUOnf,? pu" sluerue^our i slueurerroru suq 'pesues sSuqr Jo euol" 'punos wql sr sasE3 r{}oq ur JolKSu? eql .z ,,t}ou eJ? sluo3s Puz sJnolo3 'slnolzg oIIr{rN 'sra}curzqr FJoru o} JulFuls 'spunos aJu r{llr{a (sorpoloru pu? sruq}dqr ew {q16,, !,,itel)Etetql protu eq] slcag" qlrqa uorldarJad dpo eql Suuzag sl d,{2N,, : suor -tsonb aqt dltJorls ssn3srp 3rsnru uo sruelqoJcl oq] Jo olnl .(1!A

II

IUOIHI

J,IUIcIS-3IS07\I

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

(2) FrcrNo's AsrnoloclcAr- Musrc


The last Book of the De Triplici Vita, D, Tr'ita coelitils comparanda, deals with asttologrcal mattefs, especially with methods of tempering the melancholic influence of Saturn by attracttns the benign influences of Jupiter, Venus, N{ercury and, above all, the Sun. In spite of h-icino's somewhat vacillating attitude towatd astrology t, it can be stated: first, that he believed eafnestly in the reality and impoftance of astral influences; secondly, that as ^ Catholic he could not openly accept an astrological detetminism which included the soul and mind 2. On this view, the highest patt of man rvhich could be directly influenced by the stafs was the spirit. But in the De Vita coelitits coruparandu the concePt of spirit is plainly widened far beyond the bounds of its technical rnedical meaning. Ficino here accepts a theory of asttological influence, ultimately Stoic in origin, which postulates cosmic spirit ^ (spiritus nundi), flowing through the whole of the sensible universe, and thus providing a channel of influence between the heavenly bodies and the sublunar wotld 3. Since the wodd, as in Plato and Plotinus n, is one animal, its soul, like ours, must have a "fifst instrument" which ttansmits its Powefs to its body. tnir mean between the anima and, corpus mandi, though analogous to our spirit, is not, says Ficino, made like oufs out of the fout

Cf. Kristeller, P/ti/. of.

M.F., pp.310

seq.; E,. Garin, "Recenti Interpretazioni

di l\Iarsilio Ficino", Gion. crit. d. fl. ita|.,1940, pp. 315 seq. 2 Cf. Ficino's unpublished Disputatio contra ludiciam Astrologorum (Kristellet,
Sappl. Fic.

with safe-guarding man's

in 7477 (v. ibid., I, cxl)), which is mainly concerned freedom. 3 Cf. Panofsky & Saxl, op. cit., p. 41; Vcrbeke, op. cit., pp. 11 seq. (Chapter on Stoicism); more important sources for Ficino are probably Neoplatonic and Hermetic, cf . infn pp. 36 seq. a Plato, Timaeus, 30 c-3I a; Plotinus , Enn.,IY, iv, 32.

II,ll

seq.; writtcn

'(l 'nI) zEs 'd ''PIqI

sluolluJeua8 snqtuuo ur le8r,r anblqn ors.t asdl ' ' ' runurrJnidurznb srJ"llels aeau8r snsJu 'ear.tev ualt snld 'aunbs urelnz snld .eeueJJe] eBJnlBu lse urnurlulru elnlJIA snle uI 'snd.ror ure[ rssnb rg 'erulue uou rsunb ue]I 'Eruruv uni rg 'sndror uou rsenb 'urnrurssrnuat snd.ror tse oJOA asd1,, : (lll 'tg "A '"tJ aA) gtg .d '.urug .dg 'G gt t'g 'II ''*yV 'ueg a6J) tur.ds eleuur ernleu er{} oslu sE.{\ srr{l al}o}suy rod 'g '7 '1 'oJao2 a6r 'apo}sr.ry z ,S,urur Jo ..tunlnrsndtoc anburnuJrsslplJnl uzpponb luntulssrnuo],r su lr seqrrosep

'ulssud lg 'bas lI 'dd '196I 'uopuol'sgnwa(FlV a(lJ'to1f,ea poo.Ao,rer{S .d ees e '6-8ZT 'dd z.rgur pue'tpunu ptutuo eql qlr.r\ palznba 'ralldnf crqd.rg eq] o1Sur.rrage.r sz palonb sr a8essud srq] eraq.4t 'Zlg 'd "u*O .dg'ou1t1g.p:gT,L,16,prauaV.ll3rl1 , .."'lllg snlul snllJldg :el1r onb ep'snloru enble Joqlnz snturxord sruruo

ruurrus ralur

'(^l 'tII) Egg 'd '(..a.lunzq snturssod f,Lrnq run.rlsou urntrJrds.rad sou ponb tg .Btueruelo ronlenb elnrJIA snlnf, uI 'snta snrlrlds l1s 'runlsa3rucru snla snd.ror la Ipunu luns pon|,, :paltrtue'lll'III "A'.U aA) VgS.d,.utug.d6 .ounr4 e

aq '3'a (tn 'd ''uut6 'd6 '1t 'IIL) 'tolcl 'paclJ eql uI '(SE 'd er3urn) Inos eqt Jo alrll{ea rtuotuldoaN aI{} Jo Jeqleu aq1 ro '(etou rxau 3e) ef,uesse}urnb eqr a1ll Sulqr -eruos Jo opeur e9 ol srucddz tr eJar{.aesle il.rrds uurm{ oq1 Jo of,ulsqns eql lnoqz tuelsrsrrof,ur tq,tretuos sr ourf,rC '(U 'Itt "A 'tJ eA) geg 'd "uut6 .d6 'ourcrg r

..FnllJlds,, eql f,)vtlw oJ 'r sesoJ Jo uor.usuurf, Jo luef,s eri] 'plo8 'lz8ns ell{rN dlel 'eur.r. sz r{rns '}rrrds f,rrusof, eJnd Jo etruz -Punqu vE urvtvof, r{3rrl.,K sSurqr orunsuof, [ux no^ 'sF{} Surop 30

sduzn snorlzl eJe oJeql 's ((elqrssod su Frlsalef, su soruotraq ]r JtI 'sr wg],, 'Tpunnt snlplds eq] ol eJn]zu dq rl dpzarlz tr uzr{} rzlrrurs eJoru ue^e srqt repueJ e.r\ dlurcadsa ']rrrds Jno Jo suseur dq 3r .seq}uerq pu" solrl plJora. ,,(sn4utds) qluerq sll qrosqv t{un e.ll pu" aLIl dpalqnopuO,, ']r Surqrosqz pu" Svutvtltv dq ]urds u^\o Jno dJrJnd puz qsunou o] olqz eg or sn JoJ sJno ot q8noue e>lrl slsnuaqlp eq] Jo wql osp sT r{lrqtn 'trrrds f,rutsol slr{I

sI

'n

t cc 'lIIs snlul snllJlds,, : sdes hlSrlzt ] ar{ r{f,rg/r\ go ! uortotu pu? uortzraua8 11, Jo esnzo e]"Ip -eunur aql sr pue areqadra.r.a Surqrdrarr.a sa5r,rrl rI . . . ern]Bu drruls pue /.rag Jo urnwrx?ur eq] pu? IurJe? erour ilns <dJe]z^\ aJor.u 1nq 'arnlzu h4uva aFlll ltarr sur?]uof, re.lo.od sr1 'dpoq lsourlz puz Inos tou erea lr se 'urv8v JO 'lnos lsourle puu dpoq tou aJe/s. tr su lfpoq eltqns draa e sr
: s ouIJId sdes 'lrrrds 3rrrrsof, sF{I 'seryoq J?unl-qns ,{rzurpro olq Ja}uo ssop pu? u?f, tr lur{} os 'slueurale JnoJ Jeaol eq} Jo sJel\od eq} sur?luof, osp ]r lnq l,;er4lev,, alqndnJJof,ur 'suarruag eql Jo ef,uzlsgns usrlotolsuv eq] 'o'I '. zryaassa plulnb 'luaruele quu eq] pallst eq dlredotd t{vus tng 'r (sruaurale rnoJ eqr dlerzur}ln puz) sJnounq EL

CISNY\I TYf,ICOTOUISV

74

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

influence of a particulat planet you may use animals, plants, people, subject to that planet-as food, scents, acquaintances; Ficino gives lists of these for the Sun and Jupitet 1. You may perhaps use talismans (iruagines); he is extremely rvorried and 2. hesitant about these, but devotes a great deal of space to them Finally, you rnust use music fitted to the planet. Here again, tt is music which is recommended most sttongly. The effectiveness of music for capturing planetary or celestial spirit fests ofr two principles, which ultimately connect. The first is the ancient and petsistent theory, denving ftom Plato's Timaeas ot the Pythagofeans before him, that both the univefse and man, the nlacfocosm and microcosm, afe constfucted on the same harmonic proportions 3; that there is a music of the sphetes, musica mandana, of man's body, spirit and soul, musica a. Thus harnana, of voices and instruments, masica instrantenta/is the use of anything having the same numerical proportions as a certatn heavenly body of sphefe will make youf spirit similady proportioned and provoke the required influx of celestial sPlrlt, just as a vtbrating string will make another, tuned to the same of a consonant note, vibrate in sympathy 5. Ficino , tn the De I'ita 6, and coe/itits comparanda, refets several times to this thecty applies it not only to music, but also to foods, medicines, talismans, etc. For example, rvhen discussing the figutes engraved on talismans, he writes 7:
columbis

".g. Cf . infra p. 42-3, 53.

1 Ibid., pp. 352-3; but "quomodo vero virtus Veneris attrahatur tutturibus, & motacillis [rvater-wagtails], & reliquis, non permittit pudor ostendere", Op. Omn., p. SIO (Ad Lectorem of De Tr. V.,III), pp. 548-561 (III, xiii-xx).

B Thi; is a vast subject; some of the main sources used in the Renaissance will be found in Hutton, op cit.; cf. infua pp. 81, 115 seq. a These tefms r""- to originate with Boetius (v. Hutton, op. cit., p. 17). 6 Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 555 (De Tr. V., III, xvii), 563 (III, xxi) ; a normal image

in any e"position of universal magic sympathy, cf. e.g. Plotinus, Enn.,IV, iv, 41; Synesi.rs, De Insoma., I\Iigne, Pat. Gr.,66, col. 7285 b (Ficino tfans., Op. Omn., p. tlOl;. Since Ficino says the De V.c.c. is a comment^ry on Plotinus_ (v. supra p. 3 not" (2)), Enn.,IV, iv, 30-44 is probably one immediate source of this theory bf ph.r"tuty'.influence, though there is iittle mention of spirit in this F.nnead. i E.S.Op.Omn.,p.546 (De Tr. V.,III, xii),564 (III, xxii); cf. ibid., pp. 1455
seq. (Comn. in

Tin.). Ficino, Op, Onn., p. 555 (De Tr, T./.,lII, xvii): "Non ignoras concentus per

tu(turssqod salznb 'nluorpn( 1sa iuaprnb tunrur1lrf,Ercl .tuetnurl rJrJoqns tuenbqe IuelselaoJ us ur anblu 'I.la5l uleurtoS rsznb ureunuluroc'srllsodurof, as J31uI uatrzltn.r8uoc ruaPunJ?e PB ePuIaP 'sl1ra1a LuBLuJou IunJEIIals pz uraprnb gulrd sruol xe f,rS .snqrr -aunur EtruloP runrepls ruzpaenb ?ruorrrJzr{ 1n1an 'zruJoJ tu?paenb srunruurof, lellnsar 'uJzf,IuJouoJlsv tu(u 'urzctpal4 tu+l rualJu .rad 'zlca.tuor suotlrsodruoo anburnr -odzrr. unJsqJer.{ utrJOf, xe unporupzruanb se8qlalur ln ilezq urnstonf,, :.pTqL '((snlJeJB'snlour'aertlol'snldacuol sluottrsur8z{ul so}ueuJeqe1r, I .('rnlusf,lPep ruITIody
?,

"JrsntrAJ "lulqr urzp ?lr serpur unlltlds snqrlueJleuad zruuro srns snqrlou tu4t 'sfrpzr 'lunp5Fz ru4l 'slf,Iuourrzq anburzu ezq 'salsaleor ezrnSg urnpua8z pz lueq?q es ons nloru Jalrlrrurs 'nloru ur pes 'eeltel anbsrautl stpund xa lea '1uns ruzpsznb azrn8g rsznb 'ezlnlllsuof, slJaurnu xe ujelnu sauoruodo.r4 'ulnpuelf,EE ?E 'ulnpualoul 'urnpualsrs snd.roc 2[t urnturuu ?[t ulnllJrds pz tuellqE]llu aJeqBq ruIA 'suns enbseuorlrodold soJeurnu

'((uIulJD op sJzls eqt teq.&\ ,,uJv1ed,, Eurtraga orsnur rcJ '(LILI .d ,.uug .dg ,,to1rJ u! .u/u02 'ourcr.1) 0t'^l'7'I"uug'snunolcl lf '((l'III) Z-Teg.dd'.plql'ourlrg 3r) suorrzgars -uotr pue slauzld aqr dq pef,?1} su.rallzd 'a'r '('bas Vt, '^\ '7.I'.uug) rrrcrllrXo (snunolcl ln 1'ate ((selseleof, avtn8t7,, eql (r'lllensuof, el:r;gga tuzpd sualodaz.rd

ry 'luauEqo unpurE runlporu sef,oa 'snlczrltu lrs zJorJejur pE snqrJolradns q sonb lad 'snperE lurs enbonb uraldes 'olaurnu run.lulauzlcl ruatdas gtal tunn[,, (F* 'III) zg9 'd ''plql r

:, senulluof, ueq] eH
<'

.uoEmlur euT

[P

relldnf "
srSJAJ

3(
<(

'uortqdruetuof, l?n]f,ellalul

.L

urnws <( '( (( (< 'c

'uos?er alrsrnf,srq '9 '* uoEeulSerur'uonorug '9

(uerres eql Jo u?our

c(
<( 'c

"
c<

'spunos 's8uos 'sprolX 'y 'slnopo'stnodel'srapno4'g

aqr'o11odv) ur-ts aql " snue^ (. dlnuary tt

c(

uooJN eql 01 urcu3d r{lF{rtr

'slzruluz'sllnrg's1ur14'7 'f,le <splaur'sauolg 'l

:JepJo Surpueosv rtT.'arz degl 1. palcattlv oq uu3 sef,uenuur lErlselof, qf,rq/K dq sSulq] uoaes Jo rsrT se^rS .seTllnf, oV ', f,rsnur FOrSoloJlsE ol peto^ep Jetdzq3 3uo1 eqr uJ " -HTp ur spug eq (f,rsnur oABf,eJe Jloslury '{Itwtawld rol stdacord lno 3uryJo.&\ ot seurof, ourord uar{a .}nfl
IBf,ItJEJd droeqf srql uo
uT

'dBrn

p;rernod lsotu ar{t

dpuelsuoo 'Surqldrarra etr?Jleued r{Jlr{,n <suonoru pus sde.r f,ruoruJ?r{ JTar{} dq 'asaql JoJ :tuaurelour rTeqt dq rcz sernSg Izrlselef, '.{1rz1rung 'uonour ur ]nq 'saurJ puz sluTod go epzrrt ete qtlqa .sarn8g Jo spuDl eJeA\ lr s3 'etv 's.raqrunu 30 dn epeur .suoBJodord eseql lng .dpoq Pu" Inos 'lrrrds aql peJB puz eaour 'urzlsns o] Jet\od snollelr?ru ? seq 'suolrrodord pu" slequrnu sll dq 'punos lef,rsnur l?r{} ,rcou{ no^

'dpado saop f,rsnru

sE

lsn( 'd1latcas trrrrds eqt }raJE

9I

CISNW TYCICOTOUISY

T
1,6

I. FICINO AND MUSIC


tWhat afe these

for? That you may understand how from a certain combination of herbs and vapours, made by medical and astronomical art, results a certain form, like a kind of harmony endowed with gifts of the stafs. Thus, from tones chosen by the rule of the stars, and then combined in accordance with the stars' mutual correspondences, a sort of common form can be made, and in this a certain celestial virtue will arise. It is indeed very difficult to judge what kind of tones will best fit what kind of stars, and what combinations of tones agree best with what stars and their aspects. But, partly by ouf own diligence, Parrtly by divine destiny, . . . v/e have been able to accomplish this.
The way Ficino does accomplish it is by having lecoufse to the second of the two principles mentioned on the previous Page. This is one we have aheady discussed, namely, that music imitates enrotions and mofal attitudes (!0ea) and thus influences those of the singer and listener. Since the planets have the motal chatacter of the gods whose names they bear, this character can be imitated in music; by performing such music we c fi make oufselves, especially ouf spirit, mofe Jovial, Solatian, Venereal, etc. This mimetic theory of music connects with the wodd-harmony one outlined above, because such mimetic music is a Iivtng sPifit and the heavens also are musical spirit:
song] actually touches and acts on the spirit, which is the mean between body and soul, and wholly disposes both in accordance with its own disposition. You will indeed allow that there is marvellous power in Iively, singing spirit, if you concede to the Pythagoreans and Platonists that the heavens are spirit, ordering everything with their movements
ancl tones
1.

This kind of musical spirit [i... morally and planetarily

effective

Ficino gives three rules for composing this astrological music, prefacing them v.ith the cauti onafy rematk that he is not speaking
toni, qualibus conveniant stellis, quales inter tonorum compositiones,
qualibus praecipue sideribus, aspectibusque consentiant. Sed partim diligentia nostra, partim divina quadam sorte . . . id assequi possumus." 1 Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 563 (De Tr. V-.,III, xxi): ". . . spiritus eiusmodi musicus proprie tangit, agitque in spiritum inter corpus animamque medium, & utfumque sua prorsus afficientem. N{irabilem vero in concitato canenteque spiritu "ff".tion" vim esse concedes, si Pythagoricis Platonicisque concesseris, coelum esse spiritum, motibus tonisque suis omnia disponentem."

Bun rs 'Jntru?3rpnl rerrrllodv 'Ilualur ry 'sarrldurrs ry 'sa1rqrauea luns anbatslr^uns vrlvt8 runf, uun rS 'orJnf,teu ry snurnqr4 rToS sorpe{u oJea soq }elul .snrurqrJf,spu snluzf, sosonldnlol allrnoru 2[r ulllf,sul tunf, rJDuaA qJluo] .solegl runf, Tt "I]uulsuof, 'enbsaclnp'solualur rg 'salz.rE uepmb [snrurnclur] r.Lof rualnz sntruetruo3,, :.pl9L (szJedse '<<sglpeur,, BUnl '..sef,?ulur 'sulnlz 'saf,o1aa, slutrg ...su1a.renb .suf,n?r uJntus f (rxx '111 ,.A .,U aO) t9g .d,.utu6 .dg .oup1g I
'ss,rz.r8 'suprzl sef,oa,,
ser4

sn.rnldersns snbrueltruls 'sunrrf,ld qrurs uuprnf, oloof,'snqrluzc ur srrelrurr #nTrT nl urzpaunb et1z1 1n '1ure1os anbr.rald sau[uoq IJElIf,ur .sn1f,u .seJour .sn11es .snloru

snqqznb eJ"Alesqo epuroC 'Jnleururop rurruoll 1a-a. 'qruxetu of,ol rno 'z11als aznb eJzlePISUof ' ' ' lunJal eenb erzqord 'luz;aSnu aznb rJ"lsalep 'errresur f,o"q snqruorwf, -gru8ts urnJoJlsou run.roqrel enbry 'luaral aznb 'luzlagne eznb 'tuzeqzq sntroedsz ?g [snprs:luulErto] sntrrs 2g'laqrlanb qlels sn]f,ege es xe alsonb.saJrl es ur sznb srelrnbxa ''' eeJrtlvporuruof,f,E snqrJepls runlu?f, aqnEeg,, tg-Zgg .dd .ptqf z
aznb .szpa

'snluzc 'souotuJas urntulssllod selznb pz 'are.roldxe srg qns anble 'lelel.lerrpzruluz souzlpnonb urntzllels enbsntcads? snlrs ' ' ' arauodxa [sadnls :1zul3r.ro] sapnls uapsre snqlJePrs aenb 'slq.rc^ sreqlqpz 'sDrrp qpour snqruoButrUruSrs runc zun urupsonb selIuIS esdl ln 'snglluel Tr 'lnluzln sluol euuosrad rg 'sauolEat eug Jellunruurof,

pas 'rnbo1 srpuzJop" slllars ap urluesaerd ur sou satnd eu . . .,, :Z9g .d ..pTqI r

tt

etasvs,uop

i;ll'JJT,""'#l"t

l;T#''":##ill

T?:l',"".I;,1ff

illl3;

: n etv sopolu [tv1ave1d eseq] Jo sJo]f,?rEqf, ar{I 'e sISnr.U OU-((S3f,IOAD dpO eAUr{ UOOJ{ eq} pU? SJUtr{ 'Urn1ZS rnq :f,rsnru Jo pq{ rulnf,nrud rreqr e^?q r{f,?e 's1auu1d uSruaq eq} 'drnue1,q puz snueA 'telldnf ',r.S eql ']euz1d qcze ot eturJdorddz srsnru 3r{} Jo suondrJssep ua^rS otv e1K uo rerl}Jry el}u v

ol nod olqeue PuB sueleer{ eqr Jo uor}Tsodsrp JBIrurs ar{t qtr/t\ oat?e IIIA qtrHn 's8uos Jnod ur aseql et"lFul ot llog;e d.rarra e>lzru dzu nod l?ql os 'slradse eseql Jepun palrcur ,(qensn erE uaur lsour .suoEcu pue Jnorasqaq lBroru 'sacuup 'sluetuerroru (s3uos 'gcaads tBr{Itr 01 e}?8ESaAr]I ueqr f parrlou eg ot ere srzls egtJo slf,edse puz suonrsod dpup egl .g 'sJ?ls eruss eseql ol JeJo ot qsr.{ nort qclqa spro.& er{l o1 'pauoBueur

'I.ueql urorJ xnuul J?lrurs 3 eAraJeJ

uagl 'uuur puz eculd qlF{r!\ selnr dgarqc r?ls ql1{rl reprsuo3 .Z 'ef,npord ,(aqf fuqrn Suraordde 'elorual ,(aqr rzqrn Sunsarap '1xa1 aqt go Suruzaw egl olur oseqr uasur puv 'af,npoJd puz elorueJ aseqt ter{,n pus (stf,edse puz suonrsod }Br{a !1esll ur s,q rzts r?Inf,nwd duu spaga puu sre^\od l?qa tno purd .I :sorpoq dpa-nzaq aqt ot s8uos SunrE roJ salnu
2 zole deql f , suoltzuzure letnlz:u Jreq] Sulrnldzf, uorwl -Ful dq puu 'uteq] Surlzllrut Jo reqr?J ]nq 'sJuJs Surddqsro^r Jo

tsn( Suru"eu aql qlIA JaqleSot 'seuo JBInurs dldde deur nod ter{t os <esn .,(luraue8 suosred puz suor8er eseqt s8uos pw (s/azl) saporu ]sr{,n alJesqo

LT

SISNW TYf,ICOTOUISV

18

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

Jupiter: music which is grave, eatnest, sweet, and joyful with stability. Venus: music which is voluptuous with wantonness and softness. Apollo (the Sun): music which is venerable, simple and eafnest, united with grace and smoothness. Mercury: music which is somewhat less serious (than the Apolline) because of its gaiety, yet vigorous and various.

of these "harmoniae" is sung frequently and attentively, the singer's spirit will take on thls chatacter, having, by natural sympath!, attrzcted the aPpfopfiate planet^fy spirit. Since all music pertains pdmariiy to Apollo, as can be seefl from the list on page 15, music of any kind tends to captufe the sun's influence and render the musicians solarian; which is enrinently desirable 1. This pfeoccupation with the sun is, of coufse, typical of all Ficino's work 2. In his commentafy on Plotinus he tells us that people once worshipped the planets because of the benefits obtainable by exposing one's soul and spirit to their influence; but, he says, n)ost of the Platonic philosophets worshipped only
any one

If

the sun 3:
Julian and Iamblichus composed orations to the Sun. Plato called the sun the visible off-spring and image of the supreme God; Socrates, while greeting the rising sun, often fell into an ecstasy. The Pythagoreans sang to the lyre hymns to the rising sun. Concetning the cult of the sun, let them look to that; but undoubtedly "God has placed his tabernacle in the sun".
cum jucunditate remissiores quodammodo sunt, strenui tamen, atque multiplices, Mercuriales existunt." Cf. ibid., p. 534 (1II, ii): "N'Iusicam gr^Yem quidem Jovis Solisque esse, levem Veneris, mediam veto N{etcutii"; p. 546 (III, xi): "Soni quinetiam cantusque grati, blandique ad gratias omnes spectant atque Metcurium. N{inaces autem admodum atque flebiles Ntartem praefetunt & Saturnum." 1 LIan in generai is thought to be primarily solarian, and to a lesser degree jovial and mercurial (ibid., p. 535 (III, ii)). 2 See his Orpltica Comparatio Solis, Liber de Sole, Liber de Lumine (Op. Onn., pp. 825,965,976). 3 Ibid., p. 1745: "plurimi vero praesertim Platonici atque id genus Philosophi, solum adorabant inter coelestia Solem. Orationem ad Solem composuit Julianus et Iamblichus. Solem Plato filium ct imaginem summi Dei visibilem appellavit: Solem Soctates orientem salutans ecstasim saepe patiebatur: Orienti Soli Pythagorici hymnos lyra canebant. De cultu quidem Solis illi viderint: Deus certd in Sole posuit tabernaculum suum." Ficino's soufces are: Julian, Eiq tov paor,trea'Htrlov, (IYorks of the EmperorJulian, ed. \7. C. Vright, London, 7973,I,352);Plato, Retpubl.,YI, 508 b-c, S1mpos.,220 c-d; Iambiichus, De Vita P1thag., c.25,35; Psalm, XVIII, 6.

'g0Z

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sep

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e

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qlr.o^ u'r{r rerrwr 'ottJ to urrora eqr qrr.,i\ ;?"#3;t"r':"fr?ul'iir#;#? ;,l"J":fr oqrn 'Irr,r 'l 'xrd 'y761 'Etzdlal '.lsprauqls xutr\J .pe ,ZVgl.alluarl ,out\taqny rJo7ay 'o8aluog Izp rssuueC o.rtse,r1.{g .n .661.d .0}6I .AITX ,apt1sntry o/t!n!V ...olueres .rtolrasrg .g l.bes ggg .II ,91-016I .ulg3 1ap orpznb un ur ErtI Etvlor^lf,ry.-f ,, tp Ewdral 'uJg2 u! ta[a1q uq0ql!,41 uoa ,unasnry nqrilrzlix(lrytsn7q 'f,nsvl) 'c aes I

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snfa u7 oaqdtg

aq

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''rIr"tto

'ZgZ'1tZ'Le 'II"u!t!J'1ddng ''bas 1gg .dd'."I .W {o.tzllqcl ,ZLZ-692.dd 'LV6I 'rymyy anbotog puo atupsyauay lo Tou.mof ..,atru?ssrueu u?rlull dlrzg aq] ur 8utu.rua1 pue f,ISnW,, '.la11atsr;y l'bes 762 '06-ggt .06t, .dd ,7961,atuato1g,e2ua.ug rp orlallpld pltaapoxrv.//ap plrllS 'o.uoa ulleq .p i(auotZotnt1V,7) Lgl ,II,g7g1 ,azuax.g :W6'ILg'szL't Lg'Ig9 'g09 'dd ''uzug .dg 'ourcrg r
'a'tad6'lclpary. ep ozuaroT

'qcF{^ 1o ',,vn1"lFS lJo}usrlloJd{.ur,, ar{} Jo wr{t o{rT s?/K Jrsnur s(our3rd l?q] asoddns rq8[u euo (]f,3JJof, sr 3Jntf,efuoc sF{} JI
' ' ' ?rrnblluz.l ap ]e eggdrg.p anbrsn141 uerq Is atues?rdar rnb "[ luatrrnrtsw Inu allse lnad e f,.,u 11 . . . strf,?J sel 1a xrol q rau8eduJof,f,? .rnod esn ue uo.1 f aursaru-r(os suzp lrrdsa.l Jerluer aJrq Jnod la .uoll -o^?p ?l p r3lrf,xa rnod erdord te tu?ssrn8ue1 uoJ 1sa atdl 3l ep uos 3l
i s 0r!1 urePou ar{} Jo e}oJt\ auuosrotr[ puz 'r (dpln3-r(pJnq 'e'r) wsapal p/!/ e>[TI szn ardl ]uarf,uu oq] wql 3^erlaq o] peurlf,ur s?,{s, owlrvz I"rrsnur tuerf,u? r{}la alt/ vraPouI aq] peturf,osss sJsrusruni{ I"3rsnur Jetul rlsnlu ue^g '7lrruq o? prxl eql uo sSuos drzrauzld sF{ peruzdruo)rE our3rc IEI{} uar{} dle{rl eur o} slueos }I 'e urlorl Jo IorA elqeJt z .uat3:o ssel (Jo 'ountq o? orll v ,t1rue1o sl Surdzld sl orl tuournJlsur eq] sneqdr6 Jo suorlztueserdoJ ef,uussruueu ]soru ur lKoN '. erdl srq r{tFN s>lf,oJ pu? sprurus eq} Surruruqt snaqdtg Sur.roqs ern]rrd 3 qlI/K PeuJoPB s?A\ ]uorunJlsul ogt tzr{t szrn crqdJo lI 8ur1pc JoJ uos?oJ euo ', oqqdto attj s1t1 rc atfJ srq sllpf, ar{ qf,rq/s. tueur -nJlsul u? uo Jrlesulrr{ Sulduzdruo)f,? ollr{a 8ul8us Jo trqsr{ aq} ur s?./t\ oq }u{r sSur}rJA (serJsJodruetuof, slt{ puu u/Ko srq tuory /\ou>l aA 'apuatadu\r t(lrlaLr o4A aQ 3r{t uI paqrrf,sop rrsnu pcl8o1 -ortsu eq] paurro;rad J1esuln{ ourf,rd wr{} rqnop ept{ sr aler{I 'uns aql o] possoryp? ueryo lsoul sB/r\ f,rsnu l?f, -t8o1orls? s.ourf,rd tzr{t alqzqord dn8lr{ s? ueq} tr a>l?} [ew ouo

6l

f,ISNW TYf,ICOAOUJSY

20

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

unfortunately, we know vefy little1. The expression "recitare", which is often used of these improvisefs, suggests a Yefy simple kind of chant, half-way between song and speech, something like the performance of a young boy of whom Poliziano wfote to Pico della Mirandola 2 :
he proclaimed an heroic ode, which hehimself hadcomposedinhonour of our Pietro de' Medici. His voice was neither like someone reading nor like someone singing, but such that you heard both, yet neither separately; it was varied, however, as the words demanded, either even oimoclulated, nov/ punctuated, now flowing, now exalted, now subdued, now relaxed, now tense, now slow, now hastening, always pufe' always clea4 always sv/eet . . .

Pethaps Ficino's music was something like this' of pefhaps it was based on plain-song, since, as I shall try to shou', his astrological singing came neaf to being a religious dte. Apat from such vague conjectufes 3, all that one can say about the purely musical side of Ficino's singing is that it was monodic and that he was aiming at the same ideal of exptessive, effect-producing music as the Iater musical humanists. His ditections fot fitting songs to the ethea of planets confofm stfikingly with, for example, Galilei's adr.ice to comPosefs to obsetve and ncte the exact tones, accents, rhythm, of various tyPes of chanctef, in various situations 1
a.

About the text, however, of Ficifto's singing we can be mote


Andre Pirro, "L6on X ct la N,Iusique", Milanges oJferts d Henri Ifaauette, Patis, pp.22l scq.; A. Einstein, Italiaru Madrigal, Princeton, 7949, I, 1.8,76-7, 89, 92, , poHtian, Opera, Basileae, 1553, p. L65: "pronunciavit ... heroicum cafmcn' quod ipsem"t .r.rp"r in Petri Nledici nostri laudem composuerat . . . Vox ipsa nec qnasi legentis, nec quasi canentis, sed, in qua tamen.utfunque sentires, neutfum
See

7934,

di...rn"i".:

nunc pefpetua, nunc sublata, nunc dcducta, nunc remissa, nunc contenta, nunc

varid tamen, prout locus poscefet, aut aequalis, aut inflexa, nunc distincta,

lcnta, nunc incitata, Scmper emendata, sempcf clata, Sempef dulcis . . ." B Thc nearcst we get to t practical example of Ficino's planctary music is when he briefly describes how in Apulia those bitten by the tarantula" are cured by special music *ti.h makes them dancc; he comments: "Sonum verd ilium cx indicijs esse Phoebcum Jovialemque conijcio" (ibid., p. 56fl; presumably he had not hcard a taralle/la. Cf. H. E. Sigerist, "The Story of Tarantism", Music and Medicitte, ed, Schullian & Schocn, New York, 1948. a Galilei, Dielogo della musica antica e moderna,Firenza,1581, p. 89; cf. $7alket, "Musical Humanism", II, 291.-2.

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s

il*::'

ilililt

? fl

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u'

.urnlzs q'norqr .dn peal

Jo'lI'I

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'bas 977'6

11e r,evr r,r' '..Snlulds azttuaE{lalul azuIAIp tsznb 'rpunur ?lIA,, sI r{JIr{lA. puz '..Bluou.rzq lauqtad

!;!;:31'{, #Tl) rt :f !;:;;ff ;1q j".Hll : y#"K;'L"i;::':'#:l"l:t"tff3'H?

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qs8uos prrSolorlsz s(ourf,rd Jo spJo/t\ eq] oJea 'ueq] 'tzgA


.n.rom{ :ntaod

eql ur uorlaldruof, stl pug or pl"s aq dpq8u uvt'f,ttaod puz Sur8urs ol spvel tr af,urs 'alo1 Jo Jo 'saualsdru Jo Jo 'dcagdord Jo r?q] reqlla 'nta{ f,ue aroJereqA 's8uos puu SurSuls puz Sunnor{s olul r{troJ s>lzarq passassod u?ur ou
ar{

rng

'qcaads druurpro

qlllr tuatuof, sr tow{ f,q

: (erro1 'draqdord 'selu snolSrlel Jo asoqt) eerql reqlo eq] Surduzdurorf,z Jo uortrsod pe8eprrrrd eq] e^"q deqr 1nq 'nn/' 1o puH lse.4a.ol Pu? lsJBr ar{} eJE t'r,{I 'v sarLrn{ rnoJ eq} Jo auu}f,oP s.ourf,rd ur sJnrf,o drfaod pu? rlsnlu 3o Surculd JEpruls V 'dPoq puz tlJlds sE IIea sz purru 'uuur eloqa ar{} peg? eJoJoJOr{t soop tr llxal ruory palzrzdas lou sr ]r esnuceq fleslf,ard sapzr8 ueles II" Jo uzaur eq] Suroq Jo uonrsod turlrodurl eq] oror{ s?q f,Isnul tnfl 's uJntss Jo uonzldrueruof, luntf,ellelut eqt d\oleq wJ puz 'srztrq csnua1 Jo s8urulSuun lueruor{el oq} /Kolaq }sn[ -]o s]uen8un puu srnopo oq] e^oqz ]sn[ sr o[ody : u aloq" palonb tsrl p]n{f,ruJerq aql ur u/Kor{s dlrzalo sr Suos 3o sntuts eql 'uoltuur8urur pu" dszluzgd '1nos er{} Jto stJud JelKol eql 'lrrrds oq} qSnorqr '1sour lv to '3u4ae; pu? asues 'e'l 'Jrnds eql uzq] raq8rq ou qf,EeJ uzr ']xe] slr ruorJ palcuJlsqz 'f,rsntu oql 'punu oq] oouengur snql pu" tueluof, Izntrellatur u? f,iwt um rlf,rg/K ouolu lxa] eq] sr lr lnq lueeznlaq eq dzur soEInJ"J et"rpourJelur Jale]zr.{a uo puz 'prl* 'r(poq uo s>lJol\ Suos y 'f,rsnur eq] u?q] tu?uodurl eJour r{f,nru s?A\ }xo} ogt 'r slsru?urnq pf,rsnu re]?l to1 'vr.v8a'sv'rulq JoJ pu? iasrcard

TZ

]ISNW AYSICOTOUISY

22

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

The ansv/er, I think, is to be found in his Orphic singing, in his revival of the "antiquus ad Orphicam lyram cantus", which he lists among the tdumphs of the Florence of his time, together with the resurrection of Plato by the Academy at Careggi 1. Ficino's [tra was Orphic not only because it bore a picture of Orpheus, but also because it accompanied his singing of the Orphic Hymns, and probably other Orphic fragments 2. Although he does not mention it in the De D'ita coelitits comparanda, I am convinced that his Orphic singing is the same as the astrological music there described. From the second of Pico's Conclusiones Orphicae we learn that the Orphic Hymns 'were sung in a special rnanner for magic purposes 3: In natural magic nothing is more efHcacious than the Hymns of Orpheus, if there be applied to them the suitable music, and disposition of soul, and the other circumstances known to the wise. In Ficino's cornmentaty on Plotinus we learn what these magic purposes are and what ate the "othet circumstances known to the wise". Commenting on a chapter where Plotinus remarks that we can capture planetry influences by "prayers, either simple of sung with art" 4, Ficino says 5 :
1 Ibid., p. 944; cf. pp. 822,877, 608. 2 See Della Torte, op. cit., p.789 (from Corsi's biography of Ficino: "Orphei hymnos exposuit, miraque, ut ferunt, dulcidine ad lytam antiquo more cecinit"). 3 Pico, Op. Omn., Basileae, 7572, I, 106: "Nihil efficacius hymnis Orphei in naturali magia, si debita musica, animi intentio et c^c;terze circumstantiae, quas norunt sapientes, fucrint adhibitae." Pico, also, v'as in the habit of singing "ad
Iyram" Latin prayers of which he had composed the words and music (G. F. Pico's Life of him, in front of this edition of his v,-orks). a Plotinus, Enn.,IV, iv, 38: "olov erilaiq i &n).aiq i c61v1 d8op6vocr,q". This book of Piotinus (IV, iv) may be the one on which the De Triplici Vita is supposed to be a commentary (v. supra p. 3 note (2)). 5 Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 1747: "Intellectualis anima mundi et sphaerae cuiuslibet atque stellae subiunctam habet vegetalem vitam suo infusam corpori: per quam flon electione, sed naturaliter generantur, moventufque sequentia, et beneficia capacibus confctuntur . . . Vegetaiis vita nostra vitae superius dictae admodum est conformis, similiter spiritus nostcr radiis illius tam occultis, quam manifestis omnia pentrantibus. Evadit etiam longe cognatior, quando erga vitam illam vehementer afficimur, consentaneum illi beneficium exoptantes, atque ita spiritum nostrum in illius tadios transferentes amofe: ptaesertim si cantum et lumen adhibemus, odoremque numini consentaneum, guales Orpheus hymnos mundanis numinibus consecravit. Item coelo incensi thuris odorem, aetheri ferventem crocum, stellis atom ta, Saturno et Jovi
styracem . , .

. Spiritus enim per affectum,

cantum, odorem, lumen cognatior effectus

numini, uberiorem haurit illius influxum."

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algzrrns sruaur8urs

roJ

rrqdrg

duzur

ar' araql

.e1ou surp*tt;ir,O;it:a"Jrfi:r":ri

'Eut8uts :rqdrg dq rrEzu InJsssarf,ns euros EullJo,tt s(ourf,lg go d.rols eqt 'Z0I 'd "plql lf '00I 'd'tg6l'15y'sa1n1zl,tul pluoluxo7 pao Ftnqto7tr1 aqt {o Jounof '..stsruolz14 ef,utsssruuaU puz uzrSoloeql aql snaqdlg,, 'la11z/A. .cI .O ees I '("rg) lq8ri '(.llz) punos puz Suos '(ralz,t) auuA. Jo rnopo '(qflza; aur.tt((zlueulala ruupaznb Enuetr,, srr dq ltrlds .rno sr os 'sluatuelc JnoJ aqr ,{q peqslJnou sr ,(poq rno sz : (,rrxx ,rrr,..4 .rJ ae) 89s..d ,

37?r:,{:,;r);"gr'i""#

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q]81 er{} pus 'n uns oqt o} sraderd }uorf,u? Jer{to 'n s}uau8zr3: orr4dJo Jeg}o Suns eA?ri dlqzqord plnoa ourf,rC 'senrop t{w.tauvId o1 pesseJppu ete suru.,{g crqdrg esoqt ruory }rudy qll{rN 'r:urztil.8vru ? sEA\ eq pu" lre8us Surcnpord -tf,a3te '1n3:rernod aql Jo Ioqruds agr 'osJnol 3ro 'os1u sl eH 'olulcl Jo urrq q8norr{} pu? 'szroSuqld4 yo Je}szur eqt 's>1eerg ar{} ;o luorouz lsoru oq] sr eq esn?3aq 'ecu1d snonrrdsuof, ? szr.{ sneqdro 'dlruupslJg] ol otzlcl urory pue'ofvlcl o] sesotrt pu" snlsr8arusr;l sourJeH 'tafsvotoT ruory seo8 qolq,t\ suzlSoloeql tuerf,uz Jo sarJes eqt uI ', sr&oJoaql snts1td u s?.r\ sneqdrg esnuf,oq 'Sur8urs crSeu _To pul{ poo8 v ro1 elq?}ms dlrzlncrrrzd urq o} peureas a^sq plno.il\ suurdll rrydrg eqJ. 'trrsnru lzrlSoloJlss scourf,rd r{}1zrr I"f,rluepr sr 3w3us rrqdrg srr{t wqt tqnop epry eauq uzr e/K 'z rq8[ puz our.4A. 'Jrsnru pu? sJnopo oJz llrlds eqr SurqslJnou Jo suuoru Jall{r oqt pilA pgd1"r1 ae eLIt lnog8norqt tvr4t puFu ur Surruag
'duep sn{} wory seruof, qlF{rt xngur eqt dlsnordor arou ur seqweJq u '1q34 er{t pus rnopo aql '8uos aql 'suoltowa Jno Jo suzeru dq dlpp dreleueld E ot tuzuosuof, eJoru epzur sr trrrds Jno uer{.4A. rod

:senurluof, eH 'rc(esuef,urluzry :uopz8rurn.I 'uns oq] Jo urud11,, '3'a 'uorlz8runy ? ;o uorluf,rput or{} urz}uof, IIz sel}B asoq.tA. 'suurd11 crqdrg aqt ruory ue>lzl srnopo pu" steuzld go tsll B serrrS uoqt aH
.SEDiEP f,II.USOf, OI PESS3JPPE

snaqdrg yo suuldq aql ur sz 'rnopo eq] osp pue drrap IBrtsE er{t or elgullns lq8[ pue Suos aql ,{1ddz ezn.}I '11e a.noqe ' ' ' lgeuag uluuac ? elrerar ol r{slrK a^\ qrrqa urory r?ls eq} spr?ao} suor}f,eJ? rno tf,eJrp dlruaruer{e^ elts. JI 'luzuosuof, eJour ilps 1I e{Bur uEf, az)N .3urqr.,irala o}zJ}auad .tseJ -ru"ur Jo tlnf,f,o '.{tFi^ sdrr dpa^?ag eqt qlr^\ lu?uosuor sr lurds rnc) gz
f,ISOW TYf,ICOTOUISY

24

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

psalm of David 1, the Jewish Orpheus z ("Deus certd in Sole posuit tabetnaculum suum"). 1 \7hen, a century later, Patrizi (Noua de Uniuerils Philosopbia, Venetijs, 1593,
fos 107 v-111 v (1st ed. 1591)) used this psalm (and the Orphic Hymn of the Sun) in a sun-worshipping context, the inquisitor, Jacopo de Lugo, noted (ibid., fo 111 v) "id quod tefert Augustinus contra Faustum, N{anicheos, scilicet ex illo psalmi dicto: In sole posuit tabernaculum suum: excidisse in adorationem solis, quoniam cum Christus (ut aiunt ipsi) in caelum ascenderet, corpus suum reliquit in globo solis, inde veto solam animam secum supra coelos ad dextetam pattis evexit". 2 On David and Orpheus, see \Walker, "Orpheus", p. 101.

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.dd,sor4tg

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arqa7.lraqv

,UU

'0I 'd Erdns 'A I ..Or.t!rt?r;:;

'lol

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sI{I

]serlwe eql sr oq 'trsrrg 'Iusrustunr{ I?f,rsnur rewl pu" &oeqr ImrsnuI s(ourf,rd uoealaq sef,uslqtuoseJ ulsur oal atv eJeql sarSopu? eseq] uoldxe dpr3resn f,v:ut r{3lLIrK f,rsnur Sunlzul JoJ suoBreJrp se^rS tnq (soruourJ"q Ir.DFJetd ([rsof,oJf,Iru pu? usof,oJf,tsur uee/K]eq PBSOIOs PU" Ff,rSnrU UeeAUeq serSoluu? alqTssod rno luTod o] tualuof, ]ou sl oq ]Eg] w Surgleuros sppu ourJrd 'osEf, srr{} uI 'duourrzq l"sJe^run Jo ssepr Jruol"ldoeN -uzeJo8uqldcl puz 'dSoloJtsz l?Aeurperu 6f,rsnru Jo sasn clSrnaqr puz IvaI8v:ur luerouu er{} ut surSrJo snoraqo ser{ f,rsnu IElrSoloJtsB srrl 'dpzpurrs 'punoJord puz or?nbapu dlqz>lrzuel'e8utur f,rlaod z s? 6sr s l?tulu? ..l3nllJlds,, 'SuraII ? sB Punos I"oTSnur Jo uorldaf,uof, or{} :3nl"A ]ueusurJod lnorllTly\ lou sr qJIr{1K uorluusldxe rJv .crsnur JO 6(S1f,eJO" Oq] JO Uor]vu?ldxa drolcr3rsnss dJaa 3 se]?oJf, ourf,rd aseq] Jo lno :punos Jo oJn]?u eq] pu? SurJ?3r{ Jo stunof,f,E usru -rlsn8ny-uzrlalolslJy pua'zasn 3rlnedureqr slT puz f,rsnru ]uorf,u? (slrJrds prrparu ;o stuorpeJ8ur r?l1ruuJ ar{} Jo Jo^\od lecrqfa eqt a^"q o/s. 'r alqsnp^ pu? rr\ou Surqrauros ef,npord seop tu3r{} Jo uorlsurqruof, srr.{ <dJotsrq SuoI v a^vqdroeqr srq} Jo s}ueruele 3r{} Jo .purSlro eg ol sruses II3 ro ]sour qSnoqr 'w:gl esues oq] uI turds Pu? srsnur userKleq uoEf,ouuos JsrlnJod er{} Jo droaqr s6our3rd srsruosHJ aysrsnJ{

usrvr crNv 3rsnw s.oNrcrg (g)

26 Renaissance

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

wdter I know of to tre t the effects of music seriously and practically, and not metely as a constituent of the thetorical topic of the laus musicae L. By providing them with a f^tLonal explanation, he temoves them ftom the status of mofe ot less legendary marvels, makes them into exciting realities, and, by his asttological music, indicates ways of reviving them. Secondly, as I have already mentioned', Ficino's conception of the relative importance of music and text is the same as that of the maiority of 16th centufy humanists, namely, that the text alone reaches the mind and must therefore dominate the music. If I am right in supposing that this music-spirit theory is in Some measufe 1 cfe tion of Ficino's, then one may assume that contemp ot^fy of latef appeafences of it probably derive from him, and one r,voulcl expect it to be widely adopted, since it fits so well with fundamental trends of 16th centufy musical humanism. On the whole, the facts confirm the assumption, but do not fulfill the expectation. In the chief of the eadier humanist writets on music, Gafori, Ramis de Parcja, l.efdvte d'Etaples, Glarean, I have found no tfaces of Ficino's music-spitit theory. The first two of these ate, of course, contempotaries of Ficino's and are unlikely to derive anything from him; but theit example shows that the musicspirit theory does not nofmally occur in 15th centuty musical lrumanism. They both have chapters on tnusica haruana. Gafori writes that through "musical concord the spiritual nature is joined to rhe body and the rattonal is bound to the irrational by concord" 3' but "spiritual" is certainly used here in the Christian (modern) sense. Ramis de Pareja has parallels between the modes, humours and planets a, which have a long mediaeval history 5,

Miscel\aryt,2, ed. Mario Praz, Rome,7951'.

See James Hutton, "Some English Poems 1480,

in

Praise

of NIusic", in

Englitb

dantiam] enim spiritualis natlr^ corpori coniungitur & tationalis cum itrationali concordia copulatut". a Ramis de Pareja, hlusica Practica, 1482, ed. J. Wolf, Leipzig, 1901, pp. 56-8. 5 See Abert, Die Muikanschauung des Mittelaherr, H.alle, 1905, pp, 773-4, 781-2.

2 V. supra p.21. 3 Gafori, Teoricum Opus,I\eapolis,

I, iii: "per

eam [sc. musicam concor-

'o^ lt,

oJ

'lggl 'suz4 'sanbrldosolttld ilnzttx(J slt{ ul 'gggl'pu1trs0:i":{;.iri;:i

:
;

'egsr

'arusoto't'ry)

;i; !: :i;i8?J,;":"'|j,';K:''W':!'f,;:;:';9,,',:,:;^t^1:Z 'bas


aIAX np arltoq na anbEfiluatr.f
alt?od

691 'dd

'9961 'sr.re4'a1tys

'(az,rnqncads azrtsntrg) 1 'lrera

't 'dur 'A 'qlf <ZISL')eutluaSry 'ottSdosoruUcl.r;i::::r!^


'l^x-ll'111'ottuout.ta17'1,:'na1ot4 r

? ;lHlt"tr"isx

;
:

luzsruddz ry luzlnotue 'SJneoLu Sesnenlre-t 'se1quno1 'sauuoq eP ar.radwel eryeltvd aun ue atu?(l eJrnpar rnod af,rfJexa(p lIoAJes enbrsntr11 vl

sarlrJ tu3rf,u? uI turl] 'u aldtuzxe JoJ

saf,uaJeJeJ lEns?f, dlutsuer Pu" uluuefun ]?r{.&\euJos eJu Puu aa. II" tng 'ruJoJ snonf,rdsuoc puu IInJ e vr. f,toell] sry] uleluof, ot ?azJas ouo outctg dq PefuanHul dp.tuaq a4p/!10s sry tsedxe PIno^\ ,lvmf,ur- s?a. pwf,g ef,uIS 'ero3rareql " l, uotlztou IeoJC Jo dpnrs sFI ul lury Padlsq pu? pw['13P sn]uocl Jo Puelry u sE/r a^ef,s

"rllt^

przdl 'll

or

' ' ' ellueunJlsul

asrcdde Jof,ue suoureq sel srzry

'eleoort lueurelnes uou lueJuof, xnop uos red lg (lIA?r dos p suas aT : eururzgua a8zrnor eI ]e 'erJte,l ep ]e 'sdror np neou 't1e,1ap ]lrdsa.1 red m| 'surcurnq xn?ABJ] sou le 'srnaqzl sou 'sno1 ? erlo1 sturzru p ra8ulnos ? altu? ern]?N ep uoq eruorur?q uos luzurJoJ slredse serrcrluof, J?cI
:

aluo3wds aluusreld 'xnarf, sep ]uaf,f,u 'enbrsnry


:

suoluaP uururf,Sun

r{}lA puz ,(garrq s aasLrLrqw sn{ o}w lI sasnPoJlul eH '}T -Io luJ?el a^?rs esrrn?tr{ taqt ryuoztary eq} Luory 'n s}sa38ns lPrwi{3s 'w-'v sB 'ueeq el"r{ t{vus t1 'uorsngrp epllr. f,pry1 z froeq} oq} uarrr8 eAEq plnor{s aseqt q}ofl 'r snaotu7 aqt uo drzlueruluof, srq ruory setonb puu ourf,rC saru?u eg-e Surznorroq uado uE su sruaddz lr 'a4qdoso11qg ory"ra7taly 'eypazdopr{rue s(tlrslag ro8arC q f . tueur -8pa1rnou>lf,s lnoi{}r-&\ puu url}zqJel ourrld Sunonb ueryo 'droeql aql uorlrsodxe IInJ dra,r. z saliS 'eas lzqs e.^s. sE 'zddrr8y Jo ', dtuelolcl sE r{f,ns safJnos luerf,u? Jreqt Jo euo ol dlqzqord oJoru ro 'Surqleuros e.&\o f,r,;tll oulf,Id I{lF{rN o} puu
LZ

STSIUOUHI TY)ISNW UAIYT

28

I. FICINO AND MUSIC

par une naifve puissance & secrette energie, les passions & affections, ainsi que par I'oreille les sons estoient transportez aux parties spirituelles.

Here one cannot be certain of the meaning of "spirituel", but a later definition of the voice as "un ait esmeu de I'esprit poussd hors de Ia bouche, portant Ia conception de l'entendement" l suggests that he m y be using it in a medical (i.e. Ficinian) sense. Zarhno refers several times, in the Istitationi Harntoniche, to a connexion between the human spirit and the effects of music; but Ficino's theory cannot be said to play great part in his work, ^ and, moreovet, he is evidently confused about the meaning of the term "spitit". The following 2 is clearly Ficinian, and probably a reminiscence of the De Triplici Vita:
bene h) ordinato la n tura, che hauendo in noi, mediante lo spirito, congiunto insieme (come vogliono i Platonici) il Corpo et I'Anima: a ciascun di loro, essendo deboli et jnfermi, h) proueduto di opportuni rimedij: imperoche essendo il Corpo languido et infermo si viene a risanare co'rimedij, che li porge la Medicina; et lo Spirito afHitto et debole da gli spiriti aetei et dalli suoni et canti, che gli sono proportionati rimedij d recreato: ma I'Anima rinchiusa in questo corporeo carcere, si consolz. per via de gli alti et diuini misterij della sacra Theologia.

But in alater chapter, on musica hamana 3, we are told that body and soul are joined together "non gilr con legami corporei: ma (come uolgiono i Platonici) con 1o Spirito, il quale d incorpoteo". A little further in the same chapter a the spirit has faded away altogethet, becoming, as in ordinary Christian or modern usage, a synonym of <(ses|"-"rtatura spirituale" is plainly contrasted u'ith "rtattJta corpotale", and both are said to be linked by "concordia harm onica" . Later still, Zatlino uses the term in its ordinary medical sense, as the instrument of the soul for sensation
and movement
5.

Although Zarhno, as a musical theorist, had great standing


1 2 3 4 6
Ibid., fo 105 vo. Za,rlino, Ittitationi Harmoniche, Venetia, 1573 (1st ed. 1558), Ibid., I, vii, p.22. Ibid., p.23. Ibid., II, viii, pp. 87-8.

I, iv, p. 12.

'g-t 'dd "l' 'do 'uot1n11 ',,:Z-WS 'dd '0g9I 'azurog ,stJostanru11 ,1t**fr'2r3;ri: g 'sqng 'IA 'uratr{ 'II .lreg .II .u"d ,Qor7tuo7a74 {o fiuo1ouV <uoilng .E.g "-'1991
'srrz

4 'snunaq snTulnj raqlz unuoxlolluaxa

turuorltoxg ,rc8y1"3s

.J :1""*

.ros 'd.rosql trrrrds-rrsl* g plaq eql ,"ur'T;,?11 t;ll'fr"Tr;; -furap'f,\r ..lde.l) orilItez ruo{ aurot f'er;u (ozg 'd ^,1;'J:: 'sa]z;1 "pptv ryaaq ,.trudsa.1 1u?ssrssroJf,f,g s.Jrzg Jo selnluls eql uJ r

no

'lue.rJessep

no lurreseJ,, asz.rqd eql fuapzf,v

'eldurzxe u? sn uelr8 lsnf suq ovT.IwZ q]rqlt Jo ']urds -To tdacuof, eq] ur pelloaur suor]f,rpuJruoo puu suorsnlroo aq] .dlPuof,es f sn o] u?q] srapzar drnluac r{}9I ot tual?ddu eroru r{f,nru dpuepna s?a qIFIA 'crSzur snoraSu"p r{}r/t\ uorwrf,oss? s}r 'lsJE :dlqzqord erelr sserf,ns lq8{s ,f,1e,*.temduroc s}l roJ suosger er{J 'f,rsnru Jo uolldef,uof, s.euor{uz se}?ururop 'estn3 a.eu ? ur 'droaql turds-f,rsnu eq] teql vl-ruydrriva [tun ]ou sr ]r puz .rq8qs uoeq o^sr{ ot sruees droeqr l?f,rsnu drn}ueo r{}gl uo ef,uenuur s(ourf,rd preue8 ur tnq f , drnlue) qtLl eq] oluT pelrlrns ]r pu? 'aldruzxe ro!'"re8qzrg ur s? 'droaql srq] Jo suorlueur durls Jer{}o eJ? oJeql 'r 8ul3ws cqdrc) s(ourJTd Jo ruJoJ ? peArAeJ 'aes IIBr{s orA. s? 'or{^ 'arrepog v-I q uo^a lou .uu8rJ}tog Jo rprcg .lelllzC 'letr{ s? r{f,ns 'tuF{ Surrnolloy s}sruuurnq l?f,rsnru oq} ur droaqr ]trrds-crsnur aq] Jo uoTsJerr duz punoJ lou oauq 1 'acuengur puz
67,

SISIUOSHI TVCISNW UIJ.YT

CHAPTER

II.

F'ICINO'S MAGIC

(1) DuccEro

The De Triplici Vita ts pfesented as a medical treatise, and the practices fecommended in it might be taken merely as somewhat odd medical remedies and rdgimes-odd only because of
the large place given to talismans and music ; fot there is, of coufse' nothing odd in a Renaissance medical treatise dealing with spirits

and astrology. If, howevef, we tfy to picture Ficino nourishing his spirit and making it more ceiestial, we shall, I think, be convinced that this simple intetptetation is inadequate; he is indeed giving medical advice, but he is suggesting something else as well. The picture is something like this: He is playing a lira da braccir of lute, decorated with a picture ^ of Orpheus charming animals, tfees and tocks; he is singing
these words:
KIUOI
gt"dxap,

nav8epxiq, tycbv aici-rvtov dpp*,

Tr,ri,v ypuoauyi6,'Trceplcov, o'ipaviov 96q.

i.e. the Orphic Hymn of the Sun; he is burning frankincense, and at times he drinks winei perhaps he contemPlates a talisman; in day-time he is in sunlight, and at night he "tepresents the sun by fife" 1. He is, in fact, performing a religious ot magical rite"a sactament profane in mystery of wine". This conjectural interpretation of Ficino's treatise is strengthened by the 16th centufy feactions to it and Campanella's use of it, as we shall see, and is strikingly confirmed by Ficino's disciple, Francesco Cattani da Diacceto 2. The description of astrological
1 Ficino, Op. Omn., p.568 (De Tr. V., III, xxiv): directions for making the spitit "Phoebeus" by exposing oneself to sunlight, "atque igne refetentes in nocte Solern cithane cantusque interim non obliti". 2 See P. O. Kristeiler, "Francesco da Diacceto and Fiorentine Platonism in the
sixteenth centufy", Miscellanea Giouanni Mercati Vol.

IV, Vatican, 1946, p.

260.

( rp 'lruoctxe ururnr'U snrnf, : zr'ztrs srlurnreu * 'd;;:'r:'o;J"ifi:.:t :il:tt'i:til; q 'xcldnp uropnr orltu8or anbsnra 'zpunres :g zurrld 'xeldnp Eruruv,, :'plql e 'Zn 'd "r*O 'dO 'nl '11'otrltJrtrJ a6J 'olatterq e
'dzuug ol raltal slq gg 'd zr3ur Jl tng ,

'g-i6z'dd "rn 'dg I

anblnrurs.aIaArunf,

ruor,rdrn.rrressoldi:11;Tt;:$::#:tJ*il,'i.,#1'*i':'','#tJ
?,

'tollpnz lullld JIr{ snursspue8ilrp 1n '1sa uJnlJEj,, :'gggl'ezapsrg '' ' ' o1utug otadg 'olaclzlq ut 'tauoqo2 ttstJuoq oyA ap i?xtJoruaaluo2 'sntutdzl snudsorrldng 'Otz 'd "lp 'do '.ra11alsr.r;1 aas) 66y1 ur qreep s<ouif,rc \pur. z6vl rnoqs urord r

snqlJolu Pes 'tucqrquof, ?pI^E vf,dataetduruuro azulldlrslp snrllr e"f,ruotBlcl unlos uou

Jno,, dq dlluef,oJ puz sluerf,u? eql dq peluaJ] dlq8noroq] tsotu tlefqns sn{} erurs ']v1t Swdzs dq fl seJEJeJd o}af,r?r6l
ueeq
sErT

'clSeru snonnsJedns ruorg sewnuaraglp eq ql1{rN pu? s.r\oqs aq qtrrg^\ Jo ernJuu eqr : rr8el,q Ivrnfvu puz '.(lnzeq roJ elltaddz ar{} selrrep qliqa urory 'piogo,rnl esrae>lrl uortruSor stl puu 'puolas pu" tsr5:'1nos ploJo.^u ar{I
: e sI ratdeql srq] allr] eql 'o {ron srqt Jo rerdzgc euo tB dpo Jo (ourf,rd }noqu sn ile} ,{vut daql }Er{a puz rr8zul o} {ool paeu 31K sef,uaJeJer srq qtla dpo peuJeruoc Suraq 'dleluunlJoJ ctnq i lapour sn{ usrl} eJnf,sqo eJoru ueAJ 3g ot saSzuzru o}af,Julcl 'a1d1s puz lueluof, ur r{toq 'snur}olcl uo pasBq dpuaplle sr qf,rr{m'o,u1qncl aC asB?3r] slq q sJnf,f,o slql 'elu ar{} jfo 3Jn}f,rd paslnSrlp ssal pu? JellnJ r{f,rlur E sn selr8 r.{ rnq lglasurq f,r8zur perSoloJtsz pesn*rd aq _il tqnop plnoqs I puu 'ounrg u?r{t rrafqns eq] ur palsere]ur ssel suees eH ']no euJoq-ltvl q sl uonzlcadxo srq] ld3o1onsz puu ctSzru cruolzldooN Jo rralqns eq] uo ourf,rd u?q] 'a,rr]zruloJul oJour e)ueq puz (teeJf,srp ssel qf,nur oq o] urFI tradxa 'ero3lereq] 'p1no.tt euo '? ourJ]f,op u?rlsuqf r{tla tou Jo olqr}?duof, eJE daql (snul}olcl ro o}zlcl eJer{.4o. etou ol Jeq}oq uole dlznsn }ou seop pup ezrusrlsrJqf, o] ldruauz ou se>pu otef,f,"rcl 'dlruzllsFr{J pu" ursluowld ueealeq uor]?leJ eI{} o} Prz8ar q}IA dlulredse 'sdsa. lu"uodurr I?JaAes uT rulq urory pa8re,up or{ 'e }no s}urod rellarsrr; sV 'Jelszru sF[ go rerdoo oJoru u suueuJ ou dq 'larreznoq 'sztr e11 'z .,OJII Puz slrqzl{ sH ur dllczxe lsour W ll passardxa,, osls }nq 'Surqczet f,ruolzlcl s(ourf,ld ..dlpll? ur >luzJp,, dpo ]ou eq 'rurdul oursoJd 'srarldzrSolq sH Jo euo o] 8ulpJof,f,u 'pu, ', dpuosred uIrI u/Koul p?q 'ourcrggo Je.4a.olloJ ?J:[asuln{ pourr?pold oq osnuf,aq eruaprle go eoard alq?np^ dlrzlncnmd e sr olef,f,?Tc dq ua,u8 or8zur

LC

OIgf 3VIC

32

II. FICINO,S MAGIC

leader", Ficino, he will 'write, as the spirit moves him, of things which may seem novel and paradoxical not only to those who are aheady suspicious of Platonism, but even to the Platonists themselves 1. He then presents a Neoplatonic theory of astrological and magical effects: the world as one animal, whose soul, by means of the stafs, imprints forms on the sub-lunar wodd; these are conveyed by cosmic spirit 2, afid, if the form has been imperfectly received owing to the inadequacy of the teceiving matter, this imperfection c fr be corrected by attfactufig mofe spirit from the appropriate planet. Diacceto's theory also introduces dentons attached to each planet, who help in conveying planetary influences and can also be attracted. The "diligent capturer of planetary light" 3 must observe what
plants, animals, odours, figures, hatmonies, hymns and cetemonies, coffespond to each planet. Then he must choose the moment when the heavenly bodies are in a position favourable to the planet he has chosen (which Diacceto now calls a "god"):

If for example he wishes to acquire solarian gifts, first he sees that the sun is ascending in Leo or Aries, on the day and in the hour of the sun. Then, robed in a solarian mantle of a solarian colour, such as gold, and crowned with a mitre of laurel, on the altar, itself made of soiarian matertal, he burns myrrh and frankincense, the sun's own fumigations, having strewn the ground with heliotrope and suchlike flowers. Also he has an rmage of the sun in gold or chrysolite or carbuncie, that is, of the kind they think corresponds to each of the sun's gifts. If, for example, he wishes to cure diseases, he has an image of the sun enthroned, crowned, and wearing a saffron cloak, likewise a :raven and the figure of the sun, which arc to be engraved on gold when the sun is ascending in the first face of Leo. Then, anointed with unguents made, under the same celestial aspect, from saffron, balsam, yellow honey and anything else of that kind, and not forgetting the cock and the goat, he
1 Ibid., pp. 42-3: "At quoniam & ab antiquis, & nuper i duce nostro Xlarsilio de his exquisitissimd actum cst, cirm mea quidem sententia nec plura aut meliota dici valeant, consiJium est, quo me perunque genius libcnter tnhit, ea potius exequi, non quac nostris hominibus, quibus pleraque Platonicorum dogmata suspecta sunt, novitatis speciem affercent, scd quae fortd etiam Platonicis paradoxa videri possint." , By a typtcal elaboration Diacceto makes the plancts suck spirit ("purissimum animac vehicuium") from the firmament and pass it on downwards (ibid. p. 45). 3 "scdulus crraticarum luminis captatof' (ibid., p. 45).

'uollf,nrlsuof,a; srgl 'paqs4qnd puz .uallua pur{

relJe

Buol r1 ssoJf,z aruuf, I

.suz,rroa.asornro,"aE*,"x.lJT:,1i::XT;i#irTi,:.ffi

xoW 'sllos

"lra uaptnblg 'rrnsuaf, esse runpuauur snaqd.rg urslznb 'runurufq uior -r,trr ltuzt ,elauv >g olz8 euls uou 'sllraJuor erf,EJ IIOof, tuap"a .snue8 pl luns znb rs rgr .a11aur orrzg 'otuzsluq 'of,olr ep 'sn1l1qo snuanSun l,etatevtcl. Ipl*Jl :'8rro] .r,ro"1 "lrr3 "*tri alos lunf, a1ue8.lns zleu8ts oJnz uI tuz.rn3ry anbsqos uJnaJof, tue11 'nlcturz runlnpur oef,oJJ urntauo;of, ollos uI urelos ,etatr.) soqJour la]do Is ln .eJIUrAuor lne]nd urueunur anbrnr elenb_'aa.olncunqrm ogl{os.{rqe 1a,t oJnE ur }aqrr{ s{os runlqf,Elnturs lSqPV 'otunq zlz.rlsrad lPousnmq snua8 pr wnrogt ry sfrnbaslor '"1,re*gns srlos uns 'ltpuamz enbsnql uzq.r.rdur'snluuoJof, EJllu t;rtetr,lr;g ap'wnsdr Tt aJEllE.radns
lrEos 'seuuro luns Iernz rporusn{nc "oJnBI'-.llp,ro, 'sl.ro1or anbsrrqos 'orqzd sn}f,Iurz IrEIos Tt 'alp a.repua3sz eteIJV uI ln" euoeT ur tuelos tuaJesqo tuaprnb ?Jeunru ErJEIos rrlea rs ro,, rg-st .dd ,lo*o .dg ,o:rltterql
r

snluu8rs rpousnrnq snlltlds urnrluuu8av.rd a.rotu o"l p .ulnloegz siuonuurb-zrur _ urnluatueqen 'larulnd 3Jel3.^. runurrrnld usprnb ponb 'rrpp? snqruruo srH .lepereJ uou otue8ur sllelr-tu.r8 ? tatlqo rB'zpuncn{ rirrlrlld-rs trs-tuepr.rb rB^^."1p"* runlzg "r,. aznb pes i]vJeJ cs azrd anbrqn uatztr,tz.rfi asnb l1rn,l"ri"i,d, *",^rrrn1 "i.rrsod-or BItuIu aenb uou :]eq?q runlz;o1dxa a.raladruof, rlos rualunb isr.rodroc anbsntlol 'vJllf't'slf,oa 'uluotu.lzq Jnrlln tcqdtn laur{ pV 'luns zrdtrutrd u;nturuo lun;al urJl '?urIUE 'suetu 'tunu-n ruapmblg 'auurlu lluuJ oruaJlsod 'lluaru ulap lIUuf, .rpuua11 sIIoS ezur^rp grurrd ruenbur lrus-) 'tse rsunb rg (sruorlErlrf,uos sIA snllol f,rr{

nt:l.Ti:t"H,:#

"Joq gurrd 'etertodat

fou seop olef,f"r(l lopuatadtuot P?lJl slq] ]f,3uuof, ot dn nesrulg sw!|a2r o4A aC oqt ur aw pl.iltt f,ruoluldoeN tou or{1 puE ,(,,"tlT.]Uir,, (JElle ei{I .duoursror Pu? (6uJUIIEd,,) sseJp ,ilrsarrd usrJslos eq] snor8rleJ E dlsnonqo oJoru uorluJedo aql e>lrru r{lF{a sll?}ep I?ro^os spps oslu tr ]nq !. (aulzn 3r{} JoJ rdaoxe) rrSzur s(ourf,rd Jro uonf,nrtsuof,eJ l?JnlJa[uo3 rno Jio ssJn]?al ]u?]Jodull eq] il? sapnlsur pu? ourf,rd ruory sa^rrap dprzld alilJ f,wlau?ld sF{I 'T sua^"aq ai{l ranod parpuq ar{l (lauuar elrt .sagrpqos puu Jo stueruroJ 'sada aql qSnorql dwrredsa 'dpoq aql Jo sleuu?r{l eqr q8norqr rno SurdE Puz 'lutrdrur Jo pq>I srgr qlrna. padruuls sr lrrrds aql (uouroa lu"uSaJd qrl,lr sB <r{f,n{/K [q 'uorlzurS?ur aqr Jo uoTlrsodsrp l?uor]oure dlSuorrs e ituettodur lsoru eql aq ol salerlaq aq wr{,n sppz eq aser{l pooru prole tou seop serur] 11z oI 'drytzr8 pTJu, dlrol1drum sl1 Ie Jo " .,(q 1rydo( sr qloq qllr{a .or$t osegl uaaataq ueeur eql sr qllr{a auo tnq 'd11rrzr8 sdeldsrp dpuzlsuor qllr{a ro .ssauuo}uelr sarnpord dlFrld -urof, r{rnru ool dq qrl{rtr auo tou : uns er{t ol s8uolaq paJa^orsrp sEr{ .duorureq aq PUH eql Jo 'dpoq elor{a er{r Jo pue 'eteqtrf, Jo 'ef,roa 3o PloJeerql 3 sasn eq osIV 's3u1qr IF -Io saldnuud ael{} eql ar? .l.os .prlw 'auo of,urs lpog aqt ol s8urs aq dpszl pue <purtr J eqr ol s8urs eq uai{} 'ung aql Jo p"uaH eul Ip agl o1 tsrg cdus 1 .s8urs aI{ .Jnolz; s.lauqd eql Jo uoB?rlrf,uo3 aql Jo .aJII aqt aJa^\ 1r sB pu? .acloJ er{l sr eJag Jod '3uns oq plnor{s rqSnor{r sner{dro s? r{rns 'uurr(q u^\o s(uns aqr ra.rrt
cc UO
OIU3SYICI

34

II. FICINO'S MAGIC

with the Christian Trinity, but the eady Fathers and Thomas Aquinas had done so, and, from Bessarion and Ficino onwards,
such a connection was of coutse a constant theme of Renaissance Platonism 1. This description also confirms for us two points that arc not explicitiy in Ficino: that the astrological music was used together r,vith the talismans, and that the words of the former were Orphic. There are, however, some ways in which Diacceto does not complete and confirm our reconstruction of Ficino's magic, but perhaps diverges from it. One example is his elaboration of the "spiritual" mechanism by 'uvhich planetary influences are captured: the operator's spirit, surtably stamped by his imaginative participation in the rite, flows out through his eyes to meet and precrpitate the planetat\j sprrit. This elaboratron, an unnecessary addition to Ficino's theory, derives evidently from the usual explanation of fascination as caused by an emission of noxious spirit from the operator's eyes 2. A more important divetgence is the function accorded by Diacceto to planetary demons; these can impart, not merely the corporeal benefits that come from the planets, but those "which come from free-will and choice", i.e. knowledge, intellectual gifts, and a wise man will considet it "not only pious, but necessary, to perform hymns and cerernonies" to attract them 3. The magic in the De V.C.C. does not appear to involve planetary denions, but only cosmic spirit, nor to aim at an effect on the tattonal soul, but only on the spirit; how far Ficino really diverged from Diacceto on this point v'ill be discussed later. Diacceto identified these celestial demons, and the planetary intelligerrces, with angels, and believed 1 Sec D. P. Valker, "Orphcus the Theologian", Journal o.f lVarburg dz Courtauld Inst., XYl, 1953, pp. 776-9, and "Prisca 'I'lteologia in F-rance", ibid., XVII, 7954,
pp.243-251. 2 Mcntioned by Diacccto later in this chaptct (Op. Ornn., p, 47). 3 Diacceto, Op. Onn., p. 46: "IJnius igitur principis animae vires sphaerarum stellarumque plures animae inter se partitae sunt, quas innumeri dgmonum ordines consequuntuf, pro suo quisquc modo, ut par est, opificio providentes . . . Haec quidem optime callcns cum i coclo, pt^etu corporca bona, quae ex arbitrio quoque sunt clcctionequc, optct: non solum pium ducit, scd necessarium, divinorum numerofum dispensatoribus hymnos cgremoniasquc reddere."

'stuIBS ro sle8u? dlqzurnsa.rd ete apxlupliqn! ao|otodas eI{I (('LunJnlnnbasuof, ?r.urrJagn olol ord Bruuro outq 't$e,ruol scquulsqns anbselu.rzdes 'runuoq urnsdr pE r.unlol runq 'rnlzauel cJouJB f,or{ lnb 'lsa stnbls 'tuuensual arzlsaz.rd tuelnu orlnry 'opnzl cau enbonb :rs 'oqo.rdurr uou opouruzponb uraptnb 1n 'euorlealesqo runJ"llels ua:od.roc zuoq ualnz r;zdnrny .oonp queld {unsoln3lJcd'lutrapueluof, pI tnb rs tuetlBs lea:assa uou rqdosollqd l.rrl rurue oururuo 'opualuor snlruad unpugssaf, srllols srpusJopu gz oJea oBH,, : sepnltruof, otref,f,Elcl 'clSuur d.rurauuld tuef,Uoluw Eurgucsap reUV 'Qy 'd'.uutg .d6 'ola:rtzrq) rardzqc slqr Jo Pue eql lu s>lJBtueJ eJnf,sqo lnq snorln?f, cgl Joj ]unof,f,E plnoa, srr{I s '6gZ, 'd "lrt 'lle'.ra11alsrry ';::(Zet'd "plql) lrefqns eqt uo urq e,nt8 uzr deqt af,rlpz puu rusrf,pr.rc duz ro; suut8oloaql uzrsrJud aqr puu f,euvg ol epnlrlzJ8 scssa.rdxo pue ....ruzlsalouJrad ry ura,rz.rE rnborlz 'LuclElrsoJour tulJexlp ?JeJ ?g .ruBJnf, urupuenb urElxuu JaluJorpeur

uou IABgo.rd srurlrp ur.raduras'auzurlag; lru'g.la,r. oBE,,:raDel aqr sulSaq c11

'vtt 'd "PIqI

?,

'alIJ snolStler z ol J?eu Suqrzorddz Swqlauros sz sef,r]f,zJd Iuf,rSoloJlsz s(ourf,rd Jo uoltzlerdretur Jno Jo Jno eJ vI of,uopr^a Suorls drerr 'sseleq] -JOAeu 'seprLord eq tng .our3rC olul dn{sJo^4a,-teuzld s.olaof,zrc Jo alor{A\ eq} >If,?q pueJ tou tsnur 3/K ssf,ueSrarrrp eseq} Jo ^&\er^ uI 's ourf,rd urou PeJrnbf,? lou P"q oq Sulqtauros sulK dSoloaqt jo e8pelt\ou>l drzlueurlpnr uole uE-zuorlsenb ag] qlla lzap o] elquun alrnb tnq 'dlruunsrrr{J r{tPN ursruo}Elcl Jo dlrpqrrzdurof, eq} }noqu snorxuE dlaumuaS sznl er{ }Br{t Jet}al str{} Luory sJ?edd? rI .r oS sr srqt wr{} .se}onb .ralo or{ sre}rJl\ u?nsrJqJ a,eJ drarr eqt Jo ouo (etr8zdoary eql snls,,(uol(I Jo dllror{rnz ar{} uo 'd1u;rg s}Jassz aq (rusruorzlcl slq Jo serxoPoquoun alqrssod aql ]noqe f,vveg ep ururuJac ol aloJr0. aq Jsltol parJJo.4A, drarr aqt ut lxopoqrro aq o] uonslgrluapr sn{}
9t,
OIgSCYICT

Ir. FrcrNo's

lur,q.Gtc

(2) Souncns on rrctNo's

MAGrc

This kind of magic had many sources. Perhaps the most important, though Ficino does not avow it, and may not even have been conscious of it, is the mass, with its music, words of consecfation, incense, lights, wine and supfeme magical effecttransubstantiation. This, I would suggest, is a fundamental influence on all medi aeval and Renaissance magic, and a fundamental feason for the Church's condemnation of all magical
pfactices. The Chutch has her owfr magic; there is no room for any other. The effort to make a shatp distinction between Chtistian rites and any kind of secular magic is, as we shall see, apparent in many 16th century discussions of such subjects 1. As one would expect, it is rare for anyone oveftly to accePt the connexion between magic and the eucharist. This is however done by Peter of Abano in hrs Conciliator 2, a wotk which Ficino cites sevetal tinres in the De V.C.C.z; and Ficino himself gives, "si fas est", the formula of consecfation as an exantple of the magical power of words a. Peter of Abano and other mediaeval writets on magic, such as Roger Bacon, Alkindi 5, Avicenfrz 6, and "Picattix" 7, are probably important sources for Ficino's talismans, and would suggest invocations to planets. But far mofe important ar:e certain Neoplatonic texts: Proclus' De Sacrifciis et Magia, Iamblichus' De
Conciliator, Venetiis, 7521., fo 201 vo (Di/ferentia 156): "...sciendumquodexperientiapotestdemonsttari...prccantationemconferrc... ut apertc illud summum sacramentum cum alijs multis ostendit eucharistie. Nomina

1 Cf. infta p. 83-4. 2 Petrus Aponcnsis, Liber

etiam id con{rrmant divina notoric artis." t E.g. Ficino, Op. Oznn., pp. 552,557, 558. a Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 1.218 (Conn. in Tin.); cf. infra p. 151. 5 Cf. infra pp. 149 seq. 6 Cf. infra pp. L62-3. ? See Thorndike, Hi$or-y ,;f Magic and experimental Science, Neu' York, 1.923-41',

rr,

813-824.

.ax .f,
'AXX (AX 'J

rr
or

tx:l :
L

'IIIAxx 'r '869I 'eela>lcuerg 'snteropoaql 'V 'I 'pa "qild oIlA ae 'snqcqquul , '((Ilensuo3 eJef,EJ arour taqdro ?g lqeogcl tuzpaznb ErTrqEJIur sruos anbtre 'snqrluzr 4r srqre^ puo8uqld4,, : (rxx 'IIT "A 'q ae) Z9g 'd "r*O 'dg 'oulf,rg 33 e
'Jallla0' lueIJuB
v

'lll 'r "PIqI

ou ,(q pelonb
mayl'sn1to,r4

aJB

q3lg.tr 'surud11 orqdrg ss u.&\ou{ .r\ou esogl rou d1qzqo.r.1

{o [qdosz/!(1d aclJ slr{ ul) ugsoy 'f 'T 'rl 'snTto.trJ {o trtZ 'snuuutrq I ',,llos rlua8rns rrpnzlddz sluu.{q ruepsnqrnb

'g- LZ'i-EZ'dd'(6tOl'rlro1

rsznb sn11e8,, esnef,aq suoll uur{l uuIJEIos eJouJ eJu s>1f,of, }"rll /!\oqs ot sI Jlsn(u Jo uoltueur dluo aqr :6-gz(rl'dd "uru6'd6 'ourrrg 'tt "FoJy la 'rrDS a6r 'sn1co.r4 z ' (ou azu ta71) qSg f '(dr,{qd.ro.1) Zt6l '(ts(1,y a6' 'snqrrlquI) glSI '(snpor.1) 9761 'dd "utug 'dg 'ourcrg r
7

'dprarrpur 'tur{t os 'tl Jo suollu}ltur lu]uerunJtsul puz Iuf,oA oprru aq 'p1nor esle ouo ou tur{} pelerleq eq af,urs 'lng ! TT seJeqds eq} Jo duowrzq er{} Jueq or elq? su.4a, Jlasrun{ szJo8rqld4 's8uos luneds r{}PN ue>loa" puB daels o} tues eJe.{\ seldrlsrp aqJ 'duoruruq snonur^Jo 3]?ts v otw Inos eqr Surrq pu? suorsssd euosalqnoJ] pu" 1l^e Iedxe o] {UeFIr }nq 'dpoq pu" Inos q}oq Jo sasuasrp ernf, ol Posn s3^\ tI '01 af,?ld eruud ? >loot f,Isnur seldlrslP siq Jo Surwrr] eq] q 'suaL/hacft saJs?d I?f,rsnu Jeqtou? s".4a. eH '6 sl?ruruz uo ue^a '* stcagra luJrsnru pelnpoJd puu '1les snorSrleJ E pepunoJ', rdd8g ul PaPnls Pzr{ 3r{ sneqdro oIIT 'e seldlssrP (sneqdro uo4: setrItf,eJd Pu? s?3pr snorSrTsJ srLI pa^rJep tf,"J uI Suur.ug s3 puu 'snaqdrg e>lll dre,r Suraq s? paluesoJd aroq] sr szJo8uqtdcl 'q sef,nf,"Jd f,ISrner{} I?f,ISnu puz lrqdro patseSSns ol?r{ plno.4A. aon7u(#[cl p|/A 6snrlf,rlqluul 'dSrnegr srr{ w .cruf.;aaplerq) puE rrqdro qtoq 'uollef,gund Jo spor{}eu,, pesn pzr{ puz n surudq llqdJo palpnrs puz Suns dlsnolvaz pvq snlf,oJcl ]"q] ]uJzel eAErI plno.4l ourf,rd s snlf,oJcl Jo dqdzrSorq (snurrz1,q uroJC 'zrJar.tvlos d1urcu etv solduJzxe sn{ puz pcrSolor}sz f,r}oqrzdurds Jo uonrsodxe 'cr8uur esrf,uof, e serrrS 'aow p'Jrps ac s(our3ld pu? slsru csrlpoJd'lr8?ur -o]?ldoaN aseq] uee/Ktoq suortf,euuol snorlqo os eJz oJer{I IEJO 'r poszJr{ dvwd rc pe]zlsuuJ] our3rd eseqt Jo tsory 'ylldapsv eqt d["rredse 'anTaru.tap
'aatoTaqtrCrT

eg] 'u4uau4sqV ae s.drdqdro4


LE

p4A puz sgtaTs[7y

ssf,unos

3B

II. FICINO,S MAGIC

his disciples might be infl.uenced by this celestial harmony. The Pythagoreans worshipped the rising sun 1. There v'as aiso, I think, another less evident, but more fundamental type of influence exefted by the Neoplatonists on Ficino's magic. The immense importance which Ficino attributes to astfal influence on man's spirit and his accePtance of a cosmic or celestial spirit both suggest that, at least tn the De T/ita coelitits comparanda,his conception of the former is not merely the orthodox medical one. I think that he has at the back of his mind the Neoplatonic astral body, that is, the aetheric vehicle (dx1pa) which the soul acquires from the vatious stars and spheres it passes through during its descent into the eathly body 2. On this earth the vehicle, which began by being fine, shining and stat-like, becomes heavy, dark and damp, and, unless purified and rendered mofe aetheric, it will at death drag down the soul to hell of to some lower incarnation. This conception of spirit (for the vehicle is historically connected with the Atistotelian, medical and Stoic pneumata) would account for its being peculiady subiect to astfal influences, since it derives ftom the stars, and for the gfeat ufgency of its purification, since it does not leave the soul at death, but can drag it down or, if light and dry enough, ascend with it s. It would, mofeovet, have a special affinity to the spheres and their harmony, since its proper shape, before entering the physical body, is spherical, and its pfopef motion is circulat a.
1 c. xxxv. 2 See Verbeke, op. cit., pp. 267 (Plutarch), 306 seq. (Plotinus, Porphyry), 368

seq. (Proclus, Hierocles), 374 (Iamblichus); Proclus, The Eleruents of Tbeology, ed. E. R. Dodds, Oxford, 1933, p.313, App. II "The Asttal Body in Neoplatonism"; Ralph Cudworth, The True Intellectual .S.ystem of the Uniuerse,2nd ed., London, 1743,

3 This is an over-simplified account; for thete are often two vehicles, one aetheric and one aerial, or evcn more (cf. Dodds, ed. cit. of Proclus, pp. 319-20); but it fepresents roughly the doctrine of Synesius (v. infra p. 39 note (1)). Cf. Porphyry, Sententiae, xxxii, on the eschatology of the vehicle (quoted by Cudworth, op. cit., II,784); Philoponws, fn Ari$ot. de Anin., (quoted ibid., II,786-7) on the nourishment and purification of the spirit with vapours. a Ficino mentions the vehicle's spherical shape: "... corpus animae proximum. Hoc vocant Nlagi vehiculum animae, aethereumque scilicet corpusculum, acceptum ab aethere, immortale animae indumenturn, natutali quidem figutz totundum propter aetheris regionem, sed in humanam effigiem sese transferens, quando corpus

II,

781 seq.

.dpoq dxopoquoun aql jo eJzau dpuapraa sE^\ lnq Jrlorit) egr Jo uorsJaa l?nlurds snolnqzJ s sB lI Eutlzt dq puozrqerl Jo eEroag lsurz8e l1 prp,r"3Jp ,a ;LZ6l - ftgi 'uroq;apu4 'ra1qotrq '-I 'pa

flunsn puu oJuJ oJE strsruolslcl

'nuoTaJcl anr,praanpS u1) vottvsr"g ..";Dnzc eJuBssr,Uau xq rp"q 1"rry" eqr Jo suorssnf,sro

fiJl
,

ur snrsaurs pu? snqrrrq."'r or sarur

,1?:""tJil3:,:rt

:fr:;

"r{:'; #::{"::

.Lo

'rs8r 'urr*n '^:.:i:i1

'6ez'd

:"

eql (SgI 'U "rllpe'lll'11) a.raqr punoJ e^sq os1z pino.4t er{:(90t .d-,.aruo.dO,n .(g9 :a ,tLn.ezrsdri ,oladg 'IIIAX) 'tolcJ '/za(lJ eql ur salonb ourrrC r{rlqa uor3 'snlqorczry) IF 'I "cfutg 'utuos a! 'rualoe'snrgorczl,q dlqzqord s".,n Tpoq irri* eql jo a8pa1.trou1 s(ourrrd roJ af,rnos luzlrodurr ror{}ouv .gIg .d ,ZZ6l ,III-Iy',Gqop[4-Jb Joa,uof uotuaa'tv '..eueJd] 3o snrsauds Jo sttuuotul ae .l.r""i"ya-oeN aqr "ql-p", .@g .d.jlr, .do .l*"S ,B tro :crlnerru-nrlt;-Xg 'Eullssry .f .U eos .snrsauds rO

;r:r::::,{-ig "ilu;,,11,ff'#3:l "l;{(9";{3,.";;1.";",

f1s3ouz4 :6gtI "yL-, dlnf uolrerrpap) rua,( .r"rriur.,s aqt l?qr ut ueDlr^r sem opuotodruot lr Jo tr,tttpor p(zl ae eqr :69y1 IIrdV perp uorlmrpep .g961 .d ,.r*O.d6 .ou1c1g r ,.uu,o.d6 .ouyrsg ,.lotd

.tutuoz)

.cr

ji:H;

u1 L,Jet 15 H,;t;{* ,:d:1*r'::rl::1T:3 'f1rz1nr.rn saaoru 'e'1 ',1erol ornor rr[xorf ,rk:,7der-g:, rrlnaiu'qr .dru px ^1jq qg 5coo1,.) Z 'II'II'.uog .snurlolcl ur elf,rgaa eqt jo uonoru JBInf,Jrf, aqt punoJ a^yq ,tXXy,auotTo.tg iq ,iaEuql oslB plno,,r\ ourf,rC .(Zg_g .loc ,W ,.t2 .\orJ ,auarlq') 6Z : (0IZ' g,snltota ("t :iiinX, w7 j ol,7 a, V1V :d "uo'pa J :f ;i"lrp"ra", *..r"-nq ""b1,

"o*o'd6) ',Sn1rpa;8c

O0Z'dord) 809^'d

runnb 'suanrllseJ as ursrorrd .rr

" / oaq

ereqA ', srsor{Jfsduraleru puu Inos or{} Jo af,uetstxe-erd seurnss? qtlqa aurJ]f,op z 3o .{xopor{uoun snor^qo aLIt .{q .urSrro I"J}s" str ot Surrregar rou 'run\wtqan, uuet oqt Susn tou s(ourJr{ urpldxa uzf, ouo 'uorlrsoddns sFIt uO '* droaql uJrds-f,rsnu ulno slq PalJesu eH 'r olf,Irle^ eql Jo uolluf,glrnd aqr qlla peurof,uof, oslu sr r{f,rr{/K cs!!ra/s{J/v aQ snr{f,rlqw?I Jo uorsJe^ sTq o}q }?qt pu? ', dSololuwneud 3ruoluldoeN Jo uonrsodxa f,rsszlf, v ,stzuutosal ae (snrseudq PelslsuuJt eq 'npua'tndwlr s(lqatJ r2/!A aO aql aloJ^A, or{ eroJsq 1sn[ ']zt1t trvJ eql dq pauer{t3uer}s sr elsrqa^ f,rroq}3u srq} oJns?eru aruos q sl trrrds uEurnq s(ourf,rd 1?r{} uorrrsoddns aqa 'acuailodur tsotuln ell _Io sl uonrpuo, sll 'qluap rcrye selrlJns tr arurs i saSuun puz srefzrd dq po]reJ" eq uBf, 1r .1nos I?uor]EJJr aqlJo 'uorlzur8urur Jo tues er{t Sulaq f (spunos .s}uecs .slnodul) sgurql .lzorodror Sulaq i dllczxe Iw rsdgd ftlrrurs dq uo potf,z eq urf, ]r .f,}e Gsuoitztuuf,ur spuodsoJJof, dpoq luJtsu aq] saJr]f,zJd asor{} IIE or (suoqzJlsnl 'osuef,ur ;o esn oq] '3urlsz3r s? qons Jznlrallatur-uou oJB qllr{rN uoBs^Ilrs pu? poc Surqozorddz 3o spor{}etu .e.r .sacrreurd u8rnaql Jo uoB"cgrrsnf ro '>1ulq] 1 'uor]zueldxa uz-uor]deruor snolS4er v ,{luvrttrrd stsruo}?ldoeN er{t JoJ szrn dpoq IuJ}s? eql
6e

s[3unos

t
40

II. FICINO,S }4AGIC

of the astral body, in the Theologia Platonica, he is careful to pteface his exposition with a denial of the asttal descent of the soul and such remarks as: "it is pleasant sometimes to play poetically with the ancients", and to end his
he does expound the doctrine chapter with a declaration of submission to Christian tireologians Of the sources for his magic to which Ficino himself refers the most important afe the zlsc/epias and, of course, Plotinus. f'he Asc/epius, like the Orphica, had great authority fot Ficino because it was a work of Hermes Trismegistus, a priscus theologus even 2 mofe ancient than Orpheus, indeed contemP ofafy with Moses ;
1.

Plotinus was mef ely a late intefpfetef of this antique Egyptian wisdonr. There is one particulat Passage in the Asclepius with which we shall be much concerned:
(Hermes:) What has already been said about man, although marvellous, is less so than this: that man has been able to discover the divine nature and produce it, is admirable beyond all other marvels. Our first ancestors, then, when 3 they wefe in grave effof concerning the gods, being incredulous and paying no attention to worship and religion, invented the art of making gods. Having done so, they added a virtue appropriate to it, taken fiom the wodd's natufe, and mixed these; since they could not make souls, they evoked the souls of demons of angels, and put

them into images with holy and divine rites, so that through these souls the idols might have the pov/er of doing good and evil . . ' (Asclepius:) . . . of what kind is the quality of these terrestrial gods ? (Hermes:) It consists, O Asclepius, of herbs, stones and aromas, which have in them a natural divine pou/er. And it is for the following feason that people delight them with frequent sacrifices, with hymns and praises and sweet sounds concerted like the harmony of the heavens:
it involved. Nicolas Leonicus prefaced and ended his De 7'ribas Animorum
dogma.
Vebicalis

(in his Dialogi, Lugduni, 1542: p. 82 (1st ed.1524)) bysolemnly warning his readers ,gai.rst accep-ting aly Phtonic viiws on the soul which do not conform with Christian

1 See patticulady OP. Onn,, P. 404 (Theo/. Plat., XVIII, iv), 405 (XVIII, v); Diacceto, also, was vetY interested in the Neoplatonic vehicle, but, typically, does not bother about its orthodoxy (cf. Diacceto, Op. Onn., pp. 95, \t5,729, t69-170,
326-7,349-359). 2 See 'Walker, "The Prisca Theologia in Ffance", Journal o.f tlte lVarburg and Courtauld

3 Reading "quando" for "quoniam" on the assumption that the original "ZneL" or "rcetDd".

lnst,7954, p.209.

was

(z)

"ro.,

g 'd zrdns

.lePoul elqr

'n t

p agsodsrp stno(nol lse esoqf, eun(p agEzur uonpluas?lda.r u1 .rp 'uolledrcruzd e] JroaeleJ ue p la ef,uengul uos Jlqns z asodstp tra(qo un luusrnJlsuol ua 'JruelaJ zl ep ?sru luouroJ?rlnrluzd lse 1r.nb srzru 'allesJearun etug,l Jetrllu(p alrrz; s.rno(no1 lsa 1l.nb sudruor ]uo slr I s.ra-ttun.1 ep elnlzu ul na uslq Jloau luasslerud atu 'san1z1s sep tre saldwal sep tu"srn.Dsuol ua sluasgrd xnerp sel elpueJ as nlnol luo tnb sa8zs suerf,u? seT,, :8t 'AI '8t-lZ(tl 'suz4 'rarqgrg 'Jl puu 'pa 'sapopuug 'snurlold I '(xx'rnx'III) I9g 'gtg 'dd uo e8zssud cqt selrf, osle cq i(ta.xx 'III ''r1 'U aCI) Z-1Lg 'dd "uzag 'd6 z 'spo8 epuur-u"ru uo'gzt,'d 'plqt '13 ,,'etod -ural rad eJsJnp zEuol (suaqgd sllulluzurnq 'unlazl lrssod qopr ur urnlf,alur euorl"l -uenba.r3 1e [nsn DSeleBf, :'.rz,r] snllselezf, '}sa alselaur ponb 'pnlll 1n 'sngltucurJuotr ezluotuJzg srlsalazf, runpotu uI sluos snurssrJlnp le sngrpnzl le sluurdr{ 'rnlue}ralqo sngDuenbary srlf,grJJus uJESnEf, cuzq raldo.rd la 'snqnueqzg es uI rura uralrn}"u srl"lrurlrp snqrlrruo.re ep la'sngrpldzl sp'srq;cq ep'rdcpsy o'1z1suo3 lsu1r1znb 1sa
rpousnlnr '.rnlucqzq
IUaJJel

-Slllrr.rl rru Jo uortuluasa.rde.r alqrsr^ e 1o aldwexe uE su uns eqt saolloJ uar{I (('ef,ueJ -eddy,1 JrsrES ua(p elqzdzr JroJnu un eururof, lse e11e'alqpou uos ap af,uangur(l Jrqns

Inb 'run.loap 'alsrSaruslJl o 'run.loq rA ' ' ' luesstnlod

ulf,Ip culuoq cp aznb'luns


'sl.ru.1 'a.rar8nlsa,{

eleqzr{ seJra el"ur tc rpuertrEJ aueq }e zlopr senb red 'sll.la}sdru anbsrulllp sllf,ues sngrur8zurl lunJeprpur suc un.roleSuz lci\ [rnuorrJe?p srurruu seluuf,ola 'luzra]od uou eJef,uJ suruIUE ruzruonb 'saluclslru anbruze ruolucllroluol ?Jnlzu lpunul ep urelnlJll lunraxunlpz czluear.rl InJ 'soep ]uer"f,rya enb rualrz lunJeueaur 'ruuulrup anbueuolSrleJ run]lnJ pu so]ueuelpuuJruts uou la rlnpeJf,ur urauolltsJ urnJoap f,JIf, truEqJJe ulnllnu lJlsou r,l,uo.rd o8ra ruutuon| 'a.reoga enbulzr ruzJnltsu eJrueaul llnlocl uJEUrArp ouoq ponb 'uauollelrtupu lIf,uIA unlllquJrru wIUa uruuuro iluns Islc'epuz.lrur urluc snul[u,, t6-Llt'dd'976l 'r 'sn1daltsV r

'f 'V

tB

{roN

"puuJIuJ 'CI 'V 'pa 'runu7atuta11 sn{,t02'lll*

s.ourf,rd 'reqleSot lf,euuof, puz ',{ll^ uI lA euo snld?/rsv eql puz eSESSzd srr{I 'uor}sonb ut turds Jo ef,Jnos Iznselaf, eq} s}f,eger qrHrtr urJoJ pu? IEueteut EJo sl tf,efqo eq] JI ']rrrds Fr]s3letr 'sr tEg] '..sJuts puz saJeqds eql Jo slnos oqt pu? plJoa er{} Jo Inos eLI} urory (ur (clut f)vrtlv wJ Iztll Surqlauros,, loafqo lvl;:lfvru z ur?]eJ puu euo luqt setsls 'lr slerdretul oulf,rd s" 'snunolcl Jo Jstduql sli{J 'n [tzlveruruof, ? oq o] pesoddns sT p?uorpdzuot s(q/azr p/!A a(J alor{/n aq} qsrr{1K uo ((rur}olcl Jegll,, 3q} sr 're11e}srr>I ot Surprorcz 'grF{^ 't,ll 'l11 '1y1 paauug (snur]olcl Jo olJnos eq] sz a8zsszd a^oqs ell] fo esurqdsrvd v sluoseJd eg '. spue o4A pllduJ aQ aTql qlF{/tr q}la 'droeql sril Jro drzruruns aq} uI 'ssxnuur I?r}f,el3f, o} olltdef,eJ ourof,eq f,vut tr tuqt os Urrds ar{} Surruengur dlzclSzul 3ro droeqr IuJeueS s(ourf,rd roJ e)rnos lutrd?r z dlpetqnopun sl sFII ', 3uo1 tuaql r{rlln dzls pue ueru qtI/K dlsnodo( re:,q f,ETrr 'setl.l dpa,r.zaq pa}zader dq IopI aqt otut peoa;;;v ueaq szq qrrr{,n '3urql dluarruaq slqt t"r{t

tv

sacunos

42

II. FICINO,S MAGIC

astrological medicine, music and talismans; and he is plainly using them to reinforce his own theory. He cannot, howevet, quite pass over the fact that Hermes is talking about p^g n idolatty and dernons, and therefote goes on to a wotried and muddled defence of his own magic. He admits that the Egyptians' magic was "illicit", because the demons in the statues wefe all right if worshipped as gods; but implies that demons ^re 1. He then provides as ends used as means and not worshipped an alternative line of defence by citing Thomas Aquinas to show that purely asttological magic could not produce demon-inhabited rmages 2; therefore, u/e are left to imply, his own talismans and Orphic singing have nothing to do wtth demons. Elsewhere in the De Triplici T/ita, and in his Apologia for it, Ficino shorvs evident anxiety about the orthodoxy of his astrological ptactices; he is worried chiefly about the talismans, but also about the music. On the former, for example, he writes in the Ad Lectoreru of the De T/ita coeliths comparandas:
approve of talismans, which were however invented to benefit men's health, but which I myself do not so much approve of as merely describe, then dismiss them, with my permission, even, if you wish, on my advice.

If you do not

regard to music, he wishes to assert that his astrological songs ate not "cantiones", i.e. incantations used to summon
1 Ficino, Op. Omn., p.
571.:

Vith

qui & sacerdotes erarit, quum non possent rationibus persuadere populo esse deos, id est, spiritus aliquos super hominibus, excogitasse Magicum hoc illicitum, quo demones allicientes in statuas esse numina declararent [i.e. Ascl., xiii, ct. supra]. Sed Iamblichus damnat Aegvptios, qudd daemonas non solim ut gradus quosdam
ad superiores deos investigandos acceperint, sed plurimum adoraverint. Chaldaeos vero daemonibus non occupatos Aegyptiis anteponit." The reference must be to Iamblichus, De M1st., VI, vii, whete, howevet, demons as "gradus" do not occur. 2 Ficino, ibid.: "Ego autem ptimo ex beati Thomae sententia puto, si modo statuas loquentes effecerint freferring to Ascl., viii, ed. cit., p. 326,on oracular idols]. non simplicem ipsum stellarum influxum ibi formavisse verba, sed daemones. Deinde, si fbrtd contigerit, eos in eiusmodi statuas ingredi, non arbitror hos ibi pet coelestem
influxum fuisse devinctos, sed potius suis cultoribus obsequutos denique decepturos". Thomas, Contra Genti/es, III, civ-cvi. " Op, Omn., p. 530: "Si non probas imagines astronomicas alioquin pto valitudine mortalium adtnventas, quas & ego non tam probo quam n tto, has utique me concedente, ac etiam si vis consulente dimittito." Cf. ibid., pp. 552,555, 558, 561.

"Addjt [sc. Hermes]

sapientcs quondam Aegyptios,

-___-r__-

'Jf '(or zlz-ot rw 1o1'u'ar1y sre4 '1y 'L''Lgl 'aeurog 'o,azag ,"r;;'7";IH1j 'lrf, 'f,oi '*os 'bv 'ruoga u! 'u/tuo7'ouulalz3 I?urpJBJ ol^ ep ossruruor e "qJ 'l[xx 'IIIA '!a(f .n!) .sunsn8ny !nrc ,111 ,./aag plluo7.szruoq; n

'"tpz

Epz 'oryEo,oaq1 ptuwn.r ir,ro-,rrc ,111 ,saJrluag

'.(snluBJ,, illensn 1nq '8ul8uls uilo slq JoJ ((ueLuJEJ,, Jo ((orluzJ' spJo.,n Jr{l sesn Jaaau ag '(rxx 'ilI)-Z,gg'{'.ept .n.GtW.Io),22L,.,r2 .tor7.au8rtrq ,,p/rq7.)n.rg.to{xg
'sn11as4 or sdzqred 8uHre;a.r) anblz s?o snf,ruotzlcl lzgordrul (<loprrep snflescl ?p ru?N .d,.utag 'otrUuro Jaluaqrl uraplnba seuoquBr paS,, !(lllx .UI ,.,,1 .rJ a0) 6tg r

""r;:3r,.ilf#1.,iil;nu 'lZZ'd BUul .A


.dg

IEf,rBEru eq] elnpord op oqrtr sSuleq tuoSrllelw ot passerppz oq sroJoJeql ]snw puz ']ragra plrsdqd IuJntEu af,npord dpcarry " louuBf, 'sredurd puB suollu3o^ur ro (suulus{zl uo sJal3?rzql }Er{} sr Jerleq sn{r JoJ punorS oq} pu? I suotuep qtla sf,Joruruof, eAIoAur o] lr sa^3rleq eq esn?f,eq dpo crSzw lzf,r8oloJtse suruspuof, s?ruoql 'q Jno polurod Je]zl ouetor"J purpJ?J sv .ef,uoJep Jo surl elqrssod u 'ssalaqlJeAeu 'pr,{ 3H 'tl qtl/s rrSzu u^\o sil.{ 3ur -tf,ouuof, puz a8es svd satdapsV snonvlopr erF Sunonb dq lza.n dra,r uor]suruepuof, srgt tsurzSu erua3rap sF{ se>l"Iu ourf,rd puz .lrsnul lzrrSololsr sH puz srrzrus{u} s(ourf,rd q}oq suuepuof, dprzld snq] da.or^ (ssruoql 'r slopl uo eSzsszd eq] Jo uonsuurapuof, f,rluqdrrre s.eunsn8ny satonb puu 'cr8uru qtl,n snTdaTtsv eql sowrf,osss suruor{J 'e IIAOC 3q} r{}Utr l3?d r?vl ro sserdxo u? o}ul peJelue s?q Jot?redo egt puE 'suoruap p?q Jo >lJora. ar{t sr tf,e:Ue ]u?lInSeJ duz 'sqraq oq] qllzn pesn suorwluuf,ur puz suorluf,olur ro 'sauoJs er{} uo perrzr8ue ew SJapvJurlf, Jo sreilel JI .rnq f eurcrpour ur ossr{} esn o} atrzrul1l8a1 sr }r pu? 'saErupre 1zrl3o1or}su Jraq} r{tlril po}tr3uuot srernod up}rer e^?q [ean'suraE pu? sqrar{ s3 r{f,ns

'seruzlsqns IuJn]zN 'Jzoll olrnb ', s>1lo.rn aurnua8 eql w .sl rl8ztu ot przSal qtl/t\ uolllsod (szulor{I aoN .suumby s?tuoqJ se}ro dpuenbery ourrrC 'rlSzru u/Ko sp{ puaJop ol Surdrr sl or{ uor{A
'tueqr rz sq8nq pu" ruagt 3o sa,rorddusry tsruol?Icl

aql snllesd ua^e rod 'suortztuuf,ur ssrurslp or ra3a.rd glasdw I lng :, sdzs uoqt puz 'lrsnru Jo sosn pot8zu lualf,uz Jaqlo puz '(peronb lsn( a8us svd sat{a\rV ar4t vT) sloPl olw stlrrds pzrllB ol f,rsnru asn suonusur aH Jo 6seurJaH ']rojga porSzru auros arnpord ol weqt leduror ps? suoruop
gv
Strf,UNOS

44

II. FICINO,S MAGIC

effect, i.e. to demons. Since the main emphasis in the De V.C.C. is on the conditioning of the operator's body, spitit and imagil nation, so that they are in a state peculiady receptive to celestiainfluxes, Thomas' atgument does not apply. Ficino could claim that the chatacters and invocations were directed to the operator's intelligence and imagination, not to an intelligentia separata, L.e. an angel or demon; that when he sang a hymn to the sun, he did not hope to make the sun do anything out of the otdinary, but to make his own spirit more solarian, to make it mote receptive to the natural influxes from the sun. Adversaries of Ficinian magic would argue that there was always the danger that a deceiving demon might hear the hymn and produce some magical effect or delusion; and this, as 'we shall see, is what many later critics of Ficino thought.

'(llt:* 'ITI'.A ."J ,e)

g-999 .dd

,.uut6:$r#;rJr.T
:

'sotlsodxa srTII .'nufiuoq soruruz ur srla8uz qE Ir^ '.unJoa srurru' o" -unpcJ souJlu? soJlsou uI f,ulq anble .e.rt1lso.rd solpJ .red unlr.rrds urapune ur urruzd

-r'r'i#ffii

tunJlsou wnlutds .led a.rlua,L zJlsou s.rodror ur sJlop unrlseleof, urntodror urnl e8r11a1ur'a.rapuacscp EUop sou pE runrlsaleol snlurf,rp anbunciqn,, rggg.d..plql

'zuoq runBseleol r.unruurrug uJzrlc runl .unlrsodxa .q1r 1c,L '.ra1r1z.rn1uu runllrrds ul oJOnHur sons soIpE.r .red ruetle srlrid ".,b.r.ropo-*rponb ..rrpua run] .-rrr"rnd ?rl, I

xr.rlzldurcluoo enbruap sue',{,, : (rrxx

,ru ,.A

'il::fr;:?fY;:;.|

'

,;'.3Xir;t .'
urz';"?tn

JoJ eJe.& ,(aqt sz 'sruduouds su (1e8uz 'uoruap poo8) surlel ssaqt Bursn

'olrznl ]su3l ]E wql'aluaprrr.e u.ao srg uo 'znou4 31K puv .f,ruoruep dlrzelc sr 'oleoryrq 'eldrrsip sFI dq pagrrlsap u8zru eq] puz 'rruoruap eJeln clSzu slr{ Jo sof,Jnos f,ruo}zldoeN oq} JelooJow 'lnos Puu 'llrlds 'lpoq s(uzur uo ef,uenuur tuglsuoJ puz lryJeaod JIer{} u, puu 's1euz1d q}}a pe}zrioss" 'prq puz poo8 'suoruep ur Pe^srlsq eq t"q] rueprrre elrnb sr lr s>lJo.{\ Jerlto s(our3rc uJoJd leuulcl ]uzurruop s(euo sB pup le8uz urrprzn8 s(ouo sz r{}oq
'e

PelseJrp
sw!/a2r

eruus eq] ew esaqt lsrl] rEell si tl uuaT to suoluep JErlrrusJ uo Jotd?I{r eqt ruory puv ', sn\dapsv eqt ur dnelopl eq} sr erer{r 'sslnos Jno af,uenHur dprerrp uv) saltalal ao////uo ro s1e3uz wql PIof erz ea PUB '. lre11e1ul eql sef,uenHul uJnlus 'cr8zur snora8uzp oJoru z jio sef,"tl aw 3J3q] eJerl ue^e ]ng .lnos FuorluJ s(u?ru uo dpcerlp lle plnof, oq.,!\ '1nos E Jo pessessod '(uoruap .a.r) ..rrrlds,, lzuosred z Jo oruanHur eql dq lou puu 'req8lq ou tnq 'dpoq puz ]ulds s(uzlu uo ]lJlds druteuzld puosredur uu Jo ef,uongul e{} dq >lJo/r o] 'cruoruap-uou eq or pesoddns eJB qllqa secrlrurd .rueqt prol? o] snorxu? sr ourf,rd lecrSzur SurrsaSSns sr eH IJo.&\ srqt rn tvqt vryId sr rr pue ! .).).A ae eqt w peuonuoru uloples ew Suouroc ']ou I ;, sla8uz Jo suouIep poo8 spJ?^\o} IuF{} '3ur8urs crydrg eq] Sulpnput ,apuataduo2

p/!A aQ

tou

s?.1K

eqt 3lo crSzur 3r{1 ruq} oJns ,lvl(.ttw e/t\ oJ? }ng

sNor{sc aHr oNtr oNrcrg (g)

46

II. F-ICINO,S MAGIC

in

1494 and 7495, he succeeded in casting out bad Saturnran demons by astrological means 1. The questions we must ask are: does Ficino anywhere advocate demonic magic, ot describe it in a u/ay that definitely connects it with the magic of the De V.C.C., which he did recommend and almost cettainly practised himself? In other wofds, afe the appafently non-demonic, subjective, "spiritual" ptactices of the De V.C.C. mercly a dishonest camouflage for a tevival of Neoplatonic theurgy? The answefs to these questions can be neither simple nof conclusive; but the questions themselves afe important, in two ways. First, if Ficino's magic was addressed to angels and meant to influence the highet paft of his soul, it was plainly a religion, a revival of ancient, p^g n theurgy, a kind of astrological polytheism which even the most liberal Catholic could not admit.

Secondly, even if it could be claimed that the planet^ty angels wefe generally accepted by theologians and their cult, within the same limits as prescribed for that of saints, was permissible 2, it would nevertheless be inexcusably reckless to direct any kind of prayef of rite to them othet than those sanctioned by the eminently tradition of the Chutch; the bad demons, who ^fe always lying in wait for the opportunity to deceptive, ^fe delude those who tty to make contact with good demons 3. Ary magic then, that is meant to be compatible with Christianity, must avoid demons, good or bad, and we would not exPect a kind of demonic magic of Christian openly to advocate ^ny admit that he practised tt himself. We are looking for sometl-Iing that rvill probably be hidden. Ftom Ficino's numefous expositions of demonology the followprimarily iog general outline c^tt be gathered 4. Demons

^fe

1 Ibid., pp.7469-1470 (Conn. in Tim., c. xxiv); cf. Giov. Corsi, hlarsilii Ficini Vita, ed. Bandini, in Ph. Villani, Liber de ciuitatis Florentiae famosis ciaibus . . ., ed. G. C. Galletti, Florentiae, 7847, p. 1,97: "in N,{agia habitus est singularis, atque
divinus pluribus e locis malis daemonibus, ac manibus fugatis . . .". 2 For Thomas Aquinas on this v. infra p. 137. 3 Cf. Campanelia's experience, infra p. 228. a Some of the main passages are: Ficino, Op. Omn., pp. 209, 223,289,302,339, 377 -8, 482, 7342, 1387, 7437, t465, 1528, 1708.

",r".rn;;;0,##1ilr;r,W:\ h:;?t*""r:;;r:;: : 'tZ 'd "ttldo 'uo11n11 'f p 'aruze qfrrn ur8aq ol srueas saragds l"rtselef, aqtr Euowu selqf,uJelL{ rtla8uu uzls,{uotq eq} Jo uonnqrJlsrp ar{l 1nq isnlsduolcl 'scl 'esJnof, Jo 'sl slq} Jo }utod Suqrzls aqa I 'eygl't6ZI'928 'dd "o*O'dg 'ourcr4 33 7 'serpoq ou ea?q sauo lurlselar.radns aqa r
: e Inos v vo Inos E Jo of,uanuul 3q] uonrppz uI sepnlf,ul puz selpoq .slauzld oq] ruo{raf,uengut sdzlrezro dlalalduof, eluengut dreleuzld rluotuep wqt 'l1tvelf, s.4a.oqs t,(xo7 eql vo LmquaatarS srr.{ ruory e8esssd 3urno11o3r eq; 'dptc{dxe sn s11a] ourrrd slqr f tf,? op puz uEf, deql r{lF{rtr uo s}trrds uzrunq o} uDI? dlesop sorpoq lzntprds e^?q suouap er{t esnzcaq dro1f,"Jsl}ssun sl ]I 'tl q e^elleq deql 3r dlznadse 'rr8zru ]noqz dlzel8o1 ryF{} dlznsn tou op eldoed rnq 'd1url3o1 dropz3rslwsun sr uol]zlllf,uof,eJ aqr ! asoddns plp oulrld l?t{rd' uooq eAEr{ [at sry] Iurq] I i PuFu pu? Inos s(u?Lu uo dprzruud >lrortr 's1nos el"q orIA 'suouap aql 'strrrds puosrad eqt s?eJeqzn 'raq8F{ ou lnq '}lrtds pur dpoq s(u?tu uo s>lro1n pu" serpoq dperrzer{ eq} uIory setuof, lrrds lzuosredrut aq] tzq] Sursoddns dq oa.] aq] oll3uorer o] alqlssod oq tl tq8ru rO 'l?uosradru pu" I?uosrad qloq eq touuzc sltrtds pltselel eql leouongur drztauzld 3o spu1>1 r{}oq ut dlsnoeuutlnuls eAeIIeg or llnlgry eq plno.{\ tr }ng 'puosradtut 'lzleua8 sr reltul eq} sueJer{a 'lzuosred 'lunprlrpur oJ? JeruJoJ eql ]?q] sr of,ueJotttp 'ptrnJf, rnq 'dpo aqr l plro/il. eq] Jo rrrrdg puu InoS oql o] 1a11zrzd dlrrzxa ew suowep 'acuangur drztauzld go srunlpour sz peJeplsuoJ 'uorlzulSutur puz stlrlds s.uetu elqnor] or{A 'salpoq lv\rev q}la puz sn}zts /t\ol u 3ro 'suouep pzq eru eJer{I ', uotrrap drzreuzld ffir.IrLuEJ v se eluus er{} st 1a3uz uztprzn8 y '* sla8uz yo dqcrurarq uznslrqf er{} qtl{\ pegr}uepr sI suourep Jo dqcrzrarq rruot?1doe51 er{J 'lnos slg puz ltrds s(uulu uo t{toq lcr 'lrlds pu? Inos r{}oq Sweq 'uzr deg} i saruangu l"nseler Sunllru -suzJl Jo uonrunJr er{} ruro;red daql !sareqds dpa.tzaq eq} uI aAII oqa serpoq r{lqfrza tnoq}r/r ueru o>lII eJ" 'uaq} 'suotuep drufeurl.I '6 trrrds u"runr{ oqt ot eJnwu a{ll Jo eJs salpoq aseq} f , sn1z1s " rer{t o1 8urprof,f,? 'selpoq IEIr?v Jo f,IJor{}eu puz slnos a^?q dt,{I 'seuo T?rueruele pu" Iensalef,radns osl" oJ? eJaq] q8noql 'drulauzld
SIT{OI IgCT

uarurrrsrp unloruaaur runru"nb

LN

48

II. FICINO'S MAGIC

That the powers of the higher spirits, however it may be done, influence our spirits we carrnot deny, since we cleady see that our bodies are moved by the higher bodies . . . But if these spirits act on our spirits, ther- also act on our bodies. Indeed passions of the human body, whether induced by these higher spirits or higher bodies, overflow into the soul in so far as the soul, by acquired or natural affects, has sunk itself in the body. But there is this difference: that those [celestial] bodies move our souls through our bodies; the fcelestial] spirits, on the other hand, both move the soul through the body, and directly move the soul,

and move it through that fhuman] spirit which the Physicians often call the bond of the soul and body. planetary effect, then, even if confined to the human body, might be caused by a demon. The only gfounds for hoping that it was not would be that the means by which the effect was produced were not such as require a demon, that is, not pfayefs' figures, \Mofds, that could only be effective through being undetstood by another intelligent being. It would be just possible to afgue that the practices of the De V.C.C. ate of this kind, though the talismans and planetary music would need a lot of explaining; and Ficino did so afgue in that wofk, in his Apologia for it, and in some of his other references to it. But if my coniecture about the Oryhic singing is coffect, then these afguments must ^PPeaf weak and disingenuous. These hymns are cLeafly prayers addtessed to nryntina of some kind; mofeovef, on several occasions, Ficino 1. He himself states that some of them arc addtessed to demons

Ary

does so in a most revealing passage of his Commentary ofi St. Paul's Epistle to tlte Rontans, I, xxiii: "And (sc. the pagans "ptofessing themselves to be wise") changed the glory of the uncofafferat familiarum cuiusquc hominis varietas daemonum. Quod autem spitituum supcriorum vires, nosttis quomodocunque ita frat, spiritibus influant, negare non porr.rr.rr., quando manifeste videmus corpofa nostra corporibus superioribus igttui. . . Quod si spiritus illi in nostros agunt spiritus, agunt insuper & in corpora. Pissio verd corporum humanorum, sive i spiritibus illis, sive )r corpotibus supetioribus inferatur, eatenus redundat in anima, quatcnus tam comparato, quem naturali affectu animus sese mergit in corpus. Verum hoc intetest, quod corpora illa per corpora nostra movent animas: spiritus autem tum animas per cofpora movent, tum per animas, tum ctiam per illum spiritum, quem Physici saepe nodum animae invicem,

corporisque cognomin^nt." 1 Cf. Ficino, Op. Omn., pp. 131, 383, t715.

-:,:;,.l, o " : :il1: .'# :li?o : i 1:,:11, -1xffi1;:;i ; 1; ];J:: scll-\Il 'tllnru scll1llu()rl lunroxnp()rlut sod;n] ry 'sunblur lg solruu srSuru ruzrlc ellnui tuclnu sotrolllls.l. dnq ']rnqll{pz scuotlr8rulnJqns sr}Jcf, onbsu}.lec 'llnzllasuof, snqlu -ltrtoq onbslrlriotuccp 'sngtuououp rutrrle prs 'snqrlsclaoJ ulnl()s Lr()u sorul.rnldurznb souur[q '-ioq]ne snl1ll sluollirlcr snu8uru 'sncqd.rg oJJA urEI .cJu]rJxo ssruruu enbrunr -o]f,LInJoP sJu()iuoup sLlo uI ry 'tssl,tJnsuoJ o.rtlo()llof, suluf,IJqeg r:cr8uur o1.rz slldruol ut sEnlzls sa.rlrd curlrJdScV sruorSrlc; tsc sDSJ] sntrrrxr]ru Jc] snrJnf,JJJ{ .}unJera(qns slulilul srpuuJopu sn81n,l cnbrun.rcsrur runf,ceJ urluaSlnpur ucplnb enf .olrpcp Ipour -snlo snclrucrtltls;rdns rg 'optdnc runJ()uog [uuorJOJUr rg 'o31n.1. a.rcSlnpur runllulu '.lo.rllq.ru 1n 'lunJcnlol aeJolczJcl 'snululndslp snrl"l oJqII orucl ur ulelnu slr{ oct 'luzJcxuHe IeA tuercLeloll ()loof, rrt srnbllz scurpnlllrutls u;uonb snutrd ur u{uruluz (JJJA cIJOC 'EllucnJil-uof, snqIUItUnu urspsIO uJr{f,clnutls anbsate}rurzqt sxBs ?g 'z11uloru rg 'uulirl rg 'urlururuz ?p luuqaqlqpv 'tunlnlnsu()f, orJez IeA 'l1sc1aol c,rof 1e,r 'ou.rn1zg gns 'utc,tof ]nu ']uuqullcddz rueurtuoq cnburnu;nlgs 'solrpazrd areunur rB 'solluclj nxngul runulrunlr tpou-rsn{a uvponb ondnau.rd luzqzrullslxc st;c}eur cs.rd sonb 'lun;oAef,()l tunuluroq sBnluls ?g 'Lucplql sullsodslp ElJe J erJes '1un.lc,l.errp anbsnqruoueup srloJrlcoo ry snqrlsrl;lr-rc eldurcl rqn 'tunreng lSuyq anble ursp{r rnb 'salttslluv snIIIr sluoliitla.r qr.rca 'cJef,npop ?unuodo Bqucn.r8uol snqrJorJeJur runJ u;epoenb u.rclt.rcdns es pn seuluroq lurJonJop anbrucuollrsoduror uJeuor]f,olo r.unJ -oIJcJuI rcd r8u11 ctpouonb 'rntu]lnu zrluaseu.ld uI ]n l-rl 'lunrzlnd eJcqq szr.rzulSzurr tuet]us sclutalrdord un.ror.radns uupsonb sapldul rg 'r11u1au ?g r.uzrle szlueld pas 'u;n1uzi IrIIELUILIE leu 'zllticutuad tucuouJr"p 1e.1, 'ruulorlloof, IOA 'rualselcor uJnIIz

"

il:' #,i"

:ffii

1e-r 'runq PE urJuluroq rclou.rd snsJnJ rrlururuv 'sol.roI enblz seurluoq soruJn]us snqluoruaup enbsflaol 'sfrurnluq qns EcJc]ouJd 'JJ]rlrurs cnbsorclezr 'socqaoq.l anble soruzl{ ry 'sot.r<lf a,rof qns 'ou.lnluq qns sorLrJn}ES .so}rpaztd cnbo}uaruouSor snqt.rctl.rcdns tunJ clclet.rdo.Id ]ef,Ilrtrs ruopBa 'scuoruczp onbsollu 'sdarurap soII cJoB uI sll qns 'sr:1orrloof, rqr solJof, BIIcls ]Jqrlunb qng .lunransodsrp su8uol ruzpsunb soIJOs 'runllu:lnbcs apul rullzpzr8 Lunullunu 4r 'cnburnuoluezp unJoaCJ 'lunlu 1n 'urn.louzpunu lnblluz salucrdes 'sntuulJuJ] u][^ ap oruc] ul >g 'runur1o14 enblz uau -oruld ut sfr.rr]uaruuo] ur ulnpoupzruenb olrcjoJd 'JSSrpep o81n,,' susue sruol]uJopu ?pJnsq8 wsl euJI 'urunbrnbaN iessrnlol ErlE] srlgrununu ord salrlsDuy sluor8rlell SnIIII sorurssnf,op '1sa urnpuzrunsrxo plnbunu peS,, : yVy ,d ,,uutg .dp .ourcr.1 r

aql rePul1 uaru Isr^of puu usrurn]?s osi? pu? :esr^4Ne1rT sraqto pu? uueqeor{d '1er}re14 eq} pu? 'larrdnf repun Fr^of .urn]u5 rspun ssuo
(suourep reqto snorJs^ Jr? eq} ur weq} repun pu <sue^zaq Pe,{\oPue II eqt Jo ]red t?q] uI ile.^\p oq,^N (suourop ur?tJef, J?ts qtza Jepun iraplo ur weqt .{\olloJ otq^\ (oalruntl) slrJrds pu? suourap 3r{} Jo pu? 'uaqt 11et daqr se 'spo8 euupunw Jo sarJas 3uo1 uletrar pe8uzJrz sa8zs tuerf,u? aql 'a/!21. aO eqt Jo 1oog prlr{I eqt ur pu" snur}olcl puu otEIcI uo serrz -luaturuof eq] ur aor{s e^\ s3 'paapul 'drqsro,tr Jo puH prnsqs u? qf,ns JoJ aldoad uorur.rrof, er{t ot uorsf,f,o e^23 deqr reqr reqwr tnq : tou dluruueJ e(ouuuaa) stulds ora^\ daqr JI sz stle[qo qf,ns peddrqsron uorSrlar f"qr Jo stseud-q8q peur?el tsoul eqr ]Bq] esoddns o] e.&\ er? lng : r srq] uo sallr.tr ourlld '..s8urql Sutdaarc puz cslsuaq pelooJ JnoJ puz (spJrq oJ pu? 'uv:nt alqndnJrof, ol e>lrl opzru e8zwr ue otur poo alqrldnr

u?ruJntss--seuo rouedns eg] s? eu?u-dlrureJ pue drrlnb eru?s eq] qtrlN

6v

SNOI{[CI

50

II. FICINO,S MAGIC

Saturnian and Jovial demons; and then, as well as men, animais pertaining to one or another celestial or other demon, and not oniy animals, for they thought that even plants and metals and certain stones had the least images of them. For the properties of the higher beings, or ^t present I will pass over how the Magt taught men, by selecting and putting together lower things, to draw down for their own benefrt certainhigher things corresponding to the iower ones. But undoubtedly the highpriests of that religion, who were the same as the Magi, when thev dedicated temples to celestial fgods] and heaven-dweliing demons, also placed there, arranged in certain series, statues of men whom they considered to be born, more than others, under a special influx of such spirits (numina) and endowed with their gifts. They called a rn n Saturn or Jupiter, who was subject to the heavenly or al/ral Saturn or Jupiter. They added animals, woods, metals, stones and charactefs, as images corresponding to the same spirits (naruina); probably chiefly animals of which thev had noted or invented likenesses to certain ffigures] in the heavens. But these things we discuss more fully in the Third Book [of the De Vital.l\{oreover, they v/ere willing, I think, to yield too much to the common people, who are desirous of lower goods and given to such superstitions; by this indulgence they subjected the blind and wretched people to the worship of the basest objects. Hermes Trismegistus is a witness that the fathers of E,gyptian religion were 'v/ont to place in their temples statues fashioned by magic art and to attract into them demons and the souls of the dead. Indeed, Orpheus, the great founder of that religion, devoted many of his hymns not only to celestial [gods], but also to demons and demonic men, and added particular fumigations for each. But much more foolish, wicked and abominable superstitions Varro were introduced by Inanlr Ptiests, both civil and poetic rightly, u'here he speaks of three theologies, philosophical, civil and poetic, considers the latter two by far inferior to the first.

This certainly implies that the De V.C.C. is really about planetary demons, as descrtbed in the Connttentaries on Plato and
Plotinus, and about rnethods of obtaining benefits from them; and that these methods, which include using the series of planetary objects, as listed in the De L'.C.C., are connected with the Orphic Hymns. It also mentions t\ ,'o other dangetous themes of the De V.C.C.: the demonic, man-made gods of the Asclepius and the planetary guardian demons. V'e can see here, I think, the complexity, the conflicts and hesitations of Ficino's attitude. He begins by

'99L 'd BlJur peronb '('toJrJ u1 'ruru02) 6lLl 'd "plql '(xx 'c "uauto4 u1 'tutuo2) ynry 'd ''oroo.dp 'ourcrg 'bas

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.{.rulueruuro, aurus eq} ur re}EI

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IIIA 3rl tur{} s>lJuureJ er{ 'uooru eq} qSnoJrl} dlurcedse 'seSueqr Flueruola II? esnzf, 'Tpuatu olalao aq] Io turds or{} su 'sua.tzeq aq} lur{} dJooq} eqt popunodxa dgerrq Surlzq 'snaarurl eq} uo ,(taquaut -a0) sF{ Io Ja}dzqf, y uI 'rlvrc:.}T.iu dlnrr sr Ja}tul eg} tur{} s}Jess? aO eql Jo u8zur eql qlr.^N clSuru f,ruourap slsuJluof, er{

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serur]orrros ! * suotuep drzrauzld illla lr s]f,euuor dpado er{ 'pelonb lsnf eSzsszd eLI] ur su 'saruparuos 'uor]?]iseq puz dlwe]rarun /Kor{s'2')'A aQ eqt o} ourf,rd {q ssf,ueJej:eJ Jeqto

'uoltrlsJedns puz drrrlopr olut tr tJolsrp plno.4a. oqrt 'st&Jnn tuerou8r eq] ruory teJf,es lda>1 aJO.r\ pu? 'a1:llr lzrrqdosoilL{d 'pquruel z urqlr/K peurcrrrer ll -il popro^z eq rq8rru sra8uzp stl lzqt eq ot sruees uorsnlJuof, srl{ 'snora8uup sl }r }zr1} el.ll:t sl eq wrqt JEeIr sr ]r oslz puz 'alqznprr ]r sJeprsuol er{ }uq} 'd8rneql ro rt8zru Jo puH srql dq pepvnw {18uorrs sr ourrrd tvrqt rvelr sr tI

uor'rlar ..prrqdosopgd,, oq] ruory lou 'oznr::lTt il, PeATJsp suonrlsJadns pzq dpeJ 3ql 'oulf,lg or Sulproff,u i rEaod ro snolnqzJ puz 'pcnrlod ro lrlrr '(lzrrqdosolqd sllur ourtrrd r{rlr{a) IEJnwu : , s:rSoioeqt aeJq] s(oJJuA 'aurlsn8nv ruou 'Supnporlur dq pepueJap aw suourlsJedns eseq] uole dlvug ]ng .uorlils -radns puv f,iwlopl otuT ]uzrouSr aqr durrs? pel saorlrzrd eseq] tuq] stFup" aq ulz8z ueqJ, 'suoulep druleuzld poo8 pepvnwdaql 'd1qzu -nserd ',{rlg^ dq 'suor}zrado pclSzru JoJ uraqt Sursn tsnf arezn deql f aseql SurddrqsJo.4a, ]ou eJO.{\ slserrd p?uJzel puz osrly\ oql 'f,ru?rusrpt aJo.A\ spafqo Jer{}o puz sl?urruu eq} ireusld vlvltal v dq paeuonuw ,{lurcadso ueru 1nq 'suotuep ro spo8 }uasardal }ou PIP senluls eqJ. 'rr8zru prtSolonsz Suraq sz paurzldxe uolSrler uz8zd poo8 Jo af,ueJap ar{} s^\olloJ uer{J .r{rrzlopl otur }uzrou8r oq] pel el?q [wu deql ]?qt strtupp aruo lu ]nq-slzurruz puu slopr dtqsron lou prp sluarf,ug p?uJeel eq] esJnoo Jo-r uorwuruapuoo snonldueluor s(ln"cl 'rS rsurz8z uorSrlar uz8zd SulpueJep dlploq
I9
sNor iga

li,HffJ

52

II. FICINO,S MAGIC

not now explain "how Powefs and images of the celestial [bodies] m y be discovered in aquatic and terrestrial things", because he has already dealt with this subject adequately in the De V.C.C.L. He then goes on to give the detivation of planetary demons from the ldeas in the Intelligible \fodd, without again mentioning the De V.C.C. This perhaps confirms my suggestion that Ficino supposed the spiritus nrundi to act on the body and spitit, and demons primarily on the soul, and that the practices tn the De Vita coe/itils coruparanda werc meant to appear to be confined to the former kind of influence. The zlpologia for the De I'riplici Ttita contains a formal denial that his magic is demonic 2. But one can see fronr this document, dated 19th September 7489, that Ficino is exPecting trouble, possibly that he has already been accused of dangefous magic. 3 From vafious letters written between N'Iay and August 1490 one gathers that he is wortied about the effect of his book at Rome, is trying to gain the Pope's support, and has in some way been calumniateda. On ;\ugust 1st Ermolao Barbato, to whom he had first addressed himself, wfote to say that all was well, and that Innocent VIII was speaking rxost favourably of him. He had evidently been in sone sort of danger, since he wrote to Rinaldo Orsini (Archbishop of Florence) 5 : l.ately you snatched )ouf larnb Ficino from the voracious jaws of the wolves and to Saturn, who was dangerouslv attacking, you like
Jupiter were in opposition. 1 Fjicino, Op. Omn., p. 1463 (Comm. in T'in., c. xi): "r\litto cquidcm nunc,
quo

modo vires imagincsquc coclestium in rebus aquatilibus tcrrenisque dcprehcndantlrf. FIoc enim in libro dc vita tcrtio satis diximus". 2 lbid., p.573: (aftcr a passagc on thc Alagi at Christ's nativity) "duo suttt magiae gcncre. Linum quidcm eorum, qui ccrto quodam cultu daernonas sibi conciliant, q1r.,rrr- opcra frcti fabricant sacpc portcnta. Iloc autcm pcnitus cxplosum cst, quando princcps hu jus mundi cjectus cst foras lJaltn, XII, 31-l. Altcrum vert) eorum, qui nattrrales matcrias opportund causis subijciunt naturalibus, mira quadam ratione formandas." 3 Ibid., pp. 910-912; cf. Kristcllcr, 5'uppl.,I, lxxxv; Dclla 'Iorrc, 5'toria dell'Acc. Fior., pp. 623-5. a Ficino, O1t, antrt., p. 910, lcttct to Francesco Sodcrini. 5 lbid., p. 911: "tu nuper xlnum tuum Ficinum pie admodum cx voracibus luporun-r faucibus cruisti, & Saturno iam nos gravitcr invadcuti, tu quasi Juppitcr

esoppositus..."

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(4) FrcrNo AND GrovaNNr Prco


Ficino's later remarks on the De Vita coeliths comparanda, in his letter to Polizianol about Giovanni Pico's massive treatise against divinatory astrolo1y2, show the same uneasiness and vacillation: he was just collecting every temedy that might help, but not asserting that they all would-he was perhaps a little too free, and so forth. As Garin rightly concludes 3, there is no reason to doubt, on the grounds of this lettet, that Ficino, with whatevet hesitance and cautiousness, still had a strong belief in some sort of astrology. Nor does Pico's statement, in his Aduersus Astrologiam, that Ficino encouraged him to wdte against astrology a, carry any greatet rveight. Fot it all depends on what kind of astrology is being attacked. In Ficino's eyes, Pico was attacking not his own "good" astrologl, but the "bad" astrology of those "plebeian" astrologgers 5, u'hich he himself had criticized in his commentaries on Plotinus 6. Thete was for evefyone, without exception, a good and a bad astrology, just as, fot neady everyone, there was a good and a bad magic. There was general agreement on the criteria for distinguishing the magics : bad magic was to do with the devil and demons;
1 Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 968 (letter of August 1494). 2 Giovanni Pico della N{irandola, Disputaliones aduersus Astro/ogiam diuinatricem, a cura. di E. Garin, Firenze, 1946, 2 Vols. (Latin text and Italian translation. The first edition is of 1.496. The work was writtett in 7493-4). 3 Garin, Introduction to his edition of Pico, Ada. Aslr., pp. 8-12, and his "Recenti Interpretazioni di Nfarsilio Ficino", Giozn. crit. d. fl. ita|.,1940, pp. 311" seq. a Pico, ibid., p.60: "noster Nlatsilius scripsit adversus eos aperte, Plotini vestigia
secutus . . . [cf. infia note (6)] . . . quod si, valetudini consulens hominum, aliquando corrogat sibi de caelo quacdam etiam auxilia, optat ille potius ita fren posse quam ctedat. Tcstari hominis mentem lldelissime possum, quo familizriter utor, nec habui ad detegendam istam fallacizm qui me saepius et efficacius adhortatetur, ne quotiens una facetiamus uberior nobis occasio segesque ridendi quam de vanitate astrologotum. . .". 5 Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 1609 (Conm. in Plotinum, Enn. II, lib. iii). 6 Ficino, Op. Omn., pp. 1609 seq.

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'rerroerotrq 's ((sreJs ar{} jto lzeq pu" ILIS{ eq} o} uFIE diasolc ]sour 'dpoq elqrshur 'arg dra.r. 8,, '1nos puz dpoq selrun 'slzu.lluz pue ueur ur (gf,rLI.4A. lrrrds eq] ot snoSoleu? sr lI '8qdnl1rr'3urcuro3: 'Suuadrue]'Surqsrrnou'areq.rndrale se]zJloued qlpIttr'..]ulds prlselef,, , z f,q euJoq sr tzerl s1{J 'saltqznb p}ueruele eqt IIu (<en}rrl pu" uorloeped ur,, surztuotr r{tF{rt 1nq' plueuele tou sr qllqa t?eq v Jo sueru dq eruredo dr,{I 'plrolr rzunl-qns eLIt uI eJII Puu uorloru II" Jo 3sn?f, IESJeArun eq] eJu sue^Eeq eqJ 'z s6ourf,rd qlla Ff,rluepr lsolulz sr qrrqa af,uongur IuJtsB 3ro droeql z u.4a.o sq s3 setuls olld esnuert srq] Jo {oog prlLII eq} uI 'asoddns ot 3uo p"al rq8rur zuatio1o"4sy snsranpv sco)td Jo auol Iuf,rurelod aqr su qf,nut os JOJnp tou prp dSolorrsz ..poo3,, Jo suonderuoc Jrer{} puz 'uotlelu3 srgt uo paar8a auvq dplzlrec plno.,r\ ollcl puz ourf,rd 'arueprlord eur.l.1p pu? dlrlqz -suodser uzrunq pa8urrgur Jo popJzn8aSzs tt sv tEJ os ur peleafar ro petdecee szzn ,(SoloJtsu tzqt enJl dlzreua8 '{urq] I 'sl lr 'ssaleql -relal{ '(poo8 .'{pvaqv sr lzg.&\ uo seprf,ep oq.4a. pog z o} pesoddo sz 'poo8 Surqlaruos se>l?rr uorsrf,ep esoq.4A, poC .a.r) pog go " uorldscuof, JrlsrJ?]uniol z pepefeJ el"q oqa suEr]srJLIJ ueaq al?t{ aler{t selun IV tv pu? 'r llra-eeJj: s(uzru peruep oqa su?EsrJr{f Jo druald eJeln eJeqr (uorwruJoJoJ er{t reue }szal 1z 'ueq} rnq rpn Jo tuopeory s(pog puz s(uuur padonsep ro petrur1 dSolonsu pzq wrql ,f,vs or pardura] eq rq8rur euo 'pleq dlpsrerr.run rou elq?]s rar{}reu se^leslueq} eJea qJTqa suoEf,r^uoc snorSrler uo papuedap
?IJE]IJf, Oq} EJETI JOJ : PI'E PUz PEIJzA EJOIU SE1rr UOI}uN}IS Eq} dSolorrsz r{tl6 'f,ruouep sern rr8zur il? }zq} tqSnoq} eldoad nay E Pu? srrelrrs eseq] Jo uorlzrqddz rsdord eql lnoqu dlsselpue on8rz esJnof, Jo plnol euo qSnoqt-((lztnlrru,, szrn uSzru poo8
99

slurds IEuJruu

OSId INNYAOIS

56

II. FICINO,S MAGIC

afe not capable

functions of sense-perception, unless they have the help of celestial spirit, which, being mofe mobile, pufe, efficacious and therefore closer to liie, strengthens the infirmity of the inferior [i.e. animal] spirit and, by its intercourse with it, makes it more akin to the soul 1. Pico insists elsewhere on this close and beneficial connection of celestial to aninral spirits 2. It is clear that he could not possibly have disapproved of Ficino's general intention, in the De Vita coe/itLs cotuparanda, of making man's spirit mofe celestial; but he would have ccnsidered that the means Ficino suggests for so doing were mistaken. Pico insists that celestial influences are only a universal cause of sublunaf Phenomena; all specific differences of quality or motion are due to diflerences inherent in the receiving matter or soul. One could not, thetefore, on his vieu', say that any pafticulat herb, sound ot food was mofe solarian of venereal than any othef, nof use it to tfansfofm one's own spitit, as Ficino pfoposed; nor could one consider oneself as specially

of

generating

of

Pfeserving bodies, of performing the

subject to the influence of any one Planet. At the time of writing the Aduersus ,4strologiaru (1493-4), then, Pico would have considered Ficino's treatise mistaken; but he would not have thought that it contained the "bad" astrology which he was attacking, for Ficino is carefui to safeguard human and divine liberty. I anr inclined to think that a few years earlier, even when the De [/ita coelitils comparanda was published (1489), he may have u'holly aPproved of it.
tenuissimum corpus ct invisiblc, luci caloriquc siderco tnaxime cognatum, cui vita praecipue adcst perque cum suas in hoc visibilc atquc fetrofsum vires explicat
atque di{lundit."

caloris quem diximus, ope destituantur, qui mobilior, purior, eificacior, proptercaque

i Pi.o, ibid., p.208: "Non sunt autem, vcl gigncndis corporibus, vel servandis, vel muneribus sensuum obeundis, utiles isti spiritus, si caclestis spiritus, hoc est

proximi-or vitac, roborat inlirmitatem spiritus infcrioris et suo commertio reddit animae cognatiorem." 2 Pico, ibid., III, vi, p. 218: "cum inter sublunaria corpora matetiem reperit fsc. calor caelcstis] sibi cognatam, et beneficus semper et vivilice tantum calorificus invenitur. Etenim nulla potius talis quam spiritus, et praesertim humanus, qui sanguineus vapor, tenuis, clarus, mobilis, coelo, quemadmodum scribunt Aristoteles et Avicenna, propoftione respondct. Hunc caeli calor ita semper fovet ct toborat, et fere sit illi quod ad crassius corpus ipse spiritus est . .".

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l?nseleo uo

ua8qu4sv

OCId INNYAOIC

58

II. FICINO'S MAGIC

Buoninsegni then, instead of answering these critics, says 1: Indeed, to speak freely my opinion in so grave matter,I have never ^ been able led

to convince myself, nor be to believe that Pico, Savonatola and other excellent men wished to condemn true and legitimate astrology.

Good astrologers, like Ptolemy himself 2, take cate to safeguard ftee-will and providence. It was against the bad astrologers, who subject man's will entirely to the heavens and who derive religions from planetary conjunctions, that Pico and Savonarola were by their just anger against this wtiting. If sometimes, carried ^w^y bad, superstitious astfoiogy, they went too far and also attacked good asttology, Buoninsegni begs the reader to forgive them; they v/ere metely o.ver-ze lous, and perhaps inevitably so, since in correcting an abuse one is almost bound to fall into the opposite efror, as one has to bend a cutved stick too fm the other way in order to straighten it, or as Augustine, 'nvhen attacking the I\lanicheans, verged towards Pelagianism. Not content with this cutious apologia for Pico and Savonarola, Buoninsegni does his best to transform the latter's tteatise into a work in favout of asttology by means of copious annotation. The authorities he uses in this are mainly Thomas Aquinas and his pro-astroiogical commentator, Cardinal Caietano 3; but he even goes so far as to quote Pico's adversary Bellantius in order to defend horoscopes a. I would not deny that Buoninsegni was distorting Pico's and
1 Buoninscgni, in Savonarola, op. cit., p. 7: "Verum, ut quod in re tam gravi sctrtiam, libcrc dicam. Ego pcrsuadete mihi nunquam potui, neque in eam cogitationem adduci, ut credam Picum, Savonarolam, caeterosque summos viros veram atque legitimam astrologiam damnare voluisse." 2 Ibid., pp. 8-9. He quotes from the Proemium of the T'etrabiblos (see Ptolemy, De Praedictionibus Astronomicis cai titulum .fecerunt puadripartitum, Crgci dv Latini, Libri iiii. Philippo -fu[elantbone interprete, Basileae, n.d. (Ded. dated 1553), pp.2L seq.). 3 Cf. infra pp. 274,222. a Savonarola, Adu. Astr., ed. Buoninsegni, pp. 104-5; cf. ibid., pp.58-9,88. Bellantius (De Astrologica ueritate Liber Quaestionum. Astrologiae De-fensio contra foannem Picum Mirandulanam ..., Basileae, 1554, p. 777 (frtst ed. 1502)) \Mrote on
Ficino: "N{arsilius Ficinus Platonicus cuidam amico meo ejus inspecta genitura quaedam futura affirmavit, nihilque adversus astrololiam scripsisse audivimus, at sepe intentum lcgimus in libro de triplici vita quem iam plures sunt anni edidit pro astrologica facultate, ubi non modo de astrologia sed magica, quod maius est, diffuse tractat." 'Ihis is a reply to Pico's statement about Ficino and astrology.

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69

OCId INNYAOI9

CHAPTE,R

III. PLETHO, LAZARELLI AND FICINO


(1) Pr-nrrro

There are reasons for thinking that Gemistus Pletho ptactised a kind of hymn-singing similar to Ficino's and even fot conjectufing that Ficino's Orphic singing derives in some nreasufe ftom Pletho. Although Pletho does not in his surviving works qtlote 'wefe any Orphica, his teligious ideas and intefpfetation of Plato largely founded on the prisca theologia, particularly the Oracula chaldaical, and he wrote out a copy of fourteen of the orphic Hymns 2. It seems likely that these have sonle connexion v'ith the hrrmns that figure so prominently in the surviving fragments of his lYomoi, with the elaborate directlons for singing them, for 3. musicai modes, Postufes, days and tinres of dav l.ike the Orphic Hyrnns they are written in dactylic hexameters; their music seems to have been a combination of what Pletho knew about ancient Greek music a with Byzantrne litutgical music 5. They v/efe addressed to Pletho's numefous gods, who bear the names of Greek pag n deities; the higher classes of gods ^fe, as Pletho explicitly says 6, metaphysical or natural principles; the lowel ones are planetary and stellar deities. Among the latter Pietho's devotion was given chiefly to the sun ? ; George of Ttebizond wrote of him indignantly 8:
1 Scc Nlilton V. Anastos, "Pletho's Calendar and Liturgy", Dumbarton Oakt Papers, No. 4, Harvard U.P., 1948, pp.279 scq.; Walker, "Otph9u9'1, gP' 107-9' i 5"" J. l\'Iotellius, Bibliothecae regiae Diui llarci Ilenetiatum ... BibliotlLeca manascripta Graeca et Latina,I, Bassani, 7802, p. 269. i Pl.thc,, Traiti des Loix,ed. C. Alexandrc, tr. A. Pellisier, Patis, 1858, pp. 202seq.' 230 seq.; cf. AnastoS, oP. cit., pp. 255,267 ("ln both mattef and style, Pleth-o's hymns . . . closely rcsemble thc pedr,niic hymns of Proclus and the pseudo-Orpheus"), 268. a See Anastos, op. .it., p. 268; Plctho's short trcatise on music, printed in his
Loix, cd. cit., p.

5 Scc Anastos, op. cit., P. 268. 6 Plctho, op. cit., cd. cit., pp. 2, 130, 202; cf. ibid., Notice Priliminaire, p. lix. ? Cf. Frangois i\[asai, PlAhoi it le Platonisme de fuIistra, Paris, 1956, pp. 222scq.,305. 8 Gcorgc of Trebizond, Comperationes P14,losophorrrt Aristotelis et Platonis,

458.

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OHIgTcI

62

rrr.

PLETHO, LAZARELLT AND FTCTNO

burnt and none of it was printed. Ficino finished his De Vita coeliths comparanda rn 1489; but his interest in the Orphic Hymns
began as eady as 1462, v'hen he ttanslated thent 1, and thete is one well-known document which m y indicate, I think, that Ficino had Pletho's hymns in mind when he was inventing his astrological, Orphic singing. This document is Ficino's pteface to his translation of and commentary on Plotinus 2, which he completed in August 1490 3 . He begins this preface by assefting that Cosimo de' Medici conceived the project of resuscitating Plato after listening with enthusiasm to Pletho talking on Platonism during the Council of Florence. Over tu/enty yeafs later he provided Ficino with the Greek texts of Piato and Plotinus, and in 1,462 told him to produce ttanslations of the Herntetica and Plato's wotks. Ficino finished the former in a few months. The Plato was not finished until 1477 and not published until 1,4844. Just as it was coming out of the ptess, Pico, who had been bom in the ye f that Ficino began his Piatonic studies (1463), arrived in Florence, and, inspired by the depated soul of Cosimo, incited Ficino to ttanslate and comment on Plotinus. This was an example of divine ptovidence wotking for the pfesefvation of pufe teligion; iust as it had worked by creating and maintaining the tradition of the prisci theo/ogi-Hetmes, Moses, Orpheus, Pythagoras, Plato. . . \We are here concerned not so much rvith the historical truth of these statements as with what they tell us about the state of nrind of their writer. \7e have the following netu/ork of related facts which m y have been present to Ficino when he wrote this pteface. The De Vita coelitits cotnparanda was part of the commentaty on Plotinus; this commentary gives the key to Ficino's Otphic singing by connecting it with the astrological music of the De Vita coelitits coruparanda; Ptco, who encouraged him to write it, had invented a m^gtc use of the Orphic Hymns; Ficino, in intto-

1 2 3 4

See Kristeller, ,fuppl. Fic.,I, cxliv-v; Della Totre, op cit., p.537. Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 1537. See Dclla Torre, op. cit., p.625. V. ibid., pp. 606-7,615.

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t9

'Sw8urs crqdrg s(ourrrd roJ turod-Sunruls ouo eJaa. ntlvtd Jo droeq] slq puz SulSurs-urudr{ Jo puq s(oll}olcl t?r{} dpo lnq 'oqra14 dq pof,uengur dlzraue8 ro dldaap sz.^A. our3rd ]Er{} 1ou 3unse83ns rJJv I JoJ larlrsnlcuor suzeru ou dq sl uoitrefqo sn{} ]ng 'ourf,rC o} Eruer{twv ueoq eluq plnoa eq stunof, r{loq uo 's }srurrurs}3p ptSp 3 su.1K aq dluerqdosoligd puz 'a JelrJ.lo. uellsur{3-f}uu dpre-to rtv 'totuo;g er{} Jo oA"LI .&\ou ea. }ELI.,!I rn tsual ]z 'suro. oqlelcl .tcEJ Surrnollog aqr q8raa tsnru e.4a. oqlalcl puu ourf,rd uae.lo'teq uoxeuuof, sn{} Jo uonrsoddns aqr rsurz8y 'of,uerol{ Jo lrf,uno) eq} Surrnp oq}elcl ot paua}s{ oqrl saunueJold roqto puu ourrso3 q8noJq] uaeq e^Eq .{zru 1nq 's.oqte14 go Suilrr.r duz q8norqr ueeq e^uq dprzsserau tou peeu uolssrursuzJ] aql 'suru.{q s(or1talcl rl}r.{\ pu? 'Z7VT ut orqal.araH puz suud11 rrqdrg er{} ur tsoJetur }sJUr srq q}ra 'clSzur s(of,rcl qtpt ]r Surlrauuoo puu f,rsnw prrSolonsu s1{ Jo 's8urql Jer{to lsSuoruu '3uqwq] s?a eLI ef,z3ord srql 3unu,n ueq/r luql d1e>1r1 sluess Jr (lKou aou)t e/r\ u3q1 sJouj rz3 sduqred-8ur8urs-urudq ssol{}old tnoqz A\au{ ourord t"rT} uor}lsoddns eq} struJ Jo >lJoa}eu sql ol PPB elYr. JI 'r ((Lunlusof Pz unuru^{p1,, rtqdro eql Sur8urs slq Jo t3ege 1vt13vul oq] o] serpnls f,ruolrlcI slq Jo a8zuorlzd s(orursoJ seqrJ3s? eq 'ZgVl requrerdeg Jo Jallel v ur 'paepur Sw8urs f,pea4v sElK puu surudg rrqdr11 eql pe]zlsuuJ] ZgVl ur f oqlalcl puu oursoJ r{tpl srq} s}f,euuof, puv ZgVl
serpnts f,ruol?lcl s1{ go uorrdaf,ur eqt sll"f,eJ 'snunolcl srq Sulonp
OHJUTd

IIr.

PLETHO, LAZARELLT AND FICTNO

(2) Lezannlr-r
Between Lodovic o Lazarelli and Ficino the only certain connexion is by way of the Hermetica. Lazarrll| in the dedication of a manuscript containing Ficino's translation of the Piruander, the zlsclepius, and his own translation of the Def,nitiones zlsclepiiL, mentions with stfong aPpfoval Ficino's eulogistic preface to the Pimanderz . Lazarelli's dialogue, the Crater Hermetis, culminates in a mystefy, feyealed in a hymn, which is based on the man-made gods in the Asclepius, i... on the passage (quoted above) 3 which 'was one of the main sources of the magic in the De Vita coeliths comparanda. It is, then, certain that Lazatelli knew and apptoved of Ficino's Pimander, and at least probable that he was acquainted with the De Triplici I,'ita. Even if the latter statement is 'wrong and even tf Lazarelli's Crater .Flerntetis owes nothing to the De T,/ita coelitEs cornparanda, it nevertheless provides intefesting compafative nraterial; for we have here two nearly contempofafy works both advocating magical or theurgic practices which are based largely on the same Hetmetic source. The Crater ,Flermetis, published in Lefdvre d'Etaples' edition of the Pinander and Asc/epius of 1505 a, was written sometime not long before 1,494. The speakers in the dialogue me Lazarelli and Iting Ferdinand of Aragon, who is represented as very old and retired from the world, and to whom the work is dedicated; Ferdinand died in 1"494 5 . The king throughout plays the p^rt
noratnle ntp.

Scc Iiristeller, "N'larsilic,r Ficino e Lodovico Lazarclli", Anna/i della ]?. 'fcuo/a di Pi.ra, Scr. II, Vol. VlI, 1938, p. 243, 258. 2 Lazarclii,lirst prcf. of ms., tsibl. Comm. Viterbo, II D I4, reprintcd in Itristellcr, art. cit., p.258: "lbi multa de Hcrmctc nostro rccte ciegantcr concinnc et copiose dicta essc compcrui quac me erga r\{arsilium opcris interpretem mirum in moclum

3 \/. supra p. 40. a Corftenla iu ltoc I.tolunine. I-'iruander, . . . Crater Hermelis A Laqare/o 5'epferupeclano .. ., Parisiis, 1505, fo 60 vo. 5 See l{ristcllcr, art. cit., p. 251. There is a ms. vcrsion of the dialoguc in u'hich

amofcaffcccfunt..."

I
olsapv ' ' ' sauuro Jnluslrolap cnbselsalaf, urnle? (sarn.rc11 tIB ]n) snqer anbonb slq 'sr.rauodsrp epourulof, / urns sntnlduord (rrssu snep oporu) ponb :urnu?f,Jv llrarsr(ur runf,rlrcp le rumurxzru p" olrzd urue f,oq 'ruolztrurrlp arzlduratuoc / upnzl f awxvspe /zroasqo .erqddz rnqor cnq (rua'u, *r.oo
tpprltr o'utar1sa4gai17 1p oddTtFV ollaaro7'07aua,.,1 o1F"to12'g'tJJato2\p7 otl(topn7 lp !tsaa 'outst7arut1J.f t/.f tJtlstaDuln tlra,L ur ue-tr8 ate (sauu[11 stltotlpJauag aza!(ryCJ eqr Sulpnpur) uorsrea srql ruo4 slf,EJlxa 3rro1 'ou"luod Suraq pJlql erll 's.raluads aeJq] eJE eJer{}
'bas 1g'dd'996l'eruog'111aqruo7'2'1Josor1')'laug'1,9'u1"tag'g
r

(('oulf,uof, uInuul.{q f,unq sruor}uldueluof, runP :nlJJJs slluatu o1o1 enbulr

r,Ii:i,irilr#rrW

'ulelueru au?f, su3tr{


:

o8erur sBuetr\[

'snlf,rPeueq rIS
: rePusurrd oSrg 'o3P SUeIJoxe EIos suetr{

i saf,IA luvtteL ulnrer ln :rpap snqrf,rl sruratg


lsatel s?lrlnr olar

sln|

'oqre^ ell)rcl

saPn?l sruulo

'srluered ourres
:

sn]trrPeueq

lls

'slr]?d IaP ourJas snlos i?ruuro olrqf,ru ucaS srn|


:

?IIrIX?UJ ?lnJ"rIUJ 3UnN

lev8ot ?eru sueur zrg


:

sur8eq uludr{ f,iolvmderd

srql

' ' 'uonuldrueluor 3o urudq sql Surs I ep{a 'prl* rnod Jo erroJ I?uonotue eloq/K eq] qly!\ uer{} puet}E ' ' ' fq3{ap s8uraq dparr.eaq IF pue uelzeq (sdus seurleH se) s8uql aser{t ur puu ilzelal o1 Suro8 urz I 'aw dlaq poC -II'qrF{rtr' dralsdw Sulluru-po8 }arcas 1uer3 eql rog pasodsrp dlradord aq lrrn nod snr{t rod 'dlrur,rrp egr areldruetuof, 'aslerd 'alnupe 'qoaasag 'lnos rnod go qr8uerls eqt il" arar{ dlddy

:. drelsdul eq] Jo uoTt?laaer IEug eql roJ LuI{ aruderd o} sr qlF{rtr 'uurdq Jel[]ou" o] uor]ue]]E elqrssod IIB t{}I/K ue}s{ o} pauoqxo dle}"uorssud sr 3uq er{} eurn v rcryv pu? curuf,q" qtla ur8aq s8urpeeroJd aql '1 ..lapnd uou esso Inurs runf,neruJeH te :x3u o runs o8e snu?rlsrJqJ,, :uTr{ s[a] uarvzv-I anSoplp eq] ur dlrue-cneruJeH puu uzrlsrn{J groq sr qllLIA
drelsdur ?
99

olq

potur]rur eg

ol ]noq"

sr orlln eldr3srp e1t]op E Jo

ITT['IIYZYl

66

III. PLETHO, LAZARELLI AND FICINO

Q"ir solem hunc nitidum sacte/ Fecit lucis imaginem


Scrutandi statuens gradus ? Lux sola ex patre defluens.

It

then goes on to the creation of man, who is redeemed by Christ and transformed by thc Holy Ghost into a god:
Quis cum compleat omnia/ Ipsum solum hominem elevat:
Sorbet vertit et in deum?

Noster spiritifer deus. Sit benedictus: Spiritus almus.

The "effects" of this hymn on the king arc aII that could
desired
1:

be

King: By this hymn of ,vours I am inflamed with an immense love toward God, by this hymn which extols man with such praises. And not only am I afire with love; but indeed I am almost stunned with wonder, as happens to those who by chance touch a torpedo-fish. For your hymn seemed of a kind that must derive not from the inspiration of the Muses but from the Word of God; what wonder then if it inflames the mind, draws it forth and snatches it away?
The king being now tn a fit state to hear the revelation, LazarrJ.lr begins a long preanrble to it, so long that at one point the king interrupts 2:
There is no need, Lazarelli, for you to strain my patience with such talking round and about. For, like a jar full of new wine without an air-hoie, I am neady burstins with expectation. Please relate more quickly what you have bcgun. I Cr. Herrn., fo 75 vo: "ingenti amofe erga dcum/hoc tuo hymno inflammatus
sum: qui tantis hominem prcconijs extulit. et non solum amore incendor: vefum etiam extra mc stupore pene positus sum. quemadmodum accidere solet ijs: qui forte in torpedinern piscem incidcrunt. talis enim tuus apparuit hymnus: non qui musarum ut aiunt inspiratione / sed vcrbi dei numine prodierit. quid mirum igitur: si mentem inflammat / si cvocat / cxtraquc tapit?" 2 lbid. Fo 77 \.o: "non opus cst lazarcle: ut tanta verborum circuitione / meam menten intendas. Nam instar dolii musto pleni / quod spiramen non habet: pre nimia pcnc intentionc disrumpor. digcrerc ocyus quod committis."

'(t-ee'dd "cra 'uues

'pe 'puryaD.Tfriii*o'l:

;;r:lilJuararrp

dpq8ns 33)

:lrlnlxe srruru sonb / soap eJnllal uI soiolsodz tna; snln8q rpunlu sonf / lap rlnruBJ tuns rq / rlndrcslp luns rFJ sulud runl.radtur lualduo3 rep 3rs f ewsatd s(rd utzpard ruzCl 's(rdur elzur enbluzp rununuoq sruurnJg urado enbrun.ras /

ff :::ii,:T1?l::i,:t
'anbsuud / ur.rulduaxg

ruxord JJeAra rrrruJoq luapnz8 rn| 'soep sapurluzlrltv lf,oa a.r.ral sonC) ]If,?j OrIIOq SnJea sEutlus f,rs sEAIo
:

ruuuuro v11det rnb / sarccds urn;ar rn| : sola8uz lza.rco.rd suu.raua8 selsole--; snep JolIueE 1a.t. snuruop lnf,rs ruEN
:

'lnz3 sucrdus ruzsdr anbpon| / lrra.raddeJ rep ouoq ponb ur:rntug


sngruuro pr snruu snqrlrqBJrr.u 1g

I z,.ou
:

.,F:;#t:lftT

'souos olnbola sopl,l.zrS ourAIO


1UBIPNE SNqIJNE SOJI,II E}3UN3 SIUOJCI

:?il,,:H

(ruc1z1a

/ s(trualrs ulnru 'ordrlur 3rrnu urr : (uudq cr{i Jo 9E eull 1r; SuluulSoq) 'plql ..' ' ' selnbal lISnllI Iluqgzs :lunJcrsuzrl selp onbrunroqzl ruuado xeg 'Jnlluodord solnco ctuz slqou:solndlcsrp eJuJo trnrop SASSIII snlsrrr{f, onb ord
?,

luef,ol ruzeJn ateod ponb) tunu8ar

asI/K eql wqt Pu? (poc J:o eJn]"u eqt peJe^of,slp sBq u?lu,, wqt sr ((sle^Jsru IIE U?q] JO}BOJS 'Sar]1alou Jo drlarrou .{\eu egl,
'u surSoq snat/lG{ sluzqpJaaat aoalnxe

IauJSr

rJg,, :oJ gl o1 ,.auag -,t2 r

eql sz sarf,ads eru?s eq] Jo sr duaSoJd aqt qf,rr{.&\ ur 'uor}ulaue8 (uorwJ I?f,OAIun Ol SnoSolsu? uortvetJ ? su?eru T.IIewzE-I sseJeqa. -ouo8 snoauzluods 3ro spnpord aqt .e.r .duaSord Ff,olrnba a{{ aJ? assq] : saJuelf,s pu? slJs oq] Jo suoBBoJf, ar{} uBetu lou seop aq sF{} lg 'duaSord Flroururr et?eJf,ord uzr qloeds puz pulru sF{ /q uzru os (proA slH dq sat?erf, poC Jo purlu aq} sz ,tvql surcldxe \lralazv'r ]I q 'tuulrodurl sl alqruzard srq] sn roJ lng
L9

eqt ueql 'T rnoq?l .slzp xls 3r{} rcry? rltsqqBs eql JO lser 3r{} sn oArS IIIa ]l ! ,,f,vtd ot seldrf,slp sF{ }q3nz1 }suq3 snsef qrp{a roy '(a3y ueplog eq] II?3 steod qriqa) IaErsJ Jo ruopSuDI ar{},, sn /Kor{s IIIa (snTdapsy o} palEe^eJ seurJeH qllq/t\ .drelsdtu sHI 'PUFI otuus arll Jto Suraq JaqlouE 3]?eJf,oJd uuc spJo/K Jo suBsru dq punu s.ueru rtroLI sn ilel [r.4a. (ueql .dralsdu sF{I .ro}?eJf,oJd

ITTgUYZYII

68

III.

PLETHO, LAZARELLI AND FICINO

man creates it". As God created the celestial angels who contain the exem plary fotms of all things, "so the tfue man makes divine souls which he calls Atlantiad 1 gods of the e fth. These ate pleased to live close to man and reioice at his good fortune. They gin" prophetic dreams and bring aid to the cares of men and bad iortune to the impious. They give illustrious rewards to the pioug and so fulfill the rule of God the Father. Thes e ^fe the disciples, these afe the sefvants of God, whom the pottet of the wofld made apostles, whom as gods on eafth he mightily exalted, putting sense into them from above." Evidently, this is closely modelled on the god-making passage in the Asclepiasz; indeed we afe mofe or less told so. The king is thrown into an even deeper ecstasy, and Lazarelli says that this is only to be expected since this mystety has hardly evef before been evefr hinted at; Hermes teferted obscurely to it in all his s dialogues, but "fecounted it much mofe openly" in the Asclepias ; othenvise it has only been indicated in the words and actions of Chdst and in the Cabala. With regard to Chtist we afe given a' nothing mofe than the hint in the hymn about apostles From the Cab a"la Lazarelli quotes an allegory which he says is in the Seplter Yeqira 5 ; this, when interpreted, states that a nev/ nafl can be formed from the mind of a wise man and be vivified "by the mystic disposition of letters through his limbs; for divine genefation is accomplished by the mystic utterance of words 6. which arc mad,e up of lettets as elements" This is again the
1
N{eaning,

I think, Hermetic

(N{ercury the gtandson of Atlas, cf. Ovid, Metam.,

2,704;2, 834; 8, 627). 2 V. suPra P. 40. s Cr. Ileri., fo 78(bis) vo: "imprimis quidem llermes: per omncs suos ... dialogos I de hac re occulte precipit. ."d i.t dialogo ad Asclcpium . . . rnulto apertius
fl rr,t."

of it I

ubi iumenta non pascant: e cuius medio adamam id est teffa;m tubram et virgineam esse efuendam / deinceps ex e formandum esse hominem / ct pef membra / rite -fhe Sepher Yelira (Liber Creationis) was litterarum elementa fore disponenda." traditionally ascribcd to the patriatch Abraham. This allegory is not in any version

4 V. infra p. 71 note (5). 5 Cr. Herrn., fos 78(bis) vo-79 ro "Abtzham quoque in libro . .. Zepher izfua . . . clocet sic novos formari homines. eundem videlicet esse in dcsettum montem

6 Ibid. : "Quod sic mea

have scen.

sententia est intelligendum. montes deserti: sunt divini

'Z etou tr9 'd ztdns


paldecrz osr, sr

'r1

";lfr,":.;,';r:.# [],'i#'Ti1;i'J,!:J"i7g,o#fl,J]tlTol'{nds
"1..Lillr#",

ur.,,oargaH saluardes / urnrol runlr'rllos sr8eu re .,,eronrpqu .rr T r"oiirtJiTHJ ur rntr8r snru"Jagrp ' ' ' tauodo seuolllpuof, JnluelJesqo ewr.rnld / srlnlsod ponb oe ur ra / unueaf,o lzurlrur 1os runrradseq pE xer o ruz( pas,, :o^ 6L
ztluauadxc la lsa c]ref, pos lrunszns.rad

Iqnu rrrnlu?l uorr ponb '''


ap

runlouzf,Ju urnuztrtv,,

snqluollzJ la iot

urnluardes elullJolf,nu la trsa (.l$gf o1 ''uta17 't2 e '08 'd Eryul '-+f 'fo.tft.taa taqdag'e'rl
G

ltlulgar)
lpqauan

:ZgSt 'susrlz4 "' '

raq!7 '698 'd '4991 'auallseg 'I 'I " ' ' aonlsxflpqo7 ryuv 'snr.ro1sr.1 'f

' ''

sn1Jaqszc[ ffita/aryng ' '' tpqrJlsn7t tltJoluaultuzt 5V 'naatqa17 xa 'lluvtrry sxuoxlt2tuJlg ams 'r1ottZa1 Jaq!7 aotlJlolJlod t?/lp(lpJqv '8'a 'A r

rnrunuocltuor ..,nruIeDII enb / auo'z1ord *fi fi;I"'ff;J#t':tiffir"r'#t1"tri! ruuN 'JnlBJrtIAIA euoDtsodsrp BJquraur ;ad turue.rallrl errlsdu : otuoq snluruJoJ

snlou f vttal rnrlSl

f,url

xg,,'.(sueru tunluatdus zsdl,, sI't1uua

PeJ

eql'.u"pv'((snsues

IaJodJol,, aJB ell]ef, er{I .,'Jnlunrf,rdsap o31nrr. rueu 'IlJesep oopl rnb 'sa}uardzs eg s ttJzlaulraH oq] Jo ]drJf,snuEru Peuorlustu e^oqu eql Io sarerd droluclpep eq] ur pue 'ot8rro3 ep snlJnf,re1{ sauuuof vwfleJ v go eldrcsrp ? S?rt\ rllerezv-IltroN Jlosurq drelsdur aq] polueuodxo p?q 3rT t"r{} tueure}?}s scr.Iletvzvf dq Peueqfu3Jls sI uol}se33ns sFII 'eldrrsrp pelreluor sF{ uI selali{)v teq)Eet snor8I1er E qolr{rl qlIIqeJ 3q] Jo slslsuos ]r ]?q] slsaSSns PU? 's oulf,Id Puz IIIeJEZva uo elf,EJE elq?JrurPs slq ur drelsdru sFI] sassnfsrP Jellalsu) ', ef,EId drzl{os puz uopprq aJolu 3 ul psurJoJred puz erur] Jer{tou? ol -uo 1nd aq raileq P?r{ lr-suorlrpuof, duuru J:o efuu^Jesqo eqt seJrnboJ {Joa slq} Pu? Swlles [pveqv sr uns eq] JoJ 'q8noua ourr] tou sr aJeq] t"LI] serlder \Iewzv-I'euop sr (uorfzredo l?f,Ilueqlp Jo lzclSuru E toJ PJora. redord aql'sndo) qro.,ra. sry] Jeuuzru ]Er{^4A. ur s>lsu 3,rH eq} uoqA 's ef,uerJedxe uzno sFI dq u,&ouT szr{ }nq 'sartrror{}n? eloqa erql urorJ tuJ?rl dpo lou szr{ rJlervzv-I tlrlr{rt Surqleuros sr ,fuelsdur sHI 'u rueql Jeao ra.lo.od uexe u?f puz sSuF{} r{}ra uorxouuof, lzuoltueauol lou '1zel E alrw1 sPJo.&\ tzr{t salaTleq eq ter1t'a?en8uzl yo droaql lzrrSzur sploq IIIewzv-I " rzql-uurdg aq] o] elqurzerd eqt ruory luerzddz 'tpveqv s?1K tequqdp a.erqeH erl] Jo srenel ZZ aqt qSnorqr

]?qA srurguof,

lI

'T

esJolrun eq] pet"aJf, pog q3lqa o1 8urprof,f,? uorsJol f,rls{?qzo aql ur lnq 'proA eri] qSnorqr uorlzerf, eurlrp eq] qtl/y\ dSopuz
69 ITT[I{VZYA

70

rrl.

PLETHO, LAZARELLT AND FTCTNO

speaks of his fegenefation by Joannes, calls him his father, and says that he has begotten him again "aethefeo semine" 1. I think

Kristeller's interpretation of the mystery is certainly right as far as it goes. But he himself admits that the Hymn in itself seems to be about demons-these created gods give ptophetic dreams, they reward and punish-and it seems incredible that, rf LazarcIli was talking only about ordinary Christian fegenefation, he should not have said so and should not have cited./ohn in,3-B', since he does say that Chdst indicated the mystery and he does quote from the Gospel of St. John3. Moreover, that Lazarelliwas closely associated with Joannes Mercurius would lead one to suPPose that the "novitatum novitas nova" was something mofe than the familiar fegeneration of convetsion, even though it might include it. Fot Joannes Mercurius was vefy odd indeed a. He appeared in Rome tn7484 wearing a crov/n of thorns beating an inscription "Hic est puer rneus Pimander quem ego elegt", preaching and distributing leaflets; at Lyons, in 1501, wearing the same garb, he pedormed miracles by natural magic, and promised I-ouis XII a son and tu/enty years' extra life. He was a wondet-working magus, who had hrmself, as LazarcIlt tells us 5, been regenerated by Hermes Ttismegistus. I would suggest tentatively the following extension of Kristeller's interpretation of the mystefy; it wrll, I think covef mofe completely the evidence we have. It rvas a magical operation by which the master provided his disciple with a good demon. The operation consisted mainly of wotds sung in some special mannef. These sounds themselves became the demon; it is easy to underKristeiler, att. cit., pp.253 259. "'At iu, dpilv ).6^1<o oor,, 6&v p{ tu6 yevv1Ofr dvco0ev, ori S6vacar iSeiv cilv Bcror,).elav coU 0eo6." Lazarclli may well have had this passage in rnind; but his mystery was something more. 3 Cr, Herm., fo 79 vo; John, x, 16. Cf. infn p.72.
See

1 2

Beginning:

a Kristeller, cit., pp. 246 seq,; Kurt Ohly, "Johannes N{ercurius Corrigiensis", ^rt. Beitrage qyr Inkunabelkunde, Neue Folge, II, Leipzig, 1938, p. 133; Testi Umanistici ru /'ErrtetitrTtz, p. 46 (and the references there given). 5
Kristeller, zrt. cit., p.259: Hic [sc. Hermesl te progenuit, tu me pater ecce reformas, Tu pater, ille mihi est ergo vocandus avus.

snrrrrds 'snl,pu, radnsap ."'11: lIqEJl ruzl8olzuy pu runf,ol f,unq snleJeze-L,: (pauoBuau lsJg eJB spo8 apzur-uur.u eql eJaq,e\ 'xl ?g III^ "lttv uo 3u'uaruuor) o.L ZS oJ,g0gl,ttlr:::H:r1;r:;:?ffr

;:*:i,Tj'""i;J;"'ir:;'i*;,'i?ll:$"'?+i1-*
:

ASGTHT nrrrrds

'p 'u

z pes / snrrcrad euouap


'sr.lz4 'tpluqeg

aua$17'przsuog aas

'aro1-uouep Jo uonf,elloo pooS B rog

"r,r"j!l?'rqff::l:Ttfi-':;:;r;y.f"',vr 'I{-'v rud arlzluaurluof, la enbrlrrc ,pe ,tuoutto7 fip

,*

OlO.O"iHr?i :

'duoruelol l"u5teql JoJ'stcege Sulrallur{s eJolu puu aJotu Sunnpord 'suurdq 1n;reznod dlSulszanur dq perzdard Suraq dgznpzr8 sr aq enSolurp eqr ]noq8norqr puu 'paluqrul eq o] Suro8 sr 3ur1 plo eql lcrsmu '>1u1t1l I 'pu? spJo/K J:o re^\od eql dq paqsrldurocrz eq IIIA drors.,{u egl '..o}1pq radns ep nsues,, 'salJsodz aqr Jo uor}zrrdsur s(tsuqJ q]la Iuf,rluapr Sureq sE slopr otur suoruop Jo uorto?r]]B (seurroH palerdretur rlleJ?zv-I larll 'n sn1dapsv eqt uo saldurE.p arAeJel jo tucturuo) B r.uory pu? Jleslf uw.(g eq] ruory aou>I ara. JoJ f o ranod puz aSpol/KoDI lznads ureqt arr.r8 ot su,ls. Llrplrt ralroJurof eql 3ro 'qseg ep?tu proA aql ']suql dq pe.^Aolsaq UI8 aql 'sa1]sodz eqt o] tsoqg d{oH er{t Jo r3rr3 aqt sB puDI our?s aq} Jo sl ]I 'srellel ^\eJqeH 3o dn epzur 'spron dq petlsllduorre szrn ool sTrll ro3r luol]BoJf, s.poO sz puDI eruBs ag] Jo sr uorlrJedo aq; '*..sreddrr{srol\ slq q s11etrr.p rlrlrllr\ ]slrq) snsaf -]o rlrlds eqr dq 1nq 'uoruep Jr]zJJoS B ,{q tou,, porrdsur sl eq lzgr s{zs 'uousrcdo sFIt euo8rapun Jryeswrq puq or{lo. 'r.11ewzz1 uud11 orlr eroJaq lsnf 'sn salr8 Illewze-I tzqt tutq dreae slg uorlulardralul sHI 'snolueurouI Pu? r{rzurpro
-?Jlxo os sr drelsdru eqr dqao. sr lsrl] : lslrgf 30 rurds er{} Jo rrrldS dloH or{r Jo s}rq perzrudas sz Jo palref,uoc !un1l 1 'alazn suowap apsru-u?ru eseql 'Iueq] 3un1zu sE/K er{ l suouap Suruouurns lou s?/K \Iemzv-I 'u slnos 'esJnor Jo .arrzq daql pu" .setpoq Iwrae aa?q suowap lso1q ((.lururu? Fuor]?J puB FrJeB Jo puFI 3 'aJezn rr s? 'rq o] przs eq uEJ rr rzr{} os 'prFr E e>lll 'uor}?f,gru8rs uolo rnq (s611orue puu tuoruolour Sulrzaq dpo lou .lururuz uB a{rT 'sq,ull pe}ulntnlv Jo dn apzu .3upr11 aJnszelu w pu? " 'Sutqlzerq uela 't1v rJJJvr\.r, , :3uos Jo Je]lzur or{} Jo uotlducsep lzrrroqdztaur dlqzqord s.ourf,rd dlzrarl e>p] aa JI '^or{ puurs
LL

ITTgUVZYT

72

III. PLETHO, LAZARELLI AND FICINO

which is to take place in sonre "mofe hidden and solitaty place". The mystery is being no\M revealed mofe openly than evef before, in order that the whole of mankind may be converted, that the "rest of the Sabbath", the millenium m y begin, and Chtist's wotds be fulfilled: "And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall heat my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd" 1. I am not sure whether, as I have suggested, Lazarelli's magic derives in some measufe front Ficiuo's music-spitit theoty, and from the magic in the De T/ita coelitt)s contparanda; it seems probable, but thete is certainly no conchrsive evidence. In any case the two magics have interesting sirnilarities and differences. They are both interpretations of the same Hermetic text on the magical insertion of demons into idols, interpretations which the authors think will fit in with their Christian beliefs; they both make gfeat use of the "effects" of music, of non-liturgical hymns. And LazarcIh's magic, like Ficino's, is, I think, connected at a deep level v'ith the mass-the obvious exarnple of man's "making the divine natufe". The main differences between them are: fitst, that Lazatelli's magic is not astrological-though of this I would not be cettai.n, for when God's creation is used as an analogy to the mystery it is the creation of the heavenly bodies and their souls that is mentioned. Secondly that Ficino's magic does not involve eschatological hopes of univetsal convetsion and the millenium, as LazareIlt's does. Finally, Lazarclh's magic is much mofe dangerous. It is ovettly proclaimed as being of gte t religious impottance and is plainly in cornpetition with othodox theurgic ptactices; wheteas Ficino' magic could at least be pfesented and defended as a kind of astrological psycho-therapy.
I Cr. IIerm., fo 79 vot "pre ceteris . . . Christus IHESVS hoc arcanum revelavit. ut quadam temporis plenitudine / apertius manifcstet / ut impleatur quod ipse dixit. habeo alias oves: que non sunt ex hoc ovili / quas oportet me
Sed prope est:

adducere. et tunc {iet unum ovile / et unus pastor." (Joltn, x, 16).

II

IUVcI

frNowno n
TVnIrUrds

f IDVHT

sduao,p szrn crSeur iauzu Jer{toue dq palpe dlradord arour dtt,rrpu Jeqto euros ruory olqzr{sm8ullsrpur eruof,oq ot dcuapuel Suorls z pzg p crSuu luJnt?u ruJe] eqr fq palzuSlsep serlrlnlts oql 'clSuru uo sSulllJd\ ]soru ur Jnf,f,o lzql serdo] snorJ?A oq] uee^\req drqsuorlzler aqr dSurp ol dlr,{ 'adoq I 'lllnr rr f qlrrn Surpap eq Ilzr{s a/r\ serroer{t or{} lg l11,tr ter{} auoqf,s ? lseSSns or alog tu?,r\ 1 'ornosqo pu? esool qloq sr 's8ullrrn drnlueJ q]91 ur polueseJd sz ser.Toer{} eJntJnJ}s pcr8o1 eq} eluts 'rr8uru Jo Jo 'ulleuuduuf dq pesnczrd crSzru eql pue rurlo?d Jo droluro ,ttvlaueld eq] ul vtv?v raqreSor aLuor uorlrpzJ] er.{} Jo spuzJ}s od\} er{} drnluar LI}9[ or{} Jo pua eq] ]V 'oISJecI I{}FN sz '{}luur}sIJI{J xopoqtJoun llSrolg r{}I/t\ sP 'dlluzllslJr{J xopoq}Jo lalrapog ?T r{rra sz 'dr}eod puz rrsnru : osl;) Sulqraruos otut o^losrp o] popuo] cr8zur Fnrlrlds aql 'snslaf,uJ"cl puu zddlrSv 3o cr8zur xopor{}Joun dlssoFlrar 'rruotuep dlrre,ro ar{} ot pal 'llSuur drurauvld luleurperu q}la peurqruof, 'rr8zru rluotuep oql 'p1p tI q)lqa l suorlrerrp lua8re,rrp ozn] u1 trorE o] {la{rl szrn 'alogoJer{t 'uourpul} aql 's8ur}rrrn Jeq}o sq urorJ elqzJa^orsrp dlrsua almb lnq '1ro.4a. tur{t ur }s pa}uq dpo 'rr8zru f,ruouep or{} puz ''J')'zl a(J oqt go tr8eu lun}plds 'prnlzu aq1 'rrSzru Jo spuDl oat peslrdruot 'r1 r;e1 ourf,rd sz 'uonlpzJ] srql 'drorsn{ sn{} Jo seu{tno ur?ru oq} aor{s or qSnoue eq 'adoq 1 'llTn daqr tnq :rr8eur 3o lcefqns eqt uo orn]Brorll tsEA eqr tuorJ s>lJo^\ ney dra,r z dpo ssnf,srp II?gs I ']r tsuizSu suort)vor aq] Jo puz 'sanllnf,u pe]zlal roqlo q]lzn puu cr8zru Jo spuFl rer{}o r{tlln suor"r3rruo) slr 3:o 'ourcld dq pegqdruexe 'cr8zur rruotuldoa5l yo

uonrPEJ] e 1o tbolsn{ eg} of,Er} ol Surdrl 3q II?qs I tsurzSz pue JoJ sluaurn8rz snorJua r{}r/k\ pu" 'droaql polSeur puz crSzru Jo sPuH l?re^os r{}lrK 3u4uap aq Ipqs I {ooq sF{} Jo }srr arll uI

.tuaq}

NorrcncourNl

76

GENERAL THEORY OF NATURAL MAGIC

on the point of turning into art, science, practical psychology, or, above all, religion. I am not talking here merely about a vagueness or breadth in the use of the term-ntagia naturalis was indeed sometimes the exact equivalent of plti/osophia naturalis, 2s, for example in most of Porta's map5ic l-but about a rcal ovedapping of the fields of all these activities, 7n overlapping which made the position of the concept of natural magic vefy insecute and resulted in its eventual disappeafance. I shall tfy to explain the way in which magic ovedaps with these othet activities by means of this diagram, which is meant to indicate the relationship between the main themes of the theory of natural magic. The plan etary influence may act directly on the imagination of

of all of the forces. the opefatof, of indirectly through ^ny Effects can be produced by any one of the forces or their subdivisions, of by any combination of them; but the uis iruaginatiua is nearly always pfesent, for it is the fundamental, central force, and the others afe usually used only as aids to heightening it or \rv'ays of communicating it. The most usual medium of ttansmission in the whole Process is the spttit, cosmic and human The effects may be either on an animate being, of on an inanimate one (or directly on the bodv); the planets, considered sometimes
as the

former and sometimes as the latter (i.e. only their bodies), can ptoduce a ricochetting effect back on to the operatof's spirit and imagination. If the effect is on an animate being, it may be either subjective, temaining within the operator(s), or transitive, directed at some othet person(s); in both cases it may be either purely psychological, remaining within the imagination or soul, or psychosomatic, affecting the body through the imagination. This scheme is for a natural, non-demonic magic; but it could be altered to fit demonic magic by substituting angels or demons fot the impersottal, "spiritual", planetary influences. The demons would be attracted or compelled by the various forces and .w-ould then accomplish the effects, acting not only on the body and spitit but also on the higher pafts of the soul. In the Pfesent 1 Cf. infra p. 158.

sl3NV"ld

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3Allls Nvul

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(s)uorvu3do No)
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fr5ts^Hd

(NouvNrcvnr No)
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sSSrf,mjvHft s3un9H '8

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s

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ttsnn)

(Aur:tod 'AUOIVUO) Alnv3g I9NrNY3n 'V

(sruv .lvnsrA)

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LL

CICYYI TYUNIYN gO IUOIHJ. TVUHNgS

78

GENERAL THEORY OF NATURAL MAGIC

scheme, that is, of natural magic, the planets and the operator directly on anything higher than the Lre not supposed to ^ct spirit, which is the vehicle of the imagination 1. The effects produced on inanimate things or directly on bodies (unless by the uis rerunt) are more difficult to explain without assuming a supernatural agent (angelic, demonic or divine) than the purely psychological ones; the same is true of the more odd or abnormal psychosomatic ones, fot exampie, stigmatvatLon or nervous diseases, as opposed to blushing or sleep. There is therefore a. strong tendency for the effects of natural magic to be confined to the putely psychological, and the more ordinary psychosomatic ones. The more miraculous effects could be explained as natural, but only by assuming a pov/er in the human spirit which was not generally admitted. The A and B divisions of the uires imaginam, uerborum, ruusices, rerilm, do not all represent the same distinction, but they have this in common: the A fotces of all these things are the ordinary, universally accepted ones, and, though they can be used for magical purposes, they can also and normally do produce effects which no one consideted magical; whereas the B forces, though not all necessarily magical, are not universally admitted as real or legitimate, and their use is at least susPect of being magical. A.y ttansitive effect ptoduced by the uis imaginatiua alone (..g. telepathy) is obviously magical. The A and B kinds of the same or different forces may be combined in the same operation. The A kinds of the uires inaginant, ntusices, uerborum, can ptoduce aesthetic, affective or intellectual effects by the ordin ty means of, respectively, painting (or any other visual att), music or song, oratory or poetry; the A kind of the uis rerunt can produce ordinary effects on bodies through the elemental qualities of the things applied, as in any ordinary craft (..g. cooking, or non-astrolcgical liable to be considered meclicine). Uses of these A forces ^re magical only tf planetary influences are combined with them, I
the
Natural magicians are neither consistent nor disingenuous on this point; they use

A kinds of the uires imaginum d, uerborum, u'hich plainly havc intellectual

effects.

'lpa?tu oxlttup f,ruotrld aqr qlr^\ srgt stf,euuof, dllrf,rldxe (6-g0Z.dd ..plql) trcqlrC I "bas 967 'g9 'dd 'l 'A 'll" 'A 'rl 'II '009I 'rulpuol ,. . . aTauboy,g 167 .rrrqrr$':t' 'y961 'Joutnof F.mqn21 '..llnT uoruzg Jo tJV eq;., .sa1z1 sef,uuJd ..8.r JJ r

ur-urar{l ourS?wl puu }ls rsn[ plno] ouo Jo '(.rre 's1ooc'dauoq 'adorrorleq) sllefqo uzrJzlos Sunuesardar t{q ueltvlos uor]BJo Jo Suos 'atnlcrd ? o>lsuJ 'aldurzxe JoJ (uuf, euo : sof,JoJ Jeqlo eq] dq pesn oq uoqt uzr r{rrr{n 's1ce[qo .]o Surdnor8 drelaurld luzrlnseJ aqt w sr seErlznb llncco -Io acuulrodrul lzcr8zru urzru orll 'suzur -sIT?l puz f,rsnru drzlauzld qrrzn uorlrunlrrof, ur pesn alz 'slnopo 's1z-ulruz 'spoo; 'slueld IseJeuel ro 1zr.ro[ 'uzrlzlos 3:o sdnor8 'cr8uur uurulf,rd ut 'aldruzxo Jor 'uaqrn sz 'uollzut8zrul s(]uall?d Jo s.Jo] -urado oI{} tu 'seuo3r Jaq}o q}la uor}zurqluof, ur llznsn 'pa}rerrp sI tI uoq/$ lnrro luruar sln Jo puFI g eq] Jo sesn prr8eu dprz14 'e r{}rzg eq} Jo InoS aq} Jo luauSurS z sz 'dlesnard oJour 'lo '1nos u e{rI tf,? o} 'z }Jeqlro dq sz.lo. tr sE 'psreprsuof, eq [un lou8zru eql uo^g 'acuuuodur Iurf,nJf, Jo s{z.,np sr dparueJ eqt ur }uer}zd aql Jo tlrlzJ ro flqnparf, eI{} eulrlpoul uI 'popnpxe dpru}rof, eq uEf, uollzur8zrur eq] lzrll (JaAe ;r 'ruoplos sr ]r Jf,urs (lnJlqnop drarr sr sesuf, osaqt Jo uor]sJurssBls aqt lng 'L)unoA u ruory Isleur ]f,uJlxe ol leu8uu B Jo osn er{} ro 'fpoq eq} uo ,{po s}f,ege JreLI} Surrwq seurf,rperu parzdard dlzrrSoloJtsz Jo esn eql 'alduzxa JoJ 'su 'lurt8zu dprzssareu ]ou sr 'pello.tul Suleq ]uarl"d ro rorzrado (rueqt Jo uoE?ur8urur eq] tnoqtrzn Jo esn alduls eq1 'af,uanFur drzreuuld perrnbar eq] eJJoJxrreJ Jo af,npu ot pasn erz deql puz 'taltvtvq3 s(teu?ld urc]rar ? o] puodserroc ol 'stouzld eql dq pasnzo oq ot rqSnoqr dlznsn aru senrpnb osoqt ! sauo lztuetuele uuql Jerlto sanlJrl Jo saf,JoJ Jror{} 'sr }?gt sarlrpnb }lnf,f,o eql q8norqt
's8urqr 3ro
stf,etra sacnpord ,awar sla eql

Jo uorsr^Tp

g ar{I

'dlarzrzdes

Pourur"x3 aq tsnlu puu esJo^rp aJoru er" sa3JoJ Jo spuDl g aql ', sartrpnb Fluatualo puu sleuzld aq] uee/Klaq sef,uepuodsarror Fuollrp?rl aqt Susn dq sserord pluaruele u? o1 ua,rrE aq u?f, tr f raueld JEInf,ItJBd z yo '5ogk aqt 'retcateq) aql Jo o,rrsserdxe rueq] 8ulryur dq eJJoJ puSolonsz ua,rr8 oq uuf, drotzro puz rrsnru '8unulz4 'rla 'f,rsnru 'SuBurzd lucrSolonsz arv dat{l JI r?q}

"l

6L

f,I9VI^[ TYUnIYN dO IUOSHJ, TYUSNUS

80

GENERAL THEORY OF NATURAL MAGIC

both cases one's imagination would become more solarian. These groups of objects may also comprise human beings, who can be used m the same way. The B division of the uis inaginan produces effects by means of such things as talismans, celestially activated statues, the drs notoria. The distinction between the A and B kinds of this fotce is, like all the others I am making, far from being hard and clear; but there is this difference between the two. The A force of an image is in proportion to its successful, beautiful tepresentation of expfession of its subject, even rf this is astrological and meant to serve a nt glcal putpose. The fotce of a B imaqe lies solely in its astrological affinites; its shapes are often not rePresentative at all (..g. ars notoria signs, Paracelsan amulets), and, even if they ate, the adequacy oI beauty of the fepfesentation does not contribute to its efficacy t. The other forces, of the imagination, wofds, music, things, ate often applied during its manufactute or use to reinforce the image's astrological power 2. Since talismans usually bore wotds, lettets of chatactets, as well as figures, they connect with the uis uerborunt and share with it the liability to accusations of demonic magic. The words or letters, not being repfesentative, that is, having no one-to-one correspondence with a planet ot planetary obiect, can only be effective through the medium of an intelligent being u-ho understands their significance, namely, a human being, a planetary angel ot a deceiving demon. One \May out of this accusation is to confine the effects to the operatof of to human Patients who also see the talisman, whose signs c rL then be understood by them and become effective through their intelligences; this excludes effects on inanimate things, on the body, or at a distance. The other viay out is by means of the B division of the uis uerboruru. This kind of verbal force fests on a theory of language according to which there is a real, not conventional, connection between words and what they denote; moreover the word is not merely like a quality
1 Cf. Trithemius' directions for making a talisman. inf:a p. 87, and
pp.
cf.

179-181. Cf . passage quoted

from the Asclepius, supra p. 40.

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IEnsrA

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r',:Ir''rlf:rr',:\r:{:#!:'i1"4
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i'bes 697 'dd'Vg6l'Jou,mof F.mqto21 '..ef,ucrg w

n8o7oar71

33

'spege Surcnpord Jo suueur er{} q}la }luep /Kou a^uq e/N '/////r0qran, sln B. Pu? v eq] qlra peurqruof, sz/K 'urudq ro Suos eql Jo txe] er{t qSnoJi{} '.{rH^ 'saJ$ntu sla V eq] ol esJnof,eJ eJoJeJar{} pui{ 's.ourlrg sz r{f,ns 'clsntu .3ulrr1o,r.ur sef,nf,zrd lzu8utrq 'epour ro dpoleru Jzlnf,r.lwd ou lseSSns plnoa puz pJoqf, auo dpo apr,rord plno.ll. suoa"er{ er{t Jo o}uts uanr8 uor}E}uesardar lztrrsnu aqt }?q} sr Jrsnru 'luv 1o prtnzrd ol puel ]ou prp droaqr srqr dgzn uoseal euo 'rlSzur f,narlt -ududs roJ srsuq FrrleJoell] Fnsn tsoru eq] sapr^ord gcrqa puu 'suorlrodord prrsnru eseql uo papnJlsuof, sr esJolrun eloq/y\ eq] lrql sesoddns rlrrql\ 'droaql 1zrr3o1orusof, Jepr/K e Jo uvd sr droaqt sF{I 's8uuts Jo uorwrql^ rrraqrudtuds eqr yo dSopuu eql dq paurzldxa s?a alrlzrado dgzorsdqd eq plnol ef,uepuodsarroo sI{} }?qI 'Jrsnru ur slzlrJlur ]u?uosuoo Jo suonrodord eqt puz serpoq dpa,rzeq eq] Jo suonrsod Jo seouzlsrp 'sluaurelour eqt ueatueq of,uepuodserror lulrJeurnu ro Iuf,nuurai{}?ru eq} Jo suueru dq srrage Jo uor]f,npord eqt sesodord tzqr droeq] z sI tI 'lzrlloroeqr dlarnd saJlsnlu s!(t, eq] Jo uolsrarp g oql 'rnou1 sE JEJ sz 'peururuitet I 'seurzu luerf,u? 'anJl slq pa teuuld ro po8 z Jo rctrargqf, er{t pesserdxe qtoq qrlqa
-ul?]uoc
prTE

urudq e '.f,vs 'su 'uolJzluuf,ul uu oslz pve uv Jto >lJo1r\ arrrssardxa vE qroq aq lqSru 'elduzxe JoJ 'ruaod v-vonvredo lzrr8uur e ut rrreq] qllnN peurquol eq f,vtu tr '{r}eod ro ,{tolvto elr}f,etm s" r{f,ns 'e8sn8uzl Jo sesn elr}urado .{ruurpJo ruory }Jur}srp sl }l

'splozn Jro ulnruJoJ

Jo 'sr [B

q8noql 'pw f lurr8zru dprzsseoeu tou sl ]r 'tr3?tu ol Jlasll spuel dlsnou.qo spJo/K Jo esn srql q8noq] 'ulz8z ere11 'arJoJr lzrlsolef, ratzer8 uela w ulzrqo 'seruzu tuerf,uz '1ver ileq] dq dllrarror ruoqt Swurzu dq 'uzr a,r 'sloe[qo drzleurld ;o sdnor8 reqreSor 8unoe1of, -Io pzelsul 'lnFe.r\od arour eq uele t{zan }nq 'patouep s8urgr oql JoJ elntnsqns elznbapv w eq dpo lou deur 'arogeraqt V 'r eou"lsqns Jo ef,uesse slr 'slueserder dlrrzxa lr{3lea. Jo Jnolof, s}r sz r{f,ns 'se}zu8lsop }I Surqr oqt ;o

]l

3rCvy\r TVUnJ.YN dO TUOSHI Tvl{ENs9

82

GENERAL THEORY OF NATURAL MAGIC

Ficinian magic, in terms of this scheme, uses the ais iruaginutiua combined with the uires inaginurt B, uerboruru A & B, musices 4,, and reruru B. The effects it aims at zre psychological and subjective. This description applies both to the spiritual magic of the De V.C.C., and to his demonic magic. In the latter case the demons would be attracted by the sevenl uires. "Subjective", it u'ill be remembeted, means such effects as remain within the operator or those taking part in the opetation, that is, either individually or collectively subjective, as opposed to transitive operations by which the operator imposes an effect on someone else without undetp;oing it hinrself. This distinction between subjective and transitive effects is important in two ways. First, if the effects ate subjective, there is nruch less danger of the magic being demonic, since there is no transmission involved other than normal sense-perception-of the images, wotds, music or things used in the operation; whereas for many transitive effects the opetation is not perceivable by the patient or the effect is on an inanimate object. It is still possible to claim that a subjective effect is accomplished by demons, but it is at least easily explicable without them. Secondly, it is only transitive operations that can be socialiy importanq subjective magic may be good or bad from the point of view of morals ot religion, but, since it does not affect othet people, it ts not an instrument of power fot social, political or proselytrzing religious ends, such as u/ere aimed vt, fot example, by Bruno or Campanella. Subjective magic, therefote, is much less hkely than transitive to arouse fear and persecution. The use of ttansitive magic ditected at animate overlap v'ith practical psychology; such beings constitutes ^n magic is rneanc to controi and direct other people's emotions by altering theit imagination m a specific and permanent v/ay. There is a marked tendency for such magical techniques to be centred on sexual feelings, both because they v/ere probably recognized to be especially powerful and fundamental, and because they are in fact more closely linked with the imagination than other natural appetjtes. Treatjses on witchcraft came near to being a

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ota{g'ouirfi"ult

sln eqt'rlSzur qll/N petzlf,ossz llasolr sonbruqf,s] pedoldtue Puz '(sasueslp Jo saJnf, 'etvul?r.fs) pug Sulstrdrns z Jo spege f,I]Euros -oqedsd'(sdon 'puerq 'sllaq) sSurrir o]EIuIuzuI uo stf,oge paonpord doql f peuizldxe os aq dpsze lou plnor Lif,rI{/K pul{ snolnf,Brlur E
J:o aJJ.4A. sacrlcurd slr Jo duzru esnuf,oq uot]zusldxe arrt]JnJtseP srql tsurz8z eluoJop eruos pztl rusr)rloqlu3 drzurprg 'PoC Sururnssz ]noqlr- N uor8qer lzuSoloqc,tsd'e,rncafqns uJo stf,egta eLI] IIz utzldxe

plnor rr8zur pcrSoloqrdsd dlarnd 'arrrlrefclns 'lvtnwv JIOLI] ]ng 'uor8rler IEAIJ z Sursucurd yo dxopoqrJoun snollqo aqt Puz [^eCI aql qloq adzosa o] JepJo uI 'ct8ztu 3luotueP-uou ? eAerIIsE ol lduenz suzrcr8uur Sutuzstu-ilea tnq luapnrdu4 'dlarnlosqz tI uuepuof, o] pu? Jluotuep sz crSzur Ip JoPISuof, o] raJerd 'aloJ
-aJer{} 'suensrrq3 druar puz }uopnJcl 'uor8r1ar req}o duu rog ruoor

ou sr oJorl] puu 'errrsnlf,xe puu anblun sI uonuleleJ uEItsIJqJ ar{} f uolSqar I"ArJ u sr tr asnmaq uunsrrrl3 z ot elqzlderczun dlruaplra eJoru sr ]ng 're8uzp sq] splorrz rrSzur rlla8ue Jo JIuoLuaC 'tuslaP Jo ursreq]" sr ecuanbesuof, 1ucr3o1 stl flue8u prnlzuredns f,rrc tnoqttlrr spege eluu s ogt ef,npord ol slululf, tI eJuIS'uor8tlel ot t"eJq] snorlqo u? aloJeJaq] sr rrSzru Jruouep-uou 'prn1e1q 'z peurnssu sI esnzr aurlrp ou ]ug] ur dpo serrpurd snotS4er duuur ruory sJeSIp crSzru ro dSoloqodsd pe4ddz dq s]f,e:Ue Jo uononpord oql 'uot8qer qlla sdzlrerro ct8zur qlrq,tr ul 'luztrodrur tsour sqr sdzqred 'sdurn etlt Jto ouo sI sK{} pu? 'uor8r1at Jo lJed E s?.1K ]l 'pezlletualsds dlsnoicsuoc s?/y\ lI se J?,J os ul leuqdrcslp ererzdas u su drnluer qtnag] ul ]srxo tou prp dSoloqtdsd pailddz of,urs 'durrrlrz Jorllou? olq clSeru 3o uorrdJosqu eq] o] peel lou op dSoloqcdsd qrrzn sdulrerro eseql 'ruarzdd" erel{ }ou sr szrg Iznxes agl lcr8zur uzrurf,rd ur su 'Rasauo o] pe4ddz ote senbruqoetr eq] ruqr Suleq erueregTp dpo eqr 'dSoloqodsd qli,$ dzlrarro uzc oo] crSrur eruroelqng 'r uor]JBJ]]" Ienxes uo pas?q dpnrldxe sr q3rqa. suorloruo II? 8ur11orruof, JoJ enbruqca] z aulpno ldurauz olqz>lJ?ural v epuur ounJg puz '. ana7 clqdvrSourod

ol

g8

CICYW AYUNIYN gO

IUOIHJ TYI{INSC

84

GENERAL THEORY OF NATURAL MAGIC

irnaginant and the ais uerborum.

lics the impossible task of

But there still remained for Cathodemonstfating that these ptactices differed essentially from magical opefations producing similar quasi-miraculous effects by similar means. Some evangelical Catholics and some Protestants attempted to remove of explain away such practices, and to condemn any but purely psychological religious effects as demonic magic. But since they had tc accePt the miracles jn the Neu'Testament, their posltion was not logically tenable, and, without the miracles, they 'wefe in danget of reducing their religion to a godless psychological technique, identical with natutal psychological magic. The ovedap of magic and religion produced then this dilemma: either a miraculous but plainly magical religion, of purely psychological religion without a ^ god. This dilemma was nct of coutse explicitly stated, but it is clear that several anti-magical writers wefe awafe of it and unable to find a way out. A very few pro-magicians, such as Pompon azzi, explained all religious effects, including miraculous ones, by natural (psychological and astfological) causes; and some vefy libetal Catholic magicians had no objection to identifying religious and magical practices. The histotical importance of these connexions between magic and religion is, I think, that they led people to ask questions about religious practices and experiences which would not otherwise have occutred to them; and, by approaching tehgious problems through rnagic, rx,'hich was at least pattially identical with, of exactly analogous to reirgion, but which could be treated without fevefence of devotion, they wefe able sometimes to suggest answefs which, whethet true of not, wefe neril/ and fruitful.

'yIV 'ZZ'dd ''1n 'do 'tlapn3d eas ,


'aeelrszg 'runTotuutuao'unJoqond'tun.rot"ra,sf,ia nualcJ'o'uo7 o#A ao Y;#;!t;;lr)El,n:t sfiloqts u/n2 ifiJq/ mta anbmqrnb :1u17do xg 'runrpuaduo2'apsraaun anbsw.tqn apuxtxpary 7a aotq{osoJlqcJ ttprorpcl tlto.rr1doaq1 '(droqog rog ur,(uopnesd) snll?nq oeT I

'bas 99 'dd 'gV6I 'uqrag 'snslato.torJ

sa1sotc1doar1a

'tra1cne4 'g

',4S,

ees

lz,ro.rddz f,rs,rsngrua Burssardxe '0rgl llrdv pal'p 'sntweqlu;. ruou -t[":t"rTti"i '[Il "n '8Ir 'Eggl ''d 'u 'sat1 t.tE'J ogdoro11c1r1 ol[rulo a6J 'eddrt8v sn{auro3 r oq] 'uorzg raSoa 'zuuellrt y ur spug euo sz tllns 'lt8ztu PA -esrPelu eLIl Jo uor]?nurluos u sI lI 'rfiIuullslJll] r{}r/K elqnzdluorul dlsnolr.qo oJor.u eoueq puz (f,Iuouap dlrrerro eJolu r{fnru Suraq ur s(ourf,rd ruory sreJlp f,r8?ru _To PuH slr{I 'p s31K erl sduqrad qrryn ', eldtosrp (snllueq]lJl sz lurq pepJuSeJ 'snslarzl"cl tlo Sutluaruruof 'droqog senbczf pu? '. ]r ruor; qf,nru }uwel dpruld puq snsle)ewd f , snruueqllrl yo Sutsselq oqt LIll/K per"eddu 0!(/d0s0/!(lc[ elftrro ae s.zddrrdv 'lr ulory lf,ultslp 'Iuiqr 1 (s1qcit1,n lng 's.outotg ot sef,ueIq

-rueseJ esolf, ssrl q3rq.4A. f,r3Bru IEf,rSoloJlss Jo uonrP?J] z luesarder

asn?f,eq

deqr esnmaq dlpuoces pue (dgzf,uolsrq pelreuuor dlesop ere daql ]sJg 'reqtaSo] su"If,ISulu JnoJ eseq] pednorS e^?r{ I

IuoHoO ry

SnSfsOV'rYcI 'YcIcIIucY 'SnIWuHIIuI

(t)

'os P}.P l)eJ s1. oga puu 'rqSrJlno ]r uurepuor o] 'suolJll,tuof, snot8qer Jloqt urory Sw8pn[ ']oedxa plno/K euo LuoLPA. sJelrJ.4A. esoq] Jo euJos aurrusxe Ilsqs I JeldEqf, lxeu oqt q 'ssef,f,ns z ]ou szn :l3zlu s(oulf,Id elor{a orl} uO 'os
p1p rueqt Jo llz suzeur ou dg 'ecrtrurd ro droeq] uao rletJl olul tI e]zJodJof,ur ro 'dlprlleqrudruz(s tI uonueru Jer{}Ia tqSru--}r ol elq?rnolzJ eq 1t13rcu daql ]"q] qf,ns er? suolllsod luf,Ir{dosoF{d pu" snor8rler esoq^\ src>luryr 3ro sdnor8 qlrn rerdzqr sqt ut l?ep IIBL{s I 'drntuac r{t9[ er{} w or8uru s(ourf,id o} suor}J?eJ er{} Surssncsp uI

ACO'TOUISV CTNV f ICVI{ OI'CTIIVUNOAVd SUSIIU,4S,'I .tr.UnJ.Ngf HI9I gHI NI fICVhl s^.ONIfId 'Al UflJdVHS

86

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Picatrix', Arnaldus of Villanova, or Peter of Abano, in which opefations afe ditected to the angels of sPifits of planets, with the purpose of compelling them to do something extfaordinary. Ficino enters the tradition with Agdppa's De Occ. Phi/., whete the magic of the De V.C.C. is fully expounded, but in a context that robs it of any pfetence of being natutal and spiritual; the demons have come out into the open and dominate the scene. The efrects aimed at are mainly transitive and not subjective, as with Ficino; this toc is a step in a dangerous direction.
Trithemius

It cannot be proved with absolute certainty that Trithemius was in the habit of performing magical opefations with the help of
planetary angels, but it is highly ptobable. The main evidence for supposing so is in his Steganograpltia, whtch was not prmted until 1606 1, but was quite widely known in manuscript; Bovillus, Agrippa, Vier 2 and Gohory 3 had all read it. This book, as its title implies, has something to do v'ith cryptogr^PhY, a subject which he also tteated in a published work, brs Po$graphia a; tt also appears to have something to do with invoking angels or spitits fot some useful pufPose-he also published a tfeatise, not containing invocations) on planetary angels, his De Septen Secundaduzi 5, which sets forth a planetanly determined scheme of world history. Trithemius' adversaries, such as Bovillus, Vier or Del Rio 6, took the SleganograplLia as a manual of dangerous demonic magic, and made no attempt to interpfet it as a cfyPtosui

1 Joannes Trithemtus, 2
See Joannes Wier,

Sleganographia, boc est, ars

uolun,tatem absentibus aperiendi certa

.. ., Darmstadii,

per occaltan scriptaram animi 1.606. Trithemius died in

Libri

Praestigiis Daemonum, di incantationibui, ac Venefciis recogniti. . ., Basileae,1.583,II, vi, col. 166 seq., where he quotes Bovillus' shocked letter to Germain de Ganay about the Stegan., and states that he himself had read and copied it whilst living u'ith Agrippa. 3 Suavius, op. cit., p.761,, where he states that he o.wns a copy; he also quotes

7576.

De

sex, poslrema editione sexla aucti dz

the Bovillus letter (ibid., p. 160). a Trithemius, Po$graphiae Libri Sex ..., n. p., 1518. 5 Ttithemius, De Septem Secundadeis . . ., Nurnberge, 7522.

Agrippinae,7679,II, q. iii, p.

6 \7ier, loc. cit.; Del Rio, Disqaisitionum


111.

Magicaram

Libri Sex . . .,

Coloniae

srer xa urau';Ezurr )vr,,

.(' ' ' uJnuJel?f, sJlsruls ul ?g urnrqrl ?ttxap uI srluaquq 'suolor rrJ?a runlnul radns sllusls 'lP..t tP FEqJr"q IJIA tunpotu ur srlegrro ruz.rn8y uruaou ruslJur{f, ur a8urd 1a,r
"

0r

s' d'

"ff sr uorttrrpap eqr) aqt Jo trsoru seurnsar >lro.r\ stqr !(9491 pelup
saEzssed

.w
L'

!x1JJ,,u;

:::J,:;T:';{,':#ff T,'jji",fi ,"


.ln .do .leplrH

t;

?,

rue^eler eqr araq^\'

g-z

olotlpulA ' '

'

oyr1dot&otro&arg

''

' 11zaar1/!"t1

dd'17 71' aeu t"O*rrffi: :? * #:# "";;;T:ea5 stuuoof 'lrpl"H lsurg guu331o46
T

Surqldrela puz,, ']uerdneJ oq] tnoq? a.ou>I o] qsl-4N nod Surqlf,uv uJBal oslB duu nod suBeru eLuES eql dg 'raSuessatu Jo Swlrr.an 'splon Jo osrr eq] ]noT-[]r.rrl 'sJnoq nZ urqtr. N ]uerdroeJ peJrsep eq] o] pederruo3 eq IIr.4a. a8?sseul eql 'ploqqsetqt v repun perrnq puz luardrrer er{t Jo eSuurr uE q}r/y\ Joq}o3o} dn peddur.4A. eq o} sl eSstut 'p3uus sntlrlds ?S Hg Tr srJwd eurruou u1,, Surpua or{I ..'ueuv (uoEzloAUr ]Jorls v sr eJerII 'etn8ry uzurnq E sz elqvzwSof,eJ sr tr su 3uo1 sz u/r\uJp dlnyrrnuaq aq tou peeu lr luq] plo] eJe elo, pu" e peqursep dllrvxe sl 1a3uv eqt 3ro e8zurl eql .8unrr.,n toJf,es Jo puH f,ve to ]ueurraqdnue JoJ suorpeJrp pesrn8srp eq plnor oseqt lsql dlo>lrlun ]soru sruees rI 'suonzln3luf, prrSolonse pe] -zr4cluoc lq poururJelep tueuroru z 1e la8uz ,lw1auv1d z Jo ernlcrd oqt JaAo e8zssaur aqr fzs o] plo] sr euo f seSesseur pereqdlrua go selduzxa duu urzluor 'o-&] Jer{}o ar{t o>lrl '1ou saop 'paqsrugun sr grpla '{oog prlLII aqt }ng 'z lapleH .g .A 'reqdzrSorddlr uuurJeC e f,q snrurolllrJl -Io ef,uoJep drnluer qlLl E vr. pa]zJls -uoulep dlsnoldof, puz dlrzap sl sFII 'lueurreqdpue Jo spoqteru eqt J'o suondrnsep sz paurzldxe dprorrz3isqgs eq ve) Lueqt ur stlrtds puz sle8uu aqt turl] puu ',,(qdzrSorddn Jo lvaln op un1da.8 -oua7aTg ar{} s>loog o.4A.t er{} lsrg tuqt lqnop eptll sr oJaql Jo 'se8zsseru 3ur]]rusuur] dlteroas go sr(z,n ]trof,ouuT Joillo to sregdit lnq Surqrou qtla slzJp {ooq eg] ]Eql tJess'u 'saunlua) qlLl puz r{}9I oq} w q}oq .srapuegep 6snrueqlrrJ 'rz81nr. egt ruory s]aJf,os tuulrodurl stT aa;eserd o] Pelunss? estnSstp v .{1uo oreun suor}Ef,oaur oq} wqt peurrulJ puz 'd1erd uzllsrJrl3 qll.4o. alqnudiuof,ur Surqr-{uz qtl.4il, lo .crSuur sluouloP qlla ]l?aP {ooq sry lzq} ParusP dlzrnzqdrue puz dgngerzr ', snlprog rsureS? poperrp tI roJ n&oJody u? ur pu? sra]lal sn{ ul '>1ron oqr or acz3rsrd sFI ul Jlesulrq snruoq]rrl 'esrlzerr cn{dzr8
LB

SNI7[gHIIUJ

8B

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

that is happening in the wotld, you m^y learn, the constellation L. having been obsetved, by this ^rt" Two latet defenders of Trithemius' innocence of all magical practices, Gaspar Schott and Heidel, are nevertheless unable to suggest a cryptographic interpretation of the 3rd Book of the Steganographia 2, and do believe, I think rightly, that it describes a nrethod of conveying messages mentioned by Agdppa, who had spent some time with Trithemius in his monastery discussing occult sciences and u'hose De Occulta Pltilosophia had been so warmly praised by him3. In a chaptet of the De Occ. Plril. cn air, to which he ascribes most of the ptopeties usually given to spirit, Aprippa writes a:
The forms of things, although by their own nature they are conveyed senses of men and animals, can however, while they are in the air, receive a certain impression from the heavens, by means of which, as also by the fitness deriving from the recipient's disposition, they may be transmitted to the senses of one recipient rather than another. And hence it is possible, naturally, without any kind of superstition, and through the mediation of no other spirit, for a man to convey his thoughts to someone else in a very short time, however far apatt they

to the

may be

cannot be exactly measured, it will inevitably happen within tu/entyfour hours. Ancl I know hov' to do this and have often done it. Abbot Trithemius also knew how to do it and used to do it.

from

each

other; and, though the time in which this is done

1 Trithemius, ibid., p. 312: "Et omnia,


obsetvata, per hanc artem scire poteris."

cluae l1unt

in mundo,

constellatione

1680, pp. 244-6. Heidel (p. 122) claims that he has discovered the "K"y" to the 3rd Book, but he gives it in a cipher which I have not been able to break. 3 Sce letters between Agrippa and Trithemius at the bcginning of Agrippa, De Occ. P/til., n.p., 1533, sig. iij-iiij. a Agrippa, De Occ. Phil,,I, vi, p. ix: "Ipsae nanqLre rerum species, iicet ex propria

2 lleidel, op. cit., pp. 354-6; Schott,

Scbola Steganograpltica

..., Norimbetgae,

natufa deferantur ad sensus hominum et animalium, possunt tamen a coelo, dum


sunt in aere, acquirere aliquam impressioncm, ex qua una cum aptitudine, a dispositione recipientis magis ferantur ad sensum unius, quam alterius. Atque hinc possibile est naturaliter, & procul omni superstitione, nullo alio spiritu mediante, hominem homini ad quamcunque, iongissimam etiam vel incognitam distantiam & mansionem, brevissimo tempore posse nunciare mentis suae conceptum: etsi tempus in quo istud fit, non possit praecise mensurari, tamen inter uiginti quatuor horas id fieri omnino necesse est: et ego id facere novi, & saepius feci. Novit idem etiam, fecitque quondam abbas Tritemius."

'gL'd''r'

'do 'repr"H ur palonb

..,*"urrrljili#J,!L*
'091-69I 'dd erSur

'6

:
r

{l?q erE e/N '(cplro.{\ eql u Suruadduq sr luqt Surqrfre^s Jo,, 'e8pa1.lo.oul FSJe^run Surrrnbrz Jo suzaur osp sr ]r :fqrzdelar yo " pq>l e ,t1vo ]ou sr :r8zul lucrSolorlsz (snruror{}rJl }Br{} patou aq osp ppor{s }I 'suourap 8ur-rrarap urol: s1e3ue pooS qsnr8unsrp ot tlnl5rp sl ll 'eas luqs e.{\ su 'asnuraq 'snopred dlarau sl }l inod dp.{ o1 Surqreruos op rg8lru deql rzqr Surdoq ur rou '* pa4 -oaur eq plnol suurnby szuroql Jo drlror{}n? eqt sq} roJ-asrnl -Jor{to lo dwlauzld 'sla8uz ot sredzrd Sussalppz ur xopoq}Joun dprussarau Swqlou sr ereq] ]sql '-{lpuoras lrrloqzrp pue pzq Jeae sr s.aldoed raqro {1uo-snord puz poo8 sdz.trlu sr rr8uu dur 'dSolorlsz r{}IA sz '}zq} '}sJg 'laqrue'.ueJ lsnur 3111 'sar{ rq8rru.ro.op sdzqrad lou oJOA dtald u"rlsrJrl3 o] .,{rur}u,rr .3ulqr f,uv to suotuep ot suoqufolur Supurolpu lou sE.&\ eq tvqt suoErlsorord slH 'lq1s Surcur,ruor r r{}yl rulq peplrrord Tooq srLI Jo rred rrqdzr8 -ordiro ag] 'sle8uz drzreueld Sulrrlonur suorlzrodo eqrJf,sep o] peqsilo, eq JI 'pur,{ Je'q}o eq} uO 'esrn8srp snora8uup ? LIf,ns uesoqf, elrq '. cr8zru ltvlq Jo pepedsns {zznduz Suraq 'pJnozn er{ tuq} 'poolslapun d1epr.lo. oo1 Sureq sreqdn uo esrweJ] E lue-rard o] peqsra dlareu pur{ snrrueq}rrl JI 'olquqordtur dUB1q sl }I 'rr8zur sruoueP uo asnEeJf v '{pted pue 'rrSeru fruouIep sz pesrnSsrp eJE tueruJor{dnua Jo spoq}eru aqt r{rlLI.4a. ur dgdzrSoldd.rr uo esr}uer}
E dluud sr atqdnfiouafiaqg (snrrrelllrrl ]?r{} 'ucqt 'e,Ler1eq I
'1a8uz d,ru1euz1d E Jo dl.q eql errnbal ssoleqtJeAeu tq8ru uerrr8 sr uorsserdurr sql qJrqar dq uorlurado arlt puz 'sue^uaq eq] uroJl uorsseJdrul eulf,aJrp slr dluo sellereJ tI tzq] 1nq ']lrrds druteuzld v tq pede,ruor d11zn1c? tou sr a8zssaru eqt tur{} u?eru 11eA\ f,vw 'lela.troq 's1{r f unrpeur z s? pellolur sr ..]rlrds Jeqlo f,va,, tuLI] seruap 'anll sl -ll 'uddrr8y 'uorlzredo lzrrSoloJlsu euros Jo su"aur dq luerdrf,eJ auo o] pa]f,eJlp

eq
68

dlesicerd sr 'slq8noq] s(Jepues eLIt qlla pelurrdul 'lrrrds eq] eJaq lrx.e er{} w peda,ruoc }FIds urtunq eLItJo suueru dq pe,raryrz plnol uonzf,runruurof, elqrzdalet wqt-]e11eq uoluruof, u sz/r\ ]I
SNII^TgHJ.IUI

90
again at Peter
accelerated

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

of Abano's prayer to Jupitet, which so greatly


progress
1.

his scientific

orrrn lrTlJ*ron magic is made somewhat discussion uncertain and complicated by the follorving facts. He did not publish hrs De Occulta Philosophia, whtch had been completed by 1510 2, until 7533, several years after the publication of his De T./anitate Scientiarunt (1530), which contains a fetr^ction of the former work and several discussions of various kinds of magic 3. Agrippa reprinted these at the end of the De Occ. Pl:i/.; in his preface he refers the reader to them and uses Ficino's feeble words to excuse himself for printing a book he had publicly tenounced: "I am merely recounting these things, not apProving of them" a. He also says that he has made considerable aclditions to it. Befote giving any rveight to this retraction, we must temembet, first, that the De Vanitate is a Declamatio Inuectiua, that is, a rhetorical set-piece, and that thetefore, though much of it is seriously evangelical, by no means ail of its destructive scepticism is meant to be taken in earnest 5; secondly that, though it contains one fotrnal retraction of the De Occ. Phil., this is limited to magic involving bad demons 6, and that the other discussions of magic, though far ntore cautious and less favourable than the De Occ. Phi/,, do contain a defence of natural magic and even of theutgy, by which he means the obtaining of benefits by operations directed towards angels, including planetary ones ?. There is,

Ary

of

cf. Thorndike, op. cit.,

Petrus Aponensis , Conciliator, Venetiis, 152L,

n.p., 1539, c. xlviii (retraction), c. xli-xlvii (on magic). a Agrippa, De Occ. Phil., Ad Lectorem, sig. aaii: "Quod si qua repetitis, quae vobis non placeant, mittite illa, nec utimini: nam & ego vobis illa non probo, sed narro"; cf. Ficino, Op, Omn., p. 530 (Ad Lect, of De V.c.c.). 5 This is clear ftom Agrippa's Apologia for the De Vanitate; see M. A. Screech, "Rabelais, De Billon and Erasmus", Bibl. d'Hum. dz Ren., XIII, 7951, p.246.

2 lhis appears from Trithemius' lettet at the beginning of the De Occ. Phil. 3 Cornelius Agrippa, De fncertitudine dy uanitate scientiarum dec/amatio inuectiua . . .,

II, 900.

Dif.

113, 156, fos 158 vo, 202

rc;

Agrippa, De Van., c. xlviii; note the final sentence, condemning magic "secunAgrippa, ibid., c. xlvi.

dum operationem malorum spirituum".

'bes 971

'A "trlc 'do 'a>ppuroqa

ot snoSol?uz sr l{3lr{a '}rrrds slq} lq padaluof, otv sef,uenHur dreleuzld aor{ suwldxa eq oJaqa 'ounrg ulor3: uo{Et d1e3rz1 'tpunut sn|nnds oql uo reldzqf, ? sotrr.&\ zddrr8y estlzeJ] slq q dlrzE 'lI Jo uvd eurossq ol Luees pu? tuerunSru sH -To 1troH eql OtuI .(lqroorus eSlau oslcl pu? ourf,rdJo sluoru?vry tsr{} os 'sp1l Surop lz InJIDIs sl oq f ruagr urory salonb dlruanberJi tnq 'slaluzn uJepour selp dpedo Jeleu zddlr8y ]zq] pereqrueuler oq ]snru lr esaqt Jo IIB tq 'seldru"xa .4a.al z dq u/Koqs eq ]seq uvt 43vur s.zddrrSlr j:o txetuof, peuul pu? r{JrJ eq} ur Sulrueddu dq peruroJsuvJt sr rr8uru pnrlrrds ssourf,rd lrol I
.suoIlBl -uuf,ur puu suuluslu] auolu ]al 'suourep .ro sla8rru ]noqz dllpnurr snorlnef, ou suq zddrr8y lxopoqrroun dissaledoq ureq] J:o awos 'droetl] prlSzu Jo spuzJts duzru sepnlf,ur Jr 'eruaqrs pcls,(qdzlaur SurdFepun puu dSolourure] slr ur f,ruolr1doe51 dpuzunuoperd sr 'l!t/ct 'rro aC[ eqr q8noql 'rr8utu Jo sprig ]uere5rp elrnb {lrzn 'pa -]Eulurpluoo dzs tq8n.u euo 'palzlf,osse dlesop eJoJeJeq] puz 'lt8zru Jo da,Lrns ]s1rl s.zcldtr811 ul poppeqrue puu pasradsrp sr lr lnq I suopurorr.ur prrSoloJlsu sz suru,{11 erqdro eqt Jo uor}?tardrelur uz pue orlcl Jo oltnpuo2 tttldro uz rlll^A. paurquof, sr puz 'nqA pqd1"t,1 ae er{} tuory 'ruqaq",tart uet}o 'ue1u1 sr uor}rsodxa sFII 'f,Tsnlu ,{rureuzld slr{ Jo slru}ap aql Surpnlf,ur 'rr8zur lecrSolonsz s.ourf,rd ;o .{roeq} oLI} Jo uoTlrsodxe IInJ a,r.r8 o} ?ileuzdwu3 " pu" ru{oud usllt rsrlrue Jo /KODI I Ja}rr.4A, dpo 3r{t sr zddrrSy 'pupl snora8uzp tsour ar{} uele 'rr8uru Jo anp^ Jo eqt ur e^eileq ol penurluof, eq rzqr dlrzalt ', a>llpuloql ^\oqs dq pe]rellof, ef,ueprlo reqlc puz ''/!t/cI 'rro ae eql Surqsrlqnd sFI .Io lr?,Ji erll 'a7a7ruo71 aO eqt ur rr8uu uo sretd"qf, or{t 'puzr.{ reqto aq] uO 'elqrssod se cr8uru Jo eery sz dlruznsrrri] z Surluzn {l -snorlqo sr oq,4a, pue 'qrrnqf Jr1oqruJ eq] ur sosnq? snonnsJadns sz spru8er or.[ ]uq.,l\ uo r{sJrrl sr oli.e\ 'pcqe8u?Ag tseutae uv sl 3q ''/!c/d 'rro ae aql o] suortrppv rctvl ur sdzqrad puz 'a7a7rua,4 ae aql q 'pullu s.uddrrSy ur ]f,rguof, pe^loseJun uB sewf,rpur r{rrrlrl. s>looq o/K] 3rl] ueo/K]3q epntr]]? Jo aJueJet[p Ieil v 'lerrenoq
T6

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marr's 1.

This is followed by faiily harmless chapters listing the abundance of spitit and various things which, containing ^fi subject to vatious planets, are to be used for acquiring celestial benefits 2. But then come directions for obtaining, not only celestial, "but even intellectual and divine" benefits, and this is accomplished by using these planetary things, hetbs, incense, lights, sounds, to atttact good denrons ot angels into statues, as in our familiar Asclepiur passage, to which Agrppa refets. These ditections are given u'ithout a rvord of caution, and moreover are said to be eractly parallel to the attraction of evil demons by obscene tites 3. Part of Ficino's rules for planetary music, cornbined with the Pico Conclusio on the use of Otphic Hymns in magic, apPeat tn a chapter on incantations a. T'hese are to be directed towards the "numina" of stars, an<l the planetary angels are to be given their proper names. The operator's spirit, instead of being conditioned by the music into a suitably receptive state for planetary influence, as in the De T./.C.C., is here an active instrument, which is projected "into the enchanted thing in order to consttain or direct it" 5. Ficino's musically transformed spitit appears here, "wartr,, breathing, living, bearing movement, emotion and nteaning with it, articulated, endowed with sense, and conceived by teason" o,
Occ. Phil.,I,xiv, p. xix; Ficino , Op. Omn., p. 534 (De Tr. t,'., III, iii). Agrippa, ibid., I, xv-xxxvii, pp. xx-xliv. Agrippa, ibid., I, xxxviii, xxxix, pp. xliv-xlv. Agrippa, ibid., I, lxxi, pp. xci-xcii: "In componendis itaquc carminibus & orationibus pro attrahenda stellg aut numinis alicujus virtute, oportet diligcnter

1 2 3 +

Agrippa, De

considerare quas in se quaelibet stella continet virtutes, effcctus

&

operationes atque

haec carminibus insetere laudando, extollendo, ampliando, cxofnando, quac solet stella hujusmodi afferce & influere, deprimendo & improbando cluae solet destruere & impedire ..." (for Ficino v. supra p. 17); cf. ibid., II, xxvi, p.clviii (planetary music), II, lix, p. ccvi (Orphic Hymns and astrology), and infn p. t74. 5 Agrippa., De Occ. Phi/.,I, lxxi, p. xcii: "Eiusmodi itaque catmtna apte atquc rite ad stellarum nofmam composita, intellectu sensuque plcnissima, . . . atque per imaginationis impetum vim maximam conspirant in incantante, atque subinde traijciunt in rem incantatam ad illam ligandam aut dirigendam, quorsum affectus sefmonesque incantantis intenduntur." 6 Agrippa, ibid., "Instrumentum vero ipsum incantantium est spiritus quidam purissimus harmonicus, calens, spirans, vivens, motum, affectum, significatum secum ferens, suis articulis compositus, praeditus sensu, ratione denique conceptus" ; fot Ficino v. supra p. 10.

nt

'L-gVl'd zr3ur1: :26'd 'I69I 'npzls1o8u1'saTw

'uuz9 'pe " ' ' a1o4uftq ryulutoH aq 'ottr1'^olC (ord) '3'e 'clSzur lsutz8u puu roJ qroq Sutru.lr esoqt Jo s>lJortr eqt ur tfiota nsttd 3o satSoleeua8 .{uzu arz areql r
spr?1Kot peperrp sr r{f,rq1s. 'poo8 Surqlaruos s?q uorSrler r{f,?a puz i saeeld puz serurl tueJa:Urp qll,n .f,mt uolSrier Jo seluowaraf, pu? sellr aqt lng

(z.rruoc) :(gOSt 'pa rsrg) 'bas 697'dd 'tggI 'azapszg "/7tar4 'lzrlrV a6. 'snt1uz11ag ur 'sn&o1otq alpflJaa apltuoulJltv a6J 'snuzttoJrd lerJquC :G-OZy 'dd 'ZLSI 'aealtszg "uruo 'd6 "Jtuo2 aqr roJ ofioJo{V s1{ uI osle a8zsszd aurts) 8?l 'd 'ZV6l 'azueil.g

'snuaJs4 snlf,rpeueg

rr,r uorueref, nq onp ec,, rraxf, , ;fr"::5'1ii1..,I,:;;J": :o"i["Tfrllr ;ta; spsotttluadrlS- ta fitzllpl ttxilaapv :OSt-gVt's1or'lr'II'g8gI 'euallszg "ruao6J 'lraorcJ a6J'nt1n,

ilolzen
drysro.tr 'sdz.tr FJeAes u,t\o Jrer{l ur (seJn}ven
IIE }ur{}

Jrer{}
ota.

plo} eJz

eroH

'z ((uorlrlsradns

oa] er{} uO,, : pel}rlue rardzqc InJaJ?f dgunsnun oq} uI ue^e ueas dlrzalc eq uEf, lusuerruds 8ulo8-q8norolr dlqu>lrutuer s.uddrr8y 'stsruolu1doa51 aqr
puu sneqdrg 3o pus 'u8zru s(ourf,rd JoJ snlsr8eruslJl soiuJeH Jo sf,uulrodun aql uees f,peeqv 3l\"11 e.4A.:rJ3]suoJoz ot peqrJf,s? dpzln8eJ sr slJ? eseql Jo uorluolur eql 'uor]zleleJ uuEsrJr{J-?J}xe ']uercuz oq] Jo lwd aran 'ruaqt Jo peloJddz oq^ro. esoq] JoJ 'f,I8rtu puz dSoiorts" :l7r* oslu oraln !70/0a(ft 1ts1,td aLI] Jo ]soru l?qt pleq dlureueS 'esJnoc Jo (sBA ]1 'fzn ((l?Jeqrl,, dgzuopdacxr elrnb " try peldaf,f,? sr pve aEolu orslrd ? osp st nt7oJoa(.ft orslrd eq} : eJn}Eu etuzs ei{} Jo rul{ roJ atv 'w?zd ro uEr}suLIJ 'uoi3r1ar pue rr8ztrq 'dlrrrrpu f,rszq errJ?s eql JC saldurzxe sz IIE Lueq] sprz8er dprzld pu? 'suor8rlar uu8ud pue cr8zru ol uorlulal ur seruorrJeJer pu? sradzrd uzrlsrJq3 sassnrsrp 'Ioog pJg er{} ul dlzlradsa 'dpuanbarg eq ! salroaql prr8zru cruolzldoaN ;o tunof,f,B pfuolsrq 'peluaur -tuosun uE s? ue>13] aq plnol tsLl.,l\ err.r8 pu" suorwJeprsuof, qf,ns (olef,lzlql e>1q truro dlareu'elduruxe JoJ: 'lou seop eq ]ng 'urz]uof, deqr szepr snorS4er xoporltJoun er{t lsuwSu JOpuaJ eq} ur?rN o} Jo '>llo.traru?ry uzESIJr{f ? o}ur tueql ef,roJ o} trosa ou se>luu eq tzqt ur stsrleJf,uds relzl lsoru puz ourf,ld ruorJ d18ur>1rns sre5rp eq 'solrnos cruolzldooN Surzrrolloy dlesolo sr zddlrSy eraqa uaAE 'sle8uz drzleuuld Sunrarrp'Suqladuor 'Sulluzqf,ue Jo suzeru ? auro3aq s?q tr spuzr{ s.zddrr8y ul }ng
e6 VddIU9Y

puz uoSqer 'rlSzru lzruoruoJef, Jo sdord

94

IV.

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God Himself the Creator; and although God approves of only the Christian religion, nevertheless He does not wholly reject other cults, ptactised for His sake; and does not leave them unrewarded, if not eternally, at least temporally

God's anger is ditected towatds the irreligious, not towards those who worship Him in a mistaken v/ay. In so far as these other religions differ from the true religion (i... Christianity), they are superstitious, but they all contain some spark of the truth:
For no religion, as Lactantius tells us, is so mistaken that it does not contain some wisdom; wherefore those m y find forgiveness who fulfilled man's highest ofiRce, if not in reality, at least in intention 2.

Moreover, everr superstition is not wholly to be rejected. It is tolerated by the Church in many cases, and can, if believed in with sufficient force, produce by this credulity miraculous effects, just as true religion does by faith. Examples of this are the excommunication of locusts in ordet to save crops, and the baptism of bells so that they may repell devils and storms 3. But, Agrippa goes on) we must remember that the prisci rudgl v/ere idolaters, and not let their errors infect our Catholic religion. It is difficult here to tell whethet Agrippa the Evangelical is having a shot at Catholic practices he thinks are superstitions, or whether Agdppa the Magician is using them to justify his own magical practices. The caution about the prisci magi is quite exceptional, and I strongly suspect it is one of the later additions he mentions in his preface. Elsewhere Agrippa makes no attempt to distinguish between true religion and superstition or magic. In a series of chapters
1 Agrippa,
pro temporum regionumquc vatietate, diversi sunt: & unaqueeque religio boni
aliquicl habet, quod ad deum ipsum creatorem dirigitur: et licct unam solam ChristiaDe Occ. Phil.,III, iv, p. ccxvi: "Religionis autem ritus, ceremoniaeque,

nam religionem deus approbet, caetefos tamen eius gratia susceptos cultus, non penitus reprobat: & si non etcrno, temporaneo tamen praemio irremuneratos non relinquit . . ." 2 Agrippa, ibid., "Nulla enim religio (teste Lactantio) tam erronea, quae non aliquid sapientiae contineat: qua vcniam illi habere possunt, qui summum hominis officium, si non re ipsa, tamen proposito tenuerunt."; Lactantius, Dia. Inst,, II, 1ii
(Nligne, Pat. Lat., YI, col. 266). 3 Ci. Wier on this subicct (infra p. 155).

((' ' ' sellsedural 1g 'soqrou EJluof, 'slluctuuluerut uzpsnqtnb srJf,ES Jnlegrln z,ltlnuud ?Iscif,f,e lE,,rl-lxf,Jf,'dd'tttx1 'III "PIql'zddlr8y t 'glz'd z.rgul 'lra(qns slql tro ellauudruz3 Jr pue lilxccrd 'lll"l 'III "plql 'p :G\X'utilf) ,,r8arrr ]unrzAlesgo 'l3o1ollsy ]unJenoop essod a.rzlsasrd ru?unlJoJ ru?uef, srJlsou snqeJ turua urodurel 'Jnlunnbas eznb ry irerp e?Jor{ luns urrf,oponp cuuoN :JolEAI"s IIXIp ESnuf, euIS rulue anbeu'e8qe srnl snqlJedo o.rd sclP ?p uIzlle sEJoH,,:IIIIXf,f,f,'d',rrx1 'III ''PIqT'uddt;8y I

rB nllnf, ord rururnu rn3r'e snuelznb '1uns ruelnn .",rorilro slucf, lunuodsrp sauorssed anbsnla 'lunrlgu LunJlsou lunurluu snualznb '1uns zluau] -Eluuf,ul srnb rstu 'lsslalul ulrue IqrN 'snrurl?lruJt slpucuoduoc slluaurzluz3ul eP Iqn ststrpeJl srln8ar zlxn( 'u.lnsueru T, erepuod 'oJerunu ollqep tse PuBJIJqeS zsdl ry aznb 'orle:o,rur .rnlu8rJrp ns Jclrlrrurs urenb pB 'llqurnrut {tcgo pl Inl 'snqtotag xa lunns uJeJolnf,cxe (ueptsap snruzldo ponb ulnun ears
'uz11atrs aals 'uranbtle runlaSue

ll#TltHr"Hififfi:

snre srqou snurzlnlsod oJJocL, :Ilxxxf,f,f,

z,

'rlxof,f,-xrxxccc 'dd ',rx1-ltr.t1

'd 'FI 'III "/!tld '3rO aQ 'zddl'r8y 'III "(qcI 'trO aQ 'zddrr8y

uortrsodxe s.uddTr8v qSnogrp 'wW

slq] il" tuory ees uuf, euo

',

.(q3Jnr{J

aAIlrLuIJd, eql dq POSn '..suolwlu?3ul PoJ3?s,, o^I]f,ette ew deqr f snorlrlsredns eq or prcs tou ew sileq Jo ruspdsq oq] s? r{f,lls
seruotueJel >looq sTq Jo lrvd sql uJ 'e ...idzp eqr uI sJnorl o^lea'l lou ereq] eJV, Pr"s Jnol^?s Ino ]"ql esnB3 ]norl]I/K,, lou s?.{\ }I dlzclSoloJts? ew fvql selull fv Prrv sdep uo oAIpeJa -slqEJno^?J erour eq rua suor]?3grrnd pu? sredvtd wqt s>luiq] oslB "ddlrSv

'z'''rlJo

uoB?reue^ Pue Jnouoq uI llJrds ulul.rac o] PssseryPu erv ,{eq} se wJ os uI " sredsrd erv pue'(auuuau) srFlds urctref, qlIA dlrurroJuof, uI suolssd sll (lnos rno asodsrp puz lf,aJB daqr se JBJ os ur suon?]u?f,ur eJB deql l?ql eq rl sselun 'tuaql uee^ueq ef,uereslP ou sI oreql Jod 'suoltslu?f,ur Jo uoBrsodwof, eql Jo pewerl e1K uer.l^\ ue^rS selnr eq] qlra ef,u?Prof,)e vr

Pesoduor aq o] sI uol]?3o^ul eql '{Jora' Jo puH srq] oP o] sr 1I qol JE[n):otEd asoqzn ']uTzs Jo Jsls '1a3uz eql :e3u? o] ((uorwf,o^ur,, u3 sseJPPs oslu Plnoqs e.{\ }3I{} "(lpuooes esoq] osn -aSuarr puz JeSuE Jo elrssardxa erv fvql poC Jo saruzu puu ('f,ro 'qzuouroC puz uroPos 'Poold eq] Jed?rd rno ur II?f,eJ plnoqs eiA. (serlueue Jno J:o uorlfnJlsap eql 'fzs 'ro3 pog of Surdzrd oJ? o.44. JI lzqf 'lsrg 'plot eJB o1K 'elduzxe toJ'taf,Erd uo Jslduqf, eql q 'seuo Ff,r8zru ro u333d qll/K '1e,re1 ? uo PuB (ePIs dq aprs saldruzxe u"rlsrJr{J saf,Eld dpuzlsuoc eg 'r so}TJ snoISIToJ JeI{}o puB slueruErf,?s 'srederd uo >loog pJg er{} Jo pue eq} sPJ"lKol
96
YcIdIUOY

96

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

of Ficino's spiritual magic certainly gave it a wide diffusion, it may also have frightened people away from it. He exposes what Ficino, rather feebly, had tried to conceal: that his magic v'as really demonic. He also mixes it up with magic that aims

transitive, thaumaturgic effects, wheteas Ficino's effects were subjective and psychological. Finally, and most importantly, by treating magic, p^g n teligion and Christianity as activities and beliefs of exactly the same kind, he demonstrates strikingly how
dangerous Neoplatonic magic was from a Christian point of view. It is also relevant to this point that the spurious 4th Book of the

^t

De Occ. Phil., whete the magic ts evidently black, was sometimes Iater believed to be by Agripplr, in spite of Wiet's well-founded denials 2, which also did not prevent belief in the sinister stories about Agrippa's black dogt. Ficino has got into bad comPany.
Parace/sus and Jacques Gohory.

In dealing with Paracelsus' relation to Ficino's magic, I shall say as little as possible about Paracelsus's theories, and shall
concentfate on one of his eady commentators, Jacques Gohory, a Parisian who wrote under the name of Leo Suavius. There are several reasons for this. I doubt whether Paracelsus' philosophical writings are in fact intelligible, that is, whethet they contain any coherent patterns of thought. To many 1.6th centuty readers it seemed evident that they did not, and even his eatly commentatofs either, like Geratd Dorn a, add nothing to the text or, like Gohory, admit that they are not at all sure what it is about, let alone what it says. It is howevet possible to note some kinds of magic he mentions and apparently approves of, and even sometimes to guess that some battered fragment of an idea originally came

t Eg. g. Bodin, v. infra p.774: cf. Thorndike, op cit,,Y,136. 2 \Vier, De Praest. Daem.,1583, II, v, cols. 161 seq. t E.g. Ricardus Argentinus, De Praestigiis et Incantationibus Daemonum . . ., Basileae, 1568, p. 46; cf. Thotndikc, op. cit., V, 136-7, a See Patacelsus, Libri V De Vita longa, breui, dt sana. Deq. Triplici corpore.
Iamdadam ab ipso authore obscuri edili, nunc ueri opera dy studio Gerardi Dornei Commen-

tarijs illustrati, Ftancofurti, 1583; cf. Dotn's translation of Paracelsus, Da Summis


Naturae mltsterifu Comnentarii tres, Basileae, 1584.

dq arz3ard E suq (EfSi) LIX ara!7 :(ttSt) 1IIX '(tggt) tX 'QSS1) 'yyg1 'sr1er1 " '' ataToxt ap Z1attas la Jalltaalaul salfill ta7 v 'tosrue6l ssloJrN dq u.,tz.lp dassv surluof, ]l:8E61 's1tJ ut ua.^A.og

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(e11epof 'J!."g. 'nza11ag ']uroq : ep?I?lcl er{} Jo '1arntr41 'V 'I,{ spuer{i pu? sreqrueur reqlo duulu osls }nq ,{u326 Pu? d?ileg ncl

dpo ]ou A\euI eq Jod '((es1v\wtl an8uu1 ap uorlzJlsnlll,, eql ol "l uoilnquluof, slr{ sduqred s}ueserder s>lJo.4a. f,wta[.I slg Jo rrYd srql 's alnz) aP s?pttlu|z a[l Jo s>ioog eerq] Jo PUB n s!/HrP4I/V aornlulv tlt/wro aQ <snr.vuJeT Jo 'e nJecl J:o ]unof,f? rTsru?ds snouIduouE
vE Jo '" ad1tu1.r,r7 JJ puu lsrzrsle s(rllol"rr{f,ury Jo suor}ulsuuJ} qlueJd parnpord eH 'dtuaqrp dlznedse 'seluerls ]lnf,ro eq] uo PeJluef, Je^eiKoq eJe r{3lqlN 'sJsalelur Jo e3u3J OPIA\ drerr 3 aor{s suorlzf,riqnd srpl 'Swlrrrn puu Suldpnls srJucl ur ]ueds sv,^l. aJIl srq

Jo ]soru tnq :, du8zry ep rar^rlo pu" dz11eg nC tun{f,zof urraul eq orarl/a. '9ggl o] tggl ruo{: 'e.,r1eg ap tepo ropzssequrv qouerd eq} 'eruog
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'uoISSn]

-srp l"uosJed Jo sueeur dq oruangul puu uorsn5rp elq?Jeprsuor pBLI e^Er{ eroJeJeql duru snslo3zrzcl puu uddrr8y 'snrureq}IJl Jo uoltrp?J] I?3rBEru eq] Jo drqsuorduluqr sF{ pu? rr8slu uululf,Id Jo rusrf,uuf, srH 'drlunor puu eruq s1{ Jo sarnSg t{tv;e41 puz sgBuer3s ]u"uodulr ]soru eg] Jo duzru pspnlsur r{tFlrtr spuerry Jo epJrf, eplrr\ v paq'JeloeJoru 'drogog 'seuoeq] pclqdosoF{d puu 1vt13vw Jor{}o o} serueJe}}n (snslafsJud ewler o} tdrualtz sooP ar{ 'ra}u.m.8uqurql-pJ"q Jo prf,nl z suueru ou riq sl eq q8norlr 'oslv 'snslef,"Jucl r{tr.4N rulq Surruduroc pu" ourf,rd tnoq? Suuipr dlrusnbery Jo eSeluz,rpu eq] sn JoJ szq 'pueq Jer{}o eq} uo 'droqog 'ef,Jnos l"Aa?rporu eruos Jo 'snruaqlrrl 'zdduSy 'ourlrg ruory
L6

.x.uoHo9 oNV snsTufvuvd

9B

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Denisot, Fauchet, Pasquier 1; and, in defending his translation of the Antadis, he proudly mentions their approval 2. Gohory gives several reasons to justify his translating and publishing frivolous work as the Amadis; among these, such ^n ^pp^rently the nrost important for him was that he believed it to be an alchemical allegory 3. 'fhe same reason accounts fot several other of his fictional or niythical publications: a series of engravings of the story of Jason, for which he wrote the introduction and explanatory verse s o; an edition of and commentaty on a mediaeval French poem, La Fontaine Perilleuse, whrch he believed to be the source of the Rontan de /a Rose u; h. wrote apreface for, and was 'Jean Martin instrumental in publishing, a Frenclr. translation by 6. of the HlpnerotomaclLia All these Gohory interpreted as heavily veiled alchemical treatises. His originai works shorv the same tendency. His commentary on Paracelsus, which rvill be discussedlater, has a strong alchemical bias, ano his little treatise on tobacco is mainly concerned with metlrocls of distiilation 7. His I)e LIsu ez A,'[lsteriis lVotaru/m, shows a wider range of occult interests; in it he discusses, knowledgeably and approvingly, Trithemius' magic, the Art of Ramon Lull, the Christian CabaIa, Camilio's 7'lteatrum, the Ars t1,[entoraliua, Pico's
L Amadir, Liure X (1552) contains liminary \rerscs, in praise of Gohory's translation, by Dt.irat, Du Bcllay and N{uret ; Amadis XI (1554) by Dorat, Belleau, Jodelle, Tahureau,; zlmadis XIII (,1,571), by Belleau, Pasquier, Baif; Gohory cites Dorat, "amicissimus vir", on the Sybils in his commentary on Paracelsus (Tbeopbrasti Paracelsi .., Compendiam ..., tr3asiJeae, 1568, p. 253); for Dcnisot v. supra p.97 note (3); for Fauchet see J. G. Espiner-Scott, Claude Fauchet, Paris, 1938, pp. 63 seq.; Gohory also dedicated rvorks to t$/o of the Pleiade's favourite patrons: Marguerite de I.-rance (Artadis, Livre X, 1552) and Catherine de Clermont, Comtesse de Retz (Amadit, Liure XIII). 2 Foreword to Anadis, Liu. XIlf. 3 See Gohoty's Prefuce au Lecteur conlenant exposition generale des cbifres des Rommans antiqaes to Arnadis XIV (1575), and the Dedication of Amadit X (1552). a Liure de la Conqaesle de la T'oison d'or .. ., Patis, 1563; dedicated to thc king

by Jehan de l\Iauregard.

5 Liure de la Fonlaine Perilleuse, auec la Cbarte d'amours: aulrement intituli, le songe du uerger, Oeutre tres-exce//ent, de po?sie an/iqae conlenant /a Steganograpltie des mlsteres secrets tie la science minerale. Aaec contmenlaire de I.G.P., Pads, 1572. 6 Hlpnerotomacltie ou Discours du songe de Polipbile . . ., Paris, 7554; there was another editon of 1,561,. 7 fnstaction sur l'herbe Petum.. ., Paris, 7572; cf. article on this by \7.H. Bowen in Isis,7938.

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'rp/!A pqdpl ae

66

I'UOHOC CINY

SfISTECYUYcI

100

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

family 1. Perhaps these also ptevented his becoming a member of Baif's Academy. Gohory's own institution he called the "Lycium philosophal San Marcellifl" 2. It was in an apothecary's garden, where he prepared Paracelsan medicines, did alchemical experirnents, made talismans "suivant l'opinion d'Arnaud de Villeneuve, & de Marsilius FicinuS" t, and whete he teceived learndd visitors who admired the rate plants and ttees, played skittles, and petformed a. Thus vocal and instrumental music in the "galetie historide" there wefe two Academies going on at the same time and place, and both gtew out of the same Neoplatonic tradition, but in divetgent directiolrs: Baif's, encyclopaedtc in aim, but predominantly musical and poetic-Gohoty's, also encyclopaedic, but mainly alchemical and magtcal, though including music among its activities. Gohory's "Lycium", which was evidently, unlike Baif's carefully organized Academy, quite private, informal ^ his death in 15765. It is possibly affatr, presumably ceased ^t mofe than a coincidence that in that year Nicolas Houel began to work for the foundation of hrs Jlaison de Charit|, which included an apothecaty's garden, a medical laboratory, and a music school,
1 Gohory,Imlruction sur l'herbe Petam, Patis, 7572, fo 3vo; cf. similar complaints in Gohory's dedication to the Comtesse de Retz of Amadis XIII (1571). 2 The only source for this is Gohory's fnstu. sur l'lterbe Pelutn; cf. E. T. Flamv,
op. cit., pp. 15 seq., where the relevant Passages are quoted. 3 Gohory, fnrtraction, Ded.: "Or ay je entre autrcs oeuvres dcs minetaux, vegetaux & animaux compos6 nagueres des Sig. Astronomiques, suivant l'opinion d'Arnaud de villc-neuve, & de Matsilius Ficinus . . ." 4 lbid., fo 74 ro: "Or j'espere sur le printems qu'il n'y aura simple rare & estrange en ce pais qu'il n'y soit sem6 ou plante pout donnef ce contentement aux gens d'cspcrit qui souvent se delectent au labyrinthe d'atbres garniz de son donion au
mylieu, & de quatre tourclles d'ormes courbez aux 4 coingz. Les autres, en la fontaine artificielle saillante pat conduitz de plomb. Les autres, cs fruits dcs Entes qui y sont de toutes sortes en grand nombre plantees ) la ligne de deux costez sur les allces & senticrs. Aucuns i l'or6e des deux pavillons, I'un couvert dc pruniers l'autrc dc cerisiers. Autres ) l'excrcice de la boule ou quilles soubz un long & large bcrceau de trcillagc. Et quand quelque assignation les presse de pattir, regardant I'heure au quadran horizontal dc compartiment. Autres s'addonnent d. faire N'Iusique de voix & insttumens en la galerie historiee . . .". 5 During this time, L57t-I576, Gohory r.vas also occupied in writing a continuation of Paolo Emilio's history of France, fot rvhich he received the 500 livres a year that Ramus had bcqueathed for a new Chair of Mathcmatics (see Hamy, op. cit., pp.22-4).

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702

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

'il/orks showed first-hand knowledge and contained -raluable rrev/ ideas, particulady with regard to the use of chemical remedies 1; secondly, that Gohory, like many others, was anyu/ay passionately interested in all occult subjects, and was therefore used to treating

tespectfully texts of a baffiing obscutity-Paracelsus, zftet all, is no more obscure and confused than, SZlr the Oracu/a Clta/daica, the book of Reuelations, of for that mattef, St. Paul. He would have expected in any work dealing at aII profoundly with magic, religion, alchemy or astrology, to find a heavy "veiling" of the truth 2. He prefaces his commentary on Paracelsus with a long justification of this practice 3, and announces, unfortunately fot us, that he too is going to comment "mote platonico", that is,
enigmatically a. The work of Paracelsus on which Gohory wfote his commentafy is the De Vita Longa, which he took to be in some w^y derivative from Ficino's De T'riplici Vita. This assumPtion was probably coffect; it is suggested by the title u, and Paracelsus is known to have admited Ficino as physician 6. Moreovet, some of the ^ contents of the De D'ita Longa do seem to be nightmatish ^ fragmentation of themes in the De Triplici Vita. One of its chapters is headed by Gohory with this argumentum: "Aid to long life is to be sought from the influence of supernatural bodies, 7 tteated by N{atsilio Ficino, De Vita coelitr)s comP^t^nd^" . From the text it a.Ppeafs that man caIT attfact some beneficial influence from on high, though it is not at all clear what patt of man is influenced, or by what or how. The attraction of this influence is by means that have wrongly been called incantations of supefstitions, and which ate the origin of Greek magic; they

1 Suavius, op. cit., p. 150; this is conceded by Erastus (Disp. de Med, lYou., sig. 9 (Lectori)). 2 Cf. Walker, "Prisca Theologia in France", pp. 227 seq.
Suavius, op. cit., pp. 159 seq.. Ibid., p. 170. Cf. title of Dorn's edition (supra p. 96 note 4). See Peuckert, op. cit., p. 732. Suavius, op. cit., p. 89 (De Vita Longa, I, vi): "Ex influentia corporum supernaturalium pt""iidio- petendum longae vitae, tractatum i Matsilio Ficino de vita coelitis compatanda".

3 4 5 6 ?

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o]

suraos eq

g0r

IUOHOC CINY SOSTI3VUYcI

704

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Hete, then, we again find Ficino's magic, as with Agtippa, in a dangerous form: oveftly and exclusively demonic, and influencing the intellect instead of the human spirit. Gohory, mofeovef insists on the derivation of Patacelsan from Ficinian magic 1, and even gives a C'ontparatio of the one with the othet. This, in fact, tufns out to be a rather sharp ctiticism of Ficino as beine a timid and superficial version of Paracelsus. Gohory tecalls with anno) ance that Ficino "pretends he is only recounting, not 2. apptoving of, the magic rvhich he is teaching and establishing" It was from the same timidity tirat he made the bad mistake of prefetring astrologically prepared medicines to talismans. He is, ho'rvever, to be praised as a fotefunnef of Parucelsus in that he "placed bevond doubt" the superiority of astrological medicines over ordinaty ones 3. Gohory sums up *:
Say then that h{arsilio lricino beiievecl in images and seals, but from religious fears pretended not to (as one can easily gather frorn his various utterances); ancl thereb,v wronsly hindered marly people's beiief in, and

approval of, these most ciirEcuit matters, or caused them to withhold judgment. FIc and Giovanni Pico had read man) books of the P,vtha-

1 Suavius, cip. cit., p. 186: "\/irrm autcm aclipisccndac longq vitae sternit ab imaginibus ac Gamaiiacis: de quiirus Nlarsilius lricinus diserte multa & cumulate ex Platcinica disciplina in lib. clc vita coclitus l-rauricr-rda . . . ut illum in eodem quo Paracclsum apparcat argulxeltt() lusissc". 2 Suavius, r-rp. cit., p. 187: agirinst rcmoving "vitatn animamque mundo, coelo, syderibus per quam influxus coclcstcs in hacc infcriora infunduntur. De quibus scite Ficinus in Apologia . . . nisi quam nunc docet confirmatque magiam, mox se n ttate non probarc simularet. Nam rc fortc in superstitioncm labi videatur, labitur in errorcm manifr:sturn, dum pracfert concoctiones medicinaruirl scuipturis lapidum ac metallorum . . ." (cf. supra p, 42). 3 ibid.: "At cxtri dubitationcm merito ponit unguenta & pharmaca sidcre<r favorc affi,ata, viribus summis insigniri: In quo Paracclsus Flippocraticam Nlusam reprchcndit, quae inf-erioribus tantum rebus insudzrverit, ncc eas ad n()rmam virtutemque superiorum tempcfavcrit." l'{e tiren qrrotes from Ficino on this sublcct (v. infra p. 168). 4 lbid., p. 188: "Dic itaque Nlarsilium fidcm adhibuissc imaginibus & sigillis, sed religionis mctu dissimulasse (ut ex illius variis sermonibus colligere facillimum est) multorum interim hdcm in ijs rcbus difficillimis & asscrtionem petperirm cohibuisse suspensamve tenuissc. Libros

illc & Ioann.

Picus llirandulanus Pythagoreo-

rum Platonicorumque rna,gna mystcfia continentes, Zoroasttis, Trismcgisti, Indorum, Chaideorum, E,gyptiorum, Arabumque legerunt: scd supcrficiem tafitac sapicntae delibasse illorum scripta demonstrant, ad intimam cofum mentem penctrassc nulla illorum mirifica opera gestave testantur. X{agnam tamen aliis qui prisca ilia monumenta non dcgustafurrt, admitationem sui reliqucre."

-r:)t)erw!),. s,,t.roqog tsuru8z ueilrJ.4N pEq (gEg '1oc 'nr.l. 'L "lraat4 aq) rct1y...-* -atuz ?3uo1 anbuurrlcop Etuuj el uou tnb tsa snllnu urn.ronb : urnunueJoiC ulnlnrsv urngf,f,r-) 'unuzdstg ruaf,rJluf,rcl 'LuosuJLUJEcI un[ulosuy 'urn.t'ouulll1 tunpluu]v 'urnu8z1q trtnuaqlv 'ruatolzlllcuor ruesuauody tunJlecl 'rueuoqczg unr.raSog 'runrqdcl.ry 'utatesae3 unuuqnf <utnf,rlurulueJC ureuorddy ulaurruou soqdosolrqd soruISSIAou JIr{ rullutsl ln isnpuzJuduror al.rsd xa BIIn srJrl srtrsrJcl srluzl unc (;aslur g) se arr n,1 'e;er4X llJESrJalf,EJEr{f, f,auq su3a51,, tl-092,'dd ''ln 'do 'snl,Lzng I "bas 991 'spr 'l.t '11 ''urao6J 'lsapJc[ a6 'tet,y:Z-OS1'dd "plql 'snr-tzng z 'LIZ, '2,61 't-1gl 'dd snru;aqtrrl uo osl" Jr :Z9Z 'L-961 'dd "pTqt r

JEJ setrf, drogog l3r.[] saEuoq]n? qfns tlsJ ul sl ]I 's s^ouallr^ Jo snPIsuJV puB xrJ]?f,rcl 'snu3r1q sntJeqlv 'ouuqy 3ro Jelecl 'uo*g raSog 'snrqdeuy 'elulsodv aql u?rlnf Sulpnpul ']s{ u

selr8 eq ulorl/K yo 'sreqdosopqd ]uer3ue f,EerB duzur os tfrp"Jluoo o] eJuP rrBf, J3TA rNoli tueruqsiuols" rltra s>ls? eg snrltlaqlul uo s>lf,?lt" s6r3ra tsuluSe sesr]3EJd rlfns Jo ef,uesouur"pu? ffsf,sJe er{} Surpua3ep uI ', zddrr8V dq peuorlrieru puu 'suzrusrlzt puz sle8uz drztaueld ol suopurolur Jo esn aLIt {q pe^eiqrr dqludala} Jo puDI ? uo 3]o.T,\\ utqdafiouaaa|g 311] uI snrurslIluJ ]Erll s>lurq] eq ]3q] ruelr oslE sr tI 'suorlvlrlv)ur. pu" s3Jn35 'srelcrrzqr 'sprozn Jo Jea.od IErrSBLu orlt ur Jalerleq ruJg 1? si ,lfuol1og 'tradxa plnoa euo sV 'ef,uetrJs snSoq v avqt uorSrlJJ z Swaq o] JeJ?ou sr e3uer{ pur 'anrtrrafqns pur iunprllpui 'a]u,trrd dllueurule sr f,r8rru slH 'ol lusa lou prp dprctrec aq pue 's1to,n snopuodnls duz urJoJJed lou plp ourrrd ]q] t{l8rr otrnb sl aH 'turcd }uuuodtrlr ue sa>lzru droqog aJOH'snsief,uJzcl Jo snruollodv eTI'sntpru 3uqro..ro. -JePuoa TnJJea.od v eujof,eq o] 'suorlutado snolla^J?Lu f,ue urJoJJed ol atnlr"J slq q oslE ]nq 's8urlrr.r SILI Jo sseusnorln?f, aqt ur dpo:Iou (u.rroqs sl srqt pur f qSnoue daep Jo r{8noua rzJ oB tou plp aq 'saldnns snorSrleJ puz dllpF,rll urory '1nq'at7aru atsu{ eqr dlaruvv '4tvt] lqSrr or{} uo sz,4A. ourf,rg 'uaql '{roqog rog

lnq : sq?rv pue


90I

'I.uoPsra Jo sluaurnuoru luerf,uE essq] qtl/K etruzJu?Inbrz ou p"r{ oqrd. esoLlt dq pernup? r{f,nw rale.\\or{ erJ.&\ drgl 'sa8es esaril Jo purw prelnur eqt o] qSnorqr pecrard 8ur-teq Jreq] o] ssaulllr J?eq sJIeI{t Jo spaap Jo sIJo/K snollelr?ur ou pue 'ruopsr"t learS srg] ef,uJrns aqr dpo paqtrno] pzq daqr regr s8ur}uzn rreq} Jo ^\or{s suurrddSg 'suzeplzq3 'suurpul eqt Jo 'snlsr8arusrrp 'tal,svotoT Jo s>loog 'salra1s,{ru teat8 Surureluof, slsruot?Icl puz sueero8

IUOHOC CTNY SNSTIf,YUViT

706

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

mofe frequently than Neoplatonic ones; his own priva nagta is predominantly mediaeval, and exttemely unorthodox. He then goes on, in a more kindly way I :

suspect that you (nflier),

a man who in my opinion is erudite

and

neither unskilled not silly, undertook this extremely rash attack on the

whole of antiquity out of fear of calumny. Thus did Marsilio Ficino, priest and physician, produce fruitlessly many mystical writings; from which late4 with regard both to religion and to medicine, he withheld his positive approval. I indeed, good men, forgive you, and fathef deplore the miserable state of this ignorant wodd . . .

1 Ibid.: "suspicor te calumniae metu, virum meo judicio eruditum nec inertem, nec insulsum contra omnem antiquitatem bellum profecto temetarium suscepisse. Sic Marsilius Ficinus sacerdos & medicus, multa sctipsit mystica infructuosd; in quibus postea tam in religione quim medicina suspendit assertionem. Ego verd (viti boni) vos excuso, quin potius seculi miseriam imperiti defleo . . ."

..'lunranloa If,IuotrEId sallsnflI Iu"Ba f,oq 'lse uPu?]s5Jd sePg oJlsou ouI3IC
r s

IS

POno,,

: E u pue' suu ru qzl r o u o rl sf, ur,;; o"t; t. :fj1;TH'.;: r:-:,nio ju, dT: ;1U: i a I 'IIIX "tolcl 'pa(/J urory uollsronb Euol) Vg, 'd '(senllr,r llnf,ro uo '('bas ZZt 'dd "utuo 'dd t'71I''tolrl 'loaqJ 'oulolg otr af,uereJar) SZ'd "|uatu1 aq 'tzzeuoduro4 z

"

'amrpa .ta1qap{ ///aJn/ u! ruptultd nnu 'tun1ttodzuot AXXX tzauo alao ''' 'uuaa1d n,t -ots%lsqo sndg'mEulltplupsul ap anq 't1snn wnn1ta.{a taw7J,qDu aq 'tzzeuoduro.l r

'gggl

ceeollszg

'0ZgI 'VZ dpf 'zuSolog :Prl?P sI renal dropnpollut s.tzzerroduro4 ' ''' aqowoS"tag orystCqrT olorot?rg orEalp9 ? t!!!oq$ Mqtnarq t!Pa!?V

ecnpord dlrcenpul uE3 ]l puz 'dpoq s(]uel]?d eqt ut pe:Uo aAI -lcefqns u dprerrp ernpoJd uzr uor]ure]lu sHI 'Pero]1" dllzar8 puz dpeppns eJ? sllrlds rleql rzgr seSBurI ro sProll\ aql dq Pelrojgs {1fue1or,r os eJE luanzd og}Jo puu Jot"redo el{tJo suor}uur3zrul oql ']uar]?d eqt pu? ro]?Jedo ei{} w r{}oq drrlnparc aro eruzlrodrur eq] uo stszqdrue wet? qlla ']urds dq Petlrursu"Jl 'aru7ou77aw1 sln eql sr 'suzursqz] ul SJelf,zJ"rll Jo Jo 'suollzJUsf,ul uI SPJo/K Jo renA.od aql Jo suorlzuuldxe elIJnoA"J s,tzzvvodtrrocl Jo ouo ']u?AeIaJJI oq lou IIIA slot{ tueq} Jo uoT}?ulur?x3 u? 's.oulf,Id ol asoll spedser oruos uI. ow Seuoeq] s;zzvuodtrlocl 'lelernoq 'ecutg '* szurnby sEIuoqI tsulz8z suzursqzl SwPueJaP ul {rFoi{lnv ve s? oulf,Id esn seoP eq q8noqt "2'2'A aC eql Jo clSzu oql ssnJSIp tou soop eq 'ssalaqlroleN 'z LIoIWurBurut er{} Jo raznod pctSuur eq} uo orlazpld otTo1oaql eq} ruoIJ e8zsszd 3uo1 z selonb pur oulf,rd pzeJ pvLI tzzvuoduro.l 'lartoeJol4 'rtnds s.rolzledo oqlJo ot"]s erllJo puz sa3uengul drelauuldJo of,uztrodurr IUJg etu?s aq} PuE 'sle8uz Jo suorueP oPnllxe o} gsyN aql ut aur?s eql 'stcegto prr8zur Swuluidxe uorln 'znogs deql '>1oo1]no 'e{eq (Jod 'cr8uur pcrqdosog{d }uoJe:glp elmb Jlaqt 3;o artds uI Iun}FIds ]q8nu ouo r{f,rqrtr
uerre puu'uolssnoslp PuU or pedxa r(lqeuosear s.ourordJo I?AoJddz q lrora. ? sl r snqluzlplupJal aC scr.zzuuodwo4

Eupzrodzrra stulds peJell" Jo rd.og erl] Jc suzelu dq sllage oAIlIsuEJ]

rzzyNodrr{od (Z)

x08

IV. SIXTEENTFI CENTURY

from the opetator, which influence the patient's spirit ot form visions in the air. To achieve these tesults the irnagination must be of a suitable nature or disposition, namely, in a state of receptivity due to credtrlity; the operator must believe whole-heartedly
in the efficacy of the words he is saying, and the patient tnust have complete faith in him and his spells-only thus rvill their imaginations, and thence their spirits and bodies, be transformed r. This explana.tion when applied to the subject of prayet comes very near to the theory of planet^ry m gic in the De T/.C.C., namely, aimed less at altering the planet, that the rites, invocations, etc. , ^re than at making the opefatof lnofe receptive to its influence. Pomponazzi, in discussing th.e case of a miraculous appatition of a saint to those who had successfuliy prayed to him to expell stofms, suggests that the spirits of the congfegation, stamped with the saint's image, ma)r have produced a simulachrum of him by impressing this irlage on the air, aheady made thick and retentive by the stofms. He remarks that pfaysls, if they afe to be efrective,
must come from the ciepths of the heart and be fetvent; for thus are the spirits more stronglv affected and more powerfui in their effect on matter-not in order that they may prevail upon the inteliigences (for these are entirely immutable), but in order that they [sc. the snirits] may be more moved; just as the spittle of an angry lrran or snake is more powerful than that of a man or snake who is not angrv 2.

must mean the minds that move the celestial spheres, as in ordinary Aristotelian terminology, and that Pomponazzi is perhaps thinking of Ficino's planetary rites. In any case, rve have here the cote of Ficino's theory of spiritual magic: the operators, hv their invocations, change tlLentse/ues, rather than the object to which the prayers are directed. PomPonaz1 Onc of the main sources of this emphasis on credulity is probably Pcter of Abano (Conciliator, Difs. 71,3, 735, 156), to rvhom Pomponazzi ftcquentiy ref'ers (e.g, De Incant., p. 85). 2 Pomponazzi, De Incant., p. 255: "LJt preces valeant, ab imo cordc debcnt
provenire, &
esse

I think that "intelligences"

ferventes ; quoniam sic spiritus melius afficiuntut, & supta matcriam

sunt validiorcs, rion ut flectant intelligentias (quoniam omnino sunt imrnutabiles) sed ut magis affi,ciantut: veluti sputum hominis irati, & sibilus serpentis cst potcntius quam hominis & serpentis non irati."

'Gy'd

z.rdns 'gr) srqr paruep 'asrnof, 3o Jlaswrq

ourtrrJ I
luullqzq
",

ontsodstp rolle.., 1a 'sr1uu1u vtavtcr auorl'r orlurodurre

,, ,.,*jl3J";':HfiJ;
'sry1r srqJaa

unb xe : slluuluzoazrd urznb \lzluvteetd al.rzd xa snurru uou

-apy welua.,'eqaa esse BsnEf, ur olnd

"',,:l-t6'dd

"|uotu| rg.

rfJ"i|ffia,
:

'sSurgt ur sraaod lurnluu eq] Jo esn dq (1)


((f,I8zlu

Ivtnlf|u,, elqrssod Jo sesssls urutu seJi{t seqsrnSupslp r.zzwodarod 'd1r1nperf, uo peszq Suraq su rr peuurepuof, el?q puz '* uorleluuf,ur Jo PuH B s? Sut8urs lurrSolorJsu s(ourtrrd pess"lf, oA"LI 'aro3;eraq] 'plnozn eq ! uorlzrolur Jo urudq Jo puH ,luv p to 'taf,vtd uzr+srn{J drzulpro Jo uorluuuldxa s;.zzrruoduJocl sE eluzs eq] sI slqJ
', tuanzd aq] uI uortrsodslp re]teq e puv 'rotzrado eql uorJ fstirrds go 'rs] uonzrodvle reluer8 z sawo) qt\eJ i{llqa urorJ lro}zrado aqr dq qtle; Suols aqr qSnorgr
se tuarled aqr dq r{f,nur s" plar{ 'splo.tr eqt ur

etuJedo oJoJOJOq] ]snur degr lorsnur lzruJouJo s]lega eql arnpord ]ur{} Suruzeur puz dlnzeq agr >If,?l suorls]u?f,ul 'f,lsnu Pu? sPJo.^A. Jo sssn g pu? v 3r{} ues^ueq 'sl tvql uon?]uzf,ul prr8zur v Jo osoq] puz drolzro Jo rlsnur Jo (cs]f,ette,, ,f,ivv1pJo eq] ueea,laq uoDf,urlsrp drzqs " se>lzur oH 'aldoad snolnpoJf, puz dps qrr.tr {ro.&\ dpo plnor puu trgr}uerf,sun sEiK lr ssnweq lnq 'cruoulep eq rqSnu ]I esn"fsq 'pnsn s?a. s? 'lou 'll Jo pelorddusrp dlarrnrsod r,{ esn?f,eq szzn cr8ulu s(ourJrd ssnf,srp ]ou prp lzzvuoduto4 dq.,rn uossal er{} }?q} elqrssod sr 11 'T pa^enlf,E oq sdz.lo.1e 1p.tr sladzrd slg Jo ruis puoses erJ] asnsf,eq tvtd ot enurluof, plnoqs reqdos -opqd z 'sua.tueq aqt Jo suorlnlo^eJ elqrxegur eq] q8noJr{} }no paIrJEf, Sureq sr pu" dllurale urory paxg dlqelnulur ueeq s"q [L\\ s.poC q8noqrp 'erogaraql 'JeAeu puof,os er{} 'pe}unsnry uoryo sI slur? esaqt Jo tsJg aLII 'snold eJoru Jleseuo e>luur o] 'puoras f lgeuaq IzuJelxe euros urctqo o1 '1srg : radzrd ur surrz elqlssod oalr 'tzzwodurocl o] SulpJof,ru 'elz alaqJ 'l"Jeue8 u uorSrleJ ot perlddu JI droeqr s(ourf,rd ur tueJaqur sre8uzp aqt dpzep saolls lvqt f,vm E vr. ntlvtd go droeqt lsrarlf,efqns eru?s eq] sa]zJoq?le tnq 'uoueruouaqd talnrnrd srql JoJ uorlzuzldxe sn{} slf,afer re1r1 \z

60t

IZZVNOcII IOd

110

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

(2) by use of the occult powers in things, (3) by use of the power of imagination (uis imaginatiua), acting on the spirit and blood of both operator and patient. of supreme (In all three, astrological affinities and timing ^re importance). Vhen discussing which, if any, of these kinds of magic should be allowed in a, well-run state, he permits, with sonre reservations, the practice of the first two, but condemns the third on the grounds that it necessarily involves supetstition, that is, excessivelv credulous belief in the Pourer of rvords and figures. This third kind is also unscienti{ic, because there is no way of knowing a priori r,vhich individuals will have a suitably (credulously) disposed imagination; no universal tules, therefore, can be established for its use 1. Pomponazzi, then, though he would perhaps have thought that Ficino's spiritual rnagic was efficacious and free from demons, wouid have thought it contemptible because it tested on credulity, and uninteresting because it could not be propedy scientific. If he himself believed in his own version of the astrological genesis of religions and religious symbols, he might also have condemned it as being out of date. r\ccording to this theory the cross and the name of Jesus, fot example, had pov/ef only because, fot a certain period, the stats were favourable to the growth of this nev/ religion and gave power to these symbols to produce mitacles, so that the religion might spread 2. On this view, Orphic hymns would be ineffective in a Christian er^; or, since it is the planets which control aII this, would planetary
hymns be permanently effective, in any eta? If, as is quite likely, Pomponazzi saw that Ficino's magic was really demonic, he would just have thought he '\I/as deluded. PomponazzT's whole treatise is an attempt to justify Aristotle's disbelief in demons or angeis. In the course of doing this he explains every kind of magic effect and matvellous event b), "natutal" causes, i.e. causes not involving direct divine, demonic

1 2

Pomponazzi, De fncant., pp. 79-86.

lbid., pp.302-370.

'Z9l 'd

"ryul

Jf,

.r-tyr 'L-g,dd '2761 'srty4 'soutoql ,ourg ,9,;8r1;::t;'$ ;t#;;";T;q"o3" uBA 'V ees i suurlrilzu pzq dq pF f,ruoruap qlra pef,npord lng 'salcz.lttu Euqqwesa.r zflzurelxe 'strue.re Isr.urouqs-+o ss'f, IIEr.us B
""tt".r# :f }:#rz:r;ff*il3::

'ptnuepr osr^tJeqto orea deql 1u.8evt latrrtwr dq raqlo egr puz uonrz eurllp dq pef,npoJd sun euo ]ng '1vat eJe^\ sluadras Jo stol qtoq 'r.zzevodurocl ot Sutprorcy 'n rrSzur uo srelrJA uuBSuLiJ JoJ ouo eluosalqnoJl v sdznlz 'sluedles .suzlcr8uru uzndd8g oql pu? s(uor"v Jo .{rols arl} selr8 oq 's}ua,ts r{f,ns Jo eldruzxa w sy 'suorwf,rldulT stT ur e^urnJlsep dlernua pu? r"lnf,JTf, sr trreurn8rz eqt 'dlFor{ln? srqt Jo dtiplul er{} a,rord o} sl selr"Jrlu Jo uorlf,uny drzurrld aql ef,urs '* lueur8pnf sH s]ltuqns dlqwng vzvttodtuocl r{rlr{rN ol 'qrrnq3 oqt pu" elqlg ar{} Jo drForllrr? aql uo d1a1os uer{t slseJ'Jou sr tzqa puz'elozrrlu ? sr wga lpasnzr 'd1sno1nrvil.w Jeqlo eqr 'llzrnt?u eq tq8rur ouo sluela Izf,Ttuepr o,r\] Jo tuqt '. eunsnSny puz szumby srruogl Jo drr -roqln" oql sturzll oq qr1{nN to3: '}uetunSre snorue8ul eq} pr?^&\JoJ slnd aq uo4)e[qo sn{} o] Jeasuz slr{ uI 'T s}ueuJetseg a.eN pu? puu pl6 aq] Jo self,Errru oq] w JeIIeq uo tseJ r{rlr{rN '.,tsug3 puz sasol{ Jo sa"l,, 3g} ,{ortsep plno/K degr t?r{} suonruzldxe sq o1 suonra[qo oq]Jo auo sz'a1du?xo JoJ'sarrrS oH']zeJq] srqtJo aJ?/KE ,(lloJ sl oq puz 'uol84er o] cr8uu l"Jntzu 3:o dloeq] eql Jo ]Earql egt turoJ oureJtxe u? uI sluesarde; snq] ep1 'dcuoSuz crleSuz ro
LLT
IZZYNOdI^IOcI

IV. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

(3) Pr.eroNrsrs Groncr. Tvano

& La BooERrE. Fanro Peor,rxr

am going no'w to discuss a few 16th centuty Platonists who can be said to be within the same philosophic tradition as Ficino and who might therefore provide a favourable climate of thought for the diffusion or developement of his magical theoties. Two of these, Diacceto and Agrippa, I have aheady dealt with, and in the next chapter. anothet, Champier, will ^PPIar Francesco Giorgi

of Francesco Giorgi, very like the theoreticfinds something a Venetian Franciscan, one aI framewotk on which Ficino's spiritual magic rests, but not the magic itself. There is not, as far as I knou/, any direct evidence of Giotgi's having detived his philosophy ftom the Florentines; but his constant use of Plotinus and the prisca tlteologia makes it likely, as do his frequent cabalistic analyses of Hebrew words in the manner of Pico 2. The reasons why this ftamework, in spite of its close resemblance to Ficino's, did not lead Giorgi to any kind of ptactical magic are, briefly, that his asttology is too Christian, his musical theoty too metaphorical, his conception of spirit too comprehensive and hence fluid. Giorgi's acceptance of astrological influences is quite as whole' hearted as Ficino's, with, of coutse, the same careful preservation of human free-will; the stars are the medium, the "governors", through which God rules the wodd 3. Basing himself mainly on

In the De Harmonia -hlundi Totius

(1,525) 1

Francisci Georgii Veneti h[inoritae Familiae De Harmonia Mandi Totius Cantica

p. 374. 3 Giorgi, op. cit.,

Tria, Yenetiis, 1525. ' E.g. Giorgi, op. cit.,

III, v, i, fo li vo (on Ruab); cf. Pico, Heptaplus, ed. Garin,


seq., fos

I, iii, vi

xliii vo seq.; III, i, viii

seq., fos viii ro seq..

.(r .rrr ,ouA

snqrununlo,r urunb / e.ro snllod salualdus rJea snqrnb ep / srinoruFup? ?p sqn8ar snlnur 'urnloage ua.ronzu8oc '[rrs] zrluapnotd anblz I tttt Tr :uer,uJoJuof, ?rnlzu aldzns sITII runrlJlds snrsdl rad owoq urpras3.rd :tunrufials tunr?rlg olnilla ?g 'nrFlds runf, Inurs / suarlnuq anuEuof, unsdr / snpunu snlol lrara (rrnbur sncr.roEzqtr(4 sniurta 1n) onb :ualzlra urzpuranb iunlFlds nd f rcwp snndpS.rd tse zrqtuatu v)llee) relur esdr ?g snrnJ : zlra srlzruruu ruzpunru arulssnod lse ep.ror w urunbuzl 'epzdurq zndnauld rpunu 'enbell elos uL, :xl oJ 'llll 'l 'UI ''t1r 'do 'r8torg I eurrss'od.,zrd'sns;::lTrT;X"TlT:'-LTl,':###:i;f ';i"',;t'.T,1i"T*

.u as) .bas ,* .i?"i f"

tt;f ,Ifil"

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,,' ' ' ula urefflnf,rgzd uruns enbrnorun lzls3.rd / eurlrp atrueur ur aeopr luns lonb / suautluor salzurtues seuorluJ tol 3nb 'lpunur euflve aluurperu (ourro14 lg [srrsaiaer srroazJ 'cs] snlsnzq Fb,, : or rrra oJ 'llT^ 'l 'III ''plql r

'ourclg ruory sof,ua8JalTp uwur aqt puz 'sallrn8rqruz uruur aql 'sesues esaq] w q urrs] eqt osn Dv! ur. seop rSrorg ', pedeauoJ aJu so3usnHur lErlsalss r{f,Trl/K ur runrpeu eq} ro (uEur trT s}rJrds pcrpeur 'sluzlles pue sJe8uessotu 's.uzJug sE suoruep Jo 's.poo s? slaSuu dlunbe s}g slLI} l sarueltxe oat uaaa}aq 'ltrtdg dloH er{} ilorN uor]srPern z sr sosn str ur uonou t?r{t 'prluef, eql lueusurtacl Jo ilu er{} uo suor}Brado Wqt sen8Ju '(a,.1) r{?n1 '11 tol pro^\ ^\eJqeH Jlls{uq?f, uiory Suluuts 'roalorg 'trrrds urJo} aq} Jo s8uruzeru elqlssod aq] uo uoissncsrp Surlseralw ]sow pu" 3uo1 E uI 's(ourf,Td ruory tuaJeJrP drerr szlo. sJ?]s Jo pu" trlrds Jo rltoq uondef,uof, s.r8rorg ]nq cr8zur l?nllrlds s(ourf,rd o] lqSrcrls p?al o] sruees sI{} 'tv| oS
f

', Sunrrrn w u?t{} qlnour Jo pro^\ dq raqrur tvart sa8zs enrl qrlqzn 3o 'spre pue selnr tluvut dq 'rq8rsloJ pu? uv f,q ueqt o1 uDIE arour ep?ru aq u?f, pue 'ruagt ol rzllrurs arntr?u su dq sr r{f,rq^\ 'trrrds u/Ko srq q8norqr srqt seop 'dlercedsa 'u2141 'srzts reqlo eqr Jo rernod pue trrrds eql

qtIA raqlaSol 'uI lI Sumzrp ,{lununuor 'salq plro/r\ elor{/!r egr (sdus snarrurl ueato8zq{4 aqr sz) qcryrn dq 'lurds pt1,r uFuac u q8norqr uns eq] dq palnqrnsrp sl oJII l?rlsalel sF{I 'z,,uE\ -rulos sr Jlesurq u?tu ef,urs 'uns oq] sr qlF{rtr sueaEar{ eq} Jo u?er.{ or{} ruory tuoqt s/K"Jp dgerqc eq 'suerrzaq or{} IIz ruory s}geueq selreJar uzru qBnorllp pu?,, IoJII lrnsaletr Jo aJluof, Jelqr er{} sr 'dpoq u?unq aq] w ]weq aq] a>lt1 'uns aql 'r..pulu outzrlp eq] uI szapr ow aJer{l su suos?al Izuruas duuu s? sul?luoo r{f,rq/K, 'plro.46. or{} Jo InoS eq} Jo su?eur dq sue,rzer{ eqt ruory sef,uongur elqzrnolz,! lcvrnv f,un aa. a\or{ surzldxo aq 'duelotcl puz snunolcl
CTT

r9uorc

774

IV. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

occur with man's spitit. For, although he also accepts this as meaning medical spirits or the Neoplatonic vehicle t, he prefers that it should mean the rational soul, taken as the mean between the lou'er, iuational soul and the mind or intellect 2. 'fhis moves it up a place in the ascending series: body, sor-rl or souls, mind . . ., and either makes it incorporeal or the soul corporeal, a drfficulty Giorgi cannot quite solve" It also makes sprrit a superfluous term, differing only from soui in being lltore atribiguous. unusually closely connected with The stars, fot Giorgi, ^re angels. He accepts of course as angeis the intelligences which move the celestiai spheres, and also associates the latter with the angelic choirs 3. \ff/hat is less usual is that, fot practical astrological purposes, his angels take over tl:le functions of planets. He recognizes the importance cf discovering u'hich planet dominates one's life; but considers that the usual method of doing this, by casting horoscopes, is too lengtl-ry, complicated and uncettain. He suggests, as dicl Ficino n, a shott-cut by means of observing one's own innate tenCencies, which u'ill indicate whether v/e are Jovial, Saturnian or whatnot. Giorgi thinks that these tendencies afe caused by one's guardian angel as rnuch as by one's dominant planet; the influences of the two are always in the same direction. \7e must, having removed ail hindrances, submit ourselves to our guiding spirit, which, if we do not resist, will show us the v/ay to which the heavens, ovr genias and the Supreme Ruler lead us 5.
Here "spirit" means man's spirit, and "genius" means guardian angel. The angels lead their Protdgds "in that direction tc which their star inclines them" u, that is, always towards goodness and 1 lbid., III, v, ii, fo lii vo; III, v, iv, fo liii vo. 2 lbid., III, v, iii, fo liii. 3 lbid., I, iii, vi, fo xliv; III, viii, ii, fo cvi; I iv, iv seq., fos lix vo seq. a Ficino, Op. Onn.,pp.566-7 (De Tr. V.,III, xxiii). 5 Giorgi, op. cit., III, i, ix, fo x: "breve arripiendum est iter f petcontando a nobis ipsis i quod a cglis facere nequimus. Quod quidem faciemus / si ammotis
impedimentis, submittamus nos spiritui / nostro duci / qui nobis non resistentibus demonstrabit iter, quo calum, quo genius / immo quo summus l\Ioderator conducit." 6 lbid.: "Sentit nam natura: & spiritus nostef cgii instinctum, atque favorem: sentit & genii proprii suadelas: quod unicuique datum est, a principio sug nativitatis:

'lllo*-l 'r 'I j(E) 'd 'rawuaootrJ t'bas o.t. xxxlf, so; "bas I.tx 'III,I ', "Jrii iJ;""* '(uo,a1op.sslz'os) reE'd '{,.'$ffi;Ji '1":i:g}[t3:.|1]:,{9,;$?,'".Iilj*",,1",
anulluoo tueool runllselef, zg 'runtua8 Erluoa 'onl oIuaEuI IS uJuN ' ' ' sof,IIuIuI soredns lg 'tarlues run13r 'rnboqy 'xrleJ learl ry / a.radsord ra8z 'suelluassu snqIUoIS -zns (.rnurenbol actloqlec tn) ttrdotd tla8uy yal 'rrua8 ry '.rn1t8r IISf ,, :'PIqI r

rH 'srJlzd

urnns 'snldarap srrep?ns sruorusp rr'ur rnz 'suqacallt srLI qu oruoq t#':IIXT;tl: anbrln raduras f wvtltur snpls snla ry onb / setuernp Q111 'lua.r.e; sllnluellf, slns luEU (ouede tnlalgo.rd euourJes uerf,EJ luepra ledures urnJoe rla8uy 'lIB ulnp selrraA slllqllleJul pas 'lunrassu slJlsou snqlJotf,op IUnf, IntuIS l3luotreld oPotu uou ln

o] slo8 Jeleu er{ '>1up1r I 'dq,tr sI sH} Puu froqduraru l?f,rsnur tss^ ? uo p3]f,nJlsuof, sr 'luoJ 1t13ra olw PePr^IP r{f,?e 'au4ua) aerq] Jo pesoduof, '{ooq elor{a s.r8ror-g peapul '* dltuanberS pue dlny wadde eseq] IlE-sllglualanusuf Pw oao///nI{ 'uuapunyy oqsal[ ueet\]eq dSopuu dra.ta 'uot]u]due]uof, snot8qer JoJ Inos eql Suuuderd ur efu?trodul Jreql puz Jrsnur Jo ((slf,ogte,, eq] 'sereqds aqt Jo f,rsnur eq] Jo tl4lvat eql "pue lv)\t)Erd rzpruls ? o] pzol tou op ]nq 's.oul3ld o] sef,uulqtuesar ,{uzlu aAEI{ seuoeql slg 'uwBv oreq i>1ooq s.r8rorg uI tJEd lu?uoduil u? sdzld rISnJ,{ 'sla8uz eurof,eq al?q sreuuld 18toyg JoJ l srauuld aulof,eq e^zl{ s1e3uz ulg Jod '. lzrtSoloJts? dlruap uIErueJ gtdo'td saaztl/aop ro sle8ue sp{ l sllnsar elrsoddo q}la 1nq 's1aur1d luzuituoP q}yN s1a8uz uzrprznS pegnuopl pztl ool oulf,Id 'dSolorrsz s.r8rot-g peqrosqu puz peurroJsuvtl szr{ drruzlrspq3 'uddrr8y rT}yN s? 'dlruzFsFq3 Sunzurluztuoc crSzru pur dSoloJtss jro p"etsul '8ulqr aurzs eqt af,uengul slauuld pu? sle8uz ]zrlt os '1nos puu ltrrds pe8reur szq lSroIC tng 'puFu ro Inos aq] uo sle8uz puu llrtds aql uo tlz plnoa steu?ld dlzuroNT 'uorsnJ slq] sdleq oslz lr.rtds ruJat er{} Jo esn opua. slH 'Ual sJItsIJOtf,v;.qJ rgneds ou sEL{ JO}}ul al{t }Bq} os 'd8o1oltS? srq qJosqz dlarnue uor8tleJ srq epuw s"rl rSrorg eruongur oqa8uz puv f,ivtauzld Jo uotr"f,Urluepl sFI dg 'luetulJedxe dq punoJ eg ol sr qrrg^ao. 'ut alrl o] eruld elgslrns z Jo ef,rogc ar{} puz '1nos puz dpoq Jo i{toq ssaurlurelf, : puSzru-uou pur tuef,ouur. aw rqa8uz puz lzltselef, eJoru Jlestutq e>lzur o] sl uzru rllILIrN ur slseSSns rSrotg sdzn eqp 'r of,ueJaJre]{ f,rloq"rp ulory lo 'uor}u urlrul rqeSrru pu" IBJ}sE etvrJvr. stqr SuusrseJ ruorJ dpo oruof, ssautddzqun pu? 1t^e f ssawddug
III
rcuorc

1,76

IV.
practical use

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

^fly music for him is as the source of a Yast, all-embtacing scheme of nrathematical analogies. Moreover, m fly of these analogies afe not truly mathemattcal, but numerologiczl, that is to say, he is
not showing that every part of the universe is constructed on the same complex system of proportions (those of musical intervals), but is collecting analogies between sets of things whose only manifest common characteristic is their numbet. The signs of the zodiac,for example, and the apostles must in some'walr be connected because there afe twelve of each; Giorgi then finds some characteristic in the Hebtew name of each apostle which resembles some characteristic of each sign of the zodtac 1. The starting-point of this analogy-making is the identity of number, and the further making of secon dary analogies is quite uncontfolled and unregulated; the apostles and signs do not coffespond in every fespect or in any regularly determined tespect. These analogies then lead
nowhere, either in theory ot practice. The knowledge that Matthew coffesponds to the Vat ercat:tlef in any old r,vay tells us nothing new about either, and suggests no pfactical operation. If, on the other hand, we knou'that the distances between the planets and their differences of motion correspond to the intervals of the scale and the proportions of musical consofraflces, we may, in theory, deduce the former from the latter, and, in practice, we may, by using similady proportioned music attf^ct the influence of certain planets, since such identities of pfopoftion afe physically active, as is proved by the symPathetic vibration of strings. Giorgi uses this wirksdme, opefative kind of analogy as well; but his frequent use of the idle, inoperative kind shows that in general he was not interested in analogies as instruments fot some further theorctical ot ptacttcal operations, but rvas collecting them because he liked them fot their o'wn sake and because they wefe evidence of an order in the univetse-the ordet of z dictionaf/, not that organic body. This idle, numerological kind of a building of

of celestial

music. The main importance of

^n

1 Giorgi, op. cit., II, vii, xii, fos cccxii seq.; the analogies afe mote than I have indicated, but no less arbitrary.

complex

'uopuol

'tustuorung

{o aEV aql u!

'bos 991 "bas 66 'dd'6161 saldtnt'trJ PJnltaq(frV 'nttto4lrll1 'U aos s

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'ru.roy1)

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srrerunu xe runluluotureH u:r.t rnb 'sngt.ra1e,r snsg [ppn1C ']s] all1 , :'ddy 'A ''pun7q gLt,'IA QZgt'PPnld tsurs8e ofioJodV) Z-1gV'16'aryta41 'ra9 'ra1de>1 I '0V6I'uaqru4Jg 'iA 'pg
z,

'rzdsr3 ?p {lfq uo6 'Pe 'a4.ta21 'sa7 '619I ",4 Uq!7 lPantr[ tal?aoulroH 'lc1da;4 '6-88I 'dd 'lz6l'uopuol 'sa37 alP7ttrf, ary {o t-rt1uo7,11 ar1.J. 'v8utzlnl{ ccq

Jequnu Jo dtnuapl aJEq z uela'ouo f,rlsllequ) v f,ilvrf,odse PuE 'trsruo1y1cl ef,uESSrcueU e toJ luql PoJequeueJ eq osl" lsnru 1I 'n (gunoy 'qtJ1'errupo) sot?uosuof, peJred earqr oql uo Puv(LZ'6't) snapllltJ eq] uI !pan/// I7t///up eql elnlllsuof lBtll selJas eq] Jo auo of,sef,ll?rd 's Jo rllJnqs uo P3s3q sI l{f,rq^\ 'aotuel l3 ?u8IA "lleP eql JoJ u8lsap sFI : Isf,Isntu lou '1zln1ra1rqf,rz 'la-taznoq 'eJa,4a. qrlr{rl 's11nsal 1wl:retd o} ruF{ PEel PIP seIS oleuv l?srSoloIelunu uT pu" I"f,Il"ua{}zur uI tseJelul s.t8rolg 'f1esre,tuo3 'LIoulluof, ur a^sq rSroig Puu eq q3lqa ',o saaozutl eq] uo dn r[nq paopana r?Jtsltlu eq] ueq] rcLllvt'f,Isnur lw\]Dvtd ol turtl sPsel lEql dJoer{} ]rJrds sF{ sl }t f s.r8rolC sE eal}"Jadoul su uaryo eru sroqdzleru puu sl uollsullslP slql serSolzus s(ourf,Td ']nf,-walf oo] esrnol Jo 'IIv W ereqa'duE pual o] ]u?elu tou eJ3.a s(PPnld PuE S.ISJOIC ieruatrs ol seuo lzopzurar{}?ru s.Ielcle>J 'rtSutu ot Pel s}ulds uztunq Pus Ief,rsilu ollulsol uee/Kleq selSoleu" s(ouIJIC 's uotutuof uI fllslJe]3z -wqJ luf,Ilzurel{}Btu leq}o ou Sullzq sualsds uee/Kleq Jeqrunu Jo drpuepl w uo dlareur Pes?q dlfsout oJe.4a, s.PPnld szeleqa. 'ruarualnszeu; Jo ]Iun ]uzlsuof, z Surlzq qsze surs]sds o-&u uaealeq uonlodord yo souo Jfzxe eJaa. serSolzu? u1$o slg ]"q] Surmoqs dq serSolouIsof, s(ppnld PUE slq uee/rleq esuaJeglP PlueruzPunJ eI{} dlrzelc lno palulod 'sar3 olr.uv lzf,rtrrueqtuur PuB l?f,Isntu elllzredo dlzolferoeql Jo esn eq] Jo eldruzxa vE sI z lPanIV sarlazl/lroH asoql\ 'raldey 'drnluer WLT eq] olur ile/rt Penulluof, PuE '., se8z -elppIur eqt ur uourtuof dleruerlxe 'aslnoo 3io 's?.tK dSopuz 3o LTI

rcuorc

118

V. SIXTEENTH

CENTURY

between two classes did indicate other resemblances between them, because the numbers themselves had a rich content accumulated by Pythago rean, Platonic and Christian speculation 1. Giotgi chose the number 3 as the basis for the design of his chutch not so much because it was a convenient integer for musical proportions', as because, it was the "frumero primo e divino", that is, the first true number after the N{onad beyond being and the infinite Dyad, and because it symbolized the Trinity 3. Thus 3 is obviously more suitable for a church than, SZl, 4, which would symbolize the elements and the corporeal wodd a. But the metaphysical content of these numbers is too rich and unsystematized to prevent the analogies drawn from them being to some degree arbitrary; 3 also symbolizes the dimensions of space or man's threefold soul, and 4 also means the Tetragrammaton of the Evangelists. In Giorgi, then, as in many of the Platonists who preceded and succeeded him, we have a mixture of both exact, possibly operative analogies, and of arbitrary, idle ones. There $ a parallel situation in the Neoplatonic and cabalistic exegesis of texts and anaLyses of languale, such as one fincls in Pico or Fabio Paolini 5. You have a significant whole, a text (or a musical scale) which can be analysed into still significant parts, words (or proporrions); then you go a stage further and try to find elements of the significance of the whole in single letters (or single notes, or the integers composing the proportions), where tn fact they do not exist 6. What is confusing for us is that the two kinds of analysis and analogy apper tangled up together. At one moment u/e are watch1 Cf. E. R. Curtius, Europriisclte Literatur end Lateinisches fuIittelalter, Betn, 1948, pp. 494 seq.. 2 Giorgi uses to exprcss his proportions the numbers, 3, 6,9, 12,27; he could obviously iust as well havc used 1, 2,3, 4,9. 3 Sec Wittkower, ibid. a Giorgi, Harmonia,I, iii, xii, fo 50. 5 Pico, Ifeptuplus, ed. Garin, p. 374; for Fabio Paolini v. infra p. 726. 6 Ironically Plato's Cratllus, which so carefully established the point I am trying to make, was used to support this cabaUstic analysis of language (cf. \Walker,"Prisca
Tlteologia

in France", p.

237).

"bes 97'dd 'tg6I 'srrz4 "S')I'N'f 'a1tys a7r1;g no arcazcJ 7a anbrnlq '.,ulrl,{ elrsJBN ep anbrqdrg tuzq3 a1,, 'e1cD.lu dru ees ourf,rd puu pJzsuog JoJ : tlst'uopuol 'f.tn7ua2 qlg t. a(l/ {o ntuapatV cltua,tg aqa 'sawa 'V 'C eas stuelue""Tni.Tt"#,

'89 'd '9y61 'loumof Fnqn,41 '.,sar3o1oqt,(1,q s.r11arFlog,, 'qcrrqurog

:
r

iB 33

sllrsryd 'sneqdrg sElK ]r Jo loqurds u ! orJepog zl ep eJ^?JOT o] puz 'du;apuov s.JI?g o] 'przsuog ,(1rze aqt ot uoruruoo sEA\ rur? slql 'n Suruzatu plrqdosolqd ro snor8rTor punoJoJd -to drraod qllar z rlsnru Sulrnpord-lroga .(11n;ra.tod elrun plnoqs qlir{a Suos aeu v afvet) o]--uoilnlo^sJ f,r]3od o^err{)E o} esuEJc uI " sldruallz luJeles oJO/K eroql spJuauo drnluer iitgl prtu eql ruoJC

-Io PuFi

alnpog r)7 ?u0 y,tar(1

'dlerrolou

peuw8

tI

]Er{.44,

dlqlqzrradsar ur

8urso1 dqaraqr 'snslarulucl puu eddrr8y Jo l?q] qtla dn paxul ro8 pzq rrSzu s(ouif,rC ,(rntuer ei.[] jto wvd rrlf,El er{} dq izqr raq -urerueJ oslu lsnur oA 'osn luJr]f,Erd ot puel lqSnu r{Jlqa sof,uangul pBsalef, Jo arueqtrs pelrulep 'asrce.rcJ .Luv tleiSau Jo ]snrtsrp o] puz 's,ollcl sz puH eruzs oq] Jo 'droeqt lzraua8 d1q3q z sp dpo dSolonsz elJesard or puel slsruolvld ro]"1 lnq : rueddear ]ou seop sle8uu Jo su?aul dq dSolonsz Jo uonvzr.uurlsuq] s.r8ror.9 'il" tu tl esn daql J1 'rrrrds ruJe] er{} Jo osn }raLI} uI ssouen8zl pue r{}pzeJq ourus ei{} puu 'sarSolzuv 1v)r1auror{}tsur Jo l?f,rsnur ear}zJadout ro3i

sseupuoJ eurus eq] oAuLI ruollt Jo tsotr\I 'ullq dq pef,uangul flq, -Jeprsuof, su.tA. droarli l?Jrsnu Jraq] JSnBf,aq puz 'slsluol?lcl Ja]EI eql qlra ssef,f,ns el]t{ os pzr{ rr8zru s(oullrd {,{^ suoszeJ ulvtu r8rorg uo erurl r{fnur os lueds eAug I

eqt segrldwexa

eLI esn?f,eq

.SI

aJaq] rzql tseSSns

uurunq eLI]

't\"

rrz3: ur tou saop eq pu" 'trrrds 3nusol puz 'llrrds peuJoJ dlurrsnru uee.4A.taq drqsuoltzler esolf,

dlrzrlncad z Sursoddns roJ spunorS duz polorueJ eq '1nos sn{ s" eru?s eqr rurds s(uzru 3ur1zu dq roy f pe4colq ss.&\ dzln s.lSrorg oo] eJeH 'droeqr ]rrrds-crsnru s(oulllC sI rr8zru Jo Jrsnur lzrllrzrd ol seJor{ds eqr yo ,(uoruJBr{ eq} urory spBel l?q} e}nor rar{}o eql 'tq8nogr Jo urun lngasodrnd puz dpepro uz otul PeuJn] suq ]I ]xeu eqt ]v f , salnr Surr;rqs qtIA aruz8 sseprlz uz 8ut

6w

rcuor9

720
theologus

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

and magus, powerful poet and musician. The theory behind these attempts hinged on two themes: the doctrine of the four Jarores, and a rvish to revive the emotional or ethical effects of ancient music. Though these themes have niany possible sources, there is no doubt that Ficino was for these Ftench poets an especially impotant one. These poetic revolutions are then in some measufe detived from Ficino's general views on music and poetry, but have only a slight connexion with his magic. The astrological aspect of his Oryhic singing has disappeared, or survived only as a metaphor, and in consequence we no longer find anything like a magic rtte, or any attempt to put "celestial" music into practice by way of planetary modes. The music-spirit theory also survives only vestigially t; so that all the specific characteristics of Ficintan magrc are gone, except the association of powerful teligious song with ancient hymns and the prisci theologi who wrote them. The tu/o chief theoreticians of these movements, Tyard and La Boderie, also ou/e much to Giorgi 2. It is more from him than from Ficino that they take their huge collections of musico-mathematical analogies. As with Giorgi, these anaiogies remain inoperative, in spite of the fact that Tyard and La Boderie are, unlike him, interested in ptactical music. Such analogies could have hacl operative connexion with ^n their pnctical aims only b)' *^y of astrology and Ficino's iinking of cosmic spirit, musicaily moved afu and man's spirit. With only a highly generaltzed astrology and no linking sprrits, rztusica mttndana, humana and instruntentalis fall apzrt in practice and renrain theoretically connected only by bare numbers and proportions. Pontus de Tyard's trvo dialogues on poetry and music, the Solitaire Prenier (1552) and the Sotitaire Second (1555), give us the fullest account 3 of the aims of the early Pldiade and foreshadou' those of Baif's Academy. Tyard writes much on music as a 1 Cf. supra p. 27. 2 See France Yates, op. cit., pp. 43, 88, 91 seq.. La Boderie published a Ftench
ttanslation of Giorgi's book (L'Harmonie du h[onde..., Paris, 1579), s Thete is a similar account bv a lesser known Platonist, Louis Le Caron, in his Dialogues, Paris, 1556, fos 127 seq., Dial.4. "Ronsard Ou, de la Poesie"; cf. ibid., fo 126 vo, on the effects of music.

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'grrlpnbuuJl asnelllalJaul eun ue urcurnr{ luoulapue}ue.I elalsa ef,u?s -srouSoo q ianbnp '.alq ( a?tueqf, e8uenol EI tuapuelua sanbruo]Eld sel tvd'aI8eW q ap seruwf, sal eprc rnel p 91adde ]uo sun seT

: I s>lJ?ureJ eq 'seu1rr)vJ dl1poq puz Iutuau SutsruourJ?L{ Jo spoqtaw snoIJEA Surssncsrp ur-elSzur cruoluldoeN o] aoueJeJar luns"f, auo dpo surctuof, rlrTr{^\ }nq 'oJII dqllzeq puu 3uo1 z Suuolqf,s uI rlsnur Jo osn eq] : pUA !t!/dyJ ae oqt So snafqns ulzur otl] Jo euo uo sr qrrr{1n 'puotag ar!p4/05 erl} Jo uonf,as Suruado aq} urorJ rzelf, sI sF{I 'cr8zru q}yy\ op or Surqrduu crsntu pourroJer srq suq roN ' ftlwoJ s]r ur e^e{eq ua^a tou seop eg f sarSolsuE e^rwJof,sP Jo n uoDf,ellot v pwt{.I JoJ sr f,rsnru l?]}seie] 'seretlds eq} Jo f,rsnru eq} puz 'uzur uo slf,ege slt 'f,Isntu peurJoJeJ sII{l ueaa}eq uolxeuuof, ou se>leur oq 'n saouengur I?Jts" Jo ,fi{zar eqt uT pelerlaq eq q8noqllvpw'rauaunrl 6?ouppunul oJlstlu/ uo suorlras 3uo1 szq przdl

's (6eurz(p JueuressIAEJ elgzrlrerr ufl,, arnpord q8noqrp 'ln$ 'z f,rsnru lo3: dgelceds uo]trJ^\ esJea paurdqr ro 'druapzcv s._II?g ur s? 'anb4ua,1 ? sryllsaul tJat, rcqlle dnaod aqt pu"

lrar Suos qf,ns

'clpouoru eg ol sr Jrsnur aql 'sJo]EroqBIIoJ asolr Jo Izf,rluepl eq ot atv usrf,rsnur puz l30cl 'drmbnue Jo Ispour eq] uo srsnu pu? lrraod r{f,uoJd Jo uon?urroJeJ ar{l JoJ puzruep e ot dn speel slql ', sa"to"m{ 'snor8rlar 'raqlo aq} ol uo sszd u?f, lr ef,ueql\ '3uos 3o su?our dq trrrt snoruourftqz, o] Inos oql aonper o] sr. sru4aod nn{ aql Jo uonf,unJ agl 'uonzldualuof, snor8qel ol uouuwdetd
lzT
gIUgCOg YT CTNY ctUYII

722

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

He mentions in his

n/Iantice, a dialogue

on divinatory astrologl,

that he had, when young, tried unsuccessfuly many kinds of magic, apparently demonic kinds 1; perhaps these had frightened him. Tyard's proposals for a reformation of song do not mention Orphic or other ancient hymns. But one m y suppose he approved of Ronsard's intention of being an "Orphic" poet 2, and later of La Boderie's 3. In his Mantice he quotes some lines from Ronsard's Hyntne des Astres a and compares him to Orpheus, whose I{ymns he interprets as veiled astrolop;y 5. In his .f econd Carieax, where great use is made of the prisca theo/ogia, he quotes extracts fronr three prayers in the f{erntetica 6, and exclaims: "Que peut on, je vous prie, choisir en David mesmes, de plus pieux, reverend & religieux"? t Still more than in Tyard one would expect to find Ficinian magic in the works of Guy Lefdvre de la Boderie. This learndd French poet 'was a great admirer of the writings of botkr Orpheus and Ficinos; he frequently introduced paraphrases of Orphica into his own poems, and he published translations of the De Triplici L'ita and other works of Ficino e. He does in fact describe something like Ficino's astrological music in his Galliade (1,578). The general theme of the Galliade is that the Bards of ancient Gaul w.ere the original source of all good music, poetry and phiiosophy. It was Bardus, the Gaulish king who instituted the otder of the Bards, who first explained the harmonic composition of the Soul of the Vor1d, as later expounded in the Tiruaeas, and who
enseignoit ia pratique D'attiter icy bas Ia celeste Musique
10.

1 2

1914, VIII,246).

Tyard, ibid., fo 191 vc.r. Ronsard, Hlnne de l'Eternili (Oeuares compliles, ed.

crit. Laumonnier, Paris,

[nst.,1954, pp. 226-8. e V. ibid., p. 207 note (7).

3 V. infn p. 125. a Ronsard, Oeturet contpl., ed. cit., VIII, 150 seq,. 5 'Iyard, ibid., fo 169 vo. 6 Herruetica, ed. Nock & Festugidre,I. TT-79; II, 208, 353-4. 7 Tvard, ibid., fos 315 vo-316 ro. 8 See D. P. Walker, "Pritca 7-heologia in France",Joarnal of l%arbarg and Courtauld
Galliade, Patis,1578, fo 78 vo.

10 La Boderie, La

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gIUgCOg YT CTNY CI'I{YII

ezt

724

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Sous le bal du grand Ciel, qui

voit avec tant d'yeux

F,t d'Astres tournoyans au son melodieux De la Lyre ) Ph6bus, Qui meine en rond leur dance Et les fait arriver par nombre ) la cadence.

After this plan etary music La Bodetie tecommends the songs of David, and teaches the climax of his poetic -furor with 1:
Sus sus, Psalterion, sus, sus, 6 Harpe encofe, Tost tost resveillez-vous, j'esveilleray l'Aurore: Il me plaist, il me plaist or' le pas avancer, Et d'un sault redoubl6 devant l'Arche dancer, Et par un Avant-jeu vous monstrer par exemple Comme on doit louer Dieu dedans son sacr6 Temple

2.

Then, aftet a lot mofe reminiscences of the Psalms, we have song from a singer rnore ancient than David-a prayer of Hermes
Trismegistus
3.

Is this afl attempt to revive Ficino's astrological music,

his

Orphic singing, to institute the general use of his magic in order to save F-rance ftoni her internecine conflicts? The answef ls not a simple one. The connexion here between astrology and music is, I think, a metaphysical metaphor or analogy, as it normallv u/as in musical theory before and aftet Ficino; that is to sa/r La Boderie is talking about underlying principles of harmonv and proportion which, on a high level of genetahty, are the causes both of the order of the heavens and of musical consonance, but he is not talking about cornbining practical astrologv with practical music. This is clearer ftom the full context of the passages I have quoted, whete he heaps up every possible correspondence between microcosm, macrocosm and music; La Boderie, like Giorgi, is using inoperative, mainly numetological sure that he is seriously analogies. On the other hand, I ^m a proposing the public use of a new saiutary kind of music and 1 lbid., fo 103. 2 Psalms, lvii, 8; cvlli,2; cl. 3 Hermetica, ed, cit., II, 207-8 (Ifunn of Regeneralion); La Boderie, Galliade, fos 104 vo-105 vo. a The Galliade is an entirely serious poeln in spite of the preposterous history
of culture which is its main
of Ronsardian fareur
(see \Walket,

theme, and in spite of La Boderie's frequent outbursts "Pr. Theol. in France", p. 216 note 9).

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orqdrg s(oulf,Id urory po^rrop dprzd tsuel tv sI qtlg,o ',{r1el;


9Zr
AIUSCIOg YT CINY CTUYIJ.

126

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

practical astrological aims. Secondly, wheteas Ficino's maglc u/as a prrvz;te affatt, confined to the circle of Lorenzo, and not fully or openly described in his published works, La Boderie was proPosing a kind of public magic-the efrects of his Orphic and Davidic music are going to pacify and unite the French people. The idea of using musical effects for the public good is of coufse akeady in one of the main soufces of musical humanisntPlato. In La Boderie's case it was ptobably also suggested or reinfotced by the aims and actrvities of Baif's Academl; Baif's and Le Jeune's Pseaarnes en Vers -A,fesareq'were composed with the same intentions as La Rodede's Hyrunes Ecc/esiastiqaes 1. It Seems mofeover almost cettain that, as Nliss Yates has so convincingly atgued ', we have in the Baif-Le Jeune music for the exampie of public m rr^ge of the Duc de Joyeuse (1581) ^n magic using not only the efrects of music but also practical asttology.
Faltio Paolini and tlte Accadentia degli Llranici
1589 Fabio Paolini, a ptofessor of Greek at Venice, published a large volurrre, entitled Hebdomades', which is a commentaf|,

In

divided into seven Books, each containing seven chapters, ofl one line of Vetgil a: Obloquitut [sc. Otpheus] numeris sePtem discrimina vocum. The commentary, though discutsive, is built round two themes: Orpheus in all his possible aspects and the number seven in all its possible meanings. In the coufse of developing and interconnecting these themes, Paolini presents, with rematkable completeness, not only the theory of Ficino's magic, but also the whole complex of theories of which it is a pafi: the Neoplatonic
1 See Frances Yates, Tlte Frenclt Academies of the 76th centurl, London, 7947, pp. 70-72, 209-21.0. 2 Frances Yates, "Poisie et musique dans les "I{agnificences" au rnariage du duc de Joyeuse, Paris, 1581", in AIusique et Podsie au XVIe siicle (Cc)loques Intetnat. du C.N.R.S.), Paris, 1954, pp. 247 seq.. 3 Fabii Paulini (Jtinensis Pltilosopbi, -Et Graecas literas Venetijs proftentiq I{EBDOMADES,
siue Septem de |'eptenario 646,

libri, Habiti in

(lranicoram Academia

In

anius

Vergilrj aersur explicatione. Ad serenits. Venetae Reip. Collegiurn, Yenetijs, 1589.

a Vergil, Aeneid,VI,

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LZI ISINYUN '!IHI CTNY INIAOYd

1,28

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

interests in Greek and Latin literature 1, especially rhetoric and philosophy, he v/as a serious student of musical theory 2; he was a friend of Zarhno, from whom he borrowed unpublished Greek manuscripts on music 3. The ,4ccademia degli (Jranici began in 7587 a; it seems likely that it had ceased to exist sometime before 7593, when Paolini became one of the nine founders of the Seconda Accadernia Veneqianas. The impresa of the (Jranici was a representation of the eighth sphere, with the motto "Mens agitat molem" 6. It was officially recognized by the Signoria of Venice, and among its members were philosophets, theologians, jurists, historians, orators, ambassadots t, and marLy of the Venetian nobility 8. The inaugural oration, on happiness or the supreme good of marr, was given by a well-known Franciscan preacher, Faustino Tasso, on the 10th of June 7587, and was published in the same yer s. In this oration there is no mention of Paolini or of where 1 He was keen that Gteek and Latin should be learnt together, and published,
for
paedagogic purposes, a collection of fables, each with a woodcut and his own Greek and Latin verscs (Centam Fabulae ex Antiquis Scriptoribus acceptae, Et Craecis, I-atinisque Tetrasticbis Senarijs explicatae d Fabio Paalino Utinensi. Gabriae Graeci fabula, Masaei Leander d2 Hero, Galeomlomacltia Incerti, $tbillac I/alicinium de Judicio Cbristi, Batrachomlomacbia Homeri, Ab eodem lalinis uersibus i graecis cznuersa, Venetiis, 1587); He also published one of his public Lectures, De Graecis Literis cum Latinis Conjungendis, Fabii Paulini Oratio, Venetiis, 1586. 2 In Lib. II of the Hebd., which is on music, he cites: Zatlino, Vicentino, Guido Aretino, Ptolemy, N{artianus Czpella, Boethius, Plutarch, and of course Piato and

Aristotle. 3 Zatlino lent him Greek mss. of: Aristoxenus, Alipius, Briennius (see f{ebd., pp. 62, 175). He mentions (ibid., p. 274) going in a gondola, rx'ith Parthenio, Fabtitio Cechono and Laurentio N{assa, to dine with ZarIino. a Faustino Tasso in his inaugural oration (v. infra note (9)) implies (pp. 8-9) that there have already been sessions of the academy. Paolini, writing in 1587 (Hebd., pp. 4-5), speaks of the "incunabula hujus nostrae nascentis Academiolae". 5 See Tiraboschi, op. cit., VII, 178. I have found no publications of the academy
later than 1589.

sunt ascripti".

6 See Paolini, Hebd., p. 7241' F. Tasso, Oratione della Felicitd, p. 50, 7 Rotta, Oratione (v. infra p, 129 note (2)), fo 1, gives this list. 8 Paolini, Hebd., Ded., "multique ex Venetae nobilitate in ea [sc. Academia] s
Oratione della Felicit) e del sonmo bene, Del R. P. Faustino Tasso de Minori Osseruanti, composta, e publicanente recitata in Vinetia nell'Academia d'(Jranici il giorno decimo Giugno l'anno 1587. Al Sereniss. Principe Pasqual Cigogna, et lllustriss. Signoria di

Da lui

di

Vinetia, Vinetia, /587. On Tasso, cf. F. Giovanni degli Agostini, Notiqie Istoricocritiche intorno la uita, e le opere degli Scrittori Vini{ani, Yinetia, 7754, II, 509 seq., and Nfaylender, Storia delle Accademie d'Italia, Bologna, 1930, V, 4L2-3.

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If,INYUN EHI ONY INITOYd

r30

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Tirere was perhaps some ciash betu'een these divergent views on the iine the academy rvas to follow; Rotta's oration ends with a long plea for concorC and unity among the members, and with hints that the little nerv-born academy rl'ray die in infancy, if these pieas ate disregarded 1. R.otta irimself is much closer to Paolini's outlook. 'I'he main theme of his oration is tnan as the irnage of God, especially the Augustinian reflection of the Trinity in man's 2; soui, shown in the thteefcrlci utity of' memory, intellect and will but he aiso develops the tirente of the niictocosm with quite Pico-like enthusiasm. In the coufse of doing so he shows ar:. untroubieci acceptance of the equation between the Piatonic inteliiglbie r,vorld ancl the Christian \Tord, anC of its connexion througtr the heavens with t-he sensible u'orld; rnan, as the linii betu'een Go.l anci tire iorver creation, also contains tlris mediating ceiestial worii, as is shor,vn by the pianetaty correspondences rvitirin him, and bl' tire meanings of the letters aleph (divinity), daletlt (cciestial n:rtute) and ruett (corporeal corruptibility) in the name uf tire fitst man'j. "Ihis discourse would irave prepared the Acacierr;icians f,r;r tire fuii blast of .lJaolini's seven times seven orations on Orpheus and the number seven, which he gave in the sarne year. It also sirorvs that the liking for Neopiatonic occultism was not confined to Paolini; indeed, that it was Predominanr in the v.hoie academy, is of course indicated by the clroice ol' the mofto "mens agLtat molem", with its strong associations wi th Neoplatonic cosmology. lraolini's f.febtiontades as a whole deals with themes closeiy connectecl rvirir Neopiatonic magic, but the focal point of his ideas on magic is a lons discussion of the "effects" of Orpheus' rnusic: hor,v could Orpheus' music produce manifest efrects not only on nlerr and animals, but also on rocks and stones and trees ? This problem carne up during one of the sessions of the academy u'hen Paolini wa.s about halfway through his coutse of lectures.
I ilcrtta, ()ratione, ios 21-23. 2 lbid., fos 1i vct-17 vo; cf. Augustinc, De l"rinitate,Llb. X, il{igne, Pat, Lat,,
T:. 42, cr,ls. 971 scq.. 3 Rotta, Oratione, fos 5

vo, 7 vo-9, 11 vo (citation of Pico's lfeptuplat).

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Ltl

ISINY'UN gHJ. CTNY INITOYd

132

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

he is going to talk on Platonic principles and that, though these are close to Christian ones, thete are howevef some discrepancies, r; by rvhich his audience must take care not to be misled and at intervals throughout the discussion he notes in parentheses that this or that kind of magic is condemned by Christian theologians as demonic. These warnings and cautionary statements afe significant of the impoftance for him of the topic because they appeaf nowhere else in the book, although in many places his presentation of unorthodox Neoplatonic or magical thecr:ies 2. would lead one to expect thetn The condemnations of magical practices are inserted in such a \il/a)r as to make it evident that Paolini records them reluctantly; he nevef gives the arguments t in favour of the condemnation (i... rvhy a cettain kind of magic canflot be natutal and must be demonic), but he does sometimes himseif afgue against it. \7hen discussing talisrnans, for example, which afe the fourth of the seven \Mays in which Orplieus could a: have attracted rocks and trees, he begins that figures are verv suited for calling down the power of the heavenlv bodies the writings of all the ancient Phiiosophers testify (although we, who revefence truth, believe, v'ith the Theologians, that these afe mefe
nonsense and dreams) . .
.

talismans, and goes on 5, to Peter of Abano's medical anlulets, to the Neoplatonists and finally arrives at the ,Asc/epius statues animated by hetbs, stones and celestial music 6, "which howevef it is impious to believe, for 1 paolini, fJebd., pp. 184-5: "in Platonica pcnctralia confugicndum, quac licet
sint parum A nostfa plcrumque rcligionc dissentattea, interdum tamen parunl congrrr.rnt . . . pracfhnclum mihi iudicavi, & prolitcndum me scmpcr Platonicc locututum, L dirp.r,"rr,li, sivc proludendi tamcn gratia"; Platonic vie u's must bc acccptcd onlv in so f"r as they "gr"" u,ith Christianity, "in rcliquis fabulosa omnia existimanda, & quasi Poctica, .rcl saltcm Piribsophorum son-li-)il, & cgo srllcruri ista prqmissa

He then quotes Albertus' approval of

profcssionc aggrediar . . ." 2 Itaolini's ,1rl Leclorem ends srith a conventional subniission to theological ccnsurc, if hc has said anything not "pietati Christiang consentaneum", but hc does

not think he has. 3 This u'as rvhat annoyed Dcl Rio, cf. infta p. 183. a Paolini, FIebeJ., pp.207-8: "Quod auteln {igurae aptissimae csscnt ad cqlcstium vim clcvocandam, omnium vctcrum Philosophorum scripta testantur (licct nos vcritatis cultorcs mcfas esse nugas cum T'hcologis, ck somnia crcdamus) . . '"

5 lbid., p. 208. 6 \/. supra p. 40.

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IfINIYUN gHT CTNY INITOYd

134

I\T. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

divine good chance, as Andromachus had discovered the t/teriaca (an antidote against snake-bites) 1. Paolini expands "divine good chance" into "u'ith divine help and command", and adds: For rw-hen in any sreat matter, necessafy of extremei,v useful to the lrnman tace, man has worked as hard as he can to a.chieve his aim, what still remains to perfect it, God Himself accomplishes and, as it
were, clonates
2.

This gives a divine otigin and approval to the planetary music, and an importance for humanity, which Ficino had nevet claimed for it. The whole theoretical basis fot the rnagic is also fully expounded: the harmony of the spheres, the cosmic spirit, sympathetic vibration. But Paolini is less careful and consistent than the Fici.no of the De I'.C'.C. in confining direct ceiestial influence to malr's spirit; incleed, except rvhere he is quoting verbatiin from Ficino, it is for him the rational soul u'hich draws in the cosmic spirit and receives its celestial benefits 3. Ife puts more ernphasis than Ficino on the provocation b1. music of greatet planetary influxes, and considerablv less on the subjective pfepafation of the spirit and making it receptive to influxes a. Moteover, Paolini's rnagic aims even higher than the stars; he hopes for miraculous trrelp from the aninta ntanr/i. As it is the oPefator's
soul or nrind, not just his spirit, that is to benefit, so the operation is to atttact not merelv cosmic ot astral spirit, but the cosmic soul or the ideas in it; by this inspitation man r,vill be able to accomplislr. marvellous works that r,vould be impossible with t \'. supra p. 15 note 4. 2 Paolini, I{ehd., p. 199; Ficino's "divina quadam s<)rtc" becomcs "divina etiam ope, & flutu"; Paolini goes olt: "cum nam in aliqua re pracciara, & humano
gencri nccessaria, sive pcrutili, quantam in ipso est, dedcrit operam homo, ut conficiat rem, quod restat ad perfectionem l)cus Opt. Nfa.x. absolvit, & quasi elargitut . . ." 3 Paolini, t{ebd., pp. 2A24: "hic autem spiritus [sc. mundi] ab anima rationali

facillimc suscipitur, & hauritur, ut ex Plotini doctrina Nlarsilius affirmat . . ,";

(attracting cosmic spirit by the use of material obf ccts) "multo magis anima rationalis, qurre magis cst illi fsc. animae mundi] consentanca, & majorem mundani spiritus copiam haurire diversis rationibus potest." 4 lbiC., p. 200, Paolini sumnrarizes two passages rvhere lricino suggests that the rnusic will provoke a grezrter influx from the planct by making it vibrate in sympathy (Op. Onn., pp. 563-4) and u'hich in tl-rcir originai context are quite inconspicuous.

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ffi :: (',f :l""t i,;'r3T:";l'*?x$.'r.,

slr{} ur -,t\olloJ ar{t }nq ! uddrrliy all3 :rele aLI s.?oP Jou snrureqtrJl otuuu ]ou saop lurlozcT 'st3oga (sner{dJo Jo uol}zuu1dra elqrssod Jeqlous s3 suolsuf,3o o,\u uo seqlJf,seP 3q r{lF{rt Puz rr8uu S(ouIJId Jo uolldefuof SIu Pelzulul?]uof, seq qligla. 3r3?Lu uurruoll]lJl '>lullll I 'sl ty'uanVdatSouaflaTg eLTl Jo slaJfos ei{} sPuuls -Jopun eq teLI] selerleq PU? '* sla8uz tttr.l;euvld uo esl]"eeJ] slq Puu '. sral]e1 STrl tuory satonb eq : snftueq]ul J:o JaJIuIPU uE szia. Iu{oucl 'sliJrds eqt Jo uollrpuor dqllueq v lv ]sn[ ]ou 'la.trod Puz e8Pal (s]53ueq *ra.ou>l Fnllslls]ul lY slnls qliLIrN f,I8Btu eq] l?sJe^run w 'vIe?e Traop puu srzls atT] o] dn tuallt Surpues dq slq8norl] Jo suorssllusu?J] eg] '{luulProuJlxe Sutqreluos oP ol s}lrlds Jo sleSuu ,{rz1euu1d laduloc tlflrI.Ar suol}zf,olur eq}-sJall}o Puz snsle)ewd 'zidrr8y 'snnueqlTJJ Jo rr8slu aq] 'cl8uul l"ef,rSoloJlsz Iu^e?IPeIu Jo IEAIAOJ eq] SaII s(IuIIo"d Pu? ourlJ S(oulf,Id ueaaleq 'rarroerotrtg 's8urtrr-,n Jeqto s(ouIJIC Jo f,r8zur f,IuotusP eLil qllrtr '.)'2'A aQ 3ql Jo sef,Ilf,eJcl ei{} Peulquros suq eH 'Puodsq Pu? sIsls eql ol dn qrzar deql puu Inos IEuoIIEJ aqt ol pa]f,aJlp eJE f,I8?u srq Jo stf,etre eqt :]urds or{t o} pou5uof, {11nyerur Pu" eal}rafqns dplzur re8uol ou cuer{} os, clSeru lun}Trlds s(ouI3IC Jo uoISJeA s(IuIIo?cI 'r lpufitu qu//t/e eq] Jio dlt,{ 3Li} lnoqllA Polueaul ueaq (PJ?tl uI uollor.u e^"r{ Ja^eu p1no3 s>ltrol3-slEuelEur luvru?Ivl3J IzntedJad dpueu Surtnpord s? qf,ns 'slarnod IEJn]zu urno slq

(uol}3aul-roJ

sel

IfINYUN AI{J. CINY ]NITOYd

1,36

IV.
1:

SIXTE,ENTI{ CENTURY
tcr

ing operation is clearly the same magic that Agripp, ascribed


Trithemius

Some people assert that the feelings anr-l conceptions of our souls can by the force of the imagination be rendered volatile and corporeal, so that, in accordance with their quality, they can be carried up tcr certain stars and planets (e.g. Jovial thoughts to Jupiter), and, affected

and strengthened by the power of the planet, they again to us and will obey us in whateverwe want 2.

will

come down
asks

After the second description of this operatioll Paolini


whethet

implies that the stars must have sense, ntemory and 3. chcrice, "in orde r to carrJr out fot men such pfayefs (uottr)" I{e finds the ansrvet in Piotinus or Ficino's Comlnelltafy on him a: flo, this operation can be accountecl for by the "vital energy flowing frorn the living limbs of the world into everything, but more copiously into those things r,vhich have been made more receptive by the ptaycu (uotunt) and other suitable acts"; or perhaps the "intellectual sottls" of the planets rnay heat the prayers and grant thenr 5. From this it appears that tire operation involves a pra)rer to the planet or its angel, by which the operator's imagination becomes receptive to that planet's influence and is enabiecl to solidify and project thor-rgbts up to the stars. The operation also requires a talisman, or some image of the planet; for Paolini goes on:
I V. supra p. 88. 2 I have cc.rnflatcC tlrc trvo dcscriptions: Paolini, Ilebcl., pp. 206-T, "traduntque nonnulli, & asscrunt animi nostri scnsus, conccptirruesque reddi posse volatiles, cofporcosque vi in-raginatic,rnis, sosque pro sui quaiitatc ad sidera, & planetas fcrri, qui rursus planetarum virtute aff'ccti, & corroborati dcsccndant nobis obsecuturi in
his, quq volulTrus"; ibid., pp. 21,6-7, "volunt vehcmcntes animae nostfae motus, & desiderium, pcr conlmunem munCi vitam, atquc animatn ubique vigentem diffusa, ad ipsa mundi nunrina percluci, r'icissimquc horum numinum motus pef eandcm animam, etque r,'itam ad nos ttahi, vel ex ea rationc qua diximus in Astrologia, quod scilicet anirni sensus quidam putant redd: imaginatiotrc c()rporeos, & aligcros, & ad planetas cvolantes, pro suo quosdam ordinc, ncmpc Joviales ad Jovem, corum afi3ci potestate, & ad nos reverti obsccuturos ad omnia." 3 lbid., p.2I7: "ut vota hujusmodi hominibus pcr{iciant". a Plotiuus, I:t:tt.,lV, iv, 42;Iticino, Op. Orun., p. 1748; cf. rnfra p. 165. 5 Paolini, Flebd.,p.277, "Vitalis vigot... ex vivis mundi mcmbris... dcrir.atur in omnia, ubcrius in ca, quae ad accipicndum aptiora fucrint facta per votum, & alia convenientia"; tire "intellectuales anilnae", carrying out the etefnal decrees of God, may "consulefe rcbus humanis, & supplicum prcccs audite . . .".

it

'ttuoJJatttTy

'Z-lV6l

qstpug'.,crsn11Jo esr'rcl ur surrod qsrl'ug

',ilarrtay

.JJ :26 ,d ,.pqtH .lur1oz.1 Jllttry '..uJsruurunH I"llsnIT,, .te11z4X"*Jf-ul"';;;J*frt$" I

'o

o"

.r".rrr ,.,!qcr.r,o a61) eddrny 'lo,\ 'gZ8I 'sl.lz4 '9tla;q 'g 'S 'pe ^qnropz:Ji:lJ,ltJ,l'it",T.:f:ir;:et;T1i1;i "uutg .dO) 'Xt zun1nt.rt{g.seulnby seruor{I z '('lo/rl rrt 'uuto7) B7LI 'd ''utug 'd.6 'orrrtlg ruo.rJ ua>l"t sr osnult lsul arII ((. . . LlrzuJcllduras ]uuf,np ulnf,3s rualclttlad ul ?rea sce 't11ed 1al 'lqz.rl srulrltutu tsznb sl:llicLu ?g s(trgr.rczs
r.unJoe es scluo8rig

ln 'lun.rclnllr

snqruoruSp srluul sauorsc33o .scluelsez.ld urnJzllels

snqtur8urul 'ulzulul lueq.P IIHIdO tsdr oruurns oe(I urrnb rB 'rununu 1n 'selueJcuc,r r.unJullels zlod.ror esdl ']un:cnqlqpr, uJEIlc uleuorluJopz 'unlragz lg .utn1o,l, [crs] sunq unpue.r"lf,ep p rlsolof,s rg '{}dul oJaA rrruprne),, i nZ .d ,.pqaLI .rur1ou.1 r

1u crsnur ruarf,uu Jo asuedxo or{} }u uJeporu Jo uoB"JSruep lzuor}uel -uo3 eql u?r{} uoI}ue}LII uI SnoIJeS aJolu sdztlrad Sr lusrf,r}rJf, sIr{I 't:ir//ry7c[ eq] rrr elto]su\r puv s,(rp7 erl] uI o]ulcl dq pe]ufo^pE f,rsmu pooS ,{11urrqla 3LI} Jro elrsoddo }f,Exe eq} sr s}ueunrtsur Jo dlpldplnur B pun saporu ]uoperep 'Surueuos Jo esn str ur arurl u.4A.o siq Jo 3rsnlu 3g] t?ql larSar r{rl.4a. se}ou eH .lnJJa,,\\od sJotu s]f,qgo slT eluu ilpN rEi{l sISnIu urePotu Jo sruroJeJ tsaSSns dgz -rrors?3f,o seop rurlosd 'rrSuru IEf,rsnlu dllrzrurrd 'uzluiclg eqr ]sJg JoPrsuos sn leT l rrSzru uBrrusllluJ. puu u?rurf,rd J:o suorsJe^ s(rurl -ovd urory pollnseJ eAEq duru dlrnnor lr.cn)vtd Jo spuq ]?qA 'poc E sv lr. drqsro.r. lou saop pu? srnlu3Jl lnJJe1Y\od " su ll sef,ueJs^ar dpo euo ]Erll pu" o1punru u////t/o er{} Jo "{lpuocas 1a3uu str Jo puelsur 'Tzls eq] Jo {poq erl} spJe^\o1 ,{po uonuurs?rur s(euo ]f,oJrp lou seop auo ']sJE 'lv]qt pspr^oJd orSzru sFl] Jo se^oJdd" rurlozcl ]uil] {utqt I 'z euols pog o} redord sr rzg:t drqsro.,rn eql qjlln lou lnq '(slqer rraql ro slnos palrzdap rroill) slurus ol JedoJd uonzleuaa eq] qlrl\ (s1 ]Er{l 'a7"qu7 q}la }ou tnq ,o!/ap Illpt sla8uu drcreuuld o] patleqp aq -{uu ef,uaJOAeJ Jo stlz Jo sredzrd tugl pelzls sr lr eJer{n. ssurnbv s?ruoql jo luaflJstxdg e,ql slurod pu/?/ ruJet luf,rur.{f,e} ar{} Jo lxo}uof, srr{} ur esn eqJ,

ot

'r uolllprad lzurela o] rlrerl] puel snql puz 'saulr{f,eur cr8zw .eJe.tr 1r su .puz sef,UrJf,ES Jrar{} dq peliader ro paf)erll ag ol pualard ot suoruep p?q ol senrunrroddo ue,rr8 el"r{ 'toleat3 erua.rclng eqt poc o1 dpo azno daql qlF{a (appJ) uorlsrops wrl] sJsts er{} Jo seSurur ol Sur.rego 'puz 'sJ31s aqr Jo ssrpoq er{} (uuuuau) sfFlds su SuBereuarr 'drqstozn ppz uale .uo4orue pue (un|o,t)

n[etd slql Sulrpl]ep ul 'aldoad lzulwrrf, pue snordurr


ISINVUN AHJ. CTNY INITOYd

auros

Ltt

138

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

for u/e must remember that Paolini was a contemp otufy and compatfiot of the Gabrielis and must have heard theit huge instrumental compositions, u'ith their btilliant, predominantly
major harmonv. He also regrets that modern Songs do not pfesefve the metrical rhythm of poetr1r, and believes that this defect could and should be put right 1; he had not pfesumably heard any of Baif's uasiqae wesurde h /'antique' or Andtea Gabrieli's choruses 3. for the trdippo Tiranno, performed at Ytcenza in 1585 T'he only suggestion of a musicai reform leading to specifically magical effects occurs after one of his several descriptions of the celestial powef of Orpheus' music, rvhich results ftom the propef, astro-

logically determined mixture of sounds : if the musicians of our time also knew how to do this, they would produce not inferiot effects, since we see that some of them, perfect within their own limits, ira-,re accomplished u'onders, but none has procluced effects superior to Orpheus'4. But rve hear no nrofe of this revival of Orphic rnusic. Not does he corlnect the Orphic Hymns of othet Orphic writings rvith Ficinian magic. ile believed, hou-ever, that the Hymns contained "divine mysteries", and quotes several of Pico's Conc/usiones 5. FIis faith in unrnistakeably magical about them, which ^r:e. a priscas theologas r,vas firm and untroubled-indeed Orpheus ^s lris "libe fal" acceptance of the rvhole prisca tbeologica equals that of the boldest of Catholic syncretists, Steuco, rvhom he frequently cites rvith appfoval 6. It is therefofe sufpfising that he does not
1 Paoiini, Llebcl., pP. 158-9. 2 Sce F. A. Yatcs, f?renclt -'lcadexties, pp. 36 scq.' a Leo Schrade rvili shortly publish a- work on this performauce, including
crf

an

cdition

the music, in thc ocrii"i Le Cltoenr des t|[uses, dirccted by J' Jacquot for the Centre National dc la ltechcrche Scicntiiique. a Paolini, Helttl., p.221: ". . . perfcctissimum omnium fuisse Orphcum ju<iicamus, & hinc factum, ,r, ptopt". admixtionis sug excellentiam tantam sibi vim cElitus vindicavit, qu<td si ,ro.tirt"r quoque N'Iusici scircnt e(Ticere, non minora praestarent, cum viclcamrrs qrr,rsdam pro ir.rae- perfectionis gradibus miranda effecisse, neminem vcro Orpheo praestitissc maiora." s paolini, Hebtl.,1>. 445, i68 lq"oting Pico, Concl. Orplt., Nos. 3, !, 5;7:,17,20). 6 I-ib. VII of the^Hebd. is devoted to showing "quodd Orpheus fuerit Theologus etiam Chtistianus. Christianos autem inteliigo eos quoque qui adventufum Christum cfedcrent, afltcquem vcnisset" (p. 36{); oi St"o.o (,,Theologus ptaestantissimus") pedibus in hanc venit sententiam, ut omnium he says, quite tiuly, "manibut

"iqo"

'tutlzutrojuor qtdu sIilI es Is 'se;IA tuEItJ LunJulll lunssod ip JnliSr :u0enbuat "JeJIilu 'luepuodsar zlnSurs srin8urs auor8c:r ? sIII srrrllrp f,e"q ExnF lulq ?g '1ru8r8 sarceds snqer ur serorJeJul szq aznb ;ed 'zrnlrp eluelu uI llins soroads rB 'rldurexa lonL, 'zlzp rqls snlrullrp Burures rB 'urn.la.l scuolluJ laqzq uropltrol ' ' ' .rnurlnbessz coq oJeunul sn(nr 'rpunui erurus urnb 'ruvlrnpep ruouollxlulpz cuzq .rrd ernroJ ezrluanbola EUIATp ?g 'ulll 4soleo3 q ruoDJ() asscld urra IJJqTL{pI, ur?puenb urzurrrtp uJarof,IP tn 'r.tzlndstp ulr enb ul 'ulnlolpnls s[]L.Joxa uI u;ouol]zlo 'alzllulllP lunJsJelll cP 'rncluq ouuu Jrlqqe oruel uunb 'Be ut urnlz.Ilsuourop lInJ atu q '.rnia.rudruoc s"llnf,zJ uuIAIp azBucnbola euorlxrurp lpucf,Ip runJE[IJoj E]sl xJ t-uo.r ponf ,, LV 'd "P]9,i " "utu6 'gd I'I]lr ",.l 'rJ a([ 'ottl:Ig Sutzt-ruutruns 't-Z1Z 'dd "pqa77 ',",t1]Jt, ,J'
nar.A

'991 'dd 'satzuapotS/ (lJuali'se1u1 'V 'C '3r d.ro-tutrr JO sllai;J tql uO '.,4c.rcnb.rolap sr1a,t enbuntonb rg 'solzupsqo ?p 'sclzu8nd sotulus cJelf,og ruunb 'tunltreu-rn8Jr srlslrurlrp sn{zru plnb ' ' ' tIJnpJP tlnA oPun rg 't1n,t onb 'rolu.r6; 1111;drur S.1}lliunlo,\ 'trcrliu scluJru siuoItBJO uutalp tl rup1") Z-rc7'97 "bcs L 'rld "?qaH 'Iut1clz.1 a

'g1l'd r.rdns',1

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v si ]uqrtr lng 'n paduqs ,,{11uur3uo 3Je.4a. /iaql tlfILI.a ,tq '(szep1 eql ua^a ro) suos"eJ luurLues Suipuodsauor 3r1] Lueqt olul f)Etllv w) euo s8unlr go ]e s algulrns E Jar{}o8ol 8urlrollol /q I ppoz[ elqrsuss eql ur sSurqr ol sluroJ se^I8 ssaql Jo suvsur dq puu 'PulI'{ eur^rc eq] ur ssepl eLIl o] SurpuodseJ-rof, 'suoszel IEuluias sul?Jtlof !?auu/ ?2////ut2 srll 'e frsnLu Jo suuslu Lq /puw// tlqulds J:o uoDf,vJl7v usrurfr,I 3LI] Jo uoilrsodxe sFI o] FillrJud dilczre sr uorldlJf,s -ep srg puu 'Tptueur p////ap eLI] Sultlvrlf,v dq drofzro uI PJtIIslqo
sEA\ Je.^a.od lzrrsalef SILII aoLI PeqIJf,seP rulloscl ssJn]f,el tula]-j:o -3uruul8aq lllqnd sp1 Jo euo uI 'uonuJo uz uI ((Iara.od 1znse1ar,, elnpord plnof ((sruJoJ,, Jo aJnlxlur redoJd e os 'le,t od f,iv1ew1d v

f,rsnur eArB plno3 seuo] Jo eJnlxrlu JedoJd e se ]sn[ ']Eq] Pe^3rleq eq (reloaroJ{ 'z sJot?Jo tuorf,uu Jo s}lalte eqt Jo ls{ 3uo1 seaT8 " osp erl i crsnru Jo st3sJre ei{} eqrJf seP o} Pssn d11uuorrrP?Jl esoq} {llrzxe eJE qf,rLTA sur.ra} ul dro}zro slt{ Jo stre1le eqt Jo setlrao. (JoluJo Lrts su.4a. oo] snslld.ro 'f,rsntu Jo J33id 3q] u3>1"] rurloEcl puu (peureruof, sr slJetlo Jetl]o Jo suq dJolzro rutq JoJ turll dus dzur euo IEJrSuru Jo uoulnpoJd Iuf,nf,EJd eq] s" JEJ sv'prrn 'f,Isnur ur uuql {rolero ur po}sora}ur eJoiu qfnur -{lruepr-te sel\ rurloucl ', our.1tv7 Jo Pu3rry 3 puE ,{roeqr Isfrsnul ur PseJ d1epr,,$ sua eq qSnoqlly 'sutu{H u/Y\o sry Sur8urs dq spege sry po3npord snaqdro tuql tseSSns 1ru3i ur

6tl

I]INYUN III{I ONV INITOYd

T
1,40

IV. SIXTEENTH CENTTiRY

suitable set of what things ? The set has something to do with the number seven, and some of the things are the sounds of words, figures of speech, and Hermogenes' seven 'I8eort, i.e. general qualities of good oratorf , such as clarity, graYrty, truth r. NTow Paolini wAS, of course, obsessed with the number seven to an almost psychotic degree, and it is dangefous to draw any inferences from any particulat applicatjon of it. But it is tfue that he connects ofatory v'ith 7 with unusual earnestness and persistence; the connexion apPeafs conspicuously in his otherwise nornrally rhetcrical or philological 5'cl"tolia on Cicero's De Oratore2. It is a1so, I think, true that the prime non-mathematical content of 7 is the planets, and the whole theory of planetary influences and correspondences. If we are right in supposing that Paolini considered oratory to be closely parallel to music, that he r,vas applying Iiicinian rnagical theoties to ofatory instead of music, then it is obvious why 7 is so impoftant in oratory, and r,vhat the aninta mundi and give a the sets of things are that will ^ttr^ct celestial force to an ofation: on the ntodel of Ficino's planetary nrodes of music, Paol-ini is aiming at plan etrlr modes of oratory. The general subject, the vatious topics, the figutes of speech, the sounds and rlrythms of rvords, will all coffespond to a certain planet or comlrination of planets. It is of course normal that the seminal reasons of the tutintrt atundi should be passed dor,vnrvards through the planets. In Flerniogenes' llepi 'I8ec,rv, for which hc had a gfeat admitation and on which he had wtitten a columentary 3, he found every aspect of rhetorical ccmposition and style grouped under seven genetal types or forms (i8eau) of oration; r,vith very littie juggling these forms could be made to fit the chancters of the planets. a sulphurca fax ad igncm cxposita flammam teper-rtd concipit, ita optimi Oratoris

mcns, si divinum commodd subscquatur exemplum vim trahit affectione , & in optime affectam, aptamquc mcntem tota ipsa ideae virtus affatim rcdundat, & influit." 1 Ilcrmogenes, flepu 'I8ecov, passim; Paolini, tlebd., pp. 34 scq. z In etttident A,I. Tullii Ciceronis, Dialogi de Oratore Librun Prituunt. Faltii Paalini Lltinensis 5'cholia, Vcnetiis, 1587 (together u'ith A. Nlaioragius' Contm. on thc s:llrlc; Paolini had lectured on this the prcvious yezr), fos. 5vo, 7vo, 9ro-vo, 18vo. 3 Paolini, De Gr. Lit. cum Lat. Conj., fo 22 vo. a The scven forms arc cacp{;tera, p6ye0o q, xa}'},oq,yop.16rr16, fi0o6, d},f 0e ta, Ee r,v6r1q.

'9-VLl '68 'l-04'dd'099I 'ut8aurrl'ouqaorJ auillolltul olfa1l'otuaqlrz4 oulPrzureg e '(Ot 'd 'ot7oar11 'o11lruz3 3r) urn'ou>1 st lnJesn pue asna-rd Sulqtdue {rft{,n }noqs L Jo uottatsejluuw tseq8rq eq} aJu s}euz1d aql 'cr8zru lurrtrurd pus plJo. l. IuTJlsJJlc] eqt Jo .4AaIA Jo lutod agt ulol3 'ln9 l s1auz1d aq] ot .rolrd sr 'lot{as L erqT ew suol}Burlue rsaq8lq eq} qtrtq.ll Jo 'PoC uI BaPI uE se L reqtrrnu egl 'IUIloEd ro3 ,tlqzqord puz 'o11lue3 -ro{ '(t69I 'rtlPn 'ouoJnltg 0!u!/u/aQ zil!nao) 0!f!g'I,f "tacI oru&utJ oqsanb a! al/aPU sV'aTataprcuot auaEorutaH p(f 0u01loro 311aP lzall1 otano 'aap1 a7) uytlvll otul pelulsueJl ag ^co3SI< tdal esoq'tr 'sauaSotuJaLl ul petsrratur s,rs. oslu oilrruu] '(1) arou eaoqz 'p i(totg[as ueles ]sJU eI{} ar? sarnsteul I rsrg aqr) ..clrlus elres rcd olurlsrp oJlBerII ut ouerlSo^ JIp Q 'o1ooz11cds uI llau"Id eltes cp eJnsIuJ cllas cllep clnuelsos oJnsIuJ 3]1aS e1]3P el IIU"AEP Jol OUTUIUJIU 'uolellcds oruof, rsorpnls rl oururf,f,zJ aq: 'z,trltreg Iul uof, auIpJo(I q cuIPJo (a.ltp lsor rcd) ;zp .rod zJq,, :VI 'd 'o"t1oaq1 'o11lurz3 ruory sclonb 'LZ 'd ''PqrH 'tut1ou.1 1 'g;g1 'vzvatotg'otToatlJ aP PaPL7 'o11truz'; I '6ZV 'ZZl 'LZ 'd ''PqaH 'rul1oz.1 z oJeurnu oun f,oq ponb 'eztluanbole
.

,;atvcldy'1u1xe oznb 'zcpr snrlll xe

ln 'llxnJlsuof,

oJlBeqI ons ur rg 'snrdoa ur snllruJr3 snrlnf ln 'r]1nur anbonb snqlJol]uetreJ xe pas 'oro1 ol1z snlulqzJlsuoruep sou srllnu ln 'lunlelJalP"rulue IIII soJalsfi tunlos uou ponb 'equcnbole srcarun Jnlvcurluof, oJetunu oun f,oq ponb 'eue8ou.rc1 1 qu f,nlunnlrlsuol aEuJJoJ eepucf,Ip ureldas tuBU,, :oa L oJ "1!2 u! o!!0(1J5"Iur1ou.1
T

plno/y\ qlF{rN 'a8zurt le}ueru Jo fq8noqf ueAIS v o} tepvrvq) drzrauzld v a^EB nod ct8uru slg] Jo suueru dg 'cr8zlu uultueqllJl JO uorsJel s(rurlosd Jo IuIu lzfpf,zJd er{} S?/l\ lsqlt Jo uonsenb eq] o] Je,&\su? eql sll e^r8 oslu mrN f,iowto .{rzrauuld SFII 's ssurSouIJeH qlla lulq Par?If,oss? Puu oruul"J PerILuPs otitN 'otuaqtrz4 'leqtuet SrLI tuory eruof, el?r{ [zw SauaSouIJaH PuE olirrusJ uI lsaJalul s(Iulioucl '[toleto (snar{dJo ri}1.4N sl?eP l3rll >looq sirl Jo uort3es eLIl q li selonb 3q Pu? 'elnllnlls 13Jeu33 sq] saquf,seP , solonb er{ efu3}ues eq} JoJ : ru{oud Pe}sare}ul l?q} droluro ol pe{dda sv etweLIt s(olltrile) Jo uor}fnJ}suof ,{rzfeuzld 'pioguarlas eql s?1K tI 'lle[qns tluv uo uolt?Jo ur eAiS o] auo elqsue o] sE/K asodrnd erulJd slr Puu 'uralsds sluolueuur PaJluaf ,(1prr3o1orls? uv s".{\ eJtueq} oLII 'sJa}f,zJul{f, drzreuYld rler{} o] 8urpJof,f,E posuzJru Jre,{\ s?epl puz seItIAI}f,? 'spafqo ilu snq] isreuyld ueles eq] eJ3.^x LIIILITN 'sdu.llelu8 ue.tes rllla eJ]?er1]r{dulu uE ur esJsarun aql ur 8urqr,{rela SuuaPro JoJ atuer{fs E s?a sILlI 't 04oal lap pau s(ollluiEJ sI s>lJo/l\ sseq] Jo euo 'u s{Jo.t\ sltl luory setonb puE {gzrnszlsnqtue luH sesr".Td eq sapplllzpqaH er{l uI
1, orarr3 vo ox/nqJs stg ul 'srulo3. (seueSotuJoH pu" L Pw tlto)vto qlPN uorxsuuos uI '.tF{ se}If, erl ! olpruu3 ollnlc JO JeJrurPE IEoJB z sz.&\ ru{o"d taql lcvJ aq} ruory rroddns elqurePlsuos se^rof,oJ lr lnq lernlceluof, ,{ru dpo sr dro]ero drztauuld sryI

tit

I3INYUN gHI CTNY INITOYd

t42

IV. SIXTEENT}{

CENTURY

then obey you, do whatevef you \Manted. $Vhat would you want ofatoi? First, to be a thought to do for ycu if you wefe ^v^LI^n able r,vhenever you needed it; secondiy, to produce a powedui effect on youf audiencc. By Tritheniian magic, tiren, you affect a thought, svy of a iion, witir its appropriate pianetary character, that of the Sun, and lit it into youf planetrriiy constructed mnemonic scheme (Camilio's f heatre); having been rnade actir.e by the plan etafy afiect, it will spontanecrusiy lirpeaf ."vhenevef )'ort think of say anl,thiqg solarian. You .rill use it in an ofation which has beeir consifucteci on Solarian principies (on the analog,v of Ficino's planetafy music), ancl tire activated iion-thought will pov'erfuily affect youf auclience, making them ler-rnine, which effect is part of the totai efiect cf rualiing tireni soiariari. As I have put jt iicre, baldiy but ,i- irope ciearll', the u'irc.,ie business seenrs cruie ancl chiidish; but it one translates this magic into more mociern ancl fanliiiar ternts (and I tliinli lt catl legitimateiy be so tfansiated), one can sec that it rvas a serious, if mistaliefi, etteml)t ro use psyciroiogigxi filrces rvirjc]r afe ncir directll' ,rncjcr conscir-r*s contlJi. Thc Trithemian ruagic bcgins by using the imagin',1t1(xr ancl cnds in a tiiougirt bemg "afi-ected" (enrotionaiizeci) lry pianet; in Ficino's magic tne opcfator mllst ^ velrernentiy concentrate his emctions (a1Jiilas) c-oli rhe planet. Now one of tire prim2ry 1-yr.utrings of tire plancts 'was as symbois of psvchological types, or categories of emotional states and tendencies. If you tfy magicaily to stamp a thougirt u'ith ^planetafy charactef, one cf the things you af<: trying to do is to give that thoughr a specitrc and perlnanent enr.otional charge or affective tone. 'Ihe cotitent c-rf the thought (an object, activity, idea) rviil be inherently Inofe fitted to one tyPe of- ernotion than anothef ; you must therefo re afral-tge evefything you can think about in certain btoad categofies of emotional character-in cther words, constrLrct a planetary scheme of the universe. It would be generallv admitted nowadays tirat evefy mental process, however absttact, has an accompanying enotional tone, and that this tone bears some relation to tlie content of the process, but that this reiation

ur dz1 rorra oLIJ, 'lr Surlzads puz tr Swurzel uo tuea eldoad sz 3uo1 sz .{po p3>lro.4N pue pootsJepun sz,&\ tr }urll ur .e8en8uz1 E aI{ nEJ LTr sz.tA. satruepuodsauor ,hvlauv1d 30 ualsis eql ou elurl sproa Jno wql
'alcuSrsap

leql

tzlTl't.

o]

sseue>lrl IEoJ

sJet]zur tr uzrll eJolu dr"lz-peqsllqzlse {putg puz diepytr sI rualsds eq] popr,tord 'ta)Jetu Jleslr ur tou seop splJ ..f,la .uns Sursrr oql ol sSurs lr esn?3eq '>iror ! sirrrds puz aJII Jo ef,Jnos erl] sI u ssnzf,eq 'llvarl issau.lo.oga,( 3o osnufeq lsnf '-{auoq f sseuzrrolad puu cilqs8uq Jo osnutreq 'uot1-dlssalSuruzaur puz l1plio raglp uosual Jo spup{ eLI} tnq 'uurrzlos '[vs 'sr 3uru1] uarr.r8 {uz dq.,ro, uosseJ a///0s sdz,,n1e sI eJeLIl f ,trz.rltqrE sJns?aLU eruos ur dlsnol^qo sT s8urpuaq uales eseqt Jepun s:)LTetuof, lulueuJ IIv Surrepro ;o uelsds oql 'l{ipuoreg 'seito8arzr olq?rnuJur rreles otu1 er}II IEUOTIOTUO 31Ori1K JnO Surrurnclc Jo+ uos?eJ pooH ou sr aJerl] lFal+ll.iruls-rolo puu prHu sr serz:)s eAr:)JO-lJr lluqiorluoJ 3ro ,(e,ro. slql '1srtg 'sl3eJap o.la] burnolloSi eqr ul all darlr tsql ,rrou ees uv) aa ldu,tu paureldxe ueaq lnq lou 3lzrl JoJJe puu ,ftrtr;nJl erT,I_ 't3e3;e {rrlstrr:icl alrzr;dordCe eilr qll.4\ peSrzqr uaeq ,{puc.rir ar\url lu ril sa8z{ur Irtualu :ro suopr JO uor}uJo Jo Suos arir bwsodruoc {q rr8rtu u?rluer-lrrJl urTA paurcliuof eq uzf, fr ladll LIIuIJoJ u Jro eaissa-lcfxa 's11rcl sr,r il" ur pus elorl,4a" e str 'sr lEtlt uorlalo uE ro Suos E af,npoJd ol 'arro3 Izilorloiua ;o saddl sz lllrurur;d sreurtd arlt sJapislroJ ouo .I 'erqlssod prTu elqsuosuaJ dlrueprrle sr lr 'lr8rlu rrvrlitrfT,I o:l p;u8e.r r-ltlA .lairzld IELI] o] Sur8uolaq ]fa{lzfo acl{r arll rllra er?}s aTorl^a. s(euo Jnolof, lerloporua plnol auo '1suz1d ululJal v cl sa8sr_ur ta slq8norlr "3ui8uo1eq JO rirEJl E Hutr'r.or1o; {lalureqrlau lq- 'suollorua rrao s(euo Surr:pro pue SuqloJlrroJ f,o porl]orlr z oprlo.rd plnol\ lr (Jarl:]o orl] uo f suoixeuuor olllzlfcssz prre prr8o1 eJJoJUr3.r ptrno,ts 'sr lurdl '-{loruaru tcar a3z4ull -to F,upi Eltxo Ltu, epr,rord plnoa tr .pru,{ ouo erl] LiO 'poJepro puz e]'Br:rdorddr .luauurulad apzu_r aq plnol e8rzur Ieuortrolr-le JraL[] priz s]uene Te]ueru Jo tue]uof, eq] uaalyueq

uonEIOr sllTt Jt saSeluu-npr prnrzrd snor^qo eq ptrno.{ ereql 'aqrdsd eloqa eltr] Jo eluls Sur8uuqo diluulsuor pue lzraua8 aql dq peuonipuof, oslz sr euo] Fuorloure eqt ef,urs .elqelsun sl
ICINYU0 gHJ CINV INITOYcI

gnl

1,44

IV.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

supposing that it was not latgely founded on convention and tradition, but that it had an objective reality; it was therefore at the metcy of anyone who exposed its atbitrariness and conventionality. It did in fact eventually become obsolete as a language, though vefy gradually and certainly long after its objective reality was universally disbelieved. It still exists, in petrified fragments, in ouf ov/n ordinaty language (satutnine, jovial), and it is a Ianguage we must learn if we wish to unders tand the past.

snls"rg pu" : t,r ''t,dd 'lLgr '"""r,rj[tl '!'::;:;Wlr,];::u"':;thr:;"::: oulrlplry a(J wtluztlptudsle'sn1sz.rg !(ounrg uo'"1 'l) 66t,'(lp.tlIIV uo'IIIA'r1) 96t, '(rl'II) gZt 'dd'6Lgl"d'u''' ' saJqory sap ntn4sodzu1 /a suutnllI sap's,taotnq 7a sarn{nq 'sa.uoqrt11 'r"1116'E'a 1ci:t4'd'C uro.r3 etonb r(puanba.g JeIlN PUE snlsPJE qlog r

'rrnsef olIPnJo

dlasuaururr u? 'olg Ia(f I usrzpnf uopplJ-uourep Jo uos snolJn3 E ul Sur.teqeq dlzar rnq 'cr1oqlz3 z dluerro 'tipog uuaf latays -'fuzle pw oruatural1 oq] ut palserolur 'prqe8uzle plurTt leqtw v 'seldzrE.p ar^?Jo1 frqoqtzJ xopor{tro dgngeruo z }ng 'tsluo1z14 uee>l 'rarduzqJ uerroqdrudg : suoltlp?J] pJaqII eJoru 'snolwrt " 8uo1eq qtla luep llzr{s I sre}rrlr lzct8uu-r}uz rer{}o eql 'T >loollno

o]

eruus eqr Surleq Jo snorf,suo) ew puz lzlorddz qlla JeLIlo tlf,Be uorluour daql lrrSzru tnoq" rq8noqr Jo uollrpvn IEil E olntltsuor oP eseql 'snlsEJH Pu? 'ttlA uuzqof 'otl.I o)sef,uuJd-uulo ate 'sesodrnd Jno JoJ 'ssz1c srr{} Jo sJequreu Jeltll oq,L 'Lusl -usrl;tolslJv pazruurlslJr{f 'a}zrepour u uo pesuq dgznsn's8urq} uo >loopno esuesuou-ou 'alqrsues E el,:vq lzraua8 ur oq^\ f elqrssod Je^euoq1K drlror{lne eruardns Jlar{t su elqlg eq} a>i?} oqa i usiu -oreldoa5i dlrzlntuvd'.{qdosolrqd uzSed il" }snr}slp oga lzueru -oueqd lurnluurodns go f,i\Ivet aql tnoqe lurndef,s eq o] puet oLIA ldrosnlp puz f,rloqvip ro rruoluep o9 or crSztu Ip e^erTaq orIA esoq] ! speag-przq leoqa8uz,re sz peqrrlsep aq uEf, slq] Jo sreqruaru eql 'dnot8 snoaueSouoq ouo qsrnSurrsrp f,vw aa 'spunor8 snor8rlat uo cr8eur s6ourf,rC peuuapuo3 or{a asoq} Suoiuy

'Oru THCI 'NICOfl 'SETcIVIfl.CI EUASdET ry UEIcII{VH] .SNISVUE 'UAIA 'f 'OfICI 'C 'C 'SNOIIVNI^IECINOf 'II 'AUnIN'df qr9l gHI NI fICVm S.ONI]Id 'A UEICIVH]

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

(1) G. F. Prco. JoneNN \frEn. Tnonas Enesrus


G. F. Pico

In the Epilogue to the first Book of his Examen I/anitatis


Doctrinae Gentium G. F. Pico wrote 1: If in one tray of the balance were placed one dogmafrom Mosaic, Evangelic or Apostolic writings, and in the other everything that could be collccted from p^gan thought, the former worild far outweigh the Iatter. This sums up the conclusions of a vast rvork demonstrating the variety, confusion and fo1ly of ail p^garL thought about reiigion and phiiosophy. The method used, and gre t deal of the matter, ^ are taken from Sextus Empiricus. Since the object of this revival of ancient scepticism is to establish the absolute pre-eminence of the Judaeo-Chtistian revelation, G.F. Pico's attack is directed wath particular r-ehemence against the prisci tneo/ogi, most of whom, it wiii be remembered, \r'ere also prisci mrlgt'. For G. F. Pico the prisca theologia, far from being a precious corroboration and illumination of Christian truth, as it was from Ficino and Giovanni Pico, is a persistent tradition of superstitious error, rvith idolatry, magic and astrology going hand in hand. He takes it as conclusive proof of Giovanni Pico's later rejection of all nragic that, in the Aduersus ,4strologiamg, he denies the dir-ine origin of astrology and makes disparaging temarks about Zoroaster a. The theory of the prisca tlteologia ts back again at its patristic origins 5: all pagan religion is diabolic; what grains 1 G. F. Pico, Op. Onru., Basileae, 1573, p. 814 (E^*anen,I, xx): "quando unum dogma ex Nlosaicis, Propheticis, Evangelicis, Apostolicis literis in examine positum, omnibus quae in altere lance collocari qucant Gentium doctrinis,longe praeponderet." z Cf . supra p.93. 3 Giov. Pico, Adu. Astr., cd. Garin, p. 484 (XII, i). 4 G. F. Pico, Op. Ontn., p. 633 (De llerum Praen., VII, ii). 5 Cf. \Walker, "Orpheus", pp.
LQ4, 1LA, I1.4.

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'Otgt'srrrz4 'uarstto4 fiqrug,1t JnatS spuz(lJ !n/JV. n{ sattoTualuulo2 sa1druo,p ltqJtJaa ' ' ' atauafu71 ap'g ap uulrnpoq q a(I 'tarntT'IIII ua uaaua[r1.1smuo1Jo{7,o alA ry aQ

,J) ooy o .n,'o? ,:,::'T.$ : 'tll 'd'.,snaqd;g,, '.rc>11zr1X 'p :g-92 'tt'1 suotaoy'1n24 f (ol'AI ''uao,trJ llluray aA) Z-ILV'd<1"urug 'd6'or14'C'C r '8 lsrJrlJ o] psJeduroJ uesq puq aq luLI] snrqssnq urory u.4a,ou>l s3.4A. tr esnufaq saTptu elqsJeuln^ ,{lrzlnrnrud v sE.{\ snruo[odv 'zuzf,ql Jo snruofiodv ]surc8v ;etdzqf, ? rrr srnf,f,o (*U etuzu .'llIvntte ]ou seop orlcl q8noql) ourf,rd uo 4)vf,fv porrp aiII 'r c(suolJrlsJedns Jo IIry '{ooq urzl Jsoru ?r, 'x1"t7o4rJ ar{l ruory seluap eg o suor}Efolul drureuzld s.Jelecl 's lpuHIV puz snlf,oJcl Jo uonrpzJ] eql Surnull -uoo sE ue>1"] orz ouuqv Jo relecl puu uorug raSog 'Iutep lzar8 uI setnJer eq v llppy a(T esoLI/K 'lpupllv sqrrv aqr Suotuz pu? 'dll.J sezrJ?ruruns eq r nfia7,1r ae esoqzn 'sn1:loJcl ]no sesooqf, eq slsruoluldoeg eqt Suoruy 'rr8zu s(orrcl ruu?Aoig puu s(ouilld ul pedzld eq uud ]uztrodurl eqt;o a8palaoul s(orrcl ol anp eq IIor$, tleru sneqdro go o-JIISIP lzpeds sFiI ', clSzru I)BIq dq pe>1o,r.a opzqs drosnlr uE sz.AA. plJo.4a.Japun eqt ur ef,rprJng : dcuzruorcau 3ro aldruexe w lsn[ sr ]l-peTgep si ef,rprrn'd go puaSal eq] uelg ', uolSrleJ pzq qlla petreuuor dlasop sr selarleq orlcl 'l.r.I ']S o{ll ',IrFi^ 'dtszrapeud palualur puz 'suoruap ;o drqsro/s. eq] 'e'r 'l1nc neql Pelnlllsul Puz seruBu rlsql spo8 >leeJC eqr e,rz8 ag '3tl -Jot]?q drr.eeq dlrelnrrrwd v JoJ ul soruof, snsgdrg finu rc EoJoaqt usu{ ar4t Suouy 'uon"tnJal pelr?tep roJ slcefqns sz sJor{}nz Iu^ezrprur puz ]uerrue Jo erroql sF{ dq prtrrpul sl pu1rr ur slsru -o]?lcl eurlueJold oq] P?q 3q t"q] ]nq f suzrf,rSuru uJaporu ]suruSu pelJeJTp dprerro lou oJu 'suorlderxe aeJ ? qlrt\ 's>pz11z eseql 'aazuzuaoJc]r ruruay ae slq ur rr8vur puz dSolorrsz uo s>1f,?]]? polutep dra,r s(orrcl 'd 'O JoJ spunor8 urcur eq] etv asei{I 'clSzru 1r?lq 'qlln pexpr dlqnlossrpur
Jo 'sE eruzs eq]
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Ir ! sasolq tuory ualols eJE sur?tuot lr qlnJ]


Of,IcI 'd '5

Jo

1,48

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

After mentioning Apollonius' talismanic

tings 1, in order to philosopher, Pico shor,v that he was a magician rather than ^ goes on to say: It is regrettabie that even in our own times there ar:e many who have reached such a degree of folly that they have golden ofnaments made under certain constellations and have images engraved on them. It is regrettable that, also in our time, far too much has been written about astrological images by certain man, otherwise learndd and of the ^ highest authority among Piatonists, when he was inanely trying to draw long life from the heavens. I wouid have confuted this man with all my power in this chapter, and still more in the 5th Book [against astrology] (nor would I have been withheld from performing this duty by the friendship that v'as betr.veen us during his life-time, nor by his praises, both written and spoken, of mvself and my uncle Giovannr), if he had persisted in his opinion; for I would have put truth and love of our religion above ttiendship. But he prefaced his work by saying that he intended to assert nothing against religion, nor to write anylfiitt* other than what the church would appfove of; though it rvould have been better if he had in fact written what was right and in conforrnity

with tested theologians 2. Pico then quotes ftom Ficino's ,.1d Lectlrent to the De V.C.C. the feeble excuse that he 'was mefely tecounting, not apProving of, his magic remedies 3, and recalls that he had written against 4. He concludes: astrologers in his commentary on Plotiflus We must then reject this superstition of talismans, which cannot adequately be defended by his prefatofy excuses. For in things that
i Cf. Philstrate, Vie D'zlpollonius, cd. cit., I,679, u,'here T'homas, commcnting on these, cites Del Rio (v. infra p. 185) against Ficino's use of talismans. 2 G. F. Pico, Op. Onn., pp. 668-9 (De Rerun Praen., VII, x): "Displicct autcm quod nostfa etiam tempestate in id insaniae devencrint pleriquc ut fabrchcri aute gestamina sub syderum con{igurationibus curent, & imagines illis insculpi. Displicet quod aetate quoquc nostra )r quopiam docto alioqui viro, & inter Platonicos eximiae auctoritatis dc imaginibus Astrologicis nimis multa conscripta sunt, cum inaniter sibi vitam de coclo prorogaret, quem hoc loco, & quinto maximd libro pro viribus conf-utassem (ncc me ab hoc munerc, aut ea quac inter nos dum r.ixit amicitia intcrcessit, aut in mci nominis & dictae ab eo & scriptae laudes, scd & Joan. Patr:ui apud eum praeconia revocasscnt) si pcrstitisset in dogmate, amicitiae quippc & veritatcm & amorcm rcligionis nostrae praetulissem. Sed contr^ illam nihil i se assertum velle ille ante praef-atus est, ncc praeter id aliud quim comprobaret ecclcsia, quanquam satius crat & rectc, & Theologis probatis consentancae scribetc . . ." 3 V. supra p. 42, and infra p. 168. 4 V.
supra p. 54.

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guadu 'zn8lgurz Tr u.\()Lr Ic^ 'lunssod r.ropt,r oporuonbonlr lnt 'JUns Jnu ounb s(r ur epoLUrJl()J srlcs rpucjep srJouorl euortrr'.jcr.rd ullr reu arnb 'olllls -redns urnru?iurut urn.iurtSolr)JlsV foer{ rnlr8t tpuct:[1a11 ,, :'plql 'o:l.I '.I 'O r

eql ur si{rr ou 3J1l 3J3ril : sl Je.4A.su? s.ofld 'efueJSIXe ((lunJf v,, IJv a^zr{ seSErur qf,ns 3Jeq.4a. 'uolluurSsrur arll ur ps^refuof aSurur ur (sy lerJ] 'du.u. eruus oLI] uI e]EJOdo lf,afqo luuJe:txa uE rro ssoJdlur uEf qrlLl.la. s,{ur Julrrurs s"q uoEBurHpulr urunll 3ri} }3rll pu? siur .{q el"Jado s.r?ls aqt tur{} sasoddns 'a olrcT sdzs 'lpuHly

'sllullE ollcl ]Eqr f,r8Elu irJn]?u e^rlrsrrlrJl Jo A]o3L{} s(rPuHIv sl }I 'f[3J]tllll^N Jo suoDsJado ell] (suorlslusf,ur luf,rpcru 'dqrzdele] 'uonsullssJ or sPEal Jo lsoru puE puofss cllt :JotuJsdo eql ultllr^\ urErueJ stfe$e erl] eJellzn 'rr8zu.r uErurf,rc ot spBal lsr4 aql 'dlarr.ursueJ.l to dia,rrt:afqns 's{8,4A' o,^4.} uI {JO.4A. rrctr SrLI} l?ql PU? '')lA 'SAt\SH1A c///ru0q"/A(t, Sln 3q} PU? SeJ -uengur d.rzlauuld dq paprz 'uollzur8ulur Jrl] Jo Jaaod eql sI rr8ulu
IEJN]EU J:O SErIOAT{} ]SOLU JO SISUq Eq} }EI{} PEJJqTUSLLIEJ Eq IIIA\

}I

Hurleag er{t uo

',{lruurtslJtl3 ot .3urue}zaJqt .t\oqaluos sr tr }ELI} }nq 'dtlilqlssod s}l ul Jellaqsrp uo }ou 'peseq sI rrSuur

Isrnluu JO uorlfefar srq ]3r{} o3s u?f euo s}uerunSJB srLI Jo sssu>lEel\\ eqt ruoJd '(cs{vJ,, s,lpupllv roJ (saop serur}eluos oJrd sz) .,lurds,, (uJa] 3rl] selntrlsqns 3uo Jr 'crSuru IzntFrds s(ourfrd o] serlddE IPuHIV lnoqE ,,{zs ol szti oslcl 13I{l rlf,nLu 'rala.lto11 'eJnsodxe rrlqnd v tel sr 'apnlltlz a^rssil.uqns sn{ Jo uoit?Joprsuol ur 'tnq fro ouorlusredns snore8urp -'o pelf,rluof, dleug sr 'ueqt 'ourcrg

', dralrou v erv, daqr asleg puu peq ,(psegrueu ere tvtql sSurql ur irueqr Jo paeu ou sr eraqt anr] puz pooS dllsagruzru erv laqt sSurql ur lrzssarau .,tpueprle aJB sesntrxe r{f,ns lnJlqnop ro .4A.eu ruees rq8rtu K) ete
6VL

oSrd '.iI '9

150

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

inragination; the only things that can be projected outside marr ^ are the corporeal spirits, which the soul uses as insttuments. If sorne strong desire leads to these spirits being emitted, they may produce an external effect; concupiscence may Produce a seminal emission and hence a child, or anger m lr result in fascination (evil eye) and hence a disease. But these effects can be produced only at very short distance and in suitably receptive material ^ (in these cases: the womb, the eyes). Since, then, Pico concedes that at least some transitive effects can be produced by the powet of the imagination through an a.Iteratton of the spitits, he would a fortiori have to admit the possibiltty of the subjective effects of Ficinian magic. Alkindi admits that eftects ftom imaginative power can usually only be produced if the imaginative effot is accompanied by words of manual gestures. \7ords and voices have their ov/n particular rays, which also detive their oPerative power "from the celesttalhzrmony"; in consequence "some voices strengthen the operations of Satutn, some those of Jupiter, some those of N{ars . . ." 1. In reply to this Pico attempts a gefieral refutation of the rnagical power of words and sounds (uis uerborurn dy musices B), beginning contemptuously: This exceeds ail follv, to say that certain voices corresponcl with certain images in the heavens, and that certain words uttered with solemnity, caLn change the senses of animals and men . . . 2. the power lies in the meaning of the wotds, then they must be addressed to an intelligence and the operation is denronic. If it lies merely in the sound, then why should the human voice be more effective than other sounds ? If it lies in the articulation of speech, then in which syllable, and r.vhy in one more than another? These arIuments fail to refute the basis of Alkindi's theory, which is the farntltar one we have akeady met in Ficino,
1 Pico lbid., p.652: "casdcm voces cffectum suum enancisci ex harmonia coelesti . . . voces alias Saturni opcrationes confortare, Jovis alias, alias N{artis . . ."

If

2 G. F. Pico, ibid., p. 652: "IIlud autcm superat omnem stultitiam, quasdam voces cum quibusdam coeli imaginibus convenire, & vcrba quaepiam cum solemnitate prolata mutafe sensus brutorum & hominum . . ."

'ZgI 'd Eryur pu" 'gE 'd Erdns 'p : l-0g9 .dd '.plql .ocl.I .C .C ..'lunlesseSul slgou tunJoluauJuJf,us snulrf,rp suturoj eznb 'u.llzs EqJea lnb

so11r

sololrs '.loapr,t rqru eleprl Lunrrlr paS,, :SuruurSaq 'g-lgg.dd '.plql .orl.I .C .C e 't ?g g'u'gg 'b :6 rB g 'E'Vg'b i7'v'VL'b:'V pe'\'v'gL.b 'ilI 'cI'.qJ.unq. ,seurnby seuoqa , '11 ':nr. 'e oullanS szuroql I 'szurnby 'g7'b 'IlI 'ot6oJoaqL 'I8I 'd E.l;ul J)
((' '' IJJJOJSUUJ] EUIISSIIBJJUS Eqts^
r
z,

auPueJf,esuof, sEBsrJELIf,no

pE ?g rpuerJr;uo3 nusrrduq pr ?g unlueunS.rz urnsdr


srnb

loq Jnluept,r satuardzs lqls rnb slr xo oro^

lg,,:Eg9'd ''plql'ocl.I .d.C

'sP.roa Jo reaod lurrSzru eqr Psruep ro pelJessE euo JsrJt3LIlt\ 'uorlsenb snoJeSusp puu tln3Hrp e pvJ ur sz.4\ 1I 's /2u0/0a sil) eq] qlr.4N ]srJuqsna 3ql Jo uorxeuuof, s(ou?qv Jo Jetecl rill-4a. IEep o] 8ur{rr uar.{1K JJ}EI pu? 'n uo}uiuur?J8 -uJle] eql Surssn3slp ueq.4a. 'uoDsanb sryt o] v[vBE suJn]eJ ollcl ', ue>lods lou aJ? darlt I '(rnmo ]ou saop uonurlu?tsqnsueJ] .J.l) (suoBuelur PII?A tou sr puE IAe qtra Jo urs lulroru Jo eluls 3 ur ro f,rleJeq ? sI otla ]serJd v f,q ua>lods oJE deqt Ji uo^e 'sraqto ou puu ue>lods etv (cr.ew sruIn8urs xllef lso f,IH,, pu? ((Lunour sndJof, ]se f,oH,, spro.4a. eq] dluo JI plls^ sr uonsJf,esuof aq] tsrlt sur?]ur?ur eq ef,urs 'os Surop pro^u plnof, er{ ,41A.oq oas o} }lnrHrp paopur sI lI '* (uonez eurlrp lcoJrp Suraq rsnzl eurud or{}) uor}EJf,esuof, Jo splo,t\ eq] ol '..esnuf, IEluerurrJJSUL, uu sE 'ra.lo,od eqIJrsE soop ssuror{J 3sn?f,eq }qnop ou 'asr}?er} eLI} Jo lsar or{} w seop ^{1eer3 ar1 (szurnby suruoql sE elrf lou seop eFI .z (plnr eJ" spJo.4l uruef, 'JI dpo puu 'Jr. uou?rlu?,]sqnsuur] tf,oge o] .a.1) poC dq apzu ]t?d T Jo u8rs eq] eq [vw .,{aqr to ',f,:atr+}e ou o^"q f,vuu spJo/y\ ar{}-}ulod slqf uo paeJ?v f,ov atv suulSolooq} tzq} sJe.&\suz er{ f srll dq p.lsszJrsqure dlruaprrre sr of,rcl 'r..lSrJ?r{f,ne 3q} 3ur}zrc -esuof, puu rusqduq SurruJoJJOd ur pesn spJod\ peJf,ES tsoru eql ol luerun8re sni] dlddz plnoqs relelf, sallesluaqt {uF{} or{a esoq} JO euo JT.,, issau>i?aa Jeqlouu ssLI osls ]uetunSJE JO eurl s(of,rcl 's8urrls 3ro uortBJqr^ f,rleqlududs aql Jo peJ eq] dq pr^oJd sr af,uspuodserroo I?uorlJodord qcns Jo Jel\od errrlru eq] ]zr{} puu .serpoq dparrzaq aqt Jo slueluelolu eqt Lltla puoCsarror qlF{rt suoruodord a^uq srsnlu Jo slu^Jelw eq] pu? ssJe^ Jo sJleur aq] t?r{} 'dlaruuu

L9t

OfIcI 'C 'C

752

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY Jobann l,V'ier

Like G. F. Pico, Johann \fier takes the prisca theologia as ^ tradition of evil superstition from which mediaeval and modern magic derive. Being a somewhat aggressively anti-Catholic Protestant, he goes further in this direction than Pico. Even the Sibyls, who fot Bellarmin are still of alrnost canonic status 1, were inspired by the Devil, who passed on to them prophecies from the Old Testament about the coming of Christ, in order that they might later mislead Christians into believing they were divinely inspired 2; hete, as elsewhere, the double-cfosses of S7ier's f)e.ril are so subtle as to make it almost impossible to
distinguish him from God. The visits of the Greek sages to E,gvpt tesuited in their learning, not the Nlosaic tradition of true theology, but bad Egyptian magic. In the preface to his De PraestQiis Daentonaru V'ier congratulates himself that his education \\ras not like Piato's "chez ces superstitieux Egyptiens & prognostiqueurs Menrphitiques: ou bien Procle aupres de },[arc, esclave du diabie" 3. \7ier is still famous in our time, and was exceptional in his own, fcr his disapprcval of witch-burning; but this was nor because he believed magic and sorcery to be anything but diabolic. Neatly all the operations of witchcraft rvere, he thought, subjective delusions induced by evil dernons. Since the witches, being female and usually senile, were too silly to be anvthing more than passive victims of the Devil, they should not be so severely punished; the same leniency should not be extended to male magicians, who often voluntarily entered into commerce r,vith demons. Though he grudgingly concedes the possibility of good,
r Scc Walker, "Prisc,t I'heologia in France", p. 256. 2 \?'icr, De Praestigiis Daemonun, dz incantalionibu!, ac uenefciis Libri
editione sexta ancti dz recoguiti. Accessil
sex, postrena

Liber Abo/ogeticus, el P:eadontonarc/tia Daemonum, ..., Basileae, 1583, I, r'iii, cols.40-2; the frrst edition is of 1566; I shall also quote sometinres from the F'rench translation: Ifistuires, Dispates el Discours, des fl/usiont et Impostures des diables . . . par -/ean l7ier medecin du Duc de Cleaes . . ., n.p., Pour Jaques Chouet, 1579. 3 ril7ier, Hist., Disp., Pref., and ll, iii, pp. 123-6 (De Prae$., cols. 146-150).

,"0";:;'.iLl"iffi1J,r;T,li'r'""Jl:

-odces

(snurf,rd snrrrsl'l{ enbonb rnborr? snurrssr]f,op cllrJal s anbrunrollt8ts urn.rolnuuu uJnJog rg 'uraltuus .radutcs Ins LUnlJaqiY

ry lucrrl(qo,, suerusll"l -Io srauoddns cql :8Eg '1ol'xI'L ''lsaotrTrrgifi;f,.r,LO

'd6 'o116) rr8uur IEJn]zu 3tt pa,r.o.rddz rtq,tr ..r8o1oaql ItIIuIns,r eql JO euo sE lraq1y pasn oorcl ''Jtuo2 slq JCT ol7oJodV cgl uI'reqlrg'V6'd 'l'qlT'uuzr)'pe "4s7'ttpV 'of,rcl 'AorC :(ll 'tt6 ''uao"t4 lutlray aO) ?.t9 'd '?.Lgl "uttt6 'dg 'otr.r1 'rI 'C e 'Q-OSS 's1ctt ''rsaa.rct aO) g-ZtT'dd 'rux 'L

''dt!$,0':tj%j:,t

:
:

tEs sl():r,Iii

]nq 'clSztu luln3ss seruoluaJef, puu sellpurd lIIotllEJ tstIr"Su "r!r"'.t1r,,7f,,rfl"?.tft lsurssz tou pelraJlp sI esItEeJ] sltl JO uollJodord a8rul " o]Ina) 'ilsnoruroua podole^ep s?q lf,uePuel sq] reIA\ uI lrsotl eq] Jo uoqzrfosu()J jio spJora. eq] Jo ]no f,I8uur eql atizl of '3ut{r} of,Id uoas dpzarle alutl eA 'sluatuelr qrns IIv Jo PaIEOII uorSIIeJ z (dlruuTlsIJI{J uI s}ueruele pettre,lt JelA pLIu lu3r33ur eLI} sEA sltl} Jo efJnos ueppry euo 'rrr3zru s<ouIrIC roJ t{qtzdruds lselqSrls eq}
s^vrl plnolls Jala lzlll uoDsenb
3LI] Jo lno {lsnor^qo sE^\ }I
'q uol]?ul.UePuof,

s(ofrcl'FJ'c o]

JePceJ

eql sJeJsJ tIsLI] Jq:((r3lldosolt1d PQursel

tsolu ? 3sr"4A.Jer{1o,, 'ourctg suuePuor {1unsuf, Jar,A }eq} }.T3qlv Jo JeaolloJ 3 sE sr ]I 'su?uIsrlu] Jo Je>luLu snollllsJadns ? su LuIq ]lefeJ o1 dllzg elqu sI rol,l\ ', e8u plo ur Pullu sq PeBuBr{3 3LI liunuizlc ///t/r/rads aLI] Jo uollnqlJll" eLIl Surlqnop dq

f,o

apx///0r/0"4s1,-

I sle]tlzn IB)Ib?uI ullti asnfxe o] drl soct.I o.4r] eq] sBsJsLIA\ -Ituu .IoJ llolq-Sullqlunls v Llseq 3uo1 PZLI 'snu8zlq snrreglY 'se8r-alpprtu er{t Jo uut'3o1oaqt uE)IuIruoO tueJ:i rer{}o erII ( 'D suoruap o] pesseJppu eJoJaJetll etv PUv ultv.l eP ef,uzsslnd aunrnr Jal\lf,v tuolnad eu sallerlgllJe sc8uut sal SIuLu 'salsalar sesoqf, ssluJoj: sJnal lueuusJd salleJnlBu sesollf sel anb s3p Snuen ry ,[wrv uelq ]se 'dlaruzu '* suzulsllel lsuIES? s]uelllnS.tz s.szruollJ. IIr, (spJol\ puu '. saJnBU puz spunos Jo Je/Y\od lurlSztu Jt{} 3o droaql s.lpuHIV ]suruSE stueurnSJE s(ofrcl 'c 'o sef,nPoJdeJ Jeia

(lnq

'sseF{lJorN sl

druarrnr SILI rnq 's1nos s(ueur sdnq u^eo eql lr33u dq i spege drosnlp dpo Sutrnpord puz suoulap Sulrrlorrul sz selitf,BJd lzrrSuur Jo spuF{ IIB uruopuof, trEJ uI seop ag ', clSztu Fln}?u

tsl

IIgIIA,

ls4

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

which he regards as superstitious, and hence, at least potentially, demonic 1. These include most forms of exorcisrn, the use of the scriptures ot the names of God ot telics in curing diseases, the weating of scriptural amulets, the baptism or consecration of bells and images. Ncrw, if one believes that the effects of magic are illusory, that is, exist c;nly subjectively in the imagination, and if one also wishes to have a non-magical teligion, where the effects of words and ceremonies are also purely subjective, consisting solely in a change of heart or illumination of mind, then the main distinction between diabolic magic and true religion lies in the private nature of religious effects, which, unlike many magical ones, cannot be shown to be hallucinatory. It is nonsense to say that solneone has a delusion of being comforted by reading the Gospel, but one could demonstrate that someone's belief that he had magicaliy' induced measles was a delusion. Thus \7iet, and other radical Ptotestants, are on safet ground when trying to distingthe Catholics; they have a uish magic from religion than ^re valid criterion fcrr magic producing manifest effects, even if they do not always apply it. But there .were still dangers. For, by making subjective the effects of both magic and religion, Wier comes very fieat to admitting that they are produced in the same w?|, namely, by credulity or farth suitabiy disposing the imagination. Just afte4 with Pico's help, he has refuted Alkindi's theory of the power of u'ofds, he u'rites 2:
The words are uttered frorn the priest's mouth, but they are consecrated by the power and grace of God; if magical v'hispers have any effi,cacy, thel' have some occult po'wer from a firm belief in the devil. There is indeed no efEcacy ia these words; but God most justly, on account of

1 Nearly the vrhole of Book \r of the De Praest. is about current Christian superstitions; cf. infra pp. 180-2. 2 Wier, De Praesl., V, viii, col. 535; the first sentence is quotedfromChrysostom, De Prod. Iudae Homil. I6 [ Nligne, Pat. Gr.,T.49, cols.380,389; "Verbasacerdotis ore proferuntur, Dei autem virtute consecrantur & gtatia: & magici susurri si quid habent efficaciae, id occultae virtutis habent h. certa {rducia in diabolum. Nulla vero inest ijs verbis efficacia: sed qui ijs fidunt, hos ob impiam confidentiam saepe illudi i Satana sinit iustissimus Deus."

'V6 'd srdns

iJ

z,

uou or13J ?g sJnl'u aznb .rtu,ado .rnluaprrl anbze : sadreuud ?p luns .'$:il3t?;:: ulapsn(e lnb sl11r snqrlrrrds rn]epurssz f,euop ']z.ta1o euoItrEJ sllzlllnPaJtr zsdl sa lunns urnilrtds 'ruuJe,t lcpaJf, QtuIssItuJU QPotu 'us1u3 urzlla 'auor8tlal uns uI urtua lcqtltn| .slsllT snqruorurdo ur Jntzparc lrr.rado slnf,EJlur tuzlla 1n'szltlnps;c uturnllJqo tsclod lI]nPoruPuuenb 'ollllslrdns ]tllnbar ualElllnPaJ],, :IIAxJtr urnlu?J 'ot8llat
zJeA lusPg

-rlxrf,'dd',tt'III"/!(/cI'3rO a(['zddr.r8y 1699'1oe'lTn*','\

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alJ'tat6'

parTdde dlnysserf,ns eq touu?f, tI 'JeAoeJoJ{ 'uolSrleJ Puu f,r8utu o] apntr]]E s(JeIA uIoIJ uollf,nPeP {ul dpo sI uoIJe}IJf, srl{} lng .seuo pezBd?qun uEql re]leq srurots ledar slleq pezrldsq rolllarllt\ pu? Glou to f,vnyv oB slsnrol P3]sllunlutuosxa Jer{}eq$. eas pinol dfrlnpen go o]zls B uI ]ou uosrad dur 'ral1z1 aq] Jo suoTsnlep a^rlfefqns eq] JaAe]uLIA 'to1 luop?SeJ8uoc 3q] uo Jo slleq pu" slsnf,ol eql uo Isqlro patte elQ?guolun 'alu'rtrd f,uv ef,npord touuzf, ,(aqt esnuf,aq SnollrlsJ:dns Jo IEf,ISEur 3q lsnru eseql 'slleq JO ruslldzq eq] Pu? slsnf,ol Jo uollsf,Iunlutuof,xe aqt ia:; dt.{I 'salldd? uoTBIIOJ ruory lt8ru Surqsrn8unslP JoJ uorJoltJl aloqz aI{} 1\\oLI . a.oqs '. eddtr8v tuory dlUarro ue>l?} Puz rclJv dlafzrpeuur ueAIS '.,uol8tier Solullul uollllsJadns /Y\otl,, Jo seldurzxe eql 'euo lzqJs^ diarnd u sr ,{lrlnPeJf, Pu? q}Iry uea^\}eq uopfurlslp aqt lct8eu puz uorBIIOr Jo uoT]uJodo Jo sePour eq] ueealaq lalizrcd ]f,Exa uE SI StrI] 'suotuap eIe.t SuoiSIIeI uvSsd ef,urs II3 Jo spoS eq] l"LIt a.er^ f,rtsrrlEd Islurou aLTl sploll rela 'elets IuuoIlEJ pue l?tuJou ? ur esoqt dq perrreuad lou aJE Llf,Ii{.lo' s8urqf ruJoJred ol stueas PuE 'uoISITet Wq] Jo sefulrd puz sleP?el eq] er? or{a sllrrds eq} aIIT serrlof,eq tl Inun 'dlrprPerc dla,t' l"qr Jo uos?er ,(q furds stq sasluI aq 'as1zg tf,EJ ui sl tl -+l uale 'ent] sr uoISIiaI sR{ leql dlurg tsolu se^e{eq euodue JI 'rod 'self,?rluI luJoJrad o1 lqSnoqf eq 'uele tlew tl teql InJrarnod os sI drrlnPelc PelooJ-dee6l 'qllJ sarlnbar uol8rler enrt se lsn( '/.UnPerr serlnber uorlnsredns
's1ai1aq esleJ ur
I

r'/!4d

'rro ae s.zddrr8y uror; e8usszd 8urznolo3 aql 'u.lr\o sFI eJ3-'K ]I JI su 'selonb JoIA 'eszastp Sutrnc IoJ ssrIal Jo esn eql snoJ] -?lopl sr 3r:rur-uepuof, reUV 'uor8rler ul qllz; Puz uorlnsrodns uI dlllnpero srql uee,4A.leq u/K?Jp leil"wd tluxe u? PuU a,{\ Jelsl PUV
.uures dg pepnlep eg ol {uei{t uI }snr} oqrn esoq} s/Kolle ueuo
gg

ta{tq snoidur rleql

usl^4.

r56

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

to the miracles performed by Christ, and when \fier discusses these he gir.es his own criterion: these nfraculous effects of religion are benefrctal to man (curing of diseases etc.), whereas those of magic are either useless (..g. Simon Magus flying) or
harmful (diseases produced by witchcraft, etc.). There seems no valid reason why, on these grounds, he should admit the realitv and goodness of Christ's miracles, and condemn contemp oraty religious cures of diseases. The task of taking all the magic out of Chtistianity was an impossible one; it was there right from the beginning.
Thontas Erastus

Erastus' critiquc of magic continues the tradition of G. Ir. Pico and \f,iet. But his attack on the theoretical bases of magic is more thorough and raciical, l"ris condemnations of magical practices are rnofe violent, and the influencc on his reasoning of his particular kind of religion is still more pervasive and e vident. The eflicacv of his attack is strensthened by his tendency to argue frorn expetience. Empirical arguments had very meLy been applied before to ti-ris subject, and they were capable of destroying many of the "facrs" on which magical theorics were based. But his other argurnents against magic lead him into ver\r dilficult positions. I-Iis l-rard-headed Protestantism shorvs itself not oniy in the effott, also made by G. F. Pico and Wier, to explain the magic in Christian cerentonies, but also in his frequent ^w^y use of the Bible, interpreted as literally as possible, as the supreme authority in philosophic and scientific matters 1. These chancteristics cart be seen in the refutation of the astrological basis of natural magic which Erastus gave in his tteatise on occult virtues 2. The existence of these he takes as proved by experience, remarking that "it is idle to enquire the
1 Erastus aiso goes furthcr than Wier in rejccting thc authority of Albertus Magnus, whom he considers an impious magician, as superstitious as the Platonists (see Erastus, Disputationuru De f,Iedicind txzl,a Pbilippi Paracelti Pars Prina. . ., Basileac, n.d. (circa 7572), pp. 49, 111, 1,28, 1.62). 2
l,)e Occn/tis Pbarruacorrtm Poleslalibus

...,

Basileae, 1574.

'(<urzrrrroJlulurogleqa"Jd rlrref,stsu 'outoq pas '1og uoN,, :gg 'cI "prqr 'snlsu:lg L ,.')c,r1[t rpx ;brl^sL rroucodgr,r 9ourod6rrn,, :El q t6I '11 'n1s[r1rJ'c1]olsuy e '(..ltrereu;trdrur snqcr slwcJf, set.rdord soJrl LunJEa IO\ s?uJJoJ {e:\ }n 'snqr.raprs lrrreredrur uou :eJtsi-udotd cuoltecrldllinru LUnJ()]rpouJd snqr.rr.t u;cpsrc runJ -onpr^rpur es u-rarrads enbruenb sne11 od-rc lrssn(,,) g'gt, 'tE.dd '.plqt 'snlsrlg s 'Lt-ll '1'stsaua7 :gg 'd "prgr 'snlsu;g i

onb

luntirr

rer s,tu.red

lilT1T;

,{1d;zqs IOUJa,{ sozrJurJf, snlsBJ;T

":ii.l#"llilr:'#",,"l";'H:t#i'J*fl 'tuntou3 q.rc; lzlluctuas 'cs] u;epue rlrnJ,, :Zg 'd "tocI 'r/cI 'rJO a0 'sn1se.lg I '(t-zy 'zz 'dd 'PIqr') t!/!pqy a67'1outt,r uecf ccs
:gtSt
'suu.1 's1sua2 lutlJal

tunllseleof, run.rodroc 'suur.ro3

'sanlJrA llnf,JO Jo lrrnomu

poszq f 11uct3o1o.rlsE IInJ B Jo,{ ',.a.lorur;d'"ur snqcJ 'a}trur-l sz]f,e IIclur as pndu sunuctirllalur e^rs surlLrElsqns
7,

sule.rudrs '1ln1u1s snqIUUo ?JJj snguorluJlrJ runr szurnbv suluoqJ, ,, :Zt'd "plql '.,lunssod errpnJo rJtsou snsuas sou rgn 'lnlz.lcunb rqdosoirqC nurs -srlntrB Tr nuuJns lurJesuos plnb zllsn.rg poS,, : g-V 'dd "locl 'r/c[ 'rto aO 'sn1su.lg r

t{m1auv1d Jo seruoSrlle}ur lupsala) eq} .4a.ollu oI 'LuFI ualrS ssrl Poc uJJoJ: eq] uo ssssud raglur ro ,stvLLr luefssu eqt o1 ruJoJ se^r8 uzr.u lnq (uns aq] lou,, 'n e1]olslJy " Jo Lunlf,rp snoluuJ eql 3w]f,rpzJluoc d1p1oq 'snlszl',T s.{zs '1nq l uonureua8 go rsn?r (pro.ninbe) leraua8 z s" caJII elreslrof, o] dlrq .{rru 'rLl8il rrcll} {q 'suerreatl erla 's sruJoJ Jo JeAiS eq] sr orl,4a. 'srra,traq aLI] lou 'pog sI lI 'suos?3J IEuTLU3S JO S[rroj: .liurt]rusuuJl ]noq? sJu]s aq] ol suoBfeJrp ou e^u3 3rl (prrj>l ul\to Jrsqt retJv dldElnul o] slsurrus

IIe] PIp pog su3J3LI.^\ 'le,toalotr{ 'ur3uo pDsslef u a^uq louuuf, 'uaql '1sea1 ]E sLrrJoJ clgzreSea :, serpoq dpa.r.rcq aLI] oJoJaq sruuld poo tEri] aoul ea sxsaua, Jo retdulll tsJllr eqt ruorJ tng
PelBeJf,
're.^A.od

pu" erntur.r sll se>lzl asJelrun eqt ur Surqrdra,te Llrtri.{\ uroJj pue sSurrll IIe sJpelrad qcrqrn 'raqto ro lurds Inselof, aruos tueaur oqa esorTl
.rf,errerur IreLrl ur

,(pa.teaq arlt Jo suuauJ iq 'sa:ua8i11alur Jo saf,uulsqns aterzdas aql l?r{t paeroep 'surepotu aqf IIE dlrueu q}la Jei{te8ot 'szurnby suruor{J :. Sursoddo sr erl (Jrrrolelcl puz uurlatotsuy Llloq 'uonrpurr yo dpoq
Surrr.rrap Jo dols JeqtJnJ eq] o>lz] ]ou 11r^A, oq ]nq f uraqr ssessod r{lF{rN sSurqr eq} Jo sruJoJ lunu?tsqns eq} uJo4r rueq} Jo uor}"Arrep u"{e}otsrJv Iunsn eq} se^rS eq pu? ..sfl uetqSrFa w) sesues ud\o Jno uellzn 'sraqdosoFr{d tsapaeJr{s " pu? tsaq eq} Jo uorurdo

peuru]"::';J";T: ffi,

1,':

ffii:.fiI

L9t

SNISVUE

158

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

angels (whose existence he denies 1) to be the ttansmittets and 2: preservers of specific fotms opens the rvay to polytheism of Platonic godlets, to whom God has the work He began? delegated the management of
\What is this but the invention

This admission of occult qualities, coupled with the refusal

to derive them astrologically, points directly torvatds Baconian empiricism, the patient investigation of natural phenomena,
guided by no hypotheses. For if these qualities, ot the substantial forms to which they coffespond, depend solely on the rvill of God, it is impious as well as impossible to make any a priori assunrptions about the way they afe gfouped and ordered; the only guides are experience and tJre Bible 3. After this clenial of astrological inff.uence , far mofe radtcal than Giovanni Pico's of Bacon's, we afe not sufprised to find Erastus denying in an equally sweeping mannef the teality of all the efrects of all magic as being demonic delusions; this expl^n^tion he takes from Vier, though, unlike him, he is in favour of burning u'itches a. The only kind of magic which might ptoduce real effects and be free of demons consists in ptactical natural philosophy concentfated on unusual experiments which seem, only to the ignotant, to be marvellous; he gives Potta's A[agia 5. IVataralis as an example of this This concession is only apparent: for tf effects are truly marvellous, they are hallucinations produced by demons; if they are not marvellous, they ate not magical. Erastus' main attacks on magic occuf in his Disputationes de 6. hfedicina noua Pltilippi Paracelsi Paracelsus is taken as the culmination of a magtcal tradition which includes the most diverse members: Avicenna, Alkindi, Ficino, Pomponazzi, who have
est, quim Deunculos fingete Platonicos, quibus inccpti operis partem demandarit Dcus?" 3 On Erastus and 17th centufy scicncc, cf. R. Lenoble , A'Iersenne oa /a lYaissance du A[dcanisrzte, Paris, 1943, pp. 212 seq.. a Etastus, Disp., pp. 107, 197 scq.. 5 Ibid., p. 733; even in Porta gre^t deal is to be rejected as superstition. ^ Parts zt Bdle, 1572-3; I shall quote only from 6 Thesc were published in four the First Part, in v-hich most of the discussions on magic occur.

1 Erastus, Disp. de Lled., pp. 121-2. 2 Erastus, De Occ. Ph. Pot.,p.36: "Quid hoc aliud

'((llqBlnd sllueur auuzs snllnu 'e.ltqns lndzc sluluoq snrlz anbur 'eJrxa urelf,Ee eursuluuqd nlurds ur ureurSuulr oJqeJes oeLU xe ?1ra3,, :gg .d '.plql .snlsztg e '(..snsdz1 lsa sIIIJUIp uou tuellatdurt ut nl3ag" sllelolsrJv orturu xe 'sauorllls -tadns ur crourz sruolulcl rJonuelJa; xa,,) g,-Zlg .dd'ELgl'.utu6 .d6,otr.4.J .C s '.<sn]nPaJf, enbslultu'snsolpnls suzs snld sruoDlls.rcdns otf,ruolzld slutuo luulle ul]'runtolluotuld ln'alll JI.{ lurua ]ln.{,, :0g'd "ptqr'snlsu.rg v 'tgl 'd e;dns '.,t tzzuuodurod roJ :gt .d '.plqr 'snlsz.rg I '0IZ'g0Z'dd "p'u'azalrszg 'oqtppa.t?t/U117"'urz(J/unproragracl".ruopaonjoawlrallo)...avu7o7yao1qdosoJ1r117

ul'auotyoutioruy aq'sns1ocz.rz4 o1 Suurayal sr ar{ i(,,rpualnqu sururssrnbeu sc:r pe culplql o.rd enbs[r 'lpucSoe ?g r.rrnlaof, ]rnqrJt]E rua]ulse]od ruoqzur8urul ponb,, snslsJEJBd ol .rzrlnrcd sl lt "Jls? l((lunlf,HE stns sftpr.r sou llr urunb'a.rergul Jalll? uou anbr.rtsz '1z1nd rlloDu runsJns szJlsou ssuorlpur8uwL) L-lg .dd '.plql 'sn1se.rE z 'g-Eg 'dd ''dt!(I 'sttTstt;7 r Psar{ eqt olur 1a3 puz ursrq .{ru;o lno 03 uef, dsztual krt Jo lrrrds eql ur Peuon{s"J aSerur ue }vLlt >{uq} Iir^\ puFu ]g8rr rreqt ur auo ori dlurulref, eq (lng 'seuo 'n sdus

'u?ru Jar{}oue Jo

f,nuruosoqrdsd druurpro eroru eq] pu? seuo lElrSoloi{:/(sd tltoq 'slcagra e^nrofqns Jo d]rlual eq] s]derl? eI{ '}urds Jo suorssrue ur pedeluof, uonuurS?ur eql JO Je^\od aq] dq s]JaJe olnrsuuJ] Sunnpord3ro.{lqlqrssod aqlJo uortztnJer poirz}op E selrS snlszrg 's r{f,nur oo} s}sruoluid Pu? 'elt]11 oo] olerlaq suzrle]otslJv 'ppr puq olrcl 'd 'O sa-us]sru -olrlcl snoBrlsJedns pu? snolnpeJf, er{} Jo a^r}Eluesardar 3 s3 u/Ko sF{ -}o e>lnq3J Iurseds E ue^rS .{lznsn sr oursrsJ eruB eruEs eq} }3 ! saqTuogplapruf aCJ eqt ur pelonb pr,{ r.zzvuodLuocl }uq} rzrluzlo/c[ r o8oJoarg oq] ruoJ; ou/ou/Fa///! slfl l{} uo aSussud eq} SurlnpoJdeJ dq ruFI rllptr s{u{ sntsuJg ruor{a 'tzzvuodurocl 'esuf, slq} ur 'uutrr8zru reqlouu LIlytr uouounfuof, ur tnq ?lasluF{ dq }ou 'Iooq (snts?Jg ur eJerl.&\oslo s3 'eleq pe>ll?t]? sr ourf,rd .z spetrs ef,npoJd

ol ueqt ladruoc pu? sJuts eql ]re3trrr 'tal1v u?3 uor]zurSurur Jno Jo Jel\od oq] lvrll ]nq 'uoBuurSzrur Jno eJuengur sueAEOr{ eq} luqr dpo ]ou 'sarrerleq erl tsllt ur sJeqlo eqt ruory Jeglp o] prus sr snslef,vwd.r stlrrds dq oslz .snslerzlvd.:stlrlds dq .oul]ld pu? lsf,w dq 1prpttV f pwru aq] dq dlrcerrp 'uuuacr,ry
T.zzevod:urod
:

s]f,ege elnpoJd sJ?]s eqt puz uonuur8zrur eql esoddns daql rlll{.ry\

dq uorssrursuzJ] Jo runrpotu er{} or Sulpr o))v tuaq} serznueJeslp snls?Jg '3)uanHur drztauzld puz uorlgurS?uJr er{} Jo Jera.od oq} go f,rlsrJolo?Jzr1f, uoururoo er{} Jelera.oq

uo clSuu rreq]

Sursuq

6Sl

SNISYUg

160

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

His position is based partly on empirical grounds. He refuses to admit, for example, the classic example of menstruating women tarnishing mirrors, and even suggests that experiments could easily be made to prove that they do not 1. He denies the reality of fascination produced by an ejection of spirit; but concedes that

evrl spirits, whenever, with God's permission, they

by troubling the spirits and humours, are v/ont to old women that they themselves hat'e done such works 2.

cause disease persuade wretchdd

He believes that some diseases may be transmitted by infected spirits; and asserts that the mothet's spirits affect het unborn
child

this can of course be regarded as a subjective effect. FIis arguments against the possibility of fascination, telepathy, follorvs. First, the etc., produced by emissions of spirit ^re ^s transmission is impossible: spirits are rlever votruntanly ejected; they ate rfl rlimate, and thetefore powedess, orlce they have left the body (like blood); they could not be directed, but would be dissipated in the air almost at once 4. It is difficult to see hor,v, from this position, Erastus could have explained the successful transmission of ordinary speech and music. Secondly, he denied that the images or "species" produced by the imagination petmanentiy change the nature of the spirit; he compares the spirit to a mirror which cannot be said to be red only because it is reflecting zredobject. Nloreovet, the species in the spirit are mere efEgies or shadows of things, and c rt therefore only "figure, signify, physical effects 5; in slightly tepresent", but not produce ^ny more rnodern tefms, the species of the imagination have secondaty, but not ptimaty qualities. These two negative propositions have the disadvantages of making memory and all psychosomatic phenomena, including all voluntaty nrotor-activity, inconceivable, and of being hopelessly inconsistent rvith Erastus' ov/n acceptance I lbid., p. 91. 2 Erastus, Disp., p. 107: "Solcnt nequam spiritus, quoties permissu Dei pet agitationem spirituum & humorum morbum accendcrunt, infoelicissimis aniculis persuadere, ipsas talium opefum fuisse effectrices." 3 Ibid., p. 86, 98. 4 lbid., pp. 83-103. 5 lbid., pp. 60-4.

t-but

'(,.1ct.raleuur ra jtleldtueluof, rs uorS4ar

:: -"r*f,,,

s,{2r15,, 'ra11e26

uE sp urslru?rselorcl go Buqzads) 96I 'III "tlo 'pa 'eu'ruluolq e '(1) clou ILZ'd'996l "uay ,4? 'unH,P'Jq1g',,slsr.eqrY qrra buqzap 1o 'p :96I'III'8lZ'II'ZZ6I'sl.le;1 'd"ill1 'pa'stost;7'eu8le1uo1q :

.rnrun8z r' ;nlunf, rp asnb'luzr rcsqo euoBu"l.' "ro ?g rolrrzd czrluefillelur tunlolluedurr saluaJrnf,ul solnf,o uI ln '3luoulelac luns o"lnl11sul ?Snuf, snisuJo

(r,ri'T**JfUH.'l:::L'iJ
:

T, sruIPIo

?1J3f,

lnz 'sluolleluesaslder addln|

'IPueluas

-evtdat tuznb'rse z11nu Brru sra

-"'".t(.1:T;?#Tfi;# t ;:;{#{r ;TiH$

oql ]del)v ot'douelsrsuosul Ieas]zll,l\ qlTln 'ureql pa8[qo sF{I

.3lqlg er{} Jo uor}urrdsu eur^rp aq} ur LlrluJ etnlosqE rreq} dg 'n ..s]3rop sJnel eJlue enPuoJ ]e aeddzqrse 19J,, uolSrlal IIeg] lzq] ees ]q8iru deqr luqt IaSusP eq] Pu" tusleP Padsf,se snlserg e>lll sluztseloJcl ', Iusleo e^I]f,efqns dlarnd E ol Surpzal Pu? snIt Suraq sB pesluJd puz 'uor8rlar ur dre8uulr 3iqdJourodoJqluz JoJ poeu s(ueru lsotll Sulfcalsau sE Pezlf,rlul qloq eu8ruluotr\I tlll{1r '..e1ulueul lueruef,nd uor84eJ,, eLI] ol Jueu sel{3zorddu siql 'e sl
poC Jo IIIA agt ]zrla sn IIet dlereiu daql iraunod duz e-tzq ((sPIo.4A peJf,BS,, IELII poruap oSIu SnlSuJE 'seluotuoJef, .{uz paau }ou oP serJorueru pooS qtla suztlslrtlJ ]ua84lelq l"r{} se{dut oslz stql ]nq 'otuelues puof,as ol{t ur PeIIdIuI osJnof, Jo sl rl lefuraqqap ,i1uru1d sr uol]zlrr8ull attr] uo t)e3to duz ;o sJeq uolssnuo eql '. drorueru ar{} pu" Sulpue}srePun eLIl qloq dleq rqSrtu deql (rnoPualds puu IePIo Jo 'palecnpa ssai eq] 3o seda eqf Suqirls 'lzqtr os poapur lo 'uoneluasa-rdal Jo elus aLI] JoJ Pelnlrlsul ueaq eABg Seluorue;ef, rog 'Surluaserdel Jo t"gf tnq seluouleJaf, uI rernod ou sI aJer{} roJ lelnrageut tnq snoueqdszlq d1uo tou sI slq] lErI] slsrsul eq ', suollzJado 1eu8?Lu uI Seluolueref, Jo srederd uEIlSrr{) Jo osn aql Surssnrslp ueqA 'rhructlstJtl3 l?llSzur-uou eaolr{3v ot qsIA eq} " 'l(1etuzu 's.JaI41 puu S(oflcl 'd 'C sE eIuES eql s3,1\ crSuru SuDlrzlls JoJ elllour f,rszq (snls?r-d tzl{} e}?f,IPur qIFII\ 's11nsal SnoIJnf, sef,npord uoISrTeJ ot sluerun8ru eseql Jo uoll"f,Ilddz oql ']uolulledxa dq dpo pe^ordsrP ueeq e^Eq PInof, spe5e I33I33ru gf,ns puz ('f,te 'uo11zutcsvJ cf,qladalel ur JeITeq qtrl\ elqnudulof, s?rn " uollf,? Jo sepolu Jler{t puE stulds 3ro uor}de3uof, l?3lPetu lueJln) dwurpro eqt lrzJ ul roJ i slztuep luf,Irrdure dlernd sI{ or >lf,nls aABL{ plnoqs oH 'pa?pu8otlry tln eql dq Ps3nPord slcege a^Ilf,efqns Jo

t9r

SNISYUg

162

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

feality of at least some marvellous events. The miracles in the New Testament difrer from magical effects in being teal, not illusory; how do we know this? because they wefe performed by the power of God; how do we know this ? because we afe told so in the Bible-there is no other criterion. Unfortunately the Bible also contains accounts of Some matvellous events which afe plainly not divine mitacles. \7hen dealing with the conrpetition between Aaron's and Pharaoh's magicians, Erastus has to decide, with Some reluctance, that Aaron's Sefpents wefe teal, being 1 miraculously created by God, and those of the magtcians illusory ; this is proved, rather oddly, by the real setpents' eating up the illusoty ones. Etastus' most violent attack on Ficino is as a follower of Avicenr.a. Avicenna had attributed the powefs of prophecy and
mira.cle-wotking, possessed by certain noble souls, to the influence of the Intelligences wirich nlove the heavenly bodies 2; Erastus takes the following passage ftom Ficino's Corumentary on Plato's Laus, rvhich he quotes, as an explanation of horv this influence is tfansmitted 3: The superior spirits, therefo fe, act on ouf spirits, as on their cornpanions, by the influxes of'their imaqes, as faces ate reflected in a mffrot; and bv acting on them they form them and make them like to themselves, to such a degree that [our] souls often act in almost as marvellous a w^y as the ceiestial souls are w-ont to do.
1 Erastus, Disp., pp. 39-40; [:xodus, V-tl, 10-12; cf. Pornponazzi on this, supra p. 111. Erastus 1ibid., pp. 81-2) also takes Jacob's method of ptoducing ring-strakcd and spcckled cattlc (Cenesis, XXX, 37-42) as miraculous; r.vhich is odd, since he admiticd the effccts of prcgnant fcmaics' imaginations on the foetus. The serpent questi<-in has a icing and comptricatcd history, on rvhich see the refctences given in (iodelmann,'I'ractaltts de AIaeis, Frzrncoftrrti, 1591', pp. 25 seq.. 2 Erastus, !)isp., p. 116; Avicenna, Opera, Vcnetiis, 1508, fos 20 to-vo (De Anirua (same as |'eitus \iatur:;/iunt)" tV, iv), fcrs 107 vo-108 (hletapb., X, i); cf. Andtcas Cattanius, Opus de Intellectu, et rie Causis Mirabilium Effectuun, n.p., n.d., sig. (e vi)(e viii) (tl-re wirolc of this rvork is bascd on Avicenna). 3 Erastus, Disp., p. 116: "i\lodum, pcr qucm animac Idearum lntelligentiarum participcs liunt, cxponit L\larsiiius Ficinus his verbis, Spiritus ergo superiores in
nostfos, utpotc consoftcs, imaginum duntaxat suafum inlluxibus opefantuf, quemadmodum .r.tlt.r. in spccuh,rm: atque agendo in eos formant, similesque eftrciunt: usque adco, ut animae saepc tam fermd mirabiliter, oluam coeiestcs soleant, operentur'n

Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 1501.

srpuuJf,cxa tunJoq l-!I 'srtrruoluld seJollnf, urnuolucs(J s3x)ISolJIUo ]9 seJo(ulu cssIxIA (;onbo1 slqdosolrq.l ep) cloq f,oq qns sollnu'lsl tunt.lal iruJtuetnzsut rualuletd ut raluJJJ[ ulr srqz]nd assJ uratr]slllrv ry ruJJo]EqoJdde run.ro.rf,us tunJoltdffioy snllod uou Jz']tnlo.L IJepIA stltnb'to61 rualoPJcf,q n] uV,,:BIl'd ''c{s!CI'sn1su.ll1 s 'Vg 'd '1'1291 'evtltsvgl 'tltppal alu/o7 orltlol{lJag a uJl(f a/npJ/)ra7 tacl ' ' ' 'ta.i.1. !rq!-I ntn1s[1y aoJtlp^-r s/Lu///t/.\'a6r 'snslccelerl'.,,(auot]tsodxo LunJogJcA IunJOg ttt 'tqn:l1e
snslolEJtscT lruoAuof, oc trrnf, pqr1n.1) l rnlzurdo IJELUJT+uof, cluJJc.ISuEJl stluotu rpl+ ap IlsuLIl erqdosopqcl rut{ ponb prn(;,, :8IL 'd ''ful7'sn}su-rq r "qran '('bas 96,g 'dd ''uu.t11 'dg1) AI 'IIIX "lol1 'llaqJ er{l ol sr o3uoJc;cJ or{I '(.tnTauJJquof, cuJlxztu 't;ln}ztnur.lod srluoul rpg cp pliTII unf,IleSur,ro snqrn| 'snruslndstP snllzl zrSoloaqa ul slq .rP PtS 'If,IUoltslcI edcss allos znb olf,scu 'enbsa1eze11r 'euuc:Irtv ?B lu"llqnP uoN 'rrnlucrrold

?rullllJc; 'o1aol 1a,L 'ru8r qu ruv.nb 'snqnueru srJtsolr uJoIIIqEJItu 'tztlgnp uoLI otelcl lunl 'nxngur lt3e olol urnloor ry ']t.rnqurol oe;nluu auoltuolul ulol siu8t rg lnrls 'Jnlurln sndo un].rof, pE Ens olnlJrl u-rtJclur opuunb IS [unJo^,,:'plql'oul:tg
.

(.ru n r

u;nlluvf,Llrlll lea'ulnlaoc luJAOru

ururu o s ur.\ irl rltr'r(), ",t, f "Jir::l*, r" ,|i t.?rT,rllx..r._ 'rnr3rrv^, 'rutcr;tllA IcA rart'a.,lrrrds,, :'plgl'ottlf,Iq r
.

1c,r

'c Qlnrl dauoq leelKs -1o tsour eqt els?l uq] raqlw's1stuo1u1cl aql Jo erlllds Sulluns eql dn ltr{ ol ParraJsrd erl 13r{} (selquJ isflloqwP iveelf, PuE eluosr{}ol esaql ol Pe]rrpPu os s^\ ourf,Ic c sarT elqu-rf,exe JIer{} .(q paurguo) atv rltnrl Jo spro,4A. eql lellt f,ss ol iJ,4A. aJ puv 'stsrrrolBlcf aql u?r{l sriotLleP _}o sreddrqs -ro1n lrra8qlp croLu (s.laqdosoilqd Jo Suqeeds w" I) LIns 3L{} laPun Pe^{ f,aleu elurl eJ3r{} ,{luruua-1 idlard enr} tsulz8z r(lpqulerlsarun Sutazt snqt (serJatsdru uzndASq Jo lseud-q8ry pu? uorted agr raLItEt lou Pu?

'madde o1 par{sua, arl sz

'po3 lo tseird z uulu sry} Iurql no.t

PIno,4N

:uonnsJadns puz

uorldunsaJd snordru (slsluolzlcl eql Jo lulrdlt sl droaq] elol[^4. suol]zrado IEf,ISuu uI drrlnpan Jo :>ouztJodulT

eq] t{zmfvv

eri] tJoddns ol uaLI] Pesn osls Pzq oga 'snslerzr"d su ss"If, elu?s eqt uI ourfrc stnd sPJoa s(]sIJr{J Jo esn srp sade Gsnlselg uI '8 sut?lunolu e^otu uzf tvqt qtr.vJ 3r1r lnoqu Iedsoc eip uI sPJo.4a. er{} uuguof, es3ql pu" l sallesruar{t suelzoq eLI} uzr{l slJo.4a. snollolJzlu eJour uele op snq} u?f, slnos Jno lErl] e^arleq (ourf,rd sd"s 'uuuesrrtY Puu o]"lcl tllog 'z(( 3tuo3 III/N Sels?JO puu Serf,eqdoJd 'sruzerp 'sepulnu ueqJ,, puu e^ol tuapru 'qlIvJ r1tpN sa3ueSrilelu lzllselof, or{} -edoq sPJsao] PeperP eq ]snlu PuFu er{l : solPoq dper\zeq eq} ol e>l{ oPsur eq lsnu dpoq eq; 'ssf,uanuur qf,ns 8ur-trelal JoJ Jlsseuo erzderd lsnru euo aoq seqrJ3sap ueqt ouT3IC 'T suotuep drzlplsqns JIaq] Jo sef,ua8qlelul f,m1aue1d eqf eJ? ((sJIJrds rorredns,, aseql
SNISYUg

c9r

164

V. SIXTEENTII

CENTURY

This diatribe is quite as violent in tone as any that Erastus launches against Pomponazzi and Paracelsus-he considers the fornrer militant atheist, and the latter drunken, drivelling ^ ^ blasphemer 1. It is cetainly in part because he 'uvas associated in Erastus' mind with these two vety diverse, but both religrouslv suspect, magical traditions, that Ficino is here attacked with such vehemence. Though his languate is often intemperate, Erastus' drsapptoval of Pomponazzi and Patacelsus was not without good gtounds; it is dificult for us now, after teading
the De Incantationibus, to believe that Pomponazzirvas a Christian, and there is no doubt that Patacelsus \^ras muddle-headed and

expressed religious viev's ofrensive to an orthodox member of arty churclr 2. But it was not onlv because Pomponazzi had quoted from the T'lteologia Platonica, and because Gohory had connected the De Triplici Vita with lraracelsus' De Vita Longas, that Erastus considered Fricino's nragic a danget to religion. We must remember thet the rnagic in the De Trip/ici T./ita ts only very precatiousiy non-demonic, and that in his other works, as 'we have seen, he is much lcss cautious about demons and v/ays of attracting them a. Thus Erastus, e\ren if he had not connected Ficino with Pomponazzi and Paracelsus, would irave been bound to see in Ficino's r,vork as a whole a most suspicious interest in "platonic godlets"; and it would seem, from the teference to "Egyptian mysteties", that he sav'in the De Vita coe/iths 5. corufiaranda an attempt to revive the idolatry of the tlsclepias Even when Etastus judges Ficino in the more respectable company of Plotinus, his condemnation is harsh and contemptuous. It occuts aftet a rcfutation of the rnagical power of words. Erastus begins u,ith a typically empirical argument against the natural or
mendacijs veritatis vcrba confirmari diccnrus? Ita his tcttis & planc Diabolicis Fabulis addictus fuit Ficinus, ut foctidam Platonicorum salivam lingcre, quam dulcissimum vcritatis mcl gustafe maluerit." 1 On Pomponazzi, cf . Erastus, Disp., pp, 75, 1.1.L, 178; for his opinion <-tf Paracelsus, ci. supra p. 101. 2 Cf . Lcnoble, op. cit., pp. 742-3. 3 V. supra p. L02. 4 Cf. supra pp. 45-53. 5 Cf-. supra pp. 40-42.

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99r

SNISYUU

766

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

substantial passage, not quoted by Erastus, where discusses magic that is overtly demonic, both beneficent and maleficent; and the sense of his remark is that such magicians probably do not really succeed in conrpelling demons, but are merely deluded by the demons into believing they do-a petfectly normal and orthodox explanation of black magic. That Ficino was not applying this explanation to his or,vn theory of the uis uerboram, outlined at the beginning of the Passage 1, nor to the magic of the De Vita coeliths comparanda ts quite clear from what follows his rematk on demons. Having noted that the Neoplatonists gave watnings against the craftiness of bad

there

is a

he

demons, he adds

2:

But in what way from the universally living body of the wodd, from the living stars, and other living parts of the wodd, we may, in
anaturalmanner, like farmers or doctors, absorb vital vapoufs, we cliscuss fully enough in the Thitd Book of the De l/ita.

Nevertheless, although in this patticulaf case he intetprets Ficino dishonestly, and although in general he tfeats him with a complete lack of understanding and sympathy, Erastus' ctiticism was, from a Chtistian point of view, justified. The demons, though they m^y have been good solatian ones, ate lurking even in the De T/ita coe/itils comparanda, and Ficino knew they were. Erastus, by finding and quoting the remarkably indiscreet passage in the Commentary on the Laa',r, showed that in Ficino's mind the apparently innocent practices of the De T'ita Triplici were closely connected with plainly demonic, thaumaturgic magic. 1 'I'lrere are other, much fuller expositions of thc t,it uerborum in tricino, e.g.
()p. Omn., pp. 1217-8, 1309 seq. (Conn. in CraQ/.). 2 Ficino, Op. Omn., p. 1749: "Qua [orig.: quia] ratione cx corporc mundi ubique vivo, vir,'isquc tum stellis, tum cacteris mundi partibus naturale quodam, quasi

agricolarum, medicorumque more vitales carpere auras [orig.: aures.l valeamus, satis in libro de Vita tertio disputamus."

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sirriryrg(cr sulitduT aNv usrirwvH3

k)

168

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

mention suffumigations, and perhaps Champier inserted them to show that he also disapptoved of Ficino's Orphic singing, with its special incense for each hymn 1. I{e then exclaims: "Alas, how much impiety lies hid under the cover of asttology"'. But he rnakes some attempt to defend Ficino, by quoting from the '4d
Lectoreru

of the De f ita coa/itr)s contbarandas:

you do not approve of talismans, which utere hor.vever invented tc> benefit men's health, but which I mysellt do not so much approve of as merely describe, then dismiss them, with my pefmission, even, if you wish, on mY aclvice. But at all events, unless vou disregard iife itself, cio not disregard medicines strengthened bv sotne celestial suPport. For I have long since discovered b,u frequent experiment that there is as n-luch clifibrence between rnedicines of this kind and those made without astrological selectiou as between wine and water.

If

On this Chanrpier makes the shrewd comment: "See the $''A)' Marsilio himself speaks, as if uncetain of his owlr mind (ut a. He then recalls that the De [/ita coelitils conparanda. ambiguas)" u pufpofts to be a commentary on Plotinus and may therefore be taken as merely aft exposition of Plotinus' vievu-s, and finally he quotes Ficino's conventionai declaration of submission to the judgment of the church. Elservhere Champier condernns Ficino's magic emphatically and rvithout reserves 6:
1 Cf. supra p.23. 2 Champi"t, Du ptnd. I,'., sig. d iij ro: "I-Ieu cluallta impietas sub urnbra astroiogiae lrtitit, Miscreor secte huius miserrime ; quc sui ncscit misereri. trt dum aliis salutem & bona eventura prcsagire frustra iaborat: ipsa clephantino [sic] tnorb,.r

tabescens: cancfum quoque usquc ad animc suc il-ttctiofa Se rpefe sinit." 3 Ficino, Op. Oni., p. 530: "Si ncrn probas irnagincs astronomicas alioquin prrr valitudinc morlalium adinvcntas, quxs & ego non tam probo quam narfo' has utiquc me concedente, ac etiam si vis consulcnte dimittito. r\Icdicirtas saltcm cclesti quodam adminiculo confrtmatas, nisi fortc vitam neglexcris, ne negligitotc. Ego cnim frcquenti jarncliu experientia compertum habeo tantuln interesse inter medicinas

huiusmodi atque alias absque delectu astrologico factas, quantum intct mcrum

c -Champier, ibid., sig. diif vo: "Vide qualiter ipse Marsilius ut ambiguus loquatur." 5 V. supra p. 3. 6 Champi"t, L;trth duo. Prinus de medicine claris scriptoribtts..., fl.P., n.d., fo viif vo: "Iletbas gemmasque sanitatis gratia sine ulla incantatione deferre concessunl est. Ymagines vero astrologorum characteresque preter signum crucis penitus damnantrri. De quibus etiam apud nostros theologos & philosophos multa reperies: & precipu" ,prd marsilium llcinum platonicum libro tertio de ttiplici vita: sed hec

&

aquam."

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691

gUAgdqA CTNY UgIdI^IYHf,

170

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

about herbs, stones, and aromas, symPhonies and hymns, by which they [sc. the Egyptian priests] propitiated those spirits put into statues and images. This some sorcefefs are still wont to do (O unhappy times!), who think they have spirits shut up in rings or vessels, a most impure race of men, hostile to God and man
2 whose translation of the Herrnetica he is commenting and whom he "venerated as a father" 3; but, for anyone who had read the De Triplici Vita, this might well be taken as w^rning against ^ Ficino's magic. The cap would fit Lazadh even better; but this also seems unlikely, since Lefdvte published the Crater Flerunetis rn his 1505 edition of the Hermetica. But then, Lefdvre himself, in about 1.492, had wtitten a long tteatise on astfological rnagic, which he never published n; he was pethaps being harsh on his

It

seems

unlikely that Lefdvre is here referrtng to Ficino, ofl

o'wn effofs

5.

1 Lefdvre, cdition of the Pimander, Arclepius and Lazarelll's Crater Herrnetis, Paris, 1505, fos 57vo-58vo: "de herbis / lapidibus et aromatibus / concentibus et hymnis: quibus propiciarent spiritus illos statuis imaginibusque inditos. Quod adhuc fzcere solent / nonnulli phitonici (o scculum inf-elix) qui aut in annulis / aut vasculis se spiritus clausos haberc putant / genus hominum impurissimum / deo hominibusqueinfensum..."

2 Lefdvre's first edition of this was published by the University of Paris in 1494. in editions of Ficino's From 1516 onwards Lefdvre's commentaries frequently ^ppe^r translation of the Pimander as if they u'ere by tricino (see Kristeller, .fuppl. Ficin.,
pp. cxxx-cxxxi).

3 Lefdvre , Pimander,1494, sig. e iii ro: "Curavit... Faber Stapulensis cx viciat<; exemplari hoc opus reddere castigatum: tum amore N{arsilij (quem tanquam patrem veneratur) tum Nletcutij sapientie magnitudine promotus." a See Lynn Thorndike, A Hi$0ry of Magic and Experimental .\'cience, IV, Columbia U.P.,7934, p.513. 5 This .hu.tg" in Lefevrc's attitude may be due to the condemnation in 1494 of thc astrologer Simon de Phares (see Thomdike, op. cit., IV, 153-4, 545 seq.).

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Nrcrog Nvuf (S)

1,72

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY
Heptaplollleres

^ Lutheran, a Calvinist, a F,agan, a J.*, a l\Ioirammedan, and a Naturalist, fot the (,trreligion, the ancient nucleus of religious
truth, v'hich is included in all theit religions, and whicl-r, restored to its original sinrplicity, will reunite them ail. This nucleus is eventually founcl in the decalogue, u'hich is "ipsissima ler natur^e" L. The principles b1. which this seatch is pruided, as u'ell as its conclusion, are Jr-idaic: the mue religion must be absolutelr. monotheistic, and it must pror.ide Law, rigid and precise ^ ^ ethical system based on rev'ards and punisl-rments. Christianity fails on both counts and is rejected 2. The absolute transcerldancc and uniqueness of God is preserved by making Him the onlv incorporeal being in the universe; all souls or minds, angelic, demonic and irumafl are corpofeal, vety subtle atrd "spiritual", but extended and locaiize.d 3. The bteak in the continuity of the chain of being between God and the created wotld is made as complete as possible. In consequence, ail the functions performed bv an immanent God are thrown on to the higher created beings, the ang;els and demons. God, after the act of creation, is idle, and the u'ork of ordering and preserving the universe is carried out, in accordance with Ifis immutable wili, by thesc higher invisible a. The visible corporeal souls, most of which ^re angels or denions are the heavenly bodies 5. Demons are evil, but nevertheless fulfil God's wiil; they are the avengers, who
alrcad,v rcached thc fir-ral stagc of their cvolution as early as 1566 (date of lJoditrs' ,Iietltodus). 1 Bodin, Co/ktque, ed. Chauvire, p.94, cf. ibid., pp. 67,87,94-8; from hcrc on

Tlre

is

search, conducted

by a Catholic,

true natural religion.

(IJept., ed. Noack, p. 1.46) to thc end the dialogue is a defence of Judaism as thc

t E.g. Bodin, Col/., ed. Chauvirc, pp. 141 seq. (attack on authcnticity of Gospcls, bascd on N'larcion), 161. (impossibility of Incarnation), 163 seq. (against ethics of Gospels), X66 seq. (against Trinity), 181 scq. (against Original Sin and Redemption); Hept., cd. Noack, pp. 2I3 seq.,249 seq.,26t seq., 268 seq., 297 seq. 3 Bodin, 7'lteatre de la \iat., pp.737-771 (Uniu. Nat. Th., pp. 511-535); Hept., ed. Noack, pp. 37-41,. a Bodin, Ifept., cd. Noack, pp. 48-50, 55 seq.; 7-h. de la l{at., p. 773, 913 seq. (Uniu. IVat. Tlt., pp. 536,631 seq.). 5 Flept., ed. Noack, pp.91 seq.; Bodin thinks thataftu death good human souls become angels or stars, and bad ones demons (ibid., pp.93-4,100-1; Th. de la Nat., pp.771-784, Uniu. Nat. Tb., pp. 535-544), cf. infra p. 797.

'G-wS'dd''rU'/pN 'nlun) f-SSq 'dd "sop pl ap 'q-L'ot tg oJ "plql 'os.ral sltll Jo esn ar.uzs 3r 1(uoa;egl peJe^of,srp tou eq sseupe{zu .,{qt tugl 'tul1v auttu otun sde}s fq dn oB noql tpqs reI{tIaN) 9Z 'yy'snpoxg iot-ot 0Z oJ "ttotua6J 'tlPog e '(gtt 'd 'ul.reg 'pe "u376J 'tltoIf ae 'p in6oJodV) TZI'd'ZLg1'vzugO,{gn|;:frrz
:

'f-tg 'dd'>peo51 'Pe "/{aI{


'('bcs 1ge 'dd",/-L'7a7tr'01u11)

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'e urEre^nos neIC el ug ua JOTIDB rnod 'slnauadns xnarcl Sel rerntz xnarp-druap >g 'stnetleJul suoluezq sap uadow el red nlnol luo 'npualua uarq szd luziz.u sanbruolei4 anb ec : dn1 V ploIp tuIA uo<nb surz '1e1nz uos p Jetuotu tnod zelSop
sa1

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ap rnetuar3 nerq puur8 ai dc xnef, rrd ry 'xnalql slltad ry se8u11 sa1 terllla'sargttcrs Tr seJe]f,ewf, sai) 'seurudq sap 'xneleur sap 'xn?urluu sap 'seqrer{ sep uadou e1 rud ry 'glardux etueJ}xa eun ellol n"eq un (zppuzJlJ{ snf,Icl lf,Ip euJl.uor) apuow el terteru tnod zqnos ]uzJlnof, n np orlrud ?l JerT ]ueinal rnb xnar
'arnatredns erDzd ?l p .Inaue_Iur epuoru

go r3urlzedg 'pog urory [v*e paurn] aABq daqr u dplzld aoqs suorrrep puq Surdoidrue ,,{q 'oqzYr. 'sJeJelJos dluulpro uutlt trisrerllouour Jo {lpnd eq} o} t"aJqt sno.ra8u?P eJour tvJ v erz faq; ',{lrurlrp oqr Jo suol}uuzrua raqSFI eq} o)'sanorttlop r\aqt ptru srvls ail] qSnorqr 'plrorn elqrsues er{} ruorJ dn spuel qllqa '3weq Jo irruqf, snonulluo:l z Suipuef,su dq pog qf,ser uuf, euo ]Etll droetlt er{} uo peseq sr d8rneq} Jo crSzru Jleqt eluis 'eruarueqal rzlncrlwd i{tliN 'ulapour puz luelfuz 's}stuotzldoap eq} ryvllv plnoqs erl tvLlt oroJerelll panedxe aq ot st lI 's8ulaq Pet?erl Jo uonrouol ro drqsroa, eq] ol pzei IIIrN tl teL1t weJ srq urory seluof crlSeru IIE Jo prr.orddusrp e]zuorssud sill 'e dz.to.r(ue suotuoP dq pesnuo eJaln sruJots IIE lerl] lqnop ou pzq eq eJuIS 'rtSutu rruouep dq urots ? esnzr u?Lu e wql Sutrr.eqeq ur drlnog1p ou o^Etl 'eldruzxa roJ 'p1nor eH 'z snolf,Eofge puu f,Iuouep sr cr8utu IIE t?q] eAeIIeq plnoqs eq ruqr Sursudrns tou sr tI 'suatr4utt pJnloa Jo >lro,{\ oq} IIE JOAo e-l"l s1e8ue puz suourep u1pog JoJ aruls 'r Burdortsep puu Sunuarurol 'Sulqsrund dq arnsnf aur,l.tp e]n3exa
g,LT

NIOOg

774

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Bodin does not nrention Ficino in this connexion 1, but only Agrippa, Pico and the "nouveaux Academiques", that is, the ancient Neopiatonic r,vriters on magic, whom Ficino had been the fitst to translate. Agripp^, he says', compose des caracteres, qu'il dit propres aux l)aemons de chacune planette, lescluelz characteres il veut estre gravez au metal propre

chacune planette, a I'heure qu'elles sont en leur exaltation ou maison, avec une conjonction aimable, & veut alors qu'on ayt aussi la plante, la pierre, & I'animal propre i chacune planett, & de tout cela c1u'on face un sacrifice i la Pianette, & quelquefois f imaqe de la Planette, & ies Hymnes d'L)rphee le Sorcief, ausquelles le Prince de la Mirande s'est trop arrest6 sous ombre de Phiiosophie, quand il dict les hymnes d'Orphee n'avoir pas moins de puissance en la Magie, que ies hymnes

de Davicl en la Cabale. . . & se vante d'avoir le premier decouveft ie secret cles Hymnes d'Orphee 3.

This condemnation of planetary mzgic coilbined with Orphic l{ymns is relevant to Ficino not only because it describes his nragic quite accufately, whether Bodin was awate of this of not, but also because the passages in Agrippa refetred to bv Bodin rn many cases copied word are largely based on Ficino, and ^re a. for word Though tsodin would in any case have disapproved of this Neoplatonic magic, the fact that he finds it in Agtippa makes his condernnation harsher. For he habitualt)' .ullt Agrippa "le }faistre Sorcier" and believes that tl"re spurious 4th Booli of the De Occaltrt Pbilosopl,,ia ts the key to ail the test 5. If Agrippa practised this magic, it was plainly diabolic; whereas Bodin thinks that the ancient Neoplatonists were genuinely, if misguidedly, trying to reach God, and should be classed as idolaters rather than as sorcerei.s 6.
(Llniu.

fcrllm naturaliumquc sapientiam ir me primum in eis rcpertam"; rbid., Concl. No. 4: "Sicut irymni l)avid opcri Cabalac mirabiliter cicserviunt, ita hymni Orphci operi vcre licitac & naturalis i\lagiac." 4 V. supra p.92. 5 Bodin, Denton., fo 51 vo; cf. fo 20 (Agrippa's black dtg). 6 lbid., fcr 20: "Jagoit qu'il semble que les Academiques, que j'ay dict, en [sc.
secretam divinarum

1 He d<>cs sometimcs cite }ricino, e.g,. Dentcn., fo 72 vo; Tb. de la Nat., p. 70-i t\at. 7'Lt., p. 506). 2 lJ<rdin, Demon., fo 19 vo-20. 3 (;. Pico, O1t. ()mn.. 1,572, p. 106: "Conclusiones numero xxxi secundum propriam opinioncm dc modo intclligcndi hymnos Orphei sccundum '\Iagiam, id est

'l0I

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's-ser'r-e8'dd.:iril:?.n":l!:3::ii:$

",

..'nJICI p elqz:l.r8e esoL]f, a.rrcJ lu:rc)sucd sp,nb npr.rJ]lE'scnbtioqrtll suadou rzd se.rn]n+ sesor.{f, se1 rto.ne5s cp lucsse5.roga.s z1r.nb sJ;of,rre'JnoJ-ra lla.lzd u3 }Lros rnb xncr du 'sJlr:.loq szd uc'ru sruru 'sJ.rJsrrlopr ?]sc uJlq 1u() '7ud cp rB 'grr:eqr ap 'ectlsn( ap seloe snol suESIBJ r5r'suzusne( rp'suulrd']rrcure:Iulus suEAIA xnerp-.,tu-rcp soJlne ?p cJnf,Jeyd 'snuerl 'euurg 'o11ody 's.ru1'q 'snuJnluq '.raltdnf luarot.rd rg 'luato:topv eJuet -orr8l :rud ry 'ollrolf,suof, cp 9rt:rldrurs JLrn .rzd rnb 'suedz.1 seJlnu rg 'sanbtut)]Eld sel

anb ruop suosrp snoN,, :o^ 0Z oj "plql l,,sdurr] uos cp 1ng tnb JJIf,Jos puzrS snld eI erl Es elnol ?trse u It tE) ielq?]se]op ?]Jrdrxl red esn z uc zddl.r8v sletu :aJrvJ uelq q lurrollu f, ry 'Jllc.rJ:r -rrd ry 'cluzJou8r JBd luelosn [el8ey1 e1 cp tuzsued do3 auuoq "l .,rlauardns aq] Lrlpog esn !crsnur pu? spJorN roacd eql fo ]IAe Jo dluuotrrpzrr roJ 'Irl.lt 'peluaserder 'o pl^uCl qrla I Parudurof, (spo8 w8vd 'sneqdrg '. sJuTES orlt puz drz1,q 'snsaf tltla "3utpue tnq Jo tsll B S3r\r3 ulPog eJeq Puu-s3JnlEJJf ,{11uar eJ? oL{/K 'spo8 (Poo pJllus-os 'rassel o] PssssJPPE 3Ju sutu{q raqlo IP s?eJaq,4a. euo elil Jo sesrsJd essqt SulSurs ur etrun ot alqs ew SalatlloJdadag eqt ur sJ3>l?eds orlt IIB f suru{q }uelruu PooB dpo 3ti} eJ? stuluscl aeJqsH erll 'erro snorSrleJ E sT rsaod sql Jo esn PooS .{1uo erlJ, 'r 6(seJ3Jf,zJE3 sJnel u3 tusisaLu el ue luo]urnutetSvJ]al] nelcl ep lrrou ?J3us ?[' pu?J8 er ]ueillnos sefrldurof, ses ry,, sddIJSv : Lueq] Jo eIELu suurfrSslu esn snordlur sLIl .{q u^\oqs sI sPJola. .&\eJqeH Jo Jaaod lzrr8zur e{I 'e ap?Lu Sureq Jet}nq dots 'dcua8u fruoluep qSnotql 'llla ruluscl ur?t.ref, ? Jo esJe^ ur?]ra) 3 (slKotl>l tuESEed dre.ta sz 'elduzre rog ']JeJe JEInfnJzd auo JoJ sPro.tA. Jo ulnurJoJ rElnfnJud euc ot puodsar stfese eLI] e3nPoJd cqa suorusp oLIl : dlzoruoruep (urpog o] Surprocru 's>Fozn suonuJedo I'etrr8uur ur spJo.&\Jo re/a.od eqt ]ng', a8un8uu[ paJJus 'lvat oLI] e^"i{ aucp sa.ef eql-urpog JoJ ef,JoJ I?rf,adse 'esJno3 Jo (scr{ se(uuu aerqaH enJ] Jrar{} sSurqr 8ur,r.r8 s(tuzpv tuoU a8un8uul srqt Jo uor]s^rJep Isnsn eq] :eSrnliuzl ccleJnlvu,, Jo droegr erl] uo dllrud Pessq sE/I\ Jarleq sF{J 'spJo.^A' Jo rsaod lzclSeu aqt ur P3^arl3q JIesuFI eq esnsfaq osp ]nq 77rn lrsud Jelql eql Jo ouo oq ot sneqdJo >loot eq esnzf,eq puu " 'rlSzur f,ruolzldoeN uJaporu uI lwd tuvtrodun w pef,E1d {eql 'aES dpq8rr eq s? 'asnzreq dpo dlrzqnced se suwdpl crqdro oql pepr?8ar ulpog

lou

(snoraSuzp

9LI

NICIOg

176

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

ln contrast with the teiigiousl;r powerfui monotheistic

songs of

David, Orpheus' hymns were the demonically powerful liturgy of a diabolical, polytheistic prisca ntagiar. Bodin's belief in astrology is necessarily moderate, stopping short of exact predictions and horoscopes, becar-lse there afe so many invisible demons and angels doing things all the time, that observation of just the visible angels, i.e. the stats, could not suffice to know the future. He does nevertheless defend the reality of planetary influences, and approves of astrology being
used in medicine and natural science, citing Thonras Aqr,rinas and Calvin as authotities fot this "droict usage" of asttology 2. He defines his own position by giving G. F. Pico and N'{elanchthon as two extremes to be avoided 3:
Mais 1l y a de grans pefsonnages qui poLu n'avoir pas sepaf6 le droit usage d'Astrologie de l'abus, ont tir6 plusieurs en erreur: c'est i sgavoir Jean Frangois Pic, Prince de la Mirande, qui I'a blasm6e outre mesure, & Philippe N{elancton, qui s'est pat ttop anest6. }r l'Astroiogie divinatrice.

But the real danget of astrology is that it may be another path leading to Neoplatonic magic and polytheism:
i\{ais je ne puis passet p^t souffrance, ce que Jean Picus Prince tle la Nfirande, aux positions Magiques escript, que la N{agie naturelle n'est que la pratique de la Physique, i[ui est le filet auquel Satlian attire les plus gentils esprits, qui pensent que par la force des choses naturelles on attirera, voire on forcera les puissances celestes a.

Bodin then gives a sinister interpretation of one of Pico's Orphic


1 (-lf. Bodin, Demon., f<-rs 2 vo (on Satan, "Orphee i'appelle aussi le gtand Daemon vcnfjeur: Et comme il estoit maistre Sotcier il luy cirante un hymne"),20 (on Pico and Orphic Hyn'ins, "on void que ces hymnes sont faicts i I'honneut de Sathan, i quoy se rapofte ce que dict Picus, Frustra naturam adit, Eti Pana non. attraxerit", cf . infra p. f i7). Bodin of course accepts the ordinaty lfoses-Plato part of the prisca tbeolagia (Hept., ed. Noack, pp.49-50,66,70, L87), which can bc uscd to provc that Judaism is the Urreligion. 2 Bodin, Deruon., fos 30 vo-33 ; cf . 7'b. de la Nat., pp. 790-907 (Uniu. nvat. f h .
pp.549-623). e Denon., fo 209 fo-vo.

4 Derton., fo 37 vo; G. Pico, Op. Ornn., p.

104.

'((1) arou sLt'derdns 'oy es"I"'ar?

7!-';:7;q":lf:S i

z uBqtBS ruagaddz xnarrqaH sa1 enb ec 'uz4 ep toru el md nPuolue luo suerf,uz sal snol JzJ 'u"r{lus anborrut vttte(v mb 'arrp q lse(f, 'uz4 grnle etnvcv rnb 'se11aJn]Eu sasoqc sep asn uo lu?eu Jnod
:

66uIEA UI

eJnwN r{r?oJdd? IIIA uscl paperltv tou


LLT
NICIOg

sBr{

oqa eH,, tsauLrsn/tuT)

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

(4) DEr. Rro

Del Rio's encyclopaedic book on magic 1 is representative of Catholic anti-magical views cf a moderate and weil-infotmed kind. Ile was intelligent and liberal enough to convert JustusLipsius 2. His sober criticism of Ficino carries therefore greater weight than the stronger condemirations of extreme anti-magicai wliters, such as Erastus or Bodtn, v'h<-r were, mofeover, judging him from a non-catholic standpoint. Like most of the opponents of magic, Del Rio concedes the theoretical possibilitv of a good, natural magic, but in fact condemns all secuiar magical practices as superstitious and demonic. FIe claims that tlie prevalence of magic and sorcery in i-ris own time is due to the spread of lreresy, which they follow as a shadou' does a bocly 3-a rather lash statement in view of some of the Catholic practices he has himself to defend against the clrarge of superstition. Bad magic derives ultimately from Zoroaster, Orpheus, and the other prisci filagt 4; but Del Rio also accepts, parallel to these, a good prisca magia deriving from Adarn, by which he rneans natural science, inciuding "good" astrology 5. This "good" asttology has very narrow limits, which are the sarne as those of Pico's ,4duersus ,4stro/ogiam, of which he expresses his approval o. He firmly denies that the heavens
ate animated, and that occult qualities are astrologically caused 7, L I)isqaisitionum .il[agiacarun Libri 5'cx, . . . auctore A[arlino Del-Rio .5'ociet. Iesu
Presblt.

L L.

Licent. et 7'/teol. Doct. olim in Academia Graetcensi, et 5'almanticensi, publico

,1, Script.

Profetsore,... Coloniae Agrippinae,7679 eailicr editions: Lovanii, 15991600 (1st ed.); Venetiis, 1616 (considerably expanded), and many subscquent oncs. 2 See Dict. de Tltdol. Catl:.. art. Del Rio, T. 4, col. 262. 3 l)el P.io, Disq. L[ag., Proloqaiurn: "Haetesibus profectd, ut umbram corpori, sic magicam spurcitiem ancillati, adeo manifestum est, ut proterviae sit negare." a Del Rio, Disq.,I, iii, pp.8 seq.; I, iv, qu. ii, p.53.

5 lbid., [, iii, p. 9. 6 lbid., I, iii, qu. i, p. 13. ? Ibid., f, iv, qu. ii, pp, 47-9.

'gV'd '11 'b ',r1 'I "PIql 3r l..iurn.roEeru srrJnsns anble sllqls srlnprJls f,B sr3grlroq uI etrIurs ptnb tnr : seJotunq leracluraluor :p lrua1 suuoo,rold urunlleEl Pu ?g 'euonzltSof, sIJoloP q ujnluluu lIguJlsIP oBul sElIAEns snluef,uof, zsdl,, :99'd'II'b'll'I "bsl7'ottt IeflO/.a
-nPou Ef,tuotulel{ 2t'
z.rdns jr) rtsnur pue spro.{\ Jo sesn g puu V ueo.tr}aq uoltf,ul}slp sulss eql Surlziu dq luaurnS.ru slql setnJal JIesuIr{ vzz,uodutod :t-16 'dd "quottt1 ag' 'tzzvuoduro.l .G,-ZZZ.ci e.r3ur'3r) suzu:sll"lJo uonrz lucrsdqd,tlcrnd aqlJo rnolz3l ui sluaurn8rz

snorua8ut s<ou?lJls3 elnJet

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souuz :rlul y)r])tauq rellntu ezrrroqreDsc1,,:(IZ'd 'lll'nb 'lll'I ''PIql) 31oP33uE s<Jaqlou 3t{1 Iznsnun 3ur,no11o; cLll sJlcl eq qf,lq.& lnoqu 'snloo; cq] uo uotluutSeull 'nb 'lll 'I ''PIqI r Jo s]3eJe er{t w 'os.rnol 1o 'palatleq ol5 ;pg-'ZZ-BI'dd 'lr-lti

-af,rperiru .radurcs srr^qo .ruuf,o,\ rn 'selsrctu.l urn1grpd uruof,rls?rself,f,-{ oporu tunTlg trrradad (z1ou un1 rqr sar) s+ultu snld tunapxss

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'redsrq.ar z to eilsllla 3 eq o] luueul tou dpta$a) s?a qlrtl,.lt 'Sur8uts lIqdJO sILT lou lnq 'peuurapuos eq plnoa surrusTl?] s(ourfld ]uauIn8J" slql {g 'uraql JoJ slfaga y Swur?ll dq f,rsnur pu" spJotN Jo SeSn g a{} PuoJOP lotluuf, nod ',{zs ot sI l"ql i? su?rf,r8Bur el{l Jo s;edsn{'l\\ pus sellslu,ls' Surssrq pue f,Hlrroq aqt uI slql elri eleq] sr lztla f srnournq atp ledtue] pu? eqloos 'do( ol Surtnur dq 'puu 'tited 3o srq8nor{} ulorJ Inos aq} :}f,?ltslP 'uor]Blnpotu SnoIUotuJ?tT elp Pu" 'Jf,af,trof, eIIl Jo 4eslf sseulee.4A.S eql (uoISEnsJJd : s]le+le Tsflsntu JoJ su Puu I"uop?J dq parnpord aru {ro}rro Jo stleIls eI{} rPLII sle.,Ksuz olg IeCt 's o} srotrro PUB SuEIf,IsnIx }uelf,u? J:o sF{} froddns luettlnSlu ({rolero puB sISnrI e>IIl pelJoa str33$e orT] Jo sts{ Suol eAuS puu deqr l?qt rualll Jo ssrueJeP IEIeAes slt{ Jo euo sz Lu?rNJoJ lnd pvq vzvuoduro.l 'PerueP dgu:nzqdrue osp sI risnur ro sPJoln Jo Suruuaur ro .{}nreq eqt dq sicago e3nPoJd suonr}uelul }"LtI ', ,(13n Io lqTllnzeq reqtle ew deql Wq] Sutduap dq '.ll orJos sseu{3n req] ro 'fo[ Sutrnpotd ,,finzaq rrrq] qSnorqr e]Eredo rg8rul esarll t"L]t ]uourn?w oiTt selnJel aLI 'sueurstls] tro saJn8g eq] qlIA Suilzep uaLT,15 'rueq] Jo sasn g puu y er{} uoe^\taq uoltrullsrP J"elf, z Suulzur dq 'seBzuJI puz f,Isntu 'sp:io,tr ;o e3JoJ I33I3Eu eql Jo u tsul?8" san8w aq tzLI] Surlsaretut sl lI uoE"uzldxe lBrnt"u 'r (snlsuJ-d sB sPunorS aturs eq] qsnlu uo PerueP sT 'lrrrds uulunq egt dq pn4oa&olll! sln eq] Jo uolssrrusTJetl oq] 'u8uru lvtrrfev Jo srszq lunuesso raqlouv 'rtSutu f,ir,;;er:rald 'Ito -]IJIds Jo (leIn]?u puz f,IuotueP qloq IoJ seszq aq] SuhoureJ sntll

6Ll

OIU

TSCT

180

V. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

In the course of his refutation of the uis uerboratn Dei Rio


attacks the "naturaI" theoty of language. Although Hebrew fiwy be a sacred language, it has no especial powet; it was Adam, not God, who gave Hebrew names to things. "\flhatever the Platonists may say, names have been given by human choice"; God, howevet, does know the teal names-but no one else does 1. Del Ric, theu, although he is unusually credulous about suPernatural occuffences 2, destroys the bases of natural magic in much the same rf,'ay as the other writers we have discussed in this chaptef, and, like them, tends to regard all rnagical pfactices as demonic and diabolic. But, uniike them, he had the additionai task of trying to show that certain Catholic ptactices v'ere essentially different from magical opefations. This he was obliged to dn, since these pfactices had already been attacked as magical by Ptotestants such as Wier, Erastus and Godelmann, and had t. been presented as magical by the equivocal Agrippa \'y'ith regard to amulets u,'orn round the neci<, fcrr example, Del R.io has to assert that, if they are talisrnans, anii etfects prcduceC ate due Christian anruiets, the same to the devil, but that, if tirey ^re effects are due. to the bene{icence of Gocl. Aftet a formal summary of his afguntents that talismans cal] have no natrlral porvet from figutes, words or planetary influences, and can i:roduce effects only by demonic agency, he v'rites a: I Ibid., I, i.r, q. iii, p. 5[i ("Quiccprid cnim Piatonici dicant, notnina sunt hon-iitrutn :rrbitratu indita"), l, iv, q. i, p. 36. 2 Arrrong n-l.r,ny possiblc cxamplcs I givc thc ftrllor-;ing charuring stotv (I)i.rq., II, q. xi..', p. L73): "\/erissim;im rrarrationem his adjungo. In hoc ipso .[]clgio firit

ncfarius quidani; clui va.ccac sc commiscuit. Post visa bos pracgnatrs, ir; post aiici''rot mcltsLts cderc m..isc..il'.rm foctum, non vitulunr, scC pucrum: adfudre 1t{)11 unlls, dccprc rnatris veccac crdcntcm utcro adspcxcrunt, lc.;atulnque dc tcrra nutrici treclidcrunt, adolcvit pucr, baptizatus, & institritus Christirtrr.a,: vitac praeccplis, iriei:rii se acldixit: & pi:o p2ltre, serid pocn.i.tclrtiac vecat opclibus: iromo quidcnr purlc.tlrs, sed qui scntiat in a.nimo propcnsiont:s -,'accitlls, pasccti,.ii prata, & hcrbas rimirtriitdo." 3 Cf. supra pp.1,61, (fir:rstus), 154 (Vicr), 94 (Agrippa); in ansrvctinq thc attacks on baptized bclls, I)cl ltit' (L)i:q., \'i, ii, s. iii, q. iii, p. 10"/3) tsscrts ttrcir cilicacy in dispcliing clemons ancl storms, but dcnies thrt thcy arc L'oeirtizcd-thcy arc r:.rcrcly
blcsscd rnd nrrmccl.

rentiac crrusa Sanct()rLrlx rcliquias, ccrcrls agni l)ci cfligics, Evaugclium S. Joannis, Pselmuin Iiavidis, & similia Scripturac tcstimot:ia seclim gcstare collo aDpcnsa:

a l)ci Itto, l)isq., f. iv, q. iv, p.60: "CluanCo ipsis vcrbis modc, scriptionis, ctucium 1rr1mcro, fiqura vei similibus spcs nou ponitur: pium & sanctum est, revc-

ezrserf,f,q f,eu

(rrsrruord ayzl rrr{ru snecr ?rnb,, :99

'd'ui1i"11i('J*#Jtfii;tfft"l"

Jr s'ruoql uo:g-11Ey's1or'r1 'a'a,slwqtng'lt. "q/o)'10?t/J rU ,r,2'rlrerdns


rpuoJJn3rroo osorlr.r8 icn 'auollnlllsul Ie(f xe ruel?Jnlzu.ledns lueqzq -ro 'r-.rrit"X""$ urnrlzlueruzJf,Es {r lunJolueruzJlzs oclnw.lo3 'aerllszlsal33g sacerd '"lPog ]nf,rs ?JeJ :}?qoqzq rrrnsJns ap'srtzlnrtrE a tzqaqzq prnbrmb,,,Vg'd'lil'b'^l'I "plql r
I

i..snpueqr.rf,spz eBIluelf,i+oucq

"bas i.17 'dd 'gl 's ',u 'b 'II '.I 'III ''piql JJ req 'srlzlnleutodns 1u:l '.ln1uo epul rnb 'snloege pas

duz'qrrnLi) eq] or

parze^e'"J';i,fi:,f;:'futffi:1:'lJJll;

elu suoEs]uirsur sslf,EJrru Poo:l (rul?lr ]oulIztr euo 'dil ImrBEtu Jo stfoge eLI] tull:) 'alduruxa JoJ -Jor{ln" uo d1e1os slser eslnluJojt luluetuJlus PtIs I?f,I8uLU usea}oq uonf,unslP 3q] uonuu?ldxo laqile qlla 'z Psf,unouoJd eJu sPxoa urBlJJf, Jr dpo prrc ?l ]lege uitilJel u ernPoJd or rrrd Jo 3sILtIoJd 3 apuI s?r{ po9 lzqr '.(1erll?u 'aulnruro3 lElusrusJsus Jo drzega aql Jo uonlluzldxa 'lsru.roq1 3rlj ol Pesoddo sE 'lsrlclrq eql sI slql 'ulaq] qlIA Sulptrutor aturS siH Jo Lrollf,e aql ruory ro 'po9 dq pelnlrlsur uoaq Sul,teq urory retnod lurnwu;edns a-Luq 'tusll;oxe fo puu slelueur -E:cvS pue stu.?urz.rf,?S eq] JO eeinuirol aqt 'sta.,(erd lzrr8rntr1 d?Po] se qrnru I a.Loqe urorJ p"ri rI 'pzq fesrnf, eLI] 'rs] r1 .,(tzrga reAetz{,rr' lne : r rrEruoa 3ql dq >lunJp ((J3]0r\ Je]]Ig,, ai{} {q Jo esrnf eri] Jo spro/\\ ar{} i(Q pasnPord erc (rJI-* ,blrn8 e 3io qSrql Suqlor puu,{11aq uello^\s oqi) s}f,rya slr -}Etlt soruep ol5 I3C'1ystaqruny7 ur peqrJf,sap asJnf, lunllr e{} {}I.yr Suiluap uoLIA 'Jeqto ou pLrE sp.Toa Jo ur?rlJef, euo uo slrolloJ lle;ie eqr '{lqullopun "lnLuJoJ 'aleq esnuf,eq 'sJueuluJf,zs arll ur {llzrcadsa 'splo.lo. Jo stuJoJ puz sradurd ]os tnoqz op?Lrr aq dpsza os touuur luruap slgt lng '(g xuuafiolllx e lunilqral? s!n) sarn8g Jo spJo.a Jo JOAod prlSzru aqr uo spusdep JetlEI orlt Jo dcurgJe aq] tztll Suriuap dq slelnruv uvn -spt) puz suzursrp] rrooaateg qsln8urtsrp ot ldruallu uB sI sHI 'Po9 Jo ef,uef,u -eueq eq] o] patnqlruv aq lsnlu pu? Ierntzutadns eq IITIN 'aruaq] seslJ duu 3r '1cage aqt rnq i sernldrns dloH eqt Jo saluorunsel reqto pu? 'ru1zs4 e 'uqo[ 'rS Jo ledsog er4t'ta6y snu7T eqt Jo se8zurr uexz^\ 's]uIES Jo slrlal >lf,au ar{} punor Sunq .ttwt o1 'eouaraleJ Jo lJe ve sz 'd1oq ll 'e>lrJqrns ur Jo 'sessoJ3 er{} Jo adegs puu Jeqwnu eq} ur
pue snord sr
'Sunrrzn aqt Jo sellesureql sproa aqr dlararu ur parqd sl adoq ou uaq/N

18r

OIU TICI

782

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

This is the salrle kind of distinction as that made by the Protestants between miracles and magical opefations 1; but their authority was the Bible alone, whereas Del Rio also has to include "what has been revealed to the Church" , an authority which, of course, his Protestant adversaries did not accept. Thus when he has to answer this attack by Godelman on transubstantiation 2: That by the utterance of these five words, /toc e$ enint corl>us meutl, spoken aloud, they alter the substance of the bread, that they draw the body of Christ down from Fleaven, and that they change the bread into it, this thev [sc. the Catholics] persuade themseives and others in a plainly magical way.

Del Rio

authorities (Theologians and Councils) to support the doctrine of transubstantiation a. On these grounds aione Del Rio \r;as bound to condemn Ficino's magic; for there is no authority, either in the Scriptures, nor in the traditions c;f the Church, for claiming that God ever promised to do anything in response to the Orphic Hymns, or even the most monotheistic of the Orphic fragrnents. N{oreover, Del Rio, Uke Bodin 5, connects these rvith Agrippa, v'ho for him
1 V. supra pp. 156, 1,62. * Johann (icorg Godclmnnn, T'raclalus de Alagis, T:enefcis et Lawiis, tieque ltis rt';li cogrtoscenriis ei j,tuiendi-r..., ljrancofr-rrti, 1.591, I, r,i, p. 57: "prolatir-,r,c horum
ciuinquc verborum, hoc esi cnirn corpus mcurn cum halitu ftlcta, sc panis substantiam rnutare, corplls Cirristi de coelo dctraherc, & in hc-rc ilium convcrtcrc, plane magice

only cty out in horror at such blasphemy, jeer at Chemnitz' siniilitude of the Real Presence being contained in the bread as tr1. prffse or a j^tt, and then give a long list of ^
cart

sibi & alijsrpcrsuadent."

Christum vclut dolio aut marsupio includis: dignus hoc nomine, qui insutus culleo vel dr-rlio in profluentem conjicietis . . . Non est etiam Nlagicum, putare panem in corpus Christi ccnvcrti: immo est ficiei articulus, ab initio Ecclesiac sempcr rctentus." cf. ibid., III, P. I1, q" iv, s. viii, pp. 487-8 (refutation Felix Nlaleolus, who had used the pow-cr of the rvotds of consecration as an afgulnent in favour of beneficent incantations). 5 Del Rio did not approve of Bodin; he lists the Ddmonomanie among the bad books on magic, together with the Picarrix, Agrippa, Pomponazzi, etc., and writes

of stonc. a l)cl ltio, l)isc1., VI, iii pp. i087-8: "O linguam cradicandam stirpitus! os impurum & biasphemias cvt>rncns assidud! crgo Christus Doininus Nlagus ? . . . sane

a r\lartin Chemnitz, .\'ecunda Pars .Exaininis Decretorrnr Concilii f'rideuli;ii . . ., Franct;liurri ad Moenunr, 1599, p.140; the I-uthcrans, rvith their vaguc and ill-defined doctriue r,rf thc Real Presencc, wcre not in a good position for throrving this kincl

'L-gV 'dd'11 'b ',r1 1"bsle 'olg I"O v 'bas gg1 'dd zrdns 'r1 I '(..olltT1rlttrt1 uput;tlsdruc Ptu 'luns uue.L eun|,,) 69 'd "bs1q 'olg IsC '.(llsezl'[pu sngTJorJclep ez]r,r onbsn ultui{ uI 'z:lolleru suepll lnb '411t reslur JaEI{,, :Eurpua "7ua1t5"uo1,1 0(I eqt ur suoltttuurct s.zddt-r8y uo'11;'80I'dd'lll'U'b'U
z,

"bryCI'3o !.,4uus1d eurtlzlolopl'stldrns rolndy ry reqdr1; sltrrudl-1 xa'ltled zlduraxe 'snn1 e11r sels,(u eznb 'luerrpur f,oq srlzs QUuoN 'Infresuor soJouor{ souIAIC 0131 f,oq srS.red ise s{rurrs onled.rcd ugnb Iqll uu}sq 'ut1uq O'7//au0//D.tou/aruu/0J lautluzJ'JtxutpJ -atclutot ponb 'stututilu tlas tJlro ,ttuil/p.tar{o to t!/tl/.t/rt ua//lJot nas aputo{ opuonb '7s0 oratxrtru stlt sl/u/ua(t, sn[ht:lryatxo Jtq r)lualuzt auotTtso{otd nsQ u7 (snSzruttl:.ry rinbur) !o/tJ?t 'ot11 1c61 itrx'd'1""1 'I ''q(I'JtO a17'vddtt3y r

o1rtb,,:(rg'd'ill'b'nl 'I "[x!(f

'(II 'd'lll'l

"bt!e) <<erztol rnlzSor urluJeurrl sns.rord Tr uou()-r.rt'lt1el tnbol sllll cp snlucl tnb tn 'epusuEnd erpz s]lrJETd slrlSolorl{.L uJnf, anbonb tllnul laetqdosoltqd ezprlos utqnb iurnlourlcp asso runJoJlulqcivg o;od.rrir cie nt sn1d,, :a/.t/J/oa(1.F. io,ux/D\i )prJa(trua siLI j() 'pareqiueuleJ eq IIIIN lt 'sdr.tr eseql Jo JeILIf, 3{,1 'r dq,n ,{vs lou seop 'suulSoioeq] agl ,{q pauruopuoJ a}u ft3zlu JO sPul{ snolJlrl }Eqr suoiluelu eli qSnori] (lulloud 'sllutrtal {1n.rl eq su 'asnrlaq >1su} drussarau u sriT] sJaprsuo3 eq !* s'qjurill etrrullIuut pottr?Jll" oAEq lgSrur Jrsnlu .sneLIdJO qf,TLI,\\ uI SIEA\ eq] uo esrnof,slP 3uo1 s(rurloucl jto uoTlurnJeJ PsllureP slLl LII srn3f,o rI 'sner{dJo i{}yN uorxsuuof, l)elrPul uu suq lI tlSnoril 'srnu.{11 llr;ldJo eq} q}1.11

Pelf,euuos 'la,teznotl 'Jou sI oulf,L{ uo >lJ?:}lu uIstLI S(Oru IeC 'uurtrISulu lIIoq?IP slt{l uIory Suruoo '..8utqlrug v r{}JO.t\ lou,, atE suollltuuldxa lvnrlrrds '1zln1utr qlns 'z pesserPPs tlefqo eq] o] rlo llJrds Jo .^A.out snoldof, eJotu ? ef,npord dqarerll puu uoItzuISsLuI s(rc]zJodo ar{} ;o Jeaod eq} rlf,ns teqr SulPueieJd zddrrSy osn ou sl lI
esEeJsur suonsluuf,ur

4-{rrelopr Jo IIirJ 'snralndy Jo sSul}Ir.tr eq} puu sner{dlg ;o surudq aq] wory er" qf,rq^\ 's>1eas e]zlllur rno.r. saldruzxe eql dq u.&\oqs dlrcap etlnb lou sn{]. sI 'sJnouorI eurlrP urz}qo o} uodza.{l. s1{} L[]la enunuos (uzlS 'uu1zg O ilFS nod iaur?s eql ureurer nod .tlpnradrad ,noq
:

surrBlf,xe ueql

olu Ieo

entrll

..'Surdzrd er?

qlnrl srql Jo re'nod aqr i [spron e18uls aq] Jo ra,,nod eq] o] 'rs] pappu sr ef,uelues 3r{} uI pern?}uof (sn7r,urqttp. eri} s,(zs) qlnJ} ai{l esn?f,eq,, ', sprorn el:Jurs Jo uzrl] reqtw sef,ualues Jo 'suonuluuf,ur ur 'f,iv:rrye r;rtaet8 aq] uo zddrrSy selonb oIU IeC '6(snSzurrqcrv,, og] 'suzrclSzlu >lr"lq or{} Jo Jalql aq} sI ool
gBI OIU
TSCI

e.zn qllqa o1 (uatuutz) rrrrds Jo r?]s er{l Jo uor}utedo puu er{} to uorwJqeleJ ? surc}uor Suos ro slnruroJ ag} ueqa\ tserearS st

784

V.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

was by Ficinian magic, and Del Rio quotes from Paolini Ficino's rules for composing planetary music. On these he comments: "Al1 these we reject as futile and as the coverings and wrappings of forbidden magic" 1, which, as v'e have seen, they were. His reasons for believing that Paolini's and Ficino's music and magic 'u/ere demonic follow fronr his genenl rcjection, already mentioned, of the principles on which theories of natutal or spiritual magic wele based, especially his denial of planetary conespondences and affinities, and need not be examined hete. Del Rio evidently has no particular dislike of Ficino, and, on occasions, everr does his best to defend him. Speaking of astrological medicine, he says 2: Ficino, who when he \t'as younger defended these things (rn the De Vita coelitirs comparanda), later confessed that he wrote them, not to recommend them, but that, with Plotinus, he might deride the follies of the astrologers.

and then refers to llicino's apologetic letter to Poliziano B. 'Ihis goes much further than Ficino himself, who, even in his most disingenuous excuses, never had the efftontery to claim that the anti-astrological work. Nor did Del Rio De T/.C.C. \^,as ^n really think it was. When condemning Paracelsus' use of waxen images for curing magically caused diseases, he remarks that this superstition is of a different kind front that "which N'Iatsilio Ficino imbibed from the astrologers "4. A little later he returns to
that planetary manufactr,rre of images, which Marsilio Ficino, in the De Vita coeliths comparanda, rashly passed on from Plotinus and the Arabs; in which book he does not seem to have given an adequate antidote to the poisons there displayed. For he behaves like an unskilful and foolish host, who places before his guests many healthy dishes, but also manv tainted with poison, and merely says: eat the healthy ones, leave the

2 Dcl F.io, Disq.,IV, iii, q. i, p. 6'1.2: "Marsilius Ficinus, qui junior ista defenderat [side reference to the De V.C.C.f, eadem postea fatetur scripsisse, non ut probaret, sed ut cum Plotino astrologorum ineptias rideret."
Del Rio, Disq,, VI, ii, q. i, p. 967: "est [sc. haec superstitio] dissimilis illi, quam ex Astrologis Marsilius Ficinus obtrusit, de quo postea."

& involucra, reijcimus".

Ibid., pp. 50-1: "quac omnia nos, ut futilia & magiae vetitae quaedam tegmina

3 a

V. supra p. 54.

ur prnbrrz ornrrred runf, urpnb : areperf, srrrr saurau.,,r p,onb(snllod .,ip'orqii cp-'oasuac o8a urapl'e.xlqns uctulJrslP aEIIA l-unuedz u:ql ruqnb eJrqg urnwueo3ur treJoJ Junl eEAIAuof, stluetdug 'aJepezi ?p 'lesse s"arluof, f,ot{ cJepn.[ .]zesuar urnpuaur]sqz snqtnb Ilxou III1 luIS 'luzenb xtl nsouSIP ln slllPuof, .le.rzrrPul f,cU :SoI\oU a}lnburlal .snqrrztrnps IUIIIII]SaA OIJEA lII?l .sDlntu ruql uI tnb .trale:rp trExztlrnp rg 'sotrnqurl oueuea uruTlo sollnut 'sarulnlzs sollntu soqtc larauoddu orllluof, Inb '.rolz,trrruor sntrdeur Tr snlr3sul f,u oputrad urlue 1IJEJ 'aJOPPE runtroPlluB runeuopl sqzs sltlqlqxe sluauaa JnlePIA uou oJgII onb 'epuzlrduror snlrlaoc 31IA eP .qrl snurrrd snllrsrBT{ lrplp"Jt ?soln3ued snqlqBrY T) oullolcl xa ulunb 'urrr.rulcuzld urruorlef,IJqzJ uTEIII tunur8zrur ?9 "',, :ZL6'd'l 'b 'll \L ''bt!(J 'olg ]a(f r

*i:"tit#i -;;;;

']sn[ 'rnelrt Jo ]Iriod lIIotl]"J e urorJ'Puz 'etzlepouJ eur o] sruoes gpuoJo{tllo) s(/!/azr ppA aQ eql uo 1f,IPIoa

sHI 'f,rsruu drzleuzld oq] sI seLISP 'snouoslod lnq 'partds dg8tq aq] Jo ouo ]"q] 'iut1oz4 uo >13"]1u s(oIu Iec urory 'ao.ou4 l(puequ aa ]nq 'suzrus4z] s(oulf,Id dluo selIrf,sds uolwuruoPuof, slI{I
'r Inos s<euo olur Jelue snoreSuzp Surqfdue lal o1 usr{t reqlw 'pautecuo) eIE seSeulr aseql se rEJ SB '}I ur Surqlou e^a{eq ol re}}aq sr lr ter1l 'Iooq sry} }noq? aruus erp >iuF{l I 'aJII slq ol lslr luepl^e r{f,ns un} u?r{} 'SunsBJ uedep rcqtw Plno-'l\ 'uaql 'lsan8 asl-ta, V '{uaql arn(ur ot Puz slsan8 S.euo Jo >lf,otu ? e>l?ul ol eq PFo^\ sHI 'ul?lsqB Plnoqs euo s{ulq} aq qlF{rN ruou esoq} or? <Pef,Ids dlsnouzl os Pu 'reqloue ruory euo plol aq dprcq uuo ,(aql t?ql 'seqsrp dueur os Suorue 'I{f,Iq.nt e}Ef,IPur tou saoP pue f seuo InJUIJEq

98I

OIU

TSCT

frNowno n
TVnIrUrds

f IDVHT

SNVISHTSI

'ru IUVd

frNowno n
TVnIrUrds

f IDVHT

.tusrf,rlrduo crl urreltr srql iq palsirr; eq or III]s tueos sJtJlogf,s uJOPou l..snruns t]nnbes 'dd't891 Irr{ru EeJel"u.rd pnllz'tulz.In1zti h) 'sou }a3l{eplr\ tunsurs,) :(runtueoo\I) Z-l 'r1odua1q 'XI t.tq!7'c1Qtu1fi 11t{ot'd o/xnt prttloM u{waY aQ"otse1e;, o.t}Ptrtrl[ru.gl

anblp

'dd 'Zt6I tllanq 'sutapltrV aql ,to 7s1'tg aqJ olta[al 'ursnc61 uuA "J 'N J] "lr.A e sv 'oTttEt"tg zultrL[ a(J 'qr.rz]n1.1 s]saS8ns (t6 'ItI 't06I-LSBI ier-tnos eiquqotd 'nopuo-1 '.:1e 'sr11g 'Surppadg 'pe 's7,to,n1 't7aa2 la sTtig{n2 saiuqa{ lun?unras snqtut7r,to ttrclitul$ a77) uof,lrt{ irusr:rol5 luclf,uz Q}IA\ SeI}IrrWE snolrgo s"LI l.I r

(lnos aurofeq Suq li ]Eq] snonue] os Je]luLu SI ]urds ']uellues Si : d.roprpuJluor-JPs ^{lslzrpeurlq puu dlrpnrr eru derlr sesn 'de.3-dors 'puortrp"Jt Jretl] uJ 'Luetsds sn1 uI lJud luuuodlur {la,t z f,v1d sluJel ([nos pu" dpoq ue3.{\]eq dz8 eqr eSprrq o} pesn ueeq eseqt puu 3uo1 puq qriqa csalr]lrlTJap str pu" lrrrds 'siuJe] Jo ]es 3uo ssa eJeLI] rng 'plol? o] 8u.{tl s?.44. oq rusrlznP oll} PaIId{uI sruf,a} IsrIoI} -TpuJt ]sour o3uIS 'd8o1out{uJel Jo sorllnlgp slqzJadnsul }solulz i{}IA pef,EJi dlqufrrreul sEA orseiel '.Iel}ztu JOAo Pullu Jo e3uePuef, -SuBJl Oq] aAoLuaJ ol-Sluels,{S JeIr, we IIv dirueu Jo uIS{tsnP atll eruof,ralo ot ldule]]s uE sr -q3lqa 'dtldosolrqd srq] Sutpunodxe ti1 urer{}Jo qloq 'uolt?areseld-Jtros JoJ eJTSOp esues rlll,,n P3,{\oPue Pu" s PsTJIEILixe

" 'plo, puz lor{ 'saldlcwrd or'a.t uee,lrleQ }rluuof, v

sr '1v1te1vut pu? F,]uoul l{}oq 'elueJlnlco drala ldlrpr8rr Puv dricr1drurs SuIIu"ts JO uoltf,nJtsuof, ?0?{ o ue sl ll 'z sf,uelJadxa -esuas uo paszq aq ot IIIIEIT stl Jo etrds uI 'lt1Snoq] Jo suollrPur] ef,uzssr?uJg Jo I?^ozrpatu o] tf,edseJ Lilpt uI3]s{s lalou z '1utq} I 's?ra, ', dltnbrluu uI slooJ PEtl tl q8noqr '{qdosoltqd s.orselel .uaq] dq pa8pelaou>lf,z dluedo sT (oluoq roJ ldef,xe 'puu ]uaPrle sI dgdosopqd JIoI{} uo e3uangul esoLI.4A. 'orse1al Jo sJea.olloJ eJnsuour aluos ul IIE arz (rerd?tltr lxou aql ur d1e1u-rzdes Pa]?3J] eq IIIIN paursu-tsEl eqr) 'zllauudruv) Prtv uof,?g 'otsle4 'otuoq
orsarul (t) NO]VTI 'OISUEd 'OINOCI 'OISSTEI 'IA Uf,IdVHf

190

VI.

TELESIANS

or soul so gross that it has become matter, is extended 1. This implies that there is only a diffetence of degree between mind and matter, in which case the notion of spirit is supetfluous, since its function 'was to connect two categories differing absolutely in quality. For Telesio this difficulty does not arise, since evefything is both sentient and extended. He is not using spirit as a bridge-concept, but in ordet to account for centralized systems of activity, paticulady animais and men. Evefl individual part of man can feel, think, re ct, like all other matter; hut man
organtzed whole. To evidently perforrns these functions as ^fl explain this Telesio uses medical spirits, 'tx''hich $'ere traciitionallv irot and rarrfied, and therefote, according to his ow-n principles, especiaiiy sentient and active. By means of these spirits Telesio accounts for the organic unity of neady all human functions and activites, both bodily and mental. T'hete is evidently no logical room in Telesio's philosoph; for an immaterial and transcendent soul or mind-indeed it seents specially designed to avoid it. l{e does nevertheless introduce one; not merely, I think, because he wishes to keep within tl-re bounds of Christian orthodoxv, but because he sees that his monistic system does not comprehend all the activities of man. His two principles, hot and cold, and his spirit, the most efficaciously hot kind of matter, tend always and only towatd their self-ptesefvation; the wholes built out of them, animals and men, must do this and no more. "Ihus, in this system, all man's actions, thoughts and desires should be purely utilitarian. In a remarkably eloquent chapter, particulady in vier,v of the porridge-like quality of his style, Telesio points out that in fact man persistently desires and seeks things that do not lead to his pfesefvation or pleasufe; that he is always "anxiously", restlessly, looking for w-hat is fat beyond these, for useless knowledge, fot God, for eternity 2.
Cf. F-icino, Op. Omn,. p. 535, quoted above p. 13 note 3. 'Ielesio, De Rerum Nal., V, ii, p. 178: "Non scilicet animaiium reliquorum ritu, in earum rerum sensu, cognitioneque, ac fruitione, d quibus nutritur, servatufque, & voluptate afficitur, acquiescere homo videtur; sed aiiatum quarumvis, vel earum, quae nullo ipsi usui esse, quin quae nullo pforsus comprehendi possunt sensu, &

1 2

Itrlnb',

?urtuns anbsauolr,redo (r.u'rtru?rsqns snrsdr enbre(J'ur..'rua

;itltitfiff#l;

'dlereu lou sela, ]urds Jloql eouls 'rr8uru Jruouep-uou ? alorr{f,? o} ]ln3HIP eJolu l{3nur sulK }I '1nos lzerodrof,ur u? lda4 oqa 'z11au -udurz3 puz uof,zg s? r{Jns 'suursalel eq} JoJ ua^E 'xopoi{}roun dlsseledor{ aJoJoJor{} puz 'uol8r1er z dlsnorlqo otrnb Sureq cr8zru IzntFlds sH uele stuerrerd aq l?qt '1uo8 alrrurlln eq] uo u?q] roqtrJ 'saSzls asoqt uo srszqdure ]u?]suof, dq dpo sl ]I 'lpanta t2t///aa oq] puz uzur Jo puru eq] o] dn dzn aq] uo seSzls d11zer erz ]rnds f,rursof, puz lmds u?runq sq pu" 'Jueluoc lgnlfellelur vE el?r{ saop SurSurs rrqd.rg sF{ ! ourcrg ur }uaserd fpeaqv sun ra8uzp sFII 'uor8qer ,{rzulpro LIIITK elrsuolxaor dlernlosqr ro Jruoruep aq raqtra lsnur cr8uu lunrrrrds due ueqr 'pegnuapr or? o/Kl eql JI '1nos aq] sqrosqz rrrrds eqr JI 'popio^? eq uuc rrSzru Jluowop;o reliuup aLIl t?qt peur.ElLrtaLrr sr purur Jo Inos Jo ef,uJpuetr -suzr] oql _il dpo sr tI 'uorlrp?rt prrSzu; sq] rlt prrnJf, {1rz1ncrr.red sI Inos o1 ]Ftds Jo uor]uleJ oqJ 'ouIf,IC ot tlr?Aolal arE cr8ztu uo sd\era esoq.ls. 'uorzg srf,u?Jd 'reqdosopqd euo puz 'u11euzdr-uz3 puu orsrJcl : suznrHeru uerurf,rd ,(lparqnopun o^4N] asrrduoc op suzrselel oqJ 'sle8uz Jo suoluep Jo uorluelrelur aLIt lnorllr-4o. 'uztu puz 'suur.{q 'suzrusrlzl 'lrsnru 'sluls raql:8ol s{u[ q]F{tN wnlpeul aq] su 'lr.rtds uo poJluef, osle sr rr8uru lvrnleu s(ourf,rC esnuf,eq puu 'lbolorlorisd puz dSolols-(qd rraql ur uonou purpr?3 v sE ]urds paur?ter 'sl.{ tuory dlqzraprsuof, pa8rarrrp senldos -op{d rleq} s}cadser rorl}o ul rlSnoqt 'saldlrsp sFI esnzf,oq 'sn lo3i luzilodul sl dqdosopgd s<olsalel w lrrrds Jo elgJ eql 'drzssef,euun lI o>lzur '1nos ei{} qJosqe liltt tr pu" 'uur.rztrlr}n uzqt arolu eq ot Suqee3l ro Suruos?oJ str /Koll" 'trrrds o] eJoru ept{ u a.trB !elnrasur dlsnorrrqo sr ruets,{s srqr ut Inos Jo ldaruof, eql Jo uortrsod aq; 'Jnorlzqeq I"JntBu '1urulo,r sll uror; dn pruruz uu 3urlnd ecro3l dlprozn-reqlo ']uepuecsuzJl v Jo ]vt4t sr lrrids eqr ol Inos or{} Jo uoBuleJ er{I '8uruosuar pu" Surrrrerred '8ur1aag 'pelzluarro dgzcrpzrd 'drzurpto W seop Jlosll dq rrlds aql f Suqeeg pu? uonzldruatuof, u"rwlrlnn-uou o] pelrtu{ ew dgdosopqd w Inos uerrrS-pog '1zlrs]stuurr er{}Jo 'ueqt 'suonrunJ or{I
sGorsalal

16l

OISSTAT

192
as

vr.

TELESTANS

for Fiiino or afly medical theorist, an insttument used by the soul for feeling and thinking; the spirit itself felt and thought,

and differed from the soul only by having lower, more practical objects of thought and feeling. For these who, like Donio and perhaps Persio, did identify soul and spitit magic inevitably became religion, or religion magic.

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rp

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'atmsstouatT?d.g

3o alclrrsrp tql OIUOCI slFc (969 '[ '']lc 'pc's7"ro7;11 'll] 'AI ''|uan.g 'zt6nV a61) tttrds aql rro 8urlr.r'n uof,ug i'bx 179'dd'ZL8L'ezuctrq'o1saJa.1 zutptpuJag'oullua.rorg

np

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'uourllrre3 oIIeCI eos oruoq uO 'orsole-r

oosof,uJd aos orsJIc,L qtp\ u()BJJUU():) s<orrroq uo i6-99'g'dd'1ggy'cucpseg 'aotttoJorJ ruaE4y 'ss/ualr.f uruuaqdai.5'pf.,'Jnltptlalto auuloJ /lpJttlpu'ouor1 lts ptab uapuoq 'aufi11ot lu/./J0/t/tsst/oqot( VaTuo tuutoqdosoJtrlcf ruu/'tuu.tottpau lal// ost]t3stp'snqtnb u7 :zn(T rrqtT ryillulofI ornlpN a6J 'tqdosoJrqd ,6? lrlpanr xutluawo3 tnto1 rutlnfiitV r

trrrds eqt areq^\ olzld e{I 'e q}ruw.ll puz ILISII q}lrt uorun Jo elzts ulno sll 'rg8rlap elq?^refuoful i{}FN '-{o[ua dilunladrad 'sa:uz]s puu -qns a>lll dq prpunoJJns ',{lsrrzr}uor ilu ruory rEJ $eId v ut (LuJoJ pelloped s ut (ueqa ]nfl 'z tr ol 'llpN u 'dpoq sq] selsel lr prue8uof, dlluaunua oq plnoqs q3lqa 'uns oq] Jo ]q3[ ]rerrp eql J?eq ]ouu?f ]r ]3q] P3J3]13 os sI elEls lernluu sll ]?ql sr dpoq 'uoll3^res3.rd-Jles lu tJoJe aql uI uortrpuor ddduqun slr uSrs Jo v ur pa8e'3ue aJOJ InJSSeJf,ns ,r{lizrtwd dpo pu? snolxuE '}UrJsuol " -aJeLI] sl pu? 'sauoq puu qseH sssJf 'PIor {q passedurocue sr "lrrP 'tuernl 'toLI dq PepunoJJns lr dpoq eqt ut tnq : saruutsqns epqns ,{lerqua sEA tr eJeLI,\r euo eq eJoJeJeqr plnoln. uonun}rs leepr s}I 'soruutsqns luf,rluepr ro .Tr?lrrurs LIll.\\ JIJSIT Surlnrn dq peleri{J" tseq sr rlJlr{l\\ (UoTluuessJd u.4A.o s}l ot sp31 wql []lzu]ru ,luy urory arnsusld sur?8 'es1e eI[ ']rrlds oq] ]"LI] sew]s "3urqlArarre eq 'selclrrulrd rrursaleJ, qlla aruup.rof,f,z uI 'dlruzllslrg3 r{tlrtr tueltreeJSz olur .{qdososlrqd lzrn}zu srLI Surrq ol drr seop oruoq 'le.taznoq 'p,r, arll fE lq8ru 'turds uzrselel E uo d1a1os peseq dSoiors,{qd puu dSoloqrdsd z tnq 'poC dq pasryw Inos iuerodrof,uT uv Jo uonueLlr ou >looq eqt tnoqSnorql pu5 o] peslrdrns tou oJr e.44. snql 'r lunof,f,B otur q]rul palzelal 3un1z1 1ou 'sr t"q] 'Joqdos -opqd IzJnlEu ? Jo .4a.er^ Jo lurod 3Li] ruory uur.u Jo wen ol Suro8 sl aq luqt se3unouuz '(tgSt) slafflllFl onupN aCJ sr.q ur'oruoq

orNoc

(z)

794

VI. TELESIANS

will do this is evidently the tky; for he had eadier stated that the substance most like rnan's spirit is the aether of the heavens 1.
Then comes Donio's Peroratio: I have set down here all that natural philosophy can tell of man's nature and spirit. If indeed this spirit is the soul itself, to which God has promised (if it keeps His law) the enjoyment of celestial goods, and for whose salvation CI{RIST JE,SUS GOD, KING AND OUR LORD, died, then we Christians must resoJ.ve, ovefcoming nature with God's help, to keep our spirit while in this body entirely uncofrupted by all adverse forces, so that after.leaving the body it may have thatfate which God Himself shall give it 2. If spirit and soul are not identical, Donio goes on, then the nature of the latter is absolutely unknowable, though u/e nlay, if we like, suppose that the functions of the spirit ate in some way due to the soul.
etiam nobilioribus cognatis sociirit, si eo ioci erit, quo conttatia sint procul; ibi. vero immutatus, incorruptus, suoque statu fruens, usque i similibus fotus & vegetatus, & lumine aeternum cxhiiaratus; intcqer, aequus, clatus, hilaris, convenientissimam, jucundissimamque exercens operationem, summis omnibus ftucns bonis, nihii extri quaerefls amplius, nunc incornprehensibili voluptate, perpetutm agitabit."

1 lbid., II, iv, p. 66. 2 Donio, De l"'at. flom., pp. 122: "Ifacc habui, REX Screnissime, quae naturali phiiosophia magistra scriberem tibi de natvta hominis, deque humano spiritu. Qui quidcm spiritus si est ea ipsa anima, cui i Dco (modo custodiat eius lcgem) fruitio coelestium bonorum promisszr est: & pro cuius salute CHRISTUS IESUS DEUS, REX E'I' DOI,IINUS NOS'IER, mortuus est: statuendum nobis christianis, eum, DEO sic providcnte, potentia naturam supcrantc, sub hoc corpotc ab omni vi impetentium servari omnino incorruptum: & post discessum i corpore habiturun-l
eam sortern, quam ipse dederit |)EUS."

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dSoiorrsu Jo lzsslws1p sF{I ', sessnf,slp osl? eLI qf,Iqa 'secuangut drzleuzld rI Jo uolxaldtuo: orT] uI uaqt JaqluJ ']rrrds aq] ur (ssau -alrluelur ,{lwpcurzd 'santpqzdzr i?}ueui sue3lu aq qcrq^t iq) esnuf, lutuattrupunJ eqt sPUg orsJed au&a7m smueJoJrrp Jo 1o 'pep-rz8aJsrp oq aou tsnLtl lsanber sHI

sI eJOq] IEI{1 lunsolaf, puz el}qns os sauroraq lI eldoed snorua8ut {ra,r ur wql puu 'suerrzaq eq} selqtlleseJ llrrds er{} rro eJnlsu oql ]EI{} Pio} eJE ea JeAosJoI/{ 'q ((OJOA II ouof,rP OSO] e}lOtLI uI,, suopuuzldre luJouinrl puz pcrsolorls? aqr f etnlosq" susalu ou dq sr

' ' ' olq rzp ?snJur tov e Brs elueru EI ou-lof, 'ouieil.roC arie auoruido Eu?s BIIz etuof,rp?rluoJ red otztardlalur ;essa Po 'ortrpnrSetci rv)tJ opuotu Iap csoJ red aqc opuelul uotr 'alelnlzu troEvtnradsr rad "qqep ollrlds oll? ourolur'fruueruo3] orard 'u8ls 'ollap or{ aqr otsenb oltnJ,
: spEOJ r1 'urrds Puu Inos eSn3i'1s3 ot PaPue] ls33i lB P?rl s 3r{ l"r{} eru,^v s?a 3LI l?q} sa}"lIPuT {ooq slq Jo Pue aq} }? alou dreuonnz3 ar{I 'oruoe uzLI} e8zn8uul l"rlJor{duleu esn o} peurliul oroul pue snoqnzf, eJotu r{loq sr olsrad-eJns atrnb }ou tuu I lnq :pug v Jo cr8uur qlla luep soop qrFI.&\ 'r(gtEi 0t//01/qc//ap outa7w,JJap o/o//t2tJ sru1 'otsred oluoluv Jo >lrort ,lpve w Lrt sJnf,f,o rueuldolelep eulzs oq] >lun{} I 'r }xetuof, snot8rlor u uI petJass? oq plnor pu? elqrssod lf,EJ uI szrn 'lurds dq Inos go uondrosqs eql 'dSoloqodsd s.orsalel Jo ]uorudolerrap srr{} }EI{} Sutrr.ord uI sI sn JoJ of,uuuodrur srg 'oruoq ur rr8ztu jo uoBuelu ou sI oJOI{I

orsuscl (S)

196

VI. TELESIANS

a danger that it may fly op to heaven to its father the Sun, as occufs in cases of ecstasy 1. There is a cosmic spirit, centted of course in the Sun, but permeating everywhete, and by nourishing our spirit with those things that contain most of it we can give ourselves "il piu bel ingegno di huomo nato".
Onde ci hanno consigliato certi savi, che chiunque vorra donar virtu all'anima sua, & anche spirito di mondo secondo Ia qualita che e'vuole apprendere, habbia gti occhi alle membra del gf^n mondo, & scielgasi quel membro di quella qualita che egli cerca) come in essempio se vortemo far lo spirito nostro solare, o partefice di virtu solare, useremo le cose solari 2.

Then foliow lists of solarian things, closely modelled on Ficino's, and we are told to do the same for Jupiter, Venus and I\{ercury. But, since man is ptimarily solafra;n, it rvould be better
to concentrate on the sun, from which we shall acquire the virtues of all the heavens; and our spirit,
quanto pir) s'assomigliera a quello del sole, tanto ci fara piu ingegnosi, & inventivi & giudiciosi, sendo tutto lucente, caldo, tenue, bianco,

mobile, & r'ivace

3.

So far we have neady the whole of F-icino's spiritual magical theory and pfactice, but lacking the essential elements of the hyrnn and tlre planetaty music a. The hymn we shall perhaps find later. Music is only mentioned casually as delighting the spirit by making it move 5. Persio is more interested in using visual means of influencing the spirit: beautiful pictures and People, clean and graceful rooms and churches 6. Odours are especially beneficial, being of a like nature to our spirit and being able I Ibid., pp. 32-3: if the pores of the body are not closed, thcte is "gran pcricolo che ii detto spirito sottilissimo divenuto nori si risolva, & licvissim<-r csscndo, cio d quanto piu puo cclcstc, se nc voli in ciel al suo padrc Sole". 2 Persio, 7-raltato, p. 35. 3 Ibid., pp. 38-9. a f'hcrc is a cautioLrs acceptance of talismans, after a mention of the planetaty 5 Ibid., p.25. 6 lbid., pp. 109-110, 119; cf.p.98, about'fitian's spirits bccoming

rings of Apollonius o['Ihyana, whose spirit was particularly solarian (ibid., pp. 39-40). ecstatically

concentratcd on his subjccts.

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llrm rr:uds lz.tJodlof Jno 'r1]eap Jaryr '1rril ,(liurarq elnl'r sr;zeru orsJscl ll?ql ltredsns tsesl 13 lsrlLu 3.^\ (sue^uell arlt Jo raqteE 3ql

'opuolas Iep Jrlt uori 'surp.ro ciu-rucl 1ap )g 'rue-rdos rior8ue rzw ,tov Joqf,us oruarlod ISoJ (oiElc 'uun1 'a1os 'a11als rlBurErLIJ ouos rlr;rrcIs ru8ap
Is atuo) ts lB 'otuarlod etlf IS IeIt iltsalaf Jrualrp enl-'unp io{J LlroJtoctr g 1z:r-ioqdute LU tsrnqtno 8ur,no11c)j ar{r sl aer8ep tstpa. ol ]ng 's (6lzrlselef,,, eluoleq pue surBls IIe jfo pagrrnd ueeq e^etl ol plES sI stelldoJcl Puu sluIES uI L{IFI^N trJrds olues sF{} sduqrad sl tI 'srnopo ot erntzu r>lll E Jo sr ]?q] trrrcls IEeJodJoJ etu?s eLI] 'tTJrds Jrlt 't1l1zn parlBuepr ua^e sdrqrad 'r1t1zn posnJuof, ,{lsnore8urp sr puFu u?rselel erl} tullt snorlqo sr }r eJeI{

'olppl rzldulaluor rad auerdos rl.rud elleu JrTES rp 1uJrds rrrsou rilu lrp?rrs elolar{f,rurz rg 'a1lru3 itsard 'rropo.p euzds E\rvl aqf,orf,Js 'olq , e}uoru zllep olveurvzl?uur(lle euosrad eilap rturds qE arrodsrp rad ? olr
'seqrrnqf, ur pesn sr esuelw dr{.lo, sl s}ql 'r slrJlsou eql qSnoJql 'ul?Jq eq]'Juas ursuJ str r{f,?al o} dpuerua^rrof,

'z runf,lu(p ararzd ? eurof

L6l

orsuad

198

VI. TELESIANS

sophy with Platonic themes, it seems to me likely that, as I suggested for Ficino 1, Persio also has in mind the Neoplatonic asttal body, which comes from the heavens, is made of the substance of the stars, and teturns whence it came'. Persio's treatise ends r,vith a long, Iyrical pt^yer to the sun, or rathef to "quel vero, unico, & trino Sole, il quale per sua immagine ha dato il sole, che ci illumina visibilmente" 3. In this FicinoJike passage a, the soul does seem to be distinguished fronr the spirit. God illuminates the former; the Sun the latter. But it is through the sun's action on the spirit that man's ingegno acquires true wisdom, an acquisition that is only pedected by God 5; those v'ho acquire v'isdom shall shine like the firmament, and those who teach it like the stars 6. The prayer ends by asking that, as the ea.gle fixes the sun rvith its eyes, so mav we, with our ingegto, always look to the true Sun, v'hich is God, rvho r,vill illunrinate us as He once hid His Light (the Son) in the pure and beautiful Virgin, whose garment is the sun and rx,'hose crown is the stats 7. Here, I think, is the missing hymn u/e u/ere looking for-the crowning, most e{ficacious part of Persio's solarian opefations on the spirit. But the fusion u'ith otdinaty religion has become complete; the distinction between the spirit and the nrind is blurred, if it is there at alI, and the distinction between the Sun and God is, to say the ieast, shaky. Fersio is not describing a reii.qious kind of magic, but a nwgical religion, a highly unorthodox kind of Christianity. 1 V. supra p. 38. 2 Pcrsio may well have tead Patrizi's Discorso della DiaersilA de i Furori Poetici

(in lris La Citta -felice, \icnetia, 1.553, fo 44), u'here di$ercnccs in poetic genius are cxplained by a detailed account of the descent of the astral body thtough the spheres. 4 Cf . supra p. 18. 3 Persi<r, Tralfato, p. 1,24. 5 Petsio, ibid., p. 128. 6 Quoted {rom Danied v. supra 197 note (5). ? Persio, ibid.: "Siaci per te dunque conccduto, o Solc, che noi conosciam bene ii primo s<;le, c pcr conscgucnte I'amiamo: c tu Vero e primo Sole conccdine che qucstc luci dclle nostre anime, per poco iucenti stclle divcliutc, a guisa de quelle celesti, chc maggior lume dal celeste Sole si beono, da te divin Sole per divino stile sieno illuminate, & a simiglianza della pura, e bella Vergine che di Sol vestita, coronata di stclle, a te sommo Sole piacque si, che in lei tua lucc nascondesti, sollevati, & alzati da questi corporali soli, imagini di te Sol vero, in te sempre collo ngegno donatoci, com'aquilc gli occhi fissi tcgniamo a te . . ."

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NocYg sroNYrrd (t)

200

VI.

TELESIANS

list of "supcfstitious and fabulous"


and preseruing health 1.

means of prolonging life But this dislike itself needs some explaining; for Bacon believed in most of the theoretical premisses on which Ficino's masic is based. Like so many apparently fierce critics of astrologv, Bacon approved clf "good" astrology. FIis "astrologia safla" excludes horoscopes anC exact preclictions of particular events, but asserts the reality of celestial influences, consisting not only of heat and light, and accepts the traditional characteristics ascribed to the vafious planets 2. FIe emphasizes that the human spitit is particularly subject to these influences:r. He also believed rnat least some of the eftects of the powef of the imagination, and cxplained them by transformations and emanations of the spirit. Incleed, he suggested the most interesting experiments in teiepathy and faith-healing to tesr the influence of confidence and credulity on a. the efficacy <:f tl-re imagination and spirits If, fot example, ;lou wish to cufe a sick gentleman b,v farth, first pick out one of his servants who is naturally ver)i credulous; while the sentlentan is asleep, hand tl-re servant some harrnless concoction and tell him that it r,r'ill cure his rnaster u'ithin a certain space of time. The spirits of the servant, made recePtir.e by his complete faith in youf medical po\rrefs, will be porverfully stamped witir the image of this future cLlfe; they will flow out and similarly staffIp the spirits of his master, also in a state of receptivity because he is asleep. Thus the cure v'ill be effected. This is even less like a scientific experirnent than niost of those in the .\1t/ua .\.'y/uarum, and sl-rows clearly, I think, that Bacon still beiieved in the traditional dcctrine of tl-re magical pcwer of imagination fortified by credulity. Another ingredient of lricinian magic which Bacon 1 lbid., II. 158; "... ct dc horis fcrrtunatis sccurrdum schemata cocli, in quibiis
mcdicinae ad vitam producendam colligi ct compc)ni debcnt; atque de sigillis planctarum, per quac virtutcs coclitus acl prolongzrtioncm vitac haurirc ct deduccrc possimus; et huiusmodi fabulosis ct supcrstitiosis; pf()rsus miramur homincs ita mentc captos, ut iis hulusmodi res imponi possit." z Bacon, De An,gm. Scienl.,IIl, ir', lY:'nrks,l, 554-9. 3 llut he rejectcd the Platonic spirilrc ruundi, prcciscly bccatiss it u'as a basis ot non-demonic magic (Bacon, ,\1/t'. .\1/t,,, Ccntury X, IV'orks, II, 64-0 scc1..)

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107

NOf,YS SISNYUd

202

VI. TELESIANS

The particular kinds of nragic Bacon is thinking of arc alchemical gold-nraking and the preservation of youth by operations on the spitit. A little eadier m the sanle work t he states that tt m^y be possible, by prolonged and arduous investigation and experiment, to make gold or rejuvenate the spirit; but that false magicians wickedly tty to do these things v'ithout sweat and like Ficino's spiritual magic in the toil. That is to say, ^nything De Triplici Ilita is impiously easy, whethet it works ot not, and shows us the right, hatd, empirical Bacon's Historia Vitae et 'Wortis wAy to the same end. Nfagis, then, is wtong because it makes experinrents unnecessary, and Bacon liked doing and planning experiments. He may also have thought, not rvithout some feason, that Ficinian magic might be contaminated with pagan religion. After a passage about the benefr,cial effect on the spirits of the odour of newly-turned eath ', he adds:

I comrnend also, sometimes, in digging of new earth, to pour in some Malmsey or Greek wine, that the vapour of the earth and wine together may comfort the spirits the more; providecl always it be not taken for a heathen sacrifice, or libation to the ear.th.
1 Bacon, De Augm. Scient., III, v, Works, I, 574-5 ("Attamen tanta exercet humanum gcnus impotentia et intemperies, ut non solum, quae fieri non possunt, sibi spondeant, sed ctiam maximc atdua, sinc mc''lestia aut sudorc, tanquam feriantes, se adipisci posse confidunt.") 2 Bacon, Sy/u., X, 928, lVorks,II, 649.

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VTTENVdI{Vf 'IIA UHICIVHf

204

VII. CAMPANELLA

De Vita coelitils conparanda;he may well have been led to Fictnian magic by the Trattato dell'ingegta of Persio, who had been a close friend of his 1. The reason he needed it was as follows.
1
See

L. Irirpo, "Appr-rnti Campanelliani II1",

pp. 435

Giam. crit. della Jilos. ila/., 194tJ,

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206

VII. CAMPANELLA

predict his own imminent death, and by 1,628 fumoufs of it became loud and v'idespread 1. 'Ihere seems little doubt that these funloufs and predictions w'efe actively eflcoufaged by the 2. Spanish, who aiso made noisy prcpm^tions for the next conclave Annoyed at his persistently pro-French policy, they hoped to frighten the Pope to death; and but fi;r Carnpanella's magic they might have succeeded. How seriously worried Urban VIII was by 3. these predictions can be seen from his Bull against astrology Though this confirms in general tefnls the condemnations of Sixtus V's Bull, tire only pfactices it specilically condemns afe predictions of the deaths of princes and especiaily of Popes, including members of their fanrilies up to the thircl degree of consanguinity inclusive; tircse ate to be considered as ctimes of a. ldse-majestd, punishablc b), <ieath and confiscation of gocds The two dangeicltis yeafs \r'eie 1,628, when there was an eclipse of tlre lnoon in January and of the sun iir Deceinber' and 1'630, with a soiar eclipse in June. In dipioinatic reports frorn Itome of 1628 there ate several mentions of the Pc.,pc alid Campaneila beint frequentiy closeted together 5. Ttrey ale saiC to be engaged on some astrological activity connectecl v'ith ttrre irr:edictions of tire Pope's death, to be doing4 "necfofi.tancy", and, in one document, to be celebrating t'. noctufnal rites r,vitli iighted candles What they wefe doing, as
1 Amabiic, op. cit., I, 2)'8,31't-2,321 scq.. 2 V. ibid., T, 34',7. 3 Anci cf. Ainabile, op. cit., I, 347 seq.' a Scc I). tirbarti Ciitina prot,idr:niia Pepae I-III, Contitutio Contra
qri le sialtt

Aslrologos ladi-

Reipuhlicae Citrisliartae, ael Sedis zlposto/icae, seu uita Rorueni Ponlifci:, aat ejus cattsartgui.ueontn Iudicia facere , necilon eos qui i/los dentper consu/ere praesumpserint,

ciarios,

lt1;mac, 1631. T'hat this tsull scemc"l ocldly personal at the timc appcars trom Carnpanella's defencc of it; c-rnc of t1"rc objections to it u'irich hc rcfutes is: "Bulla hacc rna.qis inscctatut r\strologos, quim haeteticos, & schismaticos. Etenim exconrmunicat,' avfctt bona orrnia, applicatque fisco, pocnaque capitali etiam in prinra vice pulit Astroiogos: quod iracrcticis non fit; unclc videtur magis susc tranquillitati, & ionsanguineorum consuicic, & sub majori ceutcla, pocnaquc quim Ficiei divinoque cultui" (Campanciia, Dispulatio Contra hlurnuranles ... in Ballas 5"\'. Ponirfcunt .fixti i:. d, LtRli. I-ill. aduersns Itdiciarits editas, irr his Atheisnus Triumpltatus, Parisiis, 1,636, p. 256); ci. infra pp. 2L8-9.

tidem praestigiis adhibcbat, sacra nocturna accensis cereis una cum Campanella
Nlonaco Praedicatore, temeritate satis noto, celebravit").

5 Sec Amabilc, Castel/i,I, 27L, II 153-5. 6 Ibid., I,281. ('Ieodoro Ameyden, Elogia Summorum Ponlifcum, ms.: "Pontifex

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osp sd'ul{Tod aJOA rvr.poz eLI} Jto su8rs 3r1J, 's]os uns alll uer{n. durel E stLIS[ euo sB 'e]n]Fsqns olTtf,eJepun u? ePIAord or eJe,tr. osaq] 'errrpagap eJe.4a. 'esdrpa eql o] 8ut^to 'sualveq eLIl ef,uIS ! spuuld ueaes aq] SunuasalcJel 'tq ela,tr sar{f,rot eAtJ Puz salPuzl orN] uaqJ. 'ser{3u?rq q}la lI Pe}EroleP Pu? sq}olf, uo>lils allqa. I{}yN uroo; aqr Sunq deqa 'ssald.b pue drzruesoJ 'eprdru '1arnz1 luJnq pu? 'secuzlsqns )\tvruoJ: Jeqlo Pu? rzSaurl-esor qlla tI peFluuds 'ltz oplslno oi{} }surc3u uroor oq} Pepes deq} }srld 'uJnlus Pu" srsw Jo sesuenHul lr^o aq] Pu? sesd{le Sulweg -as?oslp eq] tsuIES? seJns?etu radord alul o] s?A\ 'pernloefuoo dllq8rr 'uoruldo dtu ut 'elzq r teqf,uplg ru1{ rctJv pu? eyq?tuv Ljz
IIIA NYSUN ONY SICYTI

208

VII. CAMPANELLA

separate pagination, and is preceded by a publisher's note saying it came into his hands after the first six Books had alteady been

printed. According to Campanella, and there is no reason to doubt him, he did not rnean to publish this treatise. It was sent to the pdnter by two highly placed Dominicans 1, rvho wished to prevent Campanella gaining the post of "Consultor" in the Holy Ofirce 2; this post would have enabled him to exercise considerable control over the censorship of theological publicaticins. This act of malice was successful; fot Urban v/as extremely afigry at the publication and Campanella never obtained his post, though he managed quite soon to tegain the Pope's favour and to have an official examination of the tteatise, which cleared it of heresy and superstition 3. He v'as fteed from his imprisonment in Apnl 1,629. By the next year he had obtained the Pope's permission to found a college at Rome ("Collegio Barberino") for the training of missionaries in acccrdance v'ith the ptinciples set forth in his book paod rentiniscentur a, that is to say, missionaries who ri'ould
adrei ex aromatica confecti rnixtura. Siquc duodccim signa etiam imitatus fueris, philosophicd, non supetstitiost, ut vulgus arbitratur, incedes. Quinto adhibe socios amicos, quorum gcncsis eclipsis malo juxta aphctzrs sublecta non sit. Alultum enim prodest convcrsatio contrerria, aut consirnilis eventui. Illa fugat, ista acccrsit evcntum. Scxto musicam jovialern & veneream apud te habebis, ut acris rnalitia frangatur, & bcnc{icarum symbola excludant maleficarum stellarum vires. Scptimo quoni.rm rcperiuntur cuiusque sidcris symbola in lapidibus, & plantis, & coloribus, & odoribus, & musica, & motionibus, sicuti in 5. lib. rnedicinaiium docuimus: eos adhibebis allicies, qui bcnc{icarum alliciunt vites, maleficarum fugant. Plurimum valcnt stillatitij liquores, astralitirtcs cxtractae adhibitaeque secundum rationem, ut dictum est, & in 3. partc metaphysicae. Flaec facies tribus horis ante principium eclipsis, ac tribus post finem, & doncc bcncficae pervenerint ad ar-igulos, & robur assumpsefint." For dangerclus colncts (ibid., p. 14) "Non m<-rdo quidcm simulabis coelum cum planetis signisque intra cubiculum, sed insuper addes cometae simulacrum ex adreis medicatis, utiliter quod tibi fulgcat co in situ & rnotu proficua fulsionc noxiam tcmperantc. Caetera ut supfa." 1 See Luigi Firpo, Ricerclte Curupanelliane, Fircnze, 1947, pp. 155 scq. 2 See Amabile, Castelli,I, 342-3. 3 Ibid., I, 360-1; cf. Campanella's Apologia, for this treatise, inka p.220. a Sce Arnabilc, Castelli,I,362, wherc he quotes a letter of 1630 from Campanella to Cardinal Rarbcrini, in which Campanella says he intends to train Calabrian l)ominicans and "far'un Collegio Rarberino de Propaganda Fide fondato nel libto del reminiscentur" (this book has been edited by I{. Amerio, puod Reminiscenlhr . . ., Patavii, 1939, Lib. I & 1I; Per la Conuersione degli Ebrei, Fircnze, 1955 (Lib. III of same u'ork)).

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602

IIIA NYSUN CINV f,ICYN

210

VII. CAMPANELLA

mamente

di Astrologia ha insegnato quomodo fata vitentur; e dicono ch'ultiin casa di questi signori Padroni sia stato prattc to un certo suo documeflto di candele e di torcie, che signifrcano li pianeti, per
schivare un influsso, che sopfastava al figliuolo di

D. Thadeo.

This confirms that Campanella did practise the rite described in his De siderali Fato uit,irido, and tliat the seven lights symbolizing the planets wefe an essential feature c''f it. The statement that he helped to draft Urbau's anti-astrological Bull m y well be
correct 1. There is one other occasion on which we know that Campanella used this magic: for his owl1 benefit, on his death-bed, as a prophylactLc agalnst the eciipse of the sun on June 1st 1639. He
2. died on \'{ay 21st of that ycar There is no doubt at aii that this magic practised at Rome by Campanella derives dircctiy frorr F'icino. At the end of the chapter on eclipses in the J)e sicierali lrato t,itando, wlten dealing with the captufe of good in{iucrrces front lavourabie eclipses, Campanella refers the reader to r,vhat is said in his Af etaplysica on "instituting s. one's life celcstially", i.e. "de vita coeljtils comPafanda" If v'e loofu at this, r,ve flnC not a discussion of Fjcino's treatise, but a fuii and \refy competellt suttmafy of it, presented as such a. Campanelia does not here expiicitly accept all Ficino's views; but 5, it is evident that he does appfove of his magic since he frequently t (-f-. Amabile, Castelli,I, 398-9. 2 Scc Quctif & Echard, ,\criptores Ordinis Praedicatorum ..., Paris, 7721', fi,508: "Audivi a nostris scnioribus turn viventibus Campancllam Fatum sideralc sibi semper mctuisse & praedirissc ..rb cclypsi st-,lis prima iunii IICDXXXIX venturan nihiique proptefca in anrccessum ornisisse eorum, quae ad iliud vitandum ipsc pracsiril',it Aitrolog. Iib. 7 cap.4 art. 1, spectantibus & mitantibus quitumad'erant

Fratribus: sed ad diem iilum non pervcnit . . ." 3 (.ampant.lla, Astrol., VlI, '13: "Cum vcrc.r bonum poilicetur cciipsis, captandum est, adhibcnclique illices, vcl joviales, r,cl venefei, vci nrartiales, quemadmodum de his, quae cie vita coeiitus comparanda disputavimus. & in secundo medicinalium docebamus"; a f'cw lincs beforc thcte is another reference to Pars itl of his tVeta-

PhJ'sica'

Pars

Oa.mpanclla, ()niuersalis Philosophiae rcu Metapfutsicaruffx reru771 ..., Paris, 7638, lll, XV, rrii. ii-viii, pp. 179-i83; thc ftrst mention of the De V-ita Coelitis is on p. 154.

5 C.ampanella does dcvote tu.o iater chapters of his Metaphlsica (lII, xv, viii, iii; IIl, xv, ix, i; pp. 186-190) to a criticism of Ficino's (and Proclus') theoty of astrologicai magicf tut the criticism boils down to Ficino's failute to use Campanella's
terminology.

coml>aranda

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ILZ
IIIA NYSUN CINY SICVW

212

VII. CAMPANELLA

to say, Ficino's astrological magic consists of the same kind of operation as that described in the '{sclepias, the "idoi" becoming either a talism^n ot a human being (the operator) 1. Campanella, then, not only adopted Ficino's magic, but was also fully aw^fe of its soufces 2, including the most dangerous. FIe must have rcaltzed that behind the spititual magic of the
t. De I..C.C. were prayers and rites addressed to planetary angels But, as we shall see, Campanella would not have had very stfong fears or scruples about that. He was looking for a ma.gic that could be defended as natural, and this the De I,'.C.C. ptovided; he was not looking for magic that was teally non-demonic.
Daemonibus: quam dc lapidibus,

ordinis, & quac jovialis, & quae aliarum Planetarum, tam dc stellis fixis, quam de autcm haec doctrina i Nlercurio vidctur pfopagata, quemadmodum suo in locrr
antcrius memoravimus."

& de Plantis, & animalibuS..., non incptd- Tota

I lbid., lII, XV, vii, vii, p. 1.82: "Ex Fic. Plat. Antiquiores putabant, qucmadmodum alliciuntur in corpora humana ignci Daemoncs per humorcs, spiritusque igneos . . . sic etiam pcr radios stellarum spiritus earundem stcllarum, & per sr-rffumigia & odores, & sonos, & colores, illis stellis congruentes. & hoc in statuis, &
in humanis corporibus."

2 He also cites Pcter of Abano when dealing rvith Ficino's talismans (ibid., p. 181). 3 Cf. ibid., lII, X\,', viii, iii, p. 186, on Ficino's methods of attracting demons and angcls; and the mention of demons in passage quotcd above, p.ZLt note (5).

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214

VII. CAMPANELLA

in mind that they were written primarily from motives of practical expediency, which are, horvever, frequentiy counteracted by his natural indiscretion and audacity. He was an odd mixture of politic cunning and ingenuous rashness. Carnpanella makes even greater use than did Ficino of the authority of Thomas Aquinas in defencling his astrological magic; for Campanella, living in a post-tridentine wodd, this authority was still more important. He had, moreover, the additional support of Cardinal Caietano's commentaries on Thomas' Suznma Theologica, which boldly defencl the legitimacy of a.strological predictions and talismans against Thomas' condemfiation of both 1. 'Ihus Campanella in his defence is able to use at the same tirne both Thomas and the commentator rvho cclntradicts him. This use of Tlrouas to defend practices rvl-rich he expiicitly condemns is perhaps not so odd as it appears at first sight. Thomas, in the Contra Gentiles and in the two Opascala r.vhich deal rvith asttologl ', gives strong support for a moderate astrological determinism, from r,r.l'rich only man's free-will is exempt; everything else God ruies througli the stars 3. Even human freewill is not rvholly exenrpt; for the soul may be disposed, thougir not determined, in a certain \i/ay through its connexion r,vith the bodv, which is subject to astral influence. In one of the Opuscala he concludes that the hear.enly bodies moved by ^re a, angels and that these angels shoulcl not be v'rorshipped rvith /atria as the authots of the benefits teceived froin them, but reverenced rvith dalia as servants of God who transmit His gifts; that is to say, the cuit of planetary angels is put into the sarne class as that of saints 5. Then there is the treatise I)e Fato, whete, in addition to a:rr astrological deternrinism 'uvhich even
1
fos

tary on this

T'hc crucial placc is : .9utnrn, 7'b.,2da 2dae, q.96, art. ii; fbr Caietano's commcnsee 'Ihomas Aquinas, Opera Omnia, Romae, 1.570, 1'. XI, Pars Altera,

Thcrmas, Opuscaluru IX (Resportsio ad il[asistrunt Joanneru de L'ercellis de Articulis x/27), XXII (De judiciis aslrornn ad.fratrent Regina/dan). 3 Thorrras, \'arnma conlra Genliles, III, lxxxii-lxxxvi, civ-cvi.

241,

ro-242 rct.

a Thomas, Opusculun IX. it Cf. supra p.1.37, and infra p.226.

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stz
3rcY7{ so ssfNusscr

r re,sunr\",',!rK

276

VII. CAMPANELLA

anyway doubtful, since he was ignorant of mathematics, as is shown by his denial of the existence of the Antipodes 1. Campanella's own position is summed up in the following statement 2: We therefore SZy, with the support of the cloctrine of Thomas, Albertus Magnr-rs ancl the most subtle theoloqians, that man's free-will is not directly subject to the stars, but accidentallv (per accidez,c), in so far as the body is affected by the heavens and stars, likewise the animal spirit, which is rarefied and corporeal, and the humours.

This appears to safeguard free-wiil by allowing astrological


influences to feach no higher than the spirit. But \r'e must femember that Campanella's spirit, like Telesio's, performs the functions

of perceiving,

knou,ing and desiring, and is really slightly ^ inferior double of the soul or mind, from which it difrers almost solely by being corpoteal:'. Thus planetary influences on the spirit m y to a high degree determine the chancter of the rnind:
r\s when God wishes to make a perfect .Floly N{an He mav r-rse the stars and elements for tempering the body rightly for the reception of the soul, and thus make the animal spirits sr.rbtle and pure a. Indeed the astrologicrrlly deterrnined state of the spirits is of such importance that it is reasonable to decide irrevocably the course of your whoie life on the basis of your horoscope. Ii for example, this indicates that your spirits are crass, dull and smoky, you will be irrernediably stupid and ignorant, and had better subject yourself entirely to the v'ill of others. A good way of achieving this is to enter a monastery; if the "family of the wise", that is, the Irranciscans or the Dominicans, will not take lou, try the Jesuits. If you are only moderately stupid, try to become
'fhcologorum doctrina suffragantc, dicimus hominis arbitrium astris non cssc sub-

t Campanella, Astr., p. l. 2 ibid., p. 4: "Ncrs igitur, D. 'I'homac & Albcrti i\lagni & subtiiissimorum

similiter spititus animalis, tenuis, corporcus, & humores ipsi". 3 Campancila does also share'fclcsi.-r's (v. supra p. 19i) bclief that the soulelcvatcs thc spirit tcr divinc activitics, c.g. Campanclla, Reelis l:'bilosop/tiae Epilogisticae Partes Quatuor, Hoc est de Rerurn t\alura . . ., Irrancofurti, 1.623, pp. 1'65, 175. a Campanclla, Aslr., p.5: "Ut cum Deus vult Rcligiosum optimum faccrc, potcst uti stcllis & elcmcntis ad tcmperandum corpus probe ad susccptionem animae,

ditum dircctc, scd pcr accidcns, quatcflus cofpus aflrcitur i coclo & sideribus,

& spiritus

animalcs indc tenucs

& puros conficcrc."

(.'

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SrcYI^I do ss3Nq.{[c

278

VII. CAMPANELLA

perhaps reasonable to ordet the details of religious devctions rn accordance r,vith the planets. Campanella discusses at length the question: should prayers be said at astrologically favourable times? In favour of the answer yes w-e have these points: first, Solomon's recommendation in the Book of lYisdom 1 to pray at sunrise, which is suppoted by the facts that the sun, rising always with Nletcutlt and Venus, disposes the soul to contemplation, as Ficino noted in the De Tr. V.', and that altarc are at the East end of churches. Secondly, David said: "Seven times a day do I praise thee" 3, and there are seven canonical hours; these, the Astrologers think, allotted to the seven planets, like the days ^te of the week, the seven ages of the world, etc.. Campanella accepts the first of these arguments with the qualifications that the action of the planets is on the body and spirit, tather than the soul, and that good rnail may successfully pruy at any time. The ^ seconcl he rejects on the grounds that tl-re hours of ptayer are seven, not because of the planets, but because of the seven stations of tire Cross and the Seven Last \ilords, and the se\ren gifts of the l{oly Ghost, or because God has harmoniously arranged everythlns in sevens a. This rejection is certainly dishonest; fc.t, as we shall see, Campanella did not believe in a hatmonically cf numeroLogicaily constructed universe, it the manner of Giorgi, and he did believe that the days cf the ureek and the ages of the r,r"odd corresponcied with, atld wete dominated by, the planets 5. Since Carnpanella's ,4stro/ogica contained these none too orthodox theories, it is understandable that he should have been anxious to protect himself with the authority of Thomas, Albert, and Caietano, especialiy as, unlike the other magicians 'we have met, he v,'as writing after Sixtus V's Bull against astrology and just before Urban VIII's. Cantpanella later dealt with these two

I 2 3 a 5

Wisdom,

XVI,

28.

P.ralm '179, v. 164.


Camparrclla,,

Ficino, Op.

Ozan.,

pp. 499-500 (De 7.r. L/.,I, vii).

Ibid., VI, vi, p. 227; II, iii, 2, p.74,

Aslr., Vl, li,2, pp. 214-6,

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(ctunuolluur,rrp snuaS auLLI(),,

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Jo luri] S?A\ a,er^ Jo ]urod s.sileusdluu] uiory uorlfrPerd 3o pupl ]uuuodtul tsoul er{I 'c sJe}f,uJvgl puu sPtrILu rno esuangw '[Iqn -tsrssJrr tou pu" dlroerrpur qSnor{t 'sue-tzeq eq} t"LI} gsllqzlsa o} ul tq8norq vwBE ete ouraf,oiu3 puu srurorll 'r Lu3r.[] tnoq" suoufrp -ard urztJer e>lpur touu?f eJoJaJeq] puz suonzurl]ur eseq] lsrsol Tr) 3.&\ lEr{l lJessu ol s}u3.4a. {lararu lnq '.,sef,Ioqf, Pu? suollfB uPlrer ot sus^Esq 3r{r {q pauilsur eJu ea lsrl} {uep tou seoP JeLI}?c ,(loH erll,, esJnof, Jo puz-snoJe8rrcp oq ,{uru deql esnzf,oq tnq (z11auzc1uz3 s,{es 'es1u3 oJE suoilrrpeJd urutJef,un 'lzlaua8 esnzceq 'ra.,teznog tou '. uorlzulllp Jo puFI dra.ta peuLuepuof, A snlxrq s?eler{/N l1r.lo.-eer3: Sur8urr3ur uor}f,rpard 3lo uorsrf,eJd puz dturvltaJ E p3tur?lf, qlFIlK dSolorrs'e ,fuoluul-rrp uo s>looq esoq] ,{1uo PeurusPuof, P?r{ luerJ Jo lrfuno] aril 'z eurf,ipeu puu uor}?8r^?u 'arnllnrlt?v 1o Sllz InJesn oqt uT padoldua {8o1orrsv Jo 'll.g s(A snlxls dq perurguof, pue ]uoJI Jo Irf,uno3 er{} dq ua,n l3 'p,r -ordde eri] Jo uEf, erl sR qf,nur sE se>luur eH 'dlulvtte) atnlosqz r{}pN slue^e J?il1f,ilJud rrrpard or urrulf or{rK sJeSoloJ}s? (<p?q,, A\eJ 3 dpo uruepuof, puu dSoloJls? ..poo3,, puaruluof,eJ o] Surrzeddz ,iq dn pue sfing eL[] ter-lt 'rueq] pe>13?]tz o^ELI o] pesoddns ere oqa sJeSoloJls? druwSeiul aqt o] suorssef,uof, duuul os so>l?ru qrlrl.4A, r iuoq] Jo of,uoJep 3 par{srTqnd r.{ salaqdalwrJ saulslacfiv Jo uoErPo gtgL ell] Jo Pue aqt lv z llv^\ snorueSur u3 ur sllng
slrl
6TZ

f,rcYv[ .ito ss)Nssscr

220

VII. CAN{PANELLA

large-scale supernatural events from celestial portents, since all his esciratalogical hopes were deduced from the peculiar behaviour of tl-re sun. Though such predictions qurte plainly cannot be included in any of the permitted classes, agriculture, navigation, medicine, he firmly asserts their legitimacy, supporting himself with the Star in the East 1. He does not discuss the condenrnation in Sixtus V's Bull of those who revive pagan idolatry bv "sayin.q prayers to demons, rvith fumigations of frankincense and other things, or offer other sacrifices, light candles, or misuse sacred things" 2; which must have made arvkward reading both for him and for Urban VIII 3. Campanella ends his defence of the Bulls by ref-erring his readers, for fuller information, to his 'lletaplysica, w,here they ri.<-ruld have found, amongst other curious things, the full and favourable exposition of Ficino's rnag4ic and its Neoplatonic sources t. Campanella's -.1p0/ogro for his I)e l:bto siderali uilando, that is to say, for his eciipse-magic, was never published 5; it was composed in 1 629, when this treatise was officially examined for hercsy and superstition o, and probably gives us the arguments rvith wiricir he defenCed hirnseif on this occasion. He begins by resunrins this nragical operation, but omits, significantiy, the music, tl"rereby avoiding the charge of using incantations or invocations. We are then told, with the usual battery of references to "f'honras, including the De Fato, that remedies against astrologicaliy caused evils must be pious, because, if there were no such remedies, then fate woulC be unavoidable-there wolrld be
1 Ibid., p1>.252,262; cf . ,4slr., p. 1 (using l-ukc, XXI, 25), Qtnd reruirt., pp.1.5-6. 2 "Alii vcrir zrliquas pristinac, & antiquatae, ac pcr Crucis I'ictoriam
pr()stratQ Idololatriac rcliquias rctincr-rtcs, . . . ad futurorum divinationcm intcndunt. Alii . . . ncfarias magic:re artis incantati,rncs, instrumcnta, & vcncHca adhibcnt, circulos, & diabolicos charactcrcs describunt, l)acmoncs invoczrnt . . . cis prcccs, & thuris, aut erlizrrum rcrLlm suffimcnta, seu fumicationcs, aliave sacrificia offcrunt, candclas acccndunt, aut rebus sacris . . . abutuntuf . . ."

:r (.ampanclla hcre (Dislt., p. 269) dcnics that he bclicvcd the prcdictions of Urban's death; he must of coursc havc disbelicvcd thcir ccrtaintv, or thcrc r.vould havc bccn no point in doing thc magic. a (lamparrclla, Disp., p. 273. Cf. supra p.270. t lt is givcn in Amabiic, C'aste//i, II, 172 scq. 6
See

Amabile, ibid., l, 360-1.

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'd r:tdns '3'; ,ZLI,II .'PIqI

dprc1d pellraes daql roJ luonrrado aloq.^\ ellt Jo arnt?e; sno


-raHuzp tsolu eq] otea eseql q slrlliil uales eLIi tnoqz tzrir\\ lng '. .3uraq .]uer3rllatrrr uE ot pesseJpp" aq aJoJ3Jaql tsntrl PI"Iz sulils sE tfu {1uo urf r{clit err-iis 'rrljzrn lruolr-rop JO s>lJBLu 3t1t eJ" 'ourlarcJ PU? seruoql o1 Hurp.loffu 'r-i:yr1.rrn ',.sle1ta1 lo sJatJEJErlf,,, Luory e3ry eJE serpJllrtJ srq tErll Lurvlf oslE rrBf ulleu -udruz3 'o anHuld aLIt tsrJrc8u ipeiueJ IET.uJOU r tfrji ur sEA Jeulnllu srLll ur JrE aLT] Sursural: i utb-oJo{n e IOLI-\\ oLIt ur slue LUatEts prlE^ puE tsJrroLl aal slil Jo euo sr o.\\t 3seLlt Jo puofas 3gI '6(3n3u1d JLII uo ssDr?3Jl slll u[ 'rerldosoilLld puu uBrr3oloJLII ]u3.ro'uouz3 eunr;aJold 'c-rurrlg orlrsJulV {q JrlnfnJud ur 'slo}ro;-r IIv,, dq pe]lrurps sr sruelused 3o spsas snoNou sLIt Jo Jr eq] eSrnd sJnopo fllB{.uoJr luLtrt jn .,snoi,t c1o sr asdrlJa >ltrElq aLI} ol drzr}uor JfJoJ z, sAuLI stusruJE:j 3]rql\ 'uza1l ]ELIJ,, 'asdiire eql Jo stfeJre eql lsurs8u uoqJu IuJnlEU e J^vq II? pesodoJd sarpalu)J aLI] asnzf,oq 'llAOCI Jr{1 Ll}ri\\ }Jvcl f\Jvf ou sr eJeLlJ ', ((lzrJtsoJJat ol lunselof puu 'errrssud ol elrl)z,, serlddu Lllpl.At 'lr.3eru [EJntEU 'poo8 puz rr8zu f,Iuo{uaP 'Pzq uea.4a.leq uon)unsrp Jur[rruuJ 3r1] eAsLI 3.4A. usrll
'* rrSztu pall?l suersJed rqt r{rrq.,r\ dqdosolrqd tanas tzr{t Jo 'pog ol uopzrolur u? qtr,ry\ tno pellJuf, ',(peurar E sI lr etruls 'luapl,ra sr lred ssardxa ou sI elaql lur{J Je tlul aLIl JoJ sE : suoursp srrl Jo z IIAecI 3q] r{tr-4A. }lEd sssJdxe .ro }r3ul 3 pe^lo^ur deqt 3i ,{1uo 'szuoql 0l Sutprorce u[u,8v (snor]nsJadns sz peuruepuof aq plnol serpauraJ assqJ 'r stusluqsrund pu? spJu.4a,eJ tsnf ou ef,u3r{ puE (llr.{\-eeu ou

LZZ

frcYr^r do sg3N[.{sci

222

VII. CAMPANELLA

symbol, and Campanella himself had said that they "represented the pianets" 1. He therefore devotes the greater p^rt of his Apologia to arguing that these seven lights could have a nataral, physical effect. He begins by asserting that numbers alone can be physical causes, fot "God has made everything in numbet, weight and measure", and gives a formidable list of patristic authorities for the poviers and virtues of numbers 2. As I have akeady said, Campanella did not believe in a Pythagorean of Platonic harmony of the universe, and could not honestiy use such arguments. V'-e conre a little nearer the truth when Campanella abandons numerology and tacitly adnrits that the point about the liehts is not their sevenness, but their fepresentation of the planets. He cites Thomas, yet ag rrt, to show that the tertestrial world is governed and otdered by means of astral influxes, and Ficino, not as the Great Theoiogian and medical writet, but as the author of I)e T.'.C'.C'., to support the view that these influxes are nlore effectively captured "by irlitating the heavens, than by not imitating them" 3. 'fhen comes a genefal defence of the opinion that natural, celestialiy derived power can be given to attefacts by making them of a suitable sirape or figure ; that. is to say, the arguments normalll' ss.4 to show tirat talisnlans can act naturally, but rvhich are now applied to Carnpanelia's candles. 'Ihomas,

to be a sign or

can acquire occult, the C'ontra Gentile4 admits that ^rtefacts celestial virtues; this he contradicts, but does not expressly retract, in the Santrua 'f'beo/ogica, as Caietano points out a. Campanella then summarizes some of Caietano's subtle arluments in favour of the natural action of talismans, fot which, as Carnpanella says, "he fought valiantly" 5. 'Ihese arguments, rnostllr dtarvn from
1 V. supra p,207, z Campanclla, ibid., pp. 174 seq. 3 (.ampanella apud Amabiie, Caslelli, il, 175: "ilagis autcm captatur influxus
coeii imitando coelum, quam non imitando, ut testatur F'icinus in lib. dc vita coelitus

in

comparandl . , ,"

Campanella, ibid.,

p. 177; Thomas,

Contra Gen.l.,IlI,

cv; Caictano, Contu.

in

Summ. 7-/t.,2da 2dae,

q. 96, ii. 6 Campanella, ibid., p. 178: "fortitet pugnat pro eis".

'(7) elou L1Z'd urdns

',1 'PIqI

?.

'ftuotlleP Io (oo] '1uln:tuu pu" iEnlIJIdS JOtllIe oq pinol cr8zru S(otIIfIJ s? ]sn[ sdzzrr,rsrilo treeq eAEq dr:ul eJaq] ]nq :po1Joa rr8uru srq lI-iSnoLI] ET -leuzdulzf LIIFITN ut z(zzn 3uo d1ulu]f,el sua srql 'sdtuzl drr-uns asn aou aldoad s? JatTWJ 'a:luengul IEIfSalIeq sll clrosqz PLr?, Its Ptrg 'suorllunfuor elg?JnoAEJ ]soLU eqt ur PO:JuB;JE 'srq8ll {rewp:lo JO lno ue^Esrl sJnluI{rIIU ? '{llBJel{ e:}rnb 'arytu o} eiqrsso'J snqr suA tI 'err1 [wulPro ]sn[ ]nq 'cluasselurnh j:o IJOS duz ]ou su,u. suelroi{ aq} To ef,ri?tsqns oi{t t1lrc[,l\ ur 'r8olottlsof u?rsalel u LI]UA oiq?Arefuor dpro sua tT 'uolt?rodo IErTs{qd 'aldruts elrnlr z 'dlluar -uddt tszel lu (]nq ouollvi:t8ulul orll LIO parlusl anbrutllsl prr3o1

-oqcdsd Jo pull r re:lucl ou sI lI 'latu el?tl aa sratllo -,iuu uori; tueJejtrP dlurrpzr sI qfrqa :r3ztu lBrnlsu JO turoJ ? sl sF{I '. fseruangul] inpruerl eq] .radural 'areq] Suluqs dq '11run sz 'uopotu r{fns r{ll,t:r puz 'uotlrsoc] z r{f,ns uI nor( roJ eurqs dgn;asn feu srql wq] os '1etla]utu Pat?f,TPau '1v1tav Jo lno eP?ru 'laruoc aql Jo urnrf,slnurs e PPE osls l[rrn nod 1nq 'tvtpoz eq] Jo suSts puz sleueld oq] qlI/K 'sue.teeq elp <ruoor aql ull{lra 'alzlmuts .'(1uo fou IIrd\ no^ Surlzep JoJ stlol]f,eJrP
:

sloruof, snoJeSuEP

qrla

s(sileuudlu?J ruorJ J?elf, elrnb Peepur sl sHI 'ue^?3q elq?Jno^EJ 'peqrnlslpun 'lututou ellq Jeqtou? sellesJno e>lrttl 3,4s. os 'Suolzn

euo8 o^zr{ su.?Aueq IueJ eqt ! aptslno pIJolY\ Pr}sal3f, Pasd{le 'errrlragap aqt JoJ otntltsqns e dldrurs otlnb '>1u1t11 1 'ele LUooJ POI?os

eql uT s1q3q eql 'r theg er" Iueql Jo r{}oq roJ iafuu}sqns JIeq} uI oslu tnq 'reqrunu JIor{} w dpo }ou s}euzld aq} elu}rul s1t13r1 srq ueq.&\ qlnn eq] JaJseu IIls eLuof, 3,N ]Bq] sn slle] "llsuzdruz3 'salPu?f, o] IIE ]E euou (SuELuS{?} 01 ef,uu^eleJ snonuol J;,qlw z dpo 3A3g 'setpoq PU? puz steuS"ur Jo rnol,rzl[eq eql

Flaur

SunzoH pedzqs ,(lsnotrzrr

TZZ

3I9YI^I .fO SASNU{ICI

VII. CAMPANELLA

(3) CaupeNELLA AND rHE

ANGELs

,4tlteisntas Triumpltatus Canrpanella discusses various pagan religions, among them the worship of the stars, tl-re sky and the Sun. This, he thinks, is iess reprehensible than other kinds of non-Christian reliqion: for these portions of the wodd afe seen to be far from corruption, and endowed with a .u-ivid and simple beauty; and thev are the nobler causes of lower things, and live in a subiime region, continually benefitting us bv pourins out light, heat and inflr-rences, generating, changing, producing all thinus; on account of all this the pagans couid easilv be led to think that they v/ere gods 2.

In his

But, on exarnining this subject more closely, Campanella found that after all one should not wofsirip the stars as divine ; but his regret and hesitation are so evident, that, from this passage alone, orle would stronuly suspect that l-re irinrself did practice this kind of u'orship. -I'he crucial qucstion for Campanella is rn'hether the stars are the living bodies of souls, of, according to the Aristotelian and Thomist view, they afe merely inanimate bodies movecl b)' Intelligences; he takes it for granted that in the iattef case ntl one v/ould consider rvorshipPitg thent, nof, apparently the moving Inteiligences. If the former vierv, r,rthicir is lreld by the Platonists and many Fathers, and which Thomas allov's to be compatible with Christian dognra 1, is correct, then 1 Car-npancilir, .,1/lLeistittts 7'riuutphalus, ftomac, 1.631 , p. 111: "i\'Iin<trc tandcm rcprchcnsi<inc dignos dcprchcndi c<.rs, qui adorant Sidcra, Cttclum, & Solcm:
quonianr

vividir, simpliciquc dor-rrrtac: suntquc nobiliorcs fcrum infcriorr-rm c?lusec, & in

tizrc

portioncs Niundi sc ()stcndunt,

l'r

cr-irruptiotrc distatrtcs,

&

pulchritudir-rc

sublimi rcgirinc dcgr-rnt, continuir ircncticicntcll uobis, luccm cffur-rdcndo, calorcm, & influcntias: gcncrandr-i, altcran<lo, omrriaciuc produccndo: quas ob rcs magis rn()vcrc p()sliLllii (lcntcs ad crcclcr-rdun-r quird sir-it I)ii." 2 lbicl., pp. 111-2: ". . . quarlclu2ll-n \.cr11 csset sentcnti'.r i)lriionis & Origenis, Platorricorumcluc (ciuram l)ivr-is 'i'homas noi-t inclucli, trcc cxcludi a doctrina ftdei ciocct, iicct Sirnctus I licrtrnvrnlls, & I)i vus Augustinr-rs dubitcr-rt, & Patres multi itrl scrltirc r.idcntur) r'idclicct Solcm tt Sidcra viva cssc c()rpora, & scntirc pr()rsus longc m:rgiscluc, qu:\nr Animalia . . ."

9r

.osdr es ur snec rnrerop "r"rr*,,,",jt:[tT:i:r;1,:X1';:t:,"JilfT,IJt:r;i,ff;-*'Esserdxe runlzleaeJ trTS uou oe6[ q runl 'r.ueulpnlluef,ur slluruSop rg 'ruur1r11n1s Irraluzlslrorur rlndod nedord snunuolrr{rN ' ' ' ETEuJtuv lurs ue (e}Jef, rtns ruerddrnb rau "Itrsaleol

'zpualor essa uou ' ' ' ElJef,ul luns f,eer.{ ruzruonb 'Isnlcuoc uetugl ?t, :upuelof, luIS uz 'urequltqnp tucssztl8oc runo )eeH,, :t-Zll UU

'.fill#Iy!f*

1a 'sonlnru aJrpn' snlour ra 'a.la'uel srrpuJ as le . . . (.t .r."rrl1rrt"ffirlji:?X: tuelos luzlnd zateldord ureu) uranuel wntlJlds sulol esse silcls ' ' ',, :.plql r

ar{} Jo uonEln}rdzrer v rc|Jv'snqaqdruau1 saulsnqtrv eq} Jo uor}rpe lssl ar{} sE 'gcgl 'tve,[. OLLTES 3rl1 ur paqsrTqnd ,aqsfc1druatry s.?l -leuzdruu3 uI 'ruaql. drqsrorn plno.,\\ e.lo' esJnol Jo uor{} (slnos I?n -tlslletur Jo ssrPoq Isntirlds erlt or3 sJuls eq] ]urll eJns {lernlosqz aq

plnol ea -]l 'lv]qt dluruuer sr a3?ssud srqr Jo uon?lrldur eql


'e

ulHgo

se8zrul puu senwls 3u1,r11esollt ur u?r{t .qasruig ui,(}rturuvv?vr;u

pu? ruopsrlr\ ssal ou qtr-&\ peddqsroa sI poo .peapur puv .pauoitueur r.{f,nur }ou sr 'po:) dq papaaat dlssardxa uesq lou sBr{ li roJ 'd}urzl -Jef,un slr PuE 'eldoad eql -Io sseuqsrlooJ luulsuoour ar{} Jo }unof,f,lz uo .patzurruv erv daqr ruqr

'ztuSop sry] lnq

1rc

f,lqvqoJd

drql

ululrer JoJ u.4A.ou{ }ou sr tT ef,urs 'Jou p]noqs feqr wq} sepnlf,uof, .{1pug eg '..peddrqsro.&\ eq plnoqs srz}s orl} rell}elia }qnop ur sE/K J,, 'z11euudruz3 sdzs '..s8urqt esall] uo lqSnoq] I uar{I6.,, ', ,,f,ot JoJ: palnoqs poC J:o suos eg] IIE puu ..raqle8or Suzs sJ?ls Suurour eql uer{,lN ,, : qr,f ur spJo.t\ s.poo dq parldrur oslz sr r{lF{rN f slnos puu serpoq a}zLuwv sE.po3 asrzrd .suelueq eq] Jo senilI^ eLIl puE 'serrlasuaqt sue^uall arl] ]nq 's1a8uz go sJoPro eLI] dluo ]ou l3r{} sploq qsrnq) eq} lEr{} slKorls sn{t puE ',,lvarJ: por<1 af,ol rlrqussof,ur .1ry urtldzreg zlueq )E .salnlJiA anbrunroloo] 'lleo] : setetsotod ]unureJt (souorleuFuocl ]uzJopt 'qa3u11 tu?pnul urne0,, : s8urs euo sszw or.[] Jto e3uJOJcI er{} ur rog 'polqnop oq tou plnoqs pu" r{f,rnqf, eq} Jo uoruldo pnryo aqt sr sJ?]s aq] Jo uor]?urru? er{} wqt s>luryt ouuters] ,uLae uoqt lng 'paddqsJo/K oq aJoJoJer{} }ou plnoqs puu soJntueJ3 dpo 's1a8uz eI11 'dlalzunlJoJun ate deql .os uoao ]ng .refz -f,runururof, pu? esuos uzr deql r{3li{rN r{}la '(sa\sa\saptg ur ((JrJrds,, Pell?r sr uns oqr d,{^ sdzqred sr r{rrr{rn) rrnds al}qns drel go dlernue apzur sorpoq 8upr11 pu? slnos pnllolletq o^zr{ srzts eql
9ZZ

STg9NY

226

VII. CAMPANELLA

reasons and authorities in favour of astrology that he had given in the Astrologica, we find, as an argument against the plurality

of wotlds 1: I believe most firmly-and it seems believable to all peoples, as Philo


and Origen witness-that the stars are a Republic of supernal spirits (spirituunt), who have colne out of the mental into the bodilv v'orld.

The fiew heavens are a frt abode for them, "for fire is a most active, lucid, sensitive thing, and hence nrost pedectly surted to spirits (spiritas) endowed with po\Mer and rvisdom". In this republic, rvhich seems to me more like a monarchy, all the stars are strictly subordinated to the Sun, from whom they receive their l:eat and light. Later we learn that "One of the
Dominations rules everything in the rl'odd, as the Vicar of God"; this angel's body is the visible sun and his soul is the same as the aninta ntundi. The angels who are the other stars are of the order of Virtues 2. Campanella, then, did firLnly believe that the stats \\'ere animated. But they wefe, nevertheless, only cfeatures, and, accotding to Thomas Aquinas, their cult should therefore not go beyond the bounds of dulia t. Campanella apparently accepted this limitation; fcr we are told of the citizens of the CittA del Soleaz Niuna creatur^ aclorano cli latria altro che Dio, et perd a lui solo servono sotto i'inscgna del -sole, che d imagine e volto di Dio, da cui viene salute e calote, et ogni altra cosa. Perd l'altaro d come un Sole fatto, et ii sacerdoti pregano I)io nel Sole, et nelie stelle, come in altari et nel Cielo corne Tempio, e chiamano gli Angeli buoni per intercessori, che stanno nellc stelle, vive case loro . . .
pages

In u'hat manner should ofl.e worship these star-angels? A few further on in the tl'Ietapltltsica Campanella begins his expo-

1 CanrpaneIIa, AIelal>lt.,III, XI, ix, i, p. 52: "llrmissimd credo, quod & gentibus omnibus ctcdibilc videtur, testc Philone & Origcnc, sydera csse ltespub. spirituum supernorum, cum in mundurl cofporculn cx mcntali cgrcdiantur . . . Nam activissima res est ignis lucidissima, scnsitivissima, idcirco maximd conveniens spititibus potestate & sapientia decoratis . . ." 2 lbid., 1II, XV, ii, iii, p. 1,62: "Unulrr ex Dominationibus mundalia omnia regerc, tanquam Dci Vicatium . . ." 3 V. supra p. 137. a Campanella, Cittc) del |'o/e, cd. Solmi, p.39.

" Cr

sre qu tueruonb ,.".,;1391

'I1os '1sc

roq

'srlz.lod.ror snqtlsoleof,

'JH""T:'ff":J 'T,fii'l i ,::::gt$.9,""T5'"-""'"n:,. oral LLI 'd 'll 'l^ 'r\X 'III ''PIqI
sTlC,, :
r

's1e8uz poo8 sz IIaa sz suoruep p?q area oreqt ]?ql erueTr -adxe uao srLI uJory.oJza? alrnb sEA erl riSnoqrlz 'rlSztu qlns Jo pIErJv uoeq e^Rq lou plnoa Elleuzdruz3 '1a8ur-ung e{} dprururrd 'sla8uz drulauuld pJEA\o] pe]JeJrp duoruerar snotS4er z sE puu 'suelzaq aqt Jo ieporu eJntzlulIu E sv: ef,uo lz sdz.m. o.{u uI >lJo.t\ o} lueerJr srrn cr8zur s(?ll3uzdruu3 rzqr d1a>1rT elinb 'uat1] 'rt -1utqr 1 'suel?er{ eq} ot perrefqns eJz g]oq rcnvl aII] ur suerer{a '1nos (]ou ro eolJ euo s"q IBS uutu escf, reIuJoJ eq] uI esnefeq ]lrrds aq] tE ]JoLIS sdols eruonHur druleurld reqler{^\ ruiil roJ ret}ztu llls 'rerre,t\oq 'saop lI 'Fos puof,as z Suteq o] Jzeu os sI ltrtds uuurnq slg aJurs 'ullauudruu3 ul poJJnlq dra,t sI 'suotuop Jo sle8ur dq pernpord 'prl- ro Tnos oq] uc stf,oge o1 pesoddo su 'lpunur snE"uds eqr fq parnpord lurcls ueurnq eq] uo speJe uoelo;aq uoltf,ultslp eqr 'rarroelotrq 'sreuzld Jeqlo egt IIz soluuttuoP oqls

'1punu o/u/t/t? erlt J:o dpoq aq] 'uos elqrsi^ or{} s! 'uileuedruz3 to1 '1puaru snTtuds oql 'suoruep lzuosred aidrrlnu.i {q pairlrusuzJ} euo Jo droaqr E puv lpuaul snq4ds puosredlur uu .,iq paltrlusueJl

af,uengur -{rz}euz1d droaql E ueet\}eq }f,rgiuof, ou eJoJeJeq} 3c sr ereql !q+ro3r dlununuoc daql qlirla 'trlc]s ,(11oqzrr etv rnod f,ivlewld s.z11euzCruz3 go
esaql puu 'slauzld elqlsr^ eq] ere sla8uv
serpoq

oql 'ounld

roJ uELIt zllauedruv) roJ elqrszeJ orotu sr ttSzru

f,ruowep qtla Ienrlrrds eql Jo uon?rlrruof,oJ lz3lleJoeqt ei{I 'sla8ur qlTA pe5rluepr 'slzts Surrrrl eqr ol pesserppz 'aluela-teJ ]seol tE Jo 'drqsrozn Jo pE u? sz : pelJo,r\ sdzqrad or8zu uzlulf,rd Jo uorsJel s(Elleuzdruu3 r{lFIlN ur duzn Jer{touz sz.t 'uag} 'sF{I 'r..lr{311 puu erg eAE-q aa. uroq] ruory efuls 'sdurzl puu oJg e35rJ3zs ol radord si tl 'sJzls Joqlo puo ucour

'uts eq] wqt 'spo8 lznsoleo porpoqrue eql ot,, f sralrzrzqr "i I?JEEruer{lEur puu sJoqurnu 'asruld IEJoA 's1e8uz lzerodro:ur pooS otr ! purru Jno Jo uonzlele tuolrs eq] rego e1'r JloslutH poC o] : relnsuz egr sdeqred sr t?ga pug a,AA. 'a4uau4sq7 aC eLI] Jo uorsJol s(ourf,rd ur Jeql?J ro 'drdqdro4 rrr prrr ''7'J'A ae eql Jo .,fizuwns s1l ot spzal qllqn\ 'stxa] lzor8uru rruolzldoeN Jo uollrs
LZZ

sasSNv

228

VII. CAMPANELLA

Much eadier in his life he had practised a different kind of astfological magic, as we know from the evidence of a fellowprisoner of his at Naples, and from thinly disguised accounts Triantpbatas and in by Campanella himself in his ^ "l.tlLeisrnas 1. letter of 1606 If we look at these accoLlnts, we can see, especially in the light of the Thoniist feason for condemning magic, namely that tt lnust involve dernons, why Campanella, when he saw his chance of giving astrological aid to Urban, did not use his own earlier uagic, but had fecoufse to practices based on Ficino's spititual magic, which r,vas at least aPpafently more respectable. trn 1603 Campanella noticed that this fellow-prisonet, r.vhont he calls an "idiota adolescerls", had a hriroscope indicating the powef of commuuicating with demons and angels. He taught him to address pfayefs to the sun and other planetary deities; and, aftet unspecified ceternonies, put hirn into a state "between sleeping and waking", in rvhich he transmitted tire angels' replies to Campanella's questiofls o11 important matters-that is to say, he 'was a nrediutn If:. a tfance. 'fhe spirits whicir appeared ciairned to
be the angeL cif tl-re sun, of the moon, and sometirnes God Himself.

The answefs began by being satisfactory, and included truthful prophecies; the controls wefe e.ridently angels. But soolL thris becanre rnore doubtful, rvhen the control denied the existeuce ot hell and asserted the transmigration of souis. Then, wiren Campanella asked for an unequivocal sisn of thcir ang;eiic natufe to be given to the yc,'uth, they arrauged, with great cunning, for his removal from the prison anci eventual death. Campanella carried on alone, and finally the control said that Campanella had written well on free-wiil, but that Calvin had written better; when asked its opinion of Augustine and Chtysostom on the same subject, it prudently reniained silent. For Campanella, who was always a fanattcal anti-pfotestant, this was conclusive proof 1 i
Oampanella,

Atlt. T'r.,7631, pp. 11.3-4; edition of

1636 (which contains

slightly different vcrsion), p. 167; Amabiie, Fra fontmaso

saoi Processi e la sua Paqqia, Napoli, 1882, I, 21.-2,II,349-354,III, 588, 601; cfCampanclla, Opwcali Inediti, ed. L. Firpo, Firenze, t951, pp. 42-4.

Carupanella

La

saa Congiura,

.('cnblr:f,ed'ueruzl ]nu3 f ]urunru as sllnrl ou8rs Is ?g'le6[ rueSoi RJ]uof, aref,E-+ 1ln,\ 'sue3tru.To,1 ruruo oureN 'rlnn luellcs q-tBzlerdrelur Ipnilr arolz8n5l z lB 'tnlzrcdo telroeSnu 'slu8rs ord sru8ls riou xr lB 'stsnzl ord srsnuc uou xe lrpaoord ueruzl tunf, : JnlztrsaloJd ry 'ola8uv qc pos 'runsuodseJ oloqulg ? ellou ss 'snlnlzulllp tcorp Is-te u?N,, :G-ZSZ 'dd'gtgT "rJ 'q/V) sgng lzcrEolorlsz-rlu" ot{t Jo ef,ucJep sq uI su "cut1 xoporluo aJoru eql {oot sourl}erros zllauvduu-) sasod.rnd lzrrurelod ro.1 a ,.'sole8uy souoq ruullo 3IS : sllzlunloa ou sJelrcd 'soloqu(J oJzlxr urns ellrlrruo sltuarurradxa o8ra sntJof, f,r.)ru,, :i1l 'd 'I?.9I ".tJ 'q/t/ 'zlltuedure3 r

'Fnllrrds (sruolrrsp aq ol. .4a.au{ Pue IuJnlEu sl? elqspuoJep srK rllFl.^o. lnq dlquqord eq rlrrqa ''3'3'A aCJ aT4t Jo f,r8?ur er{} jo uoltuulroJsuur} puu p^r^eJ srli ol IuF{ pal (3do4 e{} ot p:rz8ar Lltra s}uelusrrnbar Ir'lT.lcr.;.d srrT puz LTns eq] Jo ef,u?f,glu8rs 1sfrSoplutlf,so etrioJdns orlt ur Jsrleq sFI r{}yrr. JeLI}e8o} 'slql puE fps:nedrulun sleSuE {rulauu1d poo8 ul rT}lEJ srrl q}r/tr ryol szra, eLI }ng 'LrrEBv }r perr} JsAe eq ]uli] e3u3pr^3 ou sr ersll] Pus 'urzuecun Pu? snoFled Jqtw ss^\ f,r8?w srlsrpnlFlds tvln)\tted srqr t?r{} <>lupl} I 'aztlvat PIP eH 'pe3pur usur snooSEJnof, dre.t v s?a ulleuzdtu?J tvTqt PeJequsural eq osF ]snru tr plr" 1. suorrlap p?q dq uonde3eP ur tlnsal sdznlz IIra suzeur lf,r8ztrr ,{q sle8uv q}la lf,?}uof, otul to8 o] stduref,w wrlt uossel 3q] tury L]rgna 'ueq] 'rou plp eruelJedxe sF{I 'r ((sleSuu poo8 osl? su 'lU^ Irao Jo slr^op petsrxe eJeq},, lur{} ef,ueuedxo dq .lo.au1 .&\ou eq }zq} lnq 'sJo.trsuu dropzysEzs qlTlN tJsts eL[] ]v uo uIrg 8ulrn1 dlereru erea. puu eur] erT] II3 lIToquIP ueeq p"q sloJluof, or{} }?r{t 'euop eaur{ plno^\ rrloq}B3 opnlf,uof, }ou plp ?llauzdruu3

xoPoquo

f,w ss 's1{l uro4:

'11^a61 eq] dq pefidsur dprerrp sElK uIAI"J 'pa -lcedsns pzrl oq sz '1zg] puz (uourep p"q ? ztlou s?A\ IoJtuol er{} tzql

6ZZ

STg9NV

VII. CANIPANELL.\

(4) Musrc AND \fonos rN CaupANEl-l-A's Mecrc

There ate several differences, both general and particular, between Ficino's magic and Campanella's version of it; one of the most evident is that in the latter music and words ^Ppeat
to play a much less impoftant p^ft. Although Carnpanella does in the A,tetaplysiga fesume Ficino's tules fol planet^ry music, and though the description of the magical operation in the 'lstrologica mentions Jovial and Venereal music 1, we are told notiring mofe about this music, not whether it had wofds, nor if so, what they 'v/efe. Campanella's theotetical views on tnusic and words c tl pefhaps throw some light on these omissions. Like Ficino, Campanelia lays gfeat stfess on the movement of sound, in the air that convevs it and in tl-re human spirit, as 2. opposed to the static nature of sight But, according to Campanella, there is no ditect contact between the musically moved air,ancl the human spirit; the two are not substantially united, but the air transmits its movenlent to the spitit by sttiking the eat-

drunr 3. There is also this general difference between Campanella's ancl Ficino's music-spirit theory. For Ficino the spini is u substance used as a medium of transmission by sentient and cognitive souls-it is not rtself sentient, appetitive or cogltitive. Campanella's spiLit does feel, think and desire. Thr-rs, wheteas Ficino's theory attempts a rcalexplanation of psychological facts, that is, correlates 'of a different order-hearing, for example, with them with facts movements' in the air and in the spirit ; Canpanella's theory, strictly speaking, expiains nothing at rill. He cannot correlate tv/o
1 Campanella dor:s also in his tlledicittalitrm jtrxta propria principia, I'.ibri septem, Lurgcluni, 1,635, p.320, advisc thc use of soierian rnusic ('IIusica apollinea) for irnprov171 (hearing).

ing the spirit of mciancholics; cf ibid., pp. 3i19, 348. t n.g. (.ampanclitt, II, v, xi, p. 1(r7 (sight), p. 3 Clrmpanclla, Real 'lletaplt.,1, Pbil. Lpi/., I, xii, vi, pp. 153-4.

(.'arJrdrual enbsn(ne ord ztpolcur 1are1d stllz IIu sIUoIIELI

urapsn(a snqlultuoq r6t JetIiltuIS 'suuuosslP rg 'unrede.rlsqo z:p,trg '$e;er ptnb tuns 'urntadsz lldes rutua -onl3nl Ef,rf,JnI 'runcol leuotr u;nrpcru EJIIE1I 'iunpuqq "uEf,ITIBC zuzdsrpl I zrrsnlq lse ErlB runlurlz Lunuorlzu zIIB tunuluoq e.raue8 uI qurur : untl;rds luequq unlz.raduol Jclrp rrnb 'cznuuuosuof, luns ezIIE snqruoel rg 'snqlluedtcs rB rulue sIuISV 'slf,ol tu"uorlznpe.rS ruu,tzl3o loa 'utztutldes 1el 'tuulual rg ulzrur.rd Jelul lsc stlenb ';nlucqzq EJtsnJ'[ ?.T]sorr ur asnb 'se esso opunl{ uI seutuo selluuu -osrrof, ItrrsnJf, ?lJOr uou .rcrdordenCt 'urrleurul.{s sn}ou; Ins y ulnllrrds turuc }t11ol !urztluzdercslp 'stttuosslp :snlurds cuoIlorJI-?13uul Ixntr SIUoItrouI uIsurPnllIIuIISUos susuosuo.) :sruoltro[r ]np <sBucloru urctzlrlunbau snJouos ![]er:unuue] snuoloru nes 'vl1auvdruu1 I sllrqorrJ rrJolEtrS:rrArp fsnuos] reclsE,,

:tLL 'd'rx ,,\ 'II'I

''rldo1a1y

'I0Z

'LI e:rdns

'r1

'l66l'zuro11 'od.ri4

"I

'Pc 'att.aor1 :S-VSf'dcJ 't.t


'llT

11
r

'l* '^ '[I 'I

"r1dotay,y :

tgt 'd'l

'l[* 'l ''d'1 '/!r/rl pr':'':-ffi 'lll 'AI 'I-09 'dd 'll ',rl 'lI ''tlPahl 'tllauedruu-)

s(rurlo?cl Jo uollElrysJ 3 ol ulleuBdlus] sPzel -ftoaql S]LII 'frsnur Jo sPurl luere+JlP o>lrl slElulus luere$trP luLI] ]3EJ 3LI] JoJ pur 'suorJzu snolr?A Jo Sel,l(1s PJrSnut aql uee.lA;eq sef,uaJa3tlP JoJ stunoff? slt{I 's }urds Jo Pur{ u3^r3 {ntr cl} sPunos lEf,Isntu Jo dlpuro3uor aq] dq peurturoleP dlrlunb a^Ilsler dleltlua rJe sI ]nq 's8utrls Suilzrqrrr ;o sel?-4lPllnos eJoLLI Jo oAU Jo soIlEJ Iuf,I]Bueql?tu eldruis eLIi dq pauILuJOtaP tou sI e3uuuosuof, IsfISntLI ', uoleg roJ ss 'u11euuduu3 JoC 'r f,TSnLu ((Ju?uosuof,r, {q Pesn?f, eJnsEeIcI eq] eruaLI--pelLISrTeP sI 'paueqf3uarls Puz Pa^ras3Jd dqeraqr Suraq ']trtds erlJ, ']uetrlolotu IuJnlEU s6lIJIds 3I{} o} (Lleql 'parlnba; <(JU?UOSUOf,, Sr rlsltliN OAI eq] Jo uoTluulqlllos E sI sr tur{iN . | }r a}uref,?l puu f,11tvt seuo r131t1 l rFrds eql ue>l3rq} pus esuepuof (eslnJq spunos ,1\oT ']urds aq] Jo ]u3LtIJ,\oLtI Isrnlru srq] (srtll uulll ra8uorts 3lii11 u ]nq 'ol luptuts aSzrnorue pue rur5uor III/K slueruo^olu JIr eq] ui sof,npoJd qf,rll,t\ flsntu luotluntesord sll o:l IzBuesse sr r.{rTLIra, 'as1nd atl} dq PetEJIPut '}ueute^olu lllutlldr{J [?JnWu ssrl ]IJrds uurunrl erTI 'urzd ro eJns?eld Jsel{s SuDnpord " Jo f,rlnedzrelll su ]nq 'luuonorue Jo lzf,rgle dlrruiutrd sE slrage esaqt jro >luFlt lou saoP 's]sruetunq pflsnul Jef,vI "flauEdlrr?J ]sour Pu? ouT3rd e>lriun 'ln$ 'llJrds 3q] ol JIE stll uro4: lueLus^our
JO uOISSnUSuuJl Srql o] enP aru f,ISlltLI Jo Spaxte SnoIIeAIEur eql 'sJuell qllqa Lurq ePISuI rnodE^ 3 Surlrsod dq Surrueq scuuur e Jo pvJ eI{} ur?ldxe o} e1pl sl l.T 're\rwq PuFu -dpoq orT] uaop ua>lorq suq llrlds sF{ roJ (s}f,uJ Jo sroPro }rurlslP
TEZ

SAUOA. CINV SISNW

232

VII. CAMPANELLA

explanations of Orpheus' n.r.usical effects 1, but of a very different kind from Del Rio's 2. Orpheus' music could not have attracted all the wild animals, but only those having an affinity to our temperament and spirit, such as nightingales, deer, horses and dolphins-not flies, snakes, eels and octopuses 3. This relativity of consorrance also applies to the harmony of the spheres. Orpheus' lyre cannot have had such power from being tuned to the music of the heavens. Diffetent parts of the heavens are favourable or unfavourable to different things in the terresttial wodd; there is therefore no one celestial harmony which is in consonance with zll eatthly things a.

In vain do Plato and Pythagoras make up a Music of the W.orld out of our music; indeed they are talking nonsense . . . If tt',.ere is a harmony in the heavens and in the angels, it is of a dift'erent order and has consonances other than the fifth, fourth and octave . . . Our voice is to theirs as an ant's voice is to ours, and the smallest of their voices exceeds the greatest possible thunderclap, and is not music for us, but quite
excessive

Campanella, howevet, appears to accept the reality of these multiple harrnonies of the heavens, and looks fotward to the time when, just as the telescope has made perceptible hitherto invisible stars, so some new instrument will make these harmonies audible 6.
I V. supra p. 130. 2 V. supra p. 183. r] CampanelLa., Metaplr., IlI, XV, viii, iv, p. 193: "possibile non cst, ttt Orphei
musica traxerit omnes fetas, sed illas tafltum, quae rioslro temperamento sunt afEnes,

ut carduos, luscinios, cervos, equos, delphinos: & hujusmodi: non autcm muscas, colubros, & anguillas, & polypos." a Campanella, Melaplt.,Ioc. cit.: "Ratio autem illa, quoniam Coelum harmonicd movetur, & omnia subsunt Coelo: igitur & Orphei ad Coeli modulamen concinnatae Iyne: vanissirna est. Omnes enim res habent proprias ) Coelo formationes & dotes, quibus aliae Coeli partes favent, aliae obsunt. Igitur non potest invcniri harmonia omnibus inferioribus consona, & perceptibilis simul. Nec vocalis (inquam) harmonia,
neque realis." 5 Campanella, Poetica, pp.229-230: "Ftustra Plato, Pythagoras ex nostra musica mundi musicam componunt: delirant quidem . . . Si efgo est hatmonia in coelo et in angelis, alterius est rationis et alias habet consonantias, quam diapente et diatesseron et diapason. Utrum autem analogas istis alibi dictum est [e.i. passage iust
sed excedens valde . .

quoted from ArIelap,&.]. Item vox nostra illis est sicut nobis vox formicae, et vox ipsorum minima excedit omne permagnum tonitruum, ncque nobis est musica"

." VII, iii, p.


11.

Campanella, Astr,,

'I9Z 'd "llydo 'taqcuqg fq ptUr 'gtgl Jo f,serrocl ot

raltral 'euuasre111

'otptotttanT,y 'sngltroa sIruISsIllE luaruzltruof, Inturs ou8rs olzp 'saluerperSa srJor{ s4nluls seJaIInIu rB 'uand rg 'e1ra1 radns seulurog 2g 'elp ur saqdas lueuos .radruas '3lelsn.rour urnluJoJz :g 'sr;nql snqrJong cuuzdruel, , igzg'd 'l 'l 'U 'IA '.rypal[ 'zlauedwz3 r

ruzg ouo'zJeJlf,oa urnf, InwIS ruluo aen| .u*Joeua, uJnJosu^ *r,ro'irilf,r$ '$ 'run.rorEnqrriJJu ?p 'runrup.rzq{uoq Jorunt rnatte l;cjuo3 "' Jnlunlledap ozf,rloqzrp eeetee salzlsalod rg 'ruelrnpg tuctder IuJruE srsorSqar snqrJo,\ ?p ,:?z Jntrznuell? ry 'tn1e6;nd rurua Jrs isonl talwl sopqp!/) oJlxtzi tuftqzxno &? 'sou .ta{ns on1 ,snaq g

-eloru aq] Surunltz Jo 'uorlurgla f,rleqludu{s Sursn Jo d}ruqrssod er{} sJueddzsrp pruep srr{} qtrd\ puz (peruep dl}rrrldxa sr suelzeq eql Pu" Punos Isf,rsnu u3e.4a.leq uoqrodoJd Jo ,finuapr eql 'cr8zru Iuf,rSolorlsu ur uzd tvelJodrur uz .dz1d tou dltueprle plnol /KOIA lurod sryl urory Pe^ref,uof, stf,eJe I?f,rsnu pu? f,rsnl{ Jo 'dilp 'srs{1zuz tszl er{} ur (pu? uor}zpunoJ Imurdrue f,uv ur 8ur4o?l lnq 'Surtseretur pu" purSrJo aJ? 3rsnru uo slKer^ s(ulleuudruE] 'lqSnoql slrl aIIT 'z s?/y\ o^u]f,o u3 lsour Jo uele tou prp lzg/r\ wqt p1vs eq uaqa. rq$rr ^\oDI "11ouzdruz3 s?/K euuesJe1,{ sduqred-f,rsnur Jo droeqr eq} }noq? epr11 drerr. rA.ou{ eq 'ourcrg e{rpn 'ler4l se}Ef,rpur eJu?uosuof, Iecrsnlu ;o srs"q le)\tv:urcq]zru eL[] ;o i"ssrusrp pe]rueq-lq8ll s6?lleuzdtuz3
'Surlnor{s eq} se eurr} elues er{l tu pernpord JI 'dleq osle lpA. {f,nrts Suraq sesul sszrq puu uorrusf, Jo asrou egJ. ' ' ' r\E eql ur srernod lrloq?rp er{l trno eATJp pu? af,uepuuoc arrdsur ilr \ sprorn snorSqar eseql puz'peuul{} pu" pa8lnd aq III \ rl" eql snr{} rod 'seruaua dqp 'qyrap aql lswuSu dlaq sn puas puz 'poC O 'sn uodn duaw oABH : sef,rol Jreqt jo dor er{} }e }noqs ,uall8 sl 1eu8ls eql uer{^\ 'puz 'sdot-JooJ ar{t uo tno eurof, ot etv uarpp{f, puz ueruorK 'uaru 'satup peluts w '.tep saurrl eeJrll pue idep setuB ue^as

" )TwuJote ql!y\ palsuJur " Sunr eq plnoris 'esuef,ul puz splng

.r11eg

: r srq] o] auros 3/K GLI}JOJ os Puu 's1elo 8uil+rrnd '3ulqlo1c pe]leJur Swurnq lnoqz suopf,nJlsur IEurrou rouv 'osrou pu" punos Isf,rsnul ueel\]eq uon3uEsrp elnlosq" .f,ue e>lzur plnol ra8uol ou oq 'ecuzuosuoo Jo srs?q IBf,n?IuaqlBur oq] pouopu?qs Sur,rzq 'tvgt lKoqs oslB osaql ldrlf, pe]f,ojtrrr-en8zld ? r{}T/r\ Suqzep JoJ suonroJrp sFI ul punoJ oq ot sl srr{t Jto ef,uztsur uV 'Jr? oqt uo oslz lnq 'lrrrds IELuruE pu? uzrunq eq] uo dpo tou punos Jo stf,e:Ue aq] ut petseJolur sr ?[euvdwv3

egz,

SOUOT!\ CINY f,ISnW

234

VII. CAI,{PANELLA

ments of our spirit to those of a planet. The effects of music are no longer delicately shaded states of emotion, ptoduced by the ptecise and univetsally valid use of consonances, intervals and modes, but are broad ciasses of mainl;t physical reactions produced by high or low music or noises that, for the same effect, must v^ty with time, place and individual; and the proper use of these sounds could only be discovered by Baconian expetiments. In Campanella's magic, then, music could do no more than, vefy broadly and unccrtainly, put one in suitable "spiritual" and ^ ph),sical state to receive a planetary influence, and pethaps purify the air, as in the public magical operation against the plague, just described. The effects of this music rvould be far less exact and powerful than those of the seven lights, which ptecisely imitate the heavens and their influences. For invoking demons or angels nrusic would be of still less use; for their spititual bodies are of a different nature from ours and our music would have no effect at all o1r them. Ali these remarks also apply to the metfe of verse 1. Of what use might wcrds be in Campanella's magic? Campanella lreld a "n tural" theory cif language, such as provides the usual basis for thc magical use cf words (uis uerborunt B). But his theory is of a more rational kind than that of most rnagicians. It rests on the assumption, not that u'ords teceive their connexion with things and hence their power over them tiom the clivinely inspired naming carried out by Adam, but that words are representational or iniitative symbols. Words imitate the things they designate either onomatapoeically:

from the sound Top. T.rp. rvhjch is nade by one piece of

u'ood striking another the Greeks have the verb tvpto, and we in the vernaculat Batto 2.

lignum elficit altcrum irercuticnd,r lignum, Clraeci habent r.cfbum 'Iypto, nos ver() vulgariter Battc-r".

or by gcstures of the speech-org rts--d/tttrtt, fot example, means high because the tongue is taised to the irighest point of the palate. 1 Campanella, Poclica, pp.228 seq. 2 Campanclla, Rea/. P/t. Ep., 1, xii, r,ii, p. 159: "ex sonitu 'I'up. 'I'up. quem

a^rl33IJJ aJ? lsuEqf,na eq]Jo splor\r eql ]ng <<'rloqrrp sndiur'llzf,o.trir lue.rudde r1c8uu runra sild : nlf,%)E le nsuos uI pcs '11]stsuo: slrulruJul c)JeLunu LrI uou r1a8uz le sru()ruozp ruoln ollltf,oluJ,, f ..ulzpuernpap olouf, cp r.uvunl pz lc UJOUOIIEJOAUI runuouleep la run'roiesue p3 lu'ors^ r'u,nr,) *"".n1,"':::\;

'(tgt 'd rrdns 'or11 1lq1 Jl) .,lo(I

euonnlrJsur xe,,

lnq :(g7g'd'lrrnx'r11'tun,ra;J ilsual a(J '1:'ZLI'd'rx'.t '11'1''r1do/a7,y) ttv ur pettriu -su?Jl ltrtds ,Jo sutarrr dc1 uorlurtunLuluol clqludalc:t ur Jlcrlcq prp zllautclurz3 r '.,tunJIllutu LunlulurnJlljLII,, uE sr tueod z

;fJJ!;ii:{::;{;,"JH:::':300'"u

sllllf,{)A s;ud 'rlLurssllro3;cd,, : LgZ 'd 'nt7aor1 'rzliauzdurel I 'o9t-6gt 'dd "PIqI r -JePUn plno,la. 'e.lli)ru frlsod Jo 3rsnlu u1?uJnq dq petcegBun ellnb ur?rueJ plno.4a, serpoq lEnlllds esoll.4a. 's1a8uu ro suoureP 3qI 'slrlep 'ueru snordurr ol 'pe1o,tur uar{.4A. waddv sieSue ueru snold ot rc1 ilualuof, lzuorlorue puz Surueeru s:ll ur lnq 'rueod eql JO elleru eLI] ur tou stsrsuoc 1e3uz Jo uoruaP Jo uol]"f,o^ul uv " (ou :eJE JoJ 'se{ :uoI}EJ3do puoses eqt .roJ

:r srrorl?lo^ul

311]

sJ3.4a.su"

eqJ '..i{r 3rl} urorJ uoolu erlt uls.op Sur,trzrP JoJ PuE
ag} sossnfsrp eri
'p.rryazc[

sueod

JOrJlJr{r\\,, : suorlsonh

s]r{

uT

'cr8zu ]uJnlvu ]ou JoJ-os prp zllauzdruz3 terll elqzqorcl '{rl.lr I 'sl }r prre 'sesodrnd prr8ztu JoJ peJoqureuror eq ilyc li 'spJOA JO Jeaod y eLI] esn uEf, euo 'f,Isntr sF{ sl uzqr rrSuu srq g}IA pe}reuuoc {1sso1o oJolu rlf,nru 'sseleqlreleu 'sr drteod s,zlleuzdutu 'rlvuoItvJ puu firurpro sr (uorJolue puz Suru"eru Jo ti iq rrorssrlusuatl ellt Jo'dnaod Jo s]JaI;O eq] Jo uonuuuldxa srq 'sp1l urory lwrlz 'tn9 i sloquls luuorlual -trof, dlarnd plno.lo' uuq] tloge a]Erpourlutr eroru E etvq'sloquds
FuorlElueserdel LUIri JoJ aru {aql efrrrs 'aser11 'sPro.4A, 3o re^lo.od eq] Jo esn V uE Jo 8ur>1urql sl ai{ ', lr8eru Jo pury e drleod silul eq qSnoqllv 'es?r s.ullcuzdruu3 ur os op '>luFIt 1 'tou pip puv 'lI ot puel ,{prcsseoau torr saop 'splo,tr Jo Je.4a.od prr8zur er.T} ur Jolleq z r{lrin elqrrudruor sl rr q8notll 'e8rn8uzl Jo droeql slqJ 'r elBrullr SunzleJ 'ru-wzt\ orl] o] 3utm.o sf,IlsrJel3ErELp olrsoddo oq] surl uzllull s?eJeq.4A, 'slazvro.n /KeJ pu" sluruosuor ,{uuur szq a8un8uul Jror]l a:luanbasuoJ ur : ruJua dea4 of dpuenbarJ il.v erl] elrns pue 'qlro51 eqt fo plor eqt ot Surrno slrrrds palf,ulsuof, eA"q 'eldurzxe lo3: 'suerureo oql 'suopTpuof, 3rlrurrlo

(f,ruoruop

ol {prcu
stz

onp ew so8enSuzl snorJzl

uae.4A.leq se)ueJoJrp

aql

SCI}IOA ONY CISNW

236

VII. CAMPANELLA

stand and be affected by Campanella's poetr/, just as any human being might be, since they could understand the representational symbols of which it was composed. Several differences between Ficino's magic and Campanella's vetsion of it have aheady been pointed our; I conclude by indicating a few more, of a general kind. Campanella's astrology was centred on the sun, as Ficino's was; but his eschatalogical obsession gave his magic a different direction. He was not, like Ficino, so much concerned with a positive strengthening and brightening of the spirit by captudng the influences of the sun, and of Jupiter and Venus, as with warding off the pernicious effects of eclipses, comets, and the bad planets, Mars and Saturn. The end of the wodd was being announced not only by the approach of the sun towards the earth, but also by all sorts of heavenly and earthly anomalies and catastroplies: the Protestant heresies, the Nova Cassiopeiae (1572), the discovery of America, etc 1.. The main purpose of his magic, therefore, was prophylactic; in the sealed room the torches and

candles represented art undisturbed, normal celestial wodd, which was to counteract the effects of the dislocated reality outside. Another difference is that Campanella's religious and magical aims 'were both more practical than Ficino's and more public. Ficino's magic, both spiritual and demonic, aimed at subjective effects i practised v-ithin a small, aristo cratic circle, it was meant to putify and elevate the spirit and soul. Campanella's attention was ditected primarily to practical ends of the vastest scope. By his religious rx,'ritings he hoped to transform Catholicism, and to convert and unite aII the religions and nations of the wotld. By his magic he hoped to gain the power to enforce this conversion, by gaining the confidence and support of those who then possessed this power-the Pope, the ICng of France or Richelieu. And with Urban VIII he came very near to success. 1 See, e.g., Campanetrla, Quod Renin., pp. 17 seq.

frNowno n
TVnIrUrds

f IDVHT

INDEX
Refereaces

in italics are to pages

containing bibliograp/tical indications.

Acaonmrss Aristoxenus, 128 Athenian, 129 Arnaldus of Villanova, 86, L00, Baif's, 99-100, 1,19- 120, 1,26 103, 105 Carcggi,22 Ans NInr,roRArrvA, 98, 1,41,-2 Collegio Barberino,208-9 Ans NoloRrA, 37, 80,99, 105, 151 Gohor1"5, 99-100 ArtePhius, 105 Seconda Venetiana, 1.28 Asc/epius, see Hermes Trismegistus degli Uranici, 126-1,30 Asrnar- Boox, 38-40, 1,14, 1,98 Adam, 69,1.30,175, 178, 1.80, 234 Asrnolocv (see also ANcnr-s, DnAgrippa, Cornelius, 27, 65, 75, I,{oNS, Flonosconns, Musrc, as85-6, 8B-9, 90-6, 97, 1,03-5, 115, trological, Pr.aNnrs) 1,I9, 1,35-7, 1.55, 1.74, 1,80, 1,82-3 attitude to,1-2,54-9,1,1,2-5,156-8, Albertus N{agnus, 4, 1,05, 132, 1,53, 167, 176, 1.78, 195, 1,99-200, 156, 207, 2/ 5-6,21,8 206,21,9-220,21.4-6,21,6 seq. Ar,cnerry, 13, 69, 97-8, 1.0A-2, 202 determining religions, 58, 110, Alessanclri, Gio. Domenico, 129 21,7 Alipius, 128 Augustine, St., 6-8, 24-25, 43, 57, Alkindi, 36, /47, 149-150, 153-4, 58, 1LL, /30,21,5-6,224 158-9 Avicenna, f, 36,85, 727, 158-9, Anadis de Caule, 97-9 162-3 Amalteo, ()ttavio, 129, 131 Ameyden, Teodoro, 206 Bacon, Francis, 158,189, 1.9'1., 793, Auur,nrs, see T,tlrsr\{ANS 199-202,231, ANcr,r,s (see also DnrroNs) Bacon, Roger, 36, 85, 1,05, 1,47 Guardian, 45, 47, 50, 1.1.4-5 Baif , J. A. de, 97, 99, 100, 11,9Planetary,23, 34-5, 40, 47, 1.57-8, 121,, 1,26, 1,38 1,62-3, L72,176,1,97, 21,4, 224-9, Barbaro, Ermolao, 52 234 Barberini, Taddeo, 209
Awnra NluNor (see also Snrnrr, Barbo, N{arco, 53 cosrnic), 12, 32, 51, 1.1.3, 117, Bardi, Giov. de',29 1,22, 1,29,1,31, 134-5, 1.37, 139, Bardus, king of Gauls,722
140, 165,

Aaron, 1,11,,1,62 Abraham, 68, 21,7

Aristotle, Z, /0,
1,37,
1,57

1.1.,

13,770,

1,28,

Apollo, 1.5,1.8,21, 49, 53 Bellarmin, Cardinal, 752 Apollonius of Thyana, 105, 1,17-8 Belleau, R6my, 97-8 Apuleius,1,69,1,83 Ber,r,s, 83,94-5, 1.54-5,233
ARcrrrrncruRE, 1,17-8 Argentinus, Ricardus, 96
Aquinas,
see Thomas

1,91,226-7

Bellantius, 58

Aquinas

Benaccht,4
Bessarion, Cardinal, 34, Bdze, Th. de, 125

t9

79

1'seatpulr'sntuvltv)

'

6ZZ'LZZ 't}l 'L-gLl 69T' L9r'sgr' t-zgL' ,8' gv'rr,taq f'salrurseO


9-16'se1oor1q'tosruag

9 'oruoluy'ouelsluz3 srq8rl 'crcvtrq aes 'surcuv3 ,O{Z ,BZZ ,OZZ ,9IZ ,TJOZ T{Z '802'/02'902 '902 '{02 'gEz-g\z

971'snuz]lrz1,q'v11edz3

'8

(oru t"o) 8tl '(uTpog) 9f I 'V-Zl,l'(rard -rrr"Llf) Lgl '(snlszrg) g-Vgt I '(rtl,16) g,gl 'Qr"zuoduo.l)
g

III-0II'sratrrac

f,ruowep-rtuz

'roz'96r 'r6I '68 r 'Ltr 'rtr 's6 '16'zg's L'gv'ag,' 62'e11euzdwe3


Z-

ttt'96'oll.rlo'olllurz3
6Zl'olI\wz3 'i1nue3
'e

(zgauudtuvJ) g-VgZ' LZZ '0ZZ 'E-llZ '(ruqoz4) L-7EI ' E-Ztl'(snsiaezre4) p-Eg1' @d -drr8y) 9-96'(snrureqlul) 6-9 g
,

tcL t-((L '6-grz'g-vrz '6Lr'gg 't 'rvu -Ipr"f,'ol1 ep os?ururol 'ouvlerz3

6-8zz

Lt-jj,:"::yJ

'(r11ateze1) Z-Ot'(olaorziq) cruoruep-ord 'slalll-tt Vt, 'Zt,,ZIZ ,T6I ,9-V9I ,TII LZZ -0lI'96'9-gg'7S-ZV'pue ounrg
Z8 '08'g-gL'g-Vg 'letarre8 ut

wt 'otr 'B-Lrr'zrl '86 '6-89 'vrvuv3


57 'vottng
69-/S'osuruuroa'ru8asuruong
6ZZ'0ZZ

({tqs

aes)

'crcv14 'rrrtuq 'srucNy osle crcvry crNor^rsqJ ?B sNor{scf

'gvr 'z-Ter

'gB'uruetrq

npJt{'lto
IBI .PII"C
,9

gIZ' -6 srrog Z' 6AZ' t 9-g0Z'(1ede.1) {g 'Zg'oun.lg L6'eI ap dn9 'essolg


971 'snruuelrg

-SZT ,?-VLT ,VZT ,ZZI ,VZ .9

LV'SZ'eluuq
6-99 '-luayucord,ruJ

I { "N'quonPn3 y'etnl uag Btso3

gt 'ZZ ''^ol1; 'rsto3 2'snvvtrryv snuB":il1",


-saYOV eas 'oNruusuYg orcsaro3
96 '(zrag ap
g.p1

L6l 'zgr 'g- t/ t 'gy1 8V ttz'r

/-gg 'snIII^og snllr,rog aes 'ap 'q3 'segenog 67'uv?ullog 191 'preuoal'ptog gZT'Vl (snrleog 'waf 'r1pog
LVT I g-92 '1 sueuog

gvl'6L'Lt,'ze 'xco3

9(r : (r 'IX IL IEI.IAX ,9Z,ATX ,IIX Z9 : IC

ossaluro3'ep aurraqrz3) ruoulral3 'otetrS


fg

g'snddrsfr.If
VZT

'vtolsosdrrl3

0L t9I'X 'g-g '11I uqof 'Ixx elnT 0zz tsz .IXX tgT : IZ ^\aqltu],{
g-L6L :E

pu"

orcv14 aes
79

8lz | ?9I 'XIXf IT] .IIIAJ .IIA-I


9ZZ
:

'IIX

Terusc

gl tV-gZ'IIIAX rrrl"sd

'vtltz1,11'

dlluzrtsrtr{J 'l;lrNYrr.sruH3 'zlrtrtueq3

191'arouo11'uu11arszq3

6(r 'XI selrcr{J 1gy 'uee[ 'uruledzq3

-/9 t'gVT'uauoqdrudg'lardruuq3
salp 6gz

69t'89t

zgl tzv-Le'xxx

ELT :\Z,XX Z9l tZT-1T '11n snpoxg

:I .IIAXXX qO[ I8I A srequnN

'crcYl{ aas 'salmolnuaua3


XgCINI

LVI I Ll-ll'1 srseueg

(prlp sa8esszQ srsrg

240

INDEX

Diacceto, Francesco Cattant d^, 30-5, il, 40, 45,93 Dionysius Areopagitica, 35, 47 Doc (Agrippa's black), 96,I74 Donio, Agostino, L89, 792, 193-5,
1,97,1.99

transl. Proclus, 37, 210 transl. Synesius, 74, 39


see Macrc, lights Fludd, 117 La Fontaine Perilleuse, 98

Frne,

Dorat, Jeanr 9T-8 Dorn, Gentd, 96 Du Bellay, Joacirim de, 97,98 Dur,ra, see Larnre
Er.rrnnxrs (four),
118

Fracastoro, 221

Funonns (Platonic), 21, L20,


1,27

721.,

7,

1.3,

23, 78-9,

Gabrieli, Andrea & Giovannt, /38 Gafort, 25


Galen, 5, 127

Emilio, Paolo, 100 Erastus, Thomas, 101, 702-3, '145,


156, 159, 1,56-1,66,178-9, 180 Escn,q.ror,ocY, see Mrr-r.ENARrsM

Galilei, Yicentto, 20 Ganassi, Sylvestro, /9 Ganay, Germain de, 35, 86, 135 George of Trebizond, 39, 60-67

Eucnanrsr, see M,q.ss Eusebius, 147 Exoncrsu, 45-6, 1,54, 1,81,


.FascrNarros, 149-150, 160-1 Ferdinand, king of Aragon, 64-7L Fernel, Tean, 4, 1,01,, 157 Ficino, 3, 6, 12
Fauchet, Claude, 98

Gllbert, 79 Giorgi Veneto, 65,75, 112-9, 120,


1,24

Glarean,26 Godelmann, J. G., 1.62, 1,84, 1 82 Gohory, Jacques (see also Acepeures), 85-6, 96-1,06, 97-101,
1,64

Gorn, 13,32,148
Gratianus, 169

De Triplici L/ita, 3-24, 30, 37, G rirnano , Giov ., 1.29 39, 4i-3, 45, 52, 90, 92, 99, Guido Aietino, 128 i02-3, L14-5, 1,21,, 1"48, 1.64-6, Fleidel, W. F.., 87-9 '167
-9, 1.99, 203-4, 21.0-2,
2'18,

222

Ilpistolae, 6, 52--3, 54,99

I{ermes'Irismegistus & Hermetica, 23, 37 , 39 , 62, 64, 5 5 -7 2,93 , 1.05,


1,22, 1.24-6

Liber de .fole, Liber de Lamine,


Orphica Comparatio .folis,
T.heologia
1.8

(Asclepius) 40-3,45, 80, 92, I32,


169-1,70, 21,1,-2

Platonica, 6, 7, 10, 13, 39, 4A, 107 , 1.59, 1.63 Comru. in Conuiu.,7,21.
Comm. in Cratyl., Comvt. in lon.l21
1.66

Hernroqenes, /40, 141

Hesiod, 125 Hierocles, 38

Homer,

1.25

Comnz. in Leg.,47-8, 1,62, 1,66

Honosconns

Cortru. in Parmen.,51. Comru. in Paul.,48-50 Comm. in Phaedr.,21 Contm. in Plotin.,15, 18, 21,-3,39, 51., 54, 62,1,36, 1,48,1,65-6 Comm. in Tim., 8-9, 74, 46, 52 transl. Hermetica, 37, 64

DrcrARY Asrnor-ocr), 53, 57-8,

(&

DrvrNaronv, Ju-

1.14, 17 6, 200, 205-6,217,21,9, 228

Houel, Nicolas, 100-1 HyrvrNs (see also Orpltica, David), 1.9,23,32-3, 40, 60-1,, 64-77, 87,
1,25-6,170, 1,74, 791,, 1,98
Hlpnerotontachia, 98

transl. Iamblichus, 6, 9,37 transl. Porphyry, 37, 227

Iamblichus, 6,
721,,21,1,

9, 18, t7-39,

42,

-0ll

'g0Z 'gOZ 'ZL 'L9 'lrrsruyNsarrl{ tgz'6 I'upetrq'auuas.ralq sr[NYTd eas',runf,)rutr\l

sarcvurlq 'V-tB '(uensrrq3) 9gz'0zz

z9l'991'rll

-cv3v

s.d;oqog'ssrns
eas 'rYHaosoTrHd r Inrf,IT

671'ozuerrn 'o3uo1 6 5 'vvttpy 'dog a1


p2'e1oor51 'sncruoel 971 'apnv13 'eunaf e1

0l'11X srnoT

'or8rro3 ap 'sauuzof 'snrrnual,q 991 '(stot

0L-69

15'sntuutal
0/ t-69t

-JIru uo to rcega) Norl,vnuJ.sNs1N 'gVT 'lL't9 '97'seldelg(p er^aJeT elrePog r-0gl'e-wr'gg1'691'(r'r -rrvuowslN strv oslz aas) e-I ees 'auepog eI ep aJ^eJeT I ^uonrsJ 97; 'srno1 'uolt3 e1 6 L' gLI' g g'uo'qrupuup6 Ll' 5 9' Z L-t9'r11etvze1
'

1EZ' g-V',\roHrNVTsJAI

9ZZ'VTZ'7E1

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eP slnoT 'czsttel

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9ZZ

'ep swlag tur?S


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l0l

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5

t 'g-zz t '02 t-6rl'91

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ezz '0zz '0rz-902 'Laz


'g-Zg, 'gg 'saruolueJef,

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'stllr

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gt T' g0l' E1l'9- gB'ie,raerparu ,OZZ ,


VEZ LZZ,T,-LZZ

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'f-lgl'9-t9r' l7l-9vr't-zg,l

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ttz 'l-0zz 'rlz 'Loz '66r 'L-g6r 'oLT 'B-Lgl '26 '6L '89 'ov '6e 'gE'zt 'ot,'EZ
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'g,l'g'sunocr6 ?tf ssNsf,NI .I8I OZZ,g,8I


'LoL

'lll-60r '9-96 '16 'v-98 'zL 'rg '9v 'g-vt, 'dlruunsul{f Pu? 6ZT,'tlz'9aZ'g8l
-srsl
(suHc,r.r1X 'IHJ.Y.I

'ggl'gvl' rtr'96'26' 68'{rrlg


'sNvrtsrrvl 'sNorlY -rNYcNI'sNortuq ospaas)'crcvyq
6E'snr.qo;Oe1,{

'g0I'96'16'18'gy'sNorlYrNYONl vlrrvNrcvv[I sr1 aes'NolJ.vNrcvi II


(uexzao.) ssoYhII -roql oslz aas) ,Z.IIZ ,VLT ,OLT '(rrnNrcvrnul s 16'sNvrts
OZZ

rrvl':.urv

v}l'r8l

76 'rlletxvlr{l"W
rvz,

-69l 'v9T 'gVl '26'Tg-6V 't-TV '(r.tsrun,r.xro4 oslz aas) ruryrocll

XgCTNI

242

INDEX

MNnuoNrcs, see Ans MnlroRATrvA N{ontaigne, 161 MooN, see Pr,,q.Nsrs Moses, 23,40,62 Motellius, J., 60 Nluret, M. 4., 97-8, 1,27 N{usrc astrological, plane tary, 12-24, 40,

Orsini, Rinaldo, Ovid, 68


Pesol,n,q.srY, L47

52-3

PacaNrsu, see Por.yrrrrrslt P,rrNrrNc, TS-9,80, 196


Pan,
/

1.77
1

42-3, 48, 62-3, 81, 91.-3, 1.09,


1.20, 1,22-6, 1.33-4, 138, 179,
1.84, 1.91, 1,96,207 ,21,1,230-2 cosmic, 1,4-6, 37, 40,81, 11,5-7, 1,20-1,, 1.22-3, 1.50-1, 232 effects of , 6-1.1., 1,6, 20, 25-8, 37,

Paolini, Fabio, 7 5,97, L1,8, 26-142

66,

r,

109, 1 1,5, 179-121., 123,

1.25-6,1,30-1, 137-9, 1,79, 231,-

2,23+
music-spirit theory, 3-1.1, 25-9, 39, 70-2, 1.17, 11,9, 1.20, 201,,
21,1,230-2

numerological analogies, 25, 81., 11,5-1.21., 124, 126, 1.40, 2r8,


222

27, 128, 14 0, L83-5, 231,-2 Paracelsus, 75, 80, 85, 96-1.06,779, 135, 158- 15 g, 163-4, 1.84, 201. Par6., Ambroise, 101 Parcja, Ramis de, 26 Parthenio, 127-8, 14/ Pasquier, Etienne, 98 Patrtzi, 24,1,95, 1 98 Pererius, Benedictus, 9) Persio, Antonio, 75, 189, 1,91.-2, 195-8,203-4 Peter of Abano, 36, 86, 90, 105,
1.08, 132, 1.47, 151,,21,2 Phares, Simon de, 170

plactical, cosmic

1.9

-20,60, 99-1 0 0,

1.37

-8

Musrce N{uNoaNe, see Musrc,

Naldi, /9
Noah,217

Philo Judaeus, 224,226 Philoponus, 38 Philostrates, 147 Phoebus, see Apollo Picatrix, 36, 86, 105, 1,47, 1.82 Pico, Giovanni, della Mirandola, 20, 22, 54-9, 57, 62,91,-93, 98-9, 1,04, 1.1.2, 1.18-9, 1.30, 138, 1.46,
153, 1,73-4, 1.76,1.78

NuunnolocY, see Musrc, numerological analogies


OoouRs, see INcnNsn

Pico, Gian Francesco, 22, 57, 1,45,


1,46-1,51,,1,53, 1,76

Oporinus, 101 Onaronv, TB-9,81, L09, 127, 1391,42, 1,79

Pirovanus, Gabriel, 93 Pistorius, J., 69


Pius

V,

215

Pr,aNsrenv l\[usrc, see Musrc, trological


Pr-aNers

as-

Origen, 39,224,226 Orpheus, L3, 18-9, 22-4, 30, 34, 37, 40, 42, 49, 50, 62, 93, 11,91.20, 1.23, 126, 1,30-5, L47, 17 4-6,

Jupiter, 5, 1.2, 1.4-8, 49, 50, 52-3, go, 123, 1.36, L50, 196, 207,
236

Orphica & Orphic Flymns, 22, 23-4, 30, 33-4, 37, 40, 48, 50, 57, 60, 62-3, 91,2, 110, 122-3, 125-6, 138-9, 1.69, 1.7 4-5, 1,82-3 Onpnrc SrNcrNG, see N'Iusrc, astfological

178, 1.83-4,231,-2

NIars, 15, 1.7, 21., 49, 1,50, 207,


236

Mercury, 5, 1,2, 15, 17, 1.8, 21.,


1.96,21,8

N{oon,
Saturn,

1.5, 1.7, 51.,235

5, 1.2, 15, 17, 2L, 45-6, 49-50, 52, 1,23, 1,50,207, 236

6-gZZ' E17' t+sttynrru rcrs Jrulsof, ',r.rurag eas 'rcNnJ\l SoJrErclg

771'snntrqzd'snuzdsug
961 'snurug

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,

'29 'g-Lt 'EZ 'gT 'Vl 'szro8zgld.l BZI'tll'g g'17' [we1ot4


62'sn11as4
aes

ze7,'l0z'ell

LZZ

srflrg 'pllrq

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'tor'z-T6'g L' L-gs't-rs'B- Lv

LTZ,96T, LSI,V-T,T,T, OZI, T,LI

'gv 'v-zt, 'g-zz 'gl 't-zL 'B


06I-68I

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J.r)rrds

LZZ 'L-961. '16l 'Z-06L 'VLl 'gL 'Lv 'or 'g-Lz 'or-g 'y 'rnog
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'Iczlg 'crcvlq
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aas

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'62

'171 'saltoqdoq

79'orsaruvtJ'rutrepog 9-g0Z'6 snrxrg


661

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59'arl:ne1llng '1etso4
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gVl' L'snetldruq snlxas '0gI '26'g-zT'f,t 'xas


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6 g, 99, a4\aa ar1{a.9, l-0gz' lI- L'uollusueg'sasNug L(t'ap tepo 'a,r1ee Z-0OZ '(,8I 'BlI l-0gl'8gI'(*rrcrrldurg) ucNarcg gg'wdsvg'lloqcg

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enz

]^ISIINVISEI

'96r 'gzr 'rz'g-vl 'zl 'g'snuel ggz' L-gzz'vzz' Llz's\z ' t oz' g6r' 96l' t 6l' Lgl' t-zvL 'gzT'gzr'glT '6L'gg 'l-09 'w '88 'E-og 'f-gz'g-vr 'u's'u.s

XUONI

244
Steuco, Agostino,738 Srorcrsvr, 1,2, 38, 1.89 Suavius, Leo, see Gohory
SuN, see Pr-aNnrs SYntr.s, 98, 128,1.52

INDEX

Vnrrrcr.r,
human

see

Astner. BooY, Srtmt,

VrNus,

see Pr-aNnrs

Yesaltus, 127

Synesius, 14,38,39 Tahureau, Jacques, 98 Tar-rsl,reNs, 1.4, 30, 32, 34, 42-4, 48, 51,, 53, 57, 80, 87,97,703-4,

Vicentino, 728 Villani, Ph., 46 Vio, Tommaso de, see Caietano


VrslrracrNATrvA, 6, 1'5, 27, 33, 7 690, 82, 707, 1J0, 1.36-7, 142-4, 1,49-750,158-9, 76A-7, 779, 183,
200-1

Virgil, 1t, 726, 729

r70, 174, 1.79, 180-1,

107

185-5, 191, 1.99, 21,1-2, 214, 222-3

, 1,32-3,

1.36-7

, 1.48,

1,53, 1.67-

Tasso, Faustino, 1 28, 1'29 Trr.nparnv, 88-9, 103, 105, 735-6,


1,49,161.,235

Vrs Iua.crNUM, 77 -8, 80, 82-4, 105, 107,779,787,207 Vrs Musrcns (see also Musrc, astrological, effects of,), 77-8, 87-2,
1,49-1,57,179

Telesio, 189-193, 795, 1'99, 203,


21,6,223
TnrnacnAMMAToN

Thomas Aquinas, 34, 42, 43, 46, 57-8, 89, 1,07, 1,71., 1.33, 737, 751,, 1.53, L57, 767-8, 176, 1.81.,
07, 2 I 4-6, 2 1 5,21,8-222, 224, 226 Thomas, Artus, 147 Timaeus Locrus, 8, 1,1.3
2

1'51., 17 5

Vrs Rnnuv,77-8, 82 Vrs VnnBoRUM (see also INcaNTArroNS, Ponrnv), 77-8, 80-4, 105, 107, 109, 121,, 740-4,749151,, 754-5, 1.67, 1,64-6, 175-6,
179-1,83 234-6

Sfier, Johann, 93-4, 96,


1,45, 152-6, 1,80
207,21,1,

105-6,

TRrxrlx, 33-4,87, 71,8, 1.30, 1.72 Trithemius, 80, 85, 86,86-90, 97-8,
101, 103, 1,05, 1t5-6, L47-2,1,61, Tyard, Pontus de, 27,1'99-1'22

\frNn, 5, 1.3, 23, 30, 33, 36, 202,


$TrrcHns, 82-3, L49, 752, 156, 158,
173-4

\flonos,
Urban

see

Vrs Vnnnonurt

VIII, 205-21,2,

220, 228, 236

Valvasone, Erasmo da, 129 Yarc.o,57

Zarltno, 1 9,28-9, 728 Zotoaster, 23, 43, 60, 93, 1'02, 705, 1.21,, 746,178

90000
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