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LESSON 1 USING THE LIBRARY EFFECTIVELY THE LIBRARY Derived from the Greek word librarium which means a place for the custody or administration of a collection of reading materials. Is the heart of the school Is a storehouse of books and other reading materials. Is a collection of graphic materials books, films, tape recording organized for use. A reader should: a. know the librarian b. Discover the policies concerning the use of the library c. Have a knowledge of the kinds of materials the library holds. d. Be familiar with the system of the library classification and physical set up (sections of the library) e. Have the ability to pick out the kind of book and materials needed. Sections of the Library

A. Circulation Section This section contains the general collection of

books, fiction and non-fiction, which the students can borrow for home use. B. Reserve Section kept in this section are books that may be requested by some teachers to be made available for their students but for a shorter period of time because of the limited number of copies per book. Therefore, allowing students to take turns in borrowing these books for just a few hours. C. Reference Section This section contains books containing specific facts and information about anything in this world. 1. Fiction novels, short stories, and drama (books of imagination) 2. Nonfiction these are books of information. The books are about real things, people, places, and the like 3. General References a. Dictionaries give a lot of information about a word, such as its spelling, syllabication, pronunciation, meaning, stress, function, its etymology or origin, etc. b. Encyclopedias reference materials that give information on almost every subject. These pieces of information, arranged alphabetically, are put together in book form and are sold to the public in series of volumes. 1

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c. Indexes an index material indicates where a particular article in a magazine or journal can be found. As a guide, it gives the title, volume, series number, and date of the magazine containing the article. d. Yearbooks (annual) they give information about the yearly activities, accomplishments and composition of a government or a private institution, or company e. Almanacs- contain pieces of information about the economic, political, astronomical, and statistical data on the commercial and sports status of a country. f. Atlases a collection of maps, contemporary or historical. g. Gazetteers a list of names of places plus information or description of each place such as its location, terrain, and the correct pronunciation of its name. h. Bibliographies it contains list of names of authors of a certain book. It also contains the date and place of publication including the name of the publisher. i. Directories it contains pieces of information about a person his address, telephone number and some information about organization and companies j. Biographical Dictionaries a reference material that gives information about famous distinguished people, dead or alive. k. Special Reference Materials Pamphlets Government Publications Clippings D. Periodical Section This is where one can see magazine, newspapers, and journals Periodicals are published weekly, monthly, quarterly, or fortnightly. Two Types of Periodicals a. General Periodicals these contain articles on different interests and subjects (Readers Digest, Newsweek, local magazines like Mod, Women etc.) Magazines it came from the Arabian term makhazin and Italian magazine to French magazine. Newspapers a paper printed and distributed at a regular intervals. - a reading material or publication for news stories Types: Broadsheet/National a newspaper that contains comprehensive information of events. It uses formal language Tabloid/local or community contains bit information. It does not use formal language 2

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Sections of a Newspaper/Essential Parts 1. Front Page 2. Editorial newspapers opinion on an issue. 3. Foreign News 4. Sports 5. Entertainment 6. Classified Ads 7. Community/Local News 8. Home and Culture/Life and Leisure 9. Obituary 10. Business Section b. Professional Periodicals These are sometimes called professional journals containing articles on a particular field of knowledge which are written by members of the profession. E. Audio-visual Materials This is an optional section of the library where variety of machines for listening or viewing may be kept. F. Materials Center A section where student who wants to do his class projects and some special activities not needing books prefers to go. G. Multi-media Center Another optional section of the library which houses materials reflecting breakthroughs in technology and electronics such as computers and other modern machines. Arrangements of Books Classification System 1. Dewey Decimal System named after its developer, Melvil Dewey. A system which uses numbers to classify books. It is usually used by small library such as college/university libraries. 000 099 General Works/References (Encyclopedia, Dictionaries) 100 199 Philosophy (Logic, Ethics) 200 299 Religion (Bible, Saints) 300 399 Social Sciences (Sociology, Psychology, Law) 400 499 Language (Composition, Speech) 500 599 Pure Science (Physics, Biology) 600 699 Applied Science (Electronics, Automotive Agriculture, Aeronautics,) 700 799 Arts and Recreation (Music, Paintings, PE) 800 899 Literature (Poetry, Essays) 900 999 History, Geography

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2. Library of Congress Classification a classification used by big libraries. It uses capital letters. A General Works/References B Philosophy and Religion C History, Auxiliary Sciences (General) D History, Auxiliary Sciences (except America) E History, Auxiliary Sciences of America (General) F History, Auxiliary Sciences of America (Local) G Geography, Anthropology H Social Sciences J Political Science K Law L Education M Music N Fine Arts P Philippine and Literature Q Science R Medicine S Agriculture T Technology U Military Science V Naval Science Z Bibliography, Library Science Call Number it contains the number of classification, the authors family name initial, and the year of publication. Number classification Authors initial Yr. of publication 539.72 G2 1995

The Card Catalogue it contains several sliding drawers and situated at the most visible part of the library. It also contains index cards with alphabetically arranged records of all books inside the library. Kinds: 1. Title Card the title of the book appears on the top most part of the index.
793.7 L34 Games to Play Larsen, Harold, 2nd Ed. Illus. by Berthold, Tieman, California: Harper and Row.1995 1. Mathematical Recreations 1. Title

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2. Author Card - the name of the author appears on the top most part of the index.
793.7 L34 Larsen, Harold Games to Play, 2nd Ed. Illus. by Berthold, Tieman, California: Harper and Row.1995 1. Mathematical Recreations 1. Author

3. Subject Card - the subject and or topic appears on the top most part of the index.
793.7 L34 Mathematical Recreations Larsen, Harold Games to Play, 2nd Ed. Illus. by Berthold, Tieman, California: Harper and Row.1995

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Arrange the words alphabetically as to how they are written in the dictionary. 1. breezy 2. misgiving 3. chain 4. applicable 5. scarcity breast mistaken chaos appoint scene breathe misty chaff appearance scant breech misplace channel appendix scatter break mishap chance applause scenario breed misstep char apply scan breach mistreat chafe appease scale breakup misjudge change appetite scavenger breeding mislead chapter appraise scarcely breadth misery chant append scamp

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Exercise 2. Write F if the book is fiction and NF it is non-fiction. 1. Geography: A Retrospect 2. The Necklace 3. Global Warming: Its Effect 4. Kapitan Boom 5. Life and Works of Rizal 6. The Adventures of Aladin 7. Personality Development 8. Tom and Jerry Cartoon Show 9. Physical Fitness Volume 2 10. The Return of Superman Exercise 3. Choose the letter of the classification system in Column B that Column A represents. (10 pts.) Column A On Dewey Decimal Classification 1. Language 2. History, Geography 3. Philosophy 4. Applied Science 5. Arts and Recreation On Library of Congress System 6. Law 7. Education 8. Medicine 9. Music 10. Technology Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. 100-199 400-499 600-699 700-799 800-899 900-999 K L M R S T

Exercise 4. From among the choices below, choose the section/part of the

newspaper that is illustrated in the articles. front page classified ads sports obituary entertainment business foreign news community/local news Lifestyle Editorial

1. The Heiress and the Designer come together in Cool Show 2. Malacaang Laughs off Whistle Blowers Claim. 3. UAAP: Four foreign dribblers get clearance

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4. Cecilia Ungco-Tuazon passed into the loving hands of our Lord. She was 58 years old. 5. Banko Sentral ng Pilipinas seeks change in Charter, Tax exemptions 6. The Haunted opens July 8, 2009 at Movie World Branches 7. Invitation to Apply for Eligibility and to Bid 8. MILF claims killing 500 Soldiers 9. Honduras coup: Mixed signals for GMA: by Raul C. Pangalangan 10. US Marines Launch major Afghan Offensive

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LESSON 2 SKIMMING AND SCANNING SKIMMING Is the process of quickly running or passing over an entire selection or passage to get the general impression of it. It is what you do when you read quickly to get the main ideas of a text . This is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People usually skim when they have lots of materials to read in a limited amount of time. It involves reading a text very quickly and superficially in order to get a general idea of the content Steps: 1. Read the title, subtitles and subheading to find out what the text is about. 2. Look at the illustrations to give you further information about the topic. 3. Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph. 4. Don't read every word or every sentence. Let you eyes skim over the text, taking in key words. 5. Continue to think about the meaning of the text. A topic sentence is a sentence that captures the meaning of the entire paragraph or group of sentences. It tells what the passage is mainly about. First, try to find a topic sentence in the paragraph or section of the text to use as a topic sentence. If you cannot find one, then write your own topic sentence by combining important ideas from several sentences SCANNING Is the process of quickly locating a particular fact, figure, or word over a selection or reading material to find the answer to a specific question. It is the technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. It involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. It is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. It is a reading skill used to locate key or specific information quickly, eg dates, numbers, examples & definitions. Steps

Look for key words, or words that are repeated. 8

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Look for definitions. Look for highlighted words, ex: words in bold or italic. Look for numbers, ex: dates and statistics. Look for examples, including diagrams.

*Skimming or scanning? 1. Reading a newspaper 2. Looking up the meaning of a word in the dictionary 3. Finding the plot of a short story 4. Checking the date of Fall of Bataan in the history book. 5. Locating the telephone numbers of a pet shop in a directory.

Exercise: Direction: You will have a very short time to read the text and identify the main ideas. You are given 2 minutes read the selection. Every second, 1 hectare of the world's rainforest is destroyed. That's equivalent to two football fields. An area the size of New York City is lost every day. In a year, that adds up to 31 million hectares -- more than the land area of Poland. This alarming rate of destruction has serious consequences for the environment; scientists estimate, for example, that 137 species of plant, insect or animal become extinct every day due to logging. In British Columbia, where, since 1990, thirteen rainforest valleys have been clear cut, 142 species of salmon have already become extinct, and the habitats of grizzly bears, wolves and many other creatures are threatened. Logging, however, provides jobs, profits, taxes for the government and cheap products of all kinds for consumers, so the government is reluctant to restrict or control it. Much of Canada's forestry production goes towards making pulp and paper. According to the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Canada supplies 34% of the world's wood pulp and 49% of its newsprint paper. If these paper products could be produced in some other way, Canadian forests could be preserved. Recently, a possible alternative way of producing paper has been suggested by agriculturalists and environmentalists: a plant called hemp. Hemp has been cultivated by many cultures for thousands of years. It produces fiber which can be made into paper, fuel, oils, textiles, food, and rope. For centuries, it was essential to the economies of many countries because it was used to make the ropes and cables used on sailing ships; colonial expansion and the establishment of a world-wide trading network would not have been feasible without hemp. Nowadays, ships' cables are usually made from wire or synthetic fibers, but scientists are now suggesting that the cultivation of hemp should be revived for the production of paper and pulp. According to its proponents, four times as much paper can be produced from land using hemp 9

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rather than trees, and many environmentalists believe that the large-scale cultivation of hemp could reduce the pressure on Canada's forests. However, there is a problem: hemp is illegal in many countries of the world. This plant, so useful for fiber, rope, oil, fuel and textiles, is a species of cannabis, related to the plant from which marijuana is produced. In the late 1930s, a movement to ban the drug marijuana began to gather force, resulting in the eventual banning of the cultivation not only of the plant used to produce the drug, but also of the commercial fiber-producing hemp plant. Although both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp in large quantities on their own land, any American growing the plant today would soon find himself in prison -- despite the fact that marijuana cannot be produced from the hemp plant, since it contains almost no THC (the active ingredient in the drug). In recent years, two major movements for legalization have been gathering strength. One group of activists believes that ALL cannabis should be legal -- both the hemp plant and the marijuana plant -- and that the use of the drug marijuana should not be an offense. They argue that marijuana is not dangerous or addictive, and that it is used by large numbers of people who are not criminals but productive members of society. They also point out that marijuana is less toxic than alcohol or tobacco. The other legalization movement is concerned only with the hemp plant used to produce fiber; this group wants to make it legal to cultivate the plant and sell the fiber for paper and pulp production. This second group has had a major triumph recently: in 1997, Canada legalized the farming of hemp for fiber. For the first time since 1938, hundreds of farmers are planting this crop, and soon we can expect to see pulp and paper produced from this new source. Questions #1 The main idea of paragraph one is: Scientists are worried about New York City Logging is destroying the rainforests Governments make money from logging Salmon are an endangered species The main idea of paragraph two is: Canadian forests are especially under threat Hemp is a kind of plant Canada is a major supplier of paper and pulp Canada produces a lot of hemp The main idea of paragraph three is: 10

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Paper could be made from hemp instead of trees Hemp is useful for fuel Hemp has been cultivated throughout history Hemp is essential for building large ships The main idea of paragraph four is: Hemp is used to produce drugs Many famous people used to grow hemp It is illegal to grow hemp Hemp is useful for producing many things The main idea of paragraph five is: Hemp should be illegal because it is dangerous Recently, many people have been working to legalize hemp Hemp was made illegal in 1938 Marijuana is not a dangerous drug

For Scanning: Questions: (Refer to the same selection) 1. How many species of salmon have become extinct in BC? 27 31 137 142 2. How much of the world's newsprint paper is supplied by Canada? 31% 49% 34% 19% 3. What equipment on a ship was made from hemp? Ropes waterproof cloth engine fuel 11

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life rafts 4. What drug can be obtained from a relative of hemp? cocaine heroin amphetamine marijuana 5. Where was hemp farming recently legalized? the USA Canada Singapore the Netherlands

A. Vocabulary Building: Contextual Clues Contextual clues are words or phrases in the text acting as clues to the meaning of a difficult term in the selection. Are clues derived from the meaning of words co-occurring with the unknown word. Examples: (from the selection) 1. "Every second, 1 hectare of the world's rainforest is destroyed. That's equivalent to two football fields." What does "equivalent to" mean? a) more than b) less than c) the same as 2. "In British Columbia, where, since 1990, thirteen rainforest valleys have been clearcut, 142 species of salmon have already become extinct." What does "clearcut" mean? a) a few trees have been cut down b) many trees have been cut down c) all the trees have been cut down 3. "Logging, however, provides jobs, profits, taxes for the government and cheap products of all kinds for consumers, so the government is 12

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reluctant to restrict or control it." What does "reluctant" mean? a) doesn't want to b) is not allowed to c) would like to 4. "According to its proponents, four times as much paper can be produced from land using hemp rather than trees." What does "proponents" mean? a) people who are against something b) people who support something c) people in charge of something 5. "In the late 1930s, a movement to ban the drug marijuana began to gather force." What does "gather force" mean? a) appear b) get stronger c) get weaker 6. "One group of activists believes that ALL cannabis should be legal." What does "activists" mean? a) people trying to change something b) people against the government c) people who smoke marijuana Types of Contextual Clues 1. Semantic Clues Are clues derived from the meaning of words co-occurring with the unknown word. Types: Definition Clue a word maybe directly defined in the context. Example: The register is the book in which the names of the people are kept. 13

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At the zoo, we saw a gnu, which is a large African antelope. The Appositive Clue an appositive may offer a synonym or description of the word. Example: Euthanasia, mercy killing in plain language, is a very controversial issue. Comparison or Contrast Clue it may give away the words meaning. Example: She is not lazy to study, on the contrary, she is very diligent. At last the balloon took off. It was as buoyant in the air s a cork is in the water. Explanation Clue the succeeding sentences may provide explanations that may clarify the meaning of an unknown word in the previous sentence. Example: Lucys unusual timidity bothered her parents. They were bothered why she would not even want to talk to any visitor and would rather lock herself to her room. In school, her teachers were complaining too. 2. Syntactic Clues are contained in the grammar of our language. It tells how words in the sentence are used whether the word is a noun, pronoun, an action word etc. Examples: A habitat of species is important for everybody needs a place to live in. Kelp and other kinds of seaweeds can be made into food.

3. Collocation and Completion Collocation is a familiar grouping of words, especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by association. Examples: have do make 14

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have a bath have a drink have a good time have a haircut Take take a break take a chance take a look take a taxi Pay pay a fine pay attention pay by credit card pay cash Come come close come complete with come direct come early Miscellaneous Time bang on time dead on time early 12th century free time from dawn till dusk

do business do nothing do the shopping do your hair Break break a leg break a promise break a window break the rules Save save electricity save energy save money save one's Go go abroad go astray go bad go bald

make furniture make money make progress make trouble catch catch a ball catch a bus catch a chill catch a cold keep keep a diary keep a promise keep a secret keep in touch Get get a job get a shock get angry get divorced

Business English annual turnover bear in mind break off negotiations cease trading

Classifiers a ball of string a bar of chocolate a bottle of water a bunch of carrots a cube of sugar

4. Faulty Diction refers to the wrong use of words. You must use words according to their recognized meaning. Examples: accept, except adapt, adopt, adept affect, effect alumnus, alumni, alumna, alumnae all right, alright


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Exercises: Exercise 1 Determine the meaning of the underlined words by using context clues. Choose the letter only. 1. The witness gave a wrong statement. The lawyer refuted it. a. disapproved b. changed c. erased 2. Attempts to solve the problems were sporadic. a. excellent b. spontaneous c. scattered 3. The meticulous professor checked the test papers herself. a. bright b. intelligent c. careful 4. I told you about my plan already; but, I will reiterate it now. a. repeat b. ask c. explain 5. Ecumenism could herald a new kind of Christian brotherhood. a. mean b. introduce c. allow 6. The housing project was meant to alleviate the miserable housing condition of the poor. a. end b. worsen c. lessen 7. You tell his innate characteristics, not the acquired ones. a. bad b. inborn c. good 8. The dean is a gregarious person, always seeking and enjoying the company of others. a. happy b. sociable c. strict 9. Like all carnivorous, wolves prefer meat. a. plant-eating animals b. meat-eating animals c. seaweed-eating animals 10. Pull the taffy as elastic as rubber band. a. flexible b. tough c. rough Exercise 2 Read the sentences and carefully note the underlined words. Then do the matching exercise that follows. 1. Maria Makiling, Snow White and Cinderella are characters 2. Nobody dared to stay in that haunted house. mythical


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3. A recycling system would turn garbage into animal food. 4. He was made to explain a vague statement in the report. 5. His main health problem is his obesity. The reducing pills seem to be of no effort. A ____ 1. mythical ____ 2. haunted ____ 3. recycling ____ 4. vague ____ 5. obesity a. b. c. d. e. B use again in another form not clear imaginary excessive fatness A frequent resort of host

Exercise 3: Choose from the box the correct word that would complete each phrase. do 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exercise 4: have take break keep save pay come get go

____ a record ____ someones place ____ divorced ____ lunch ____ money

6. ____ by credit card 7. ____ in touch 8. ____ abroad 9. ____ prepared 10. ____ astray

Underline the appropriate word according to their recognized meaning:

LANGUAGE FOCUS: Sentences/Fragments Processing Activities: Puzzle Story In the middle of the night while Mr. Jones was asleep in his hotel room, the telephone beside his bell rang. Mr. Jones woke up, picked up the phone and said, hello. Then he put the phone down and went back to sleep. Can you guess who called him?

Phrase Answers: 17

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6. 7. 8. 9.

the front desk clerk making a wake up call the hotel manager his wife his business partner The man occupying the adjacent room called him. The hotel manager called him. His wife called him.

Sentence answers: 1. 2. 3. Sentence

It is a word or group of words that express a complete thought. In order to express a complete thought, it has to have a subject and a predicate. Subject is a person, place, thing, or idea doing or being something. (doer) Simple Subject the sentence consist of one subject only (doer) Compound Subject - the sentence consist of two subjects (doers) Complete Subject - the sentence contains all the subject including modifiers Predicate it describes or tells something about the subject. (what the subject does- action) Simple Predicate - the sentence consist of one action only Compound Predicate - the sentence consist of two actions Complete Predicate - the sentence contains all the subject including modifiers

Examples: Simple subject/predicate 1. Aerobics is a system of exercise. 2. The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. 3. The specter of spiraling costs of commodities and services looms large and menacing. 4. The attendant spoke to the guests. 5. Tourists view beautiful sceneries around the world. 6. The man carefully drives the car. 7. The American Dictionary is kept in the library. 8. In, my friend, I find a second self. 9. Dancing keeps the body supple. 10. Honesty with one self pays dividends of courage Examples: Compound subject/predicate 1. The parents and their children pray the rosary together. 18

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2. The subject and the predicate are structurally the mainstays of the sentence. 3. The ruthlessness of their attacks on the cities and the atrocities committed led to the complete mobilization of the people. 4. Fish is bought and sold in the market. 5. Cops are perceived and suspected to be involved in hanky-panky. 6. The car blew the front tire and crashed into the concrete wall. 7. They met on the beach and talked to bygone days. 8. The mourners broke up and walked slowly away. 9. Unique Christmas Lanterns will be on display and will be up for sale. 10. The ring and the bracelet were lost. Sentence Fragments Is a sentence part, usually a phrase, a clause, carelessly punctuated as grammatically complete sentence. Examples: Eating in the Batalan under the moonlight By helping others in need Baptized on March 4, 1663 The man standing under the tree

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Analyze the statements below. Identify the subject and the predicate in each sentence. Divide youre your paper into two columns. Write the subject on the first column and write the predicate on the second column.

1. Illegal logging may have been practiced in Mindanao. 2. Some people cant avoid exploiting their environment to satisfy their greed. 3. The scented roses have not been the same. 4. Samal Garden City seems like little paradise. 5. The hotel guests promised to come back. 6. Forest rangers talked about the kaingineros. 7. The nine-hectare demonstration farm uses limited quantities of water. 8. The farm features two specially-designed greenhouse. 9. They have been tested by Israeli and Filipino scientists. 10. The huts were seen by the hotel guests. Exercise 2. Write F if the group of words is a fragment and S if it is a sentence. 19

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1. Would you mind closing the door? 2. Cutting trees indiscriminately in the forest. 3. The collector tried to restore the large broken shell. 4. Crossing the deep blue sea. 5. Loving is learning. 6. To spend the day in luxury 7. While Kaye was looking at the parade 8. Look at the diagram of a palm. 9. The underlined clauses in the sample sentences written above. 10. When two sentences are combined. 11. A long heart line shows an outgoing nature. 12. The bracelets of luck are lines on the wrist. 13. A person with a relatively clear palm. 14. Most women have sloping lines. 15. The stars indicating restrictions and difficulties. Exercise 3. Underline the Simple Subject once and encircle the Simple Predicate in the following sentences. 1. Ambition destroys its possessor. 2. The man who has done his best has done everything. 3. The hungry leopard leapt at the photographer. 4. The orchids under the shade do not bloom as much as those in full sunlight. 5. Most of the ballot boxes have been brought to the city hall. 6. The doctors have uncovered the cause of the disease. 7. The cool colors of young plants have been placed in canvas by the artist. 8. A survey of clinical trials shows that garlic lowers cholesterol level. 9. These pieces are so beautiful to be used as mats. 10. The necessary use of water has been repeatedly emphasized. Exercise 4. Arrange the jumbled words and/or phrases to form an effective sentence. Make necessary capitalization (2 points each) 1. and alignments uniformity of all tables there is in the set up 2. stocks shall be under of property custodian in the central storeroom the custody 3. that operate below are usually 6. and sanitized all are clean utensils 7. must be cleared to avoid losses as soon as possible soiled dishes 8. usually happens of food and beverages 20

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food outlets acceptable standards handicapped 4. with voluminous usually have expanded and complex operations outlets divisions 5. calculated based is usually of waiters on the productivity ratio the number

this problem when the quality falls short 9. is under in big hotels room service a separate section 10. each banquet function by a banquet captain is usually supervised

LESSON 3 GATHERING INFORMATION A. Note Taking - it is the recording of important items of information for future use. - The best notes are as brief as possible without missing any vital points. - General Guides: 21

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Read carefully all headings to understand the purpose of the writing and its organization. If the material is not difficult, take the notes as you read. Notes should only contain key words (important words) If the material is difficult, read a section through then take notes as you re-read it. Identify main from minor ideas. Make use of a topic sentence to find and understand the main ideas for your notes. Example; In colder climates, use of energy increases during the winter. Days are shorter so lights must be used for longer hours. Lower temperature mean that buildings must be heated, and this uses more energy. And people use cars more often in cold weather, so more petrol is used or consumed. Main ideas cold climate, more energy used in winter Minor (supporting) ideas shorter days, use lights longer lower temps, needed heated buildings cars used more in cold, burns petrol

Exercises: Here are two passages, take notes of them. Separate the main idea from the supporting points then reduce the number of words in each sentence. 1. It was soon clear that the bus was overcrowded. On the top level, three people were sitting in seats designed to hold two. The staircase leading to the top level have people in it. An elderly woman missed her step because she could not get through the crowd to the door and now the bus could barely creep up the steep hill. Main idea: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Minor ideas : _________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ 2. In large cities anywhere, noise pollution is difficult to avoid. It comes from various forms of traffic such as cars, buses, and trains that carry people around the city. Planes also cause noise as they land and take off. And furthermore, there are noises of people and animals such as crowds cheering, people talking, and dogs barking. 22

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Main idea: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Minor ideas : _________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ B. Outlining - An outline or hierarchical outline is a list of related items arranged hierarchically to depict their relationships. - It is the skeletal framework of a paper. - The data are grouped into major and minor ideas and each type of idea is numbered differently from the other type to show that, though the minor points are under the major points, still, there exists a certain degree of difference between them. - Drawing up an outline allows you to think before you write. And helps you organize the ideas and information you collected from different reading materials. - Types: Topic Outline ideas are presented in words or phrases It is more practical because it is more economical in terms of space, time and effort. Sentence Outline ideas are presented in sentences - Guides for making an outline: 1. Use a complete sentence for each item in a sentence outline, single word for topic outline. 2. Use Roman numerals (for traditional method); Arabic numerals (for Modern Method) to label the main point. 3. Use capital letters (for traditional method); Arabic numerals (1.1. -for Modern Method) to label chief sub points. 4. Use Arabic numerals (for traditional method); Arabic numerals (1.1.1 for Modern Method) to label subdivisions of details. 5. Indent, capitalize, and punctuate exactly as shown in the models. Example: (Topic Outline Traditional)) Major Aspects of Aids I. Transmittal of AIDS (Main Point) A. Transfusions -------- sub point of main topic B. Body fluids --------- sub point of main topic 1. Sexual 2. Non-sexual 23

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II. Societal Consequences of AIDS A. Epidemic disease pattern 1. Teenagers ---------detail about A 2. Women 3. Homosexuals B. AIDS babies C. Increased homophobia D. Overburdened health care III. Research Solutions to AIDS A. AZT B. HIV virus C. Other viruses (Topic Outline Modern Method) Major Aspects of Aids 1. Transmittal of AIDS 1.1. Transfusions 1.2. Body fluids 1.2.1. Sexual 1.2.2 Non-sexual 2. Societal Consequences of AIDS 2.1. Epidemic disease pattern 2.1.1. Teenagers 2.1.2 Women 2.1.3. Homosexuals 2.2. AIDS babies 2.3. Increased homophobia 2.4. Overburdened health care 3. Research Solutions to AIDS 3.1. AZT 3.2. HIV virus 3.3. Other viruses

EXERCISES Exercise 1. Read the selection carefully. Then, organize your understanding about the selection by using the topical outlining - Traditional Method. 24

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Kinds of Maps You are probably familiar with maps you see in school to study history and current events. These are called political maps because they show the boundaries of the different countries. Can you imagine what kind of map would show things like railroad tracks, football fields, fire towers and oil wells? These features appear on aerial maps or maps pilots use to guide them in their flight. From the sky, a set of railroad tracks is a welcome clue to a lost flier. Astronauts use celestial maps chart their position in space. Seamen use navigation maps to steer their ships. You have probably seen a driver of a car pull out a road map showing the lay out of streets and highways, or even used one for yourself. Map making begun with primitive man drawing rough sketches on the ground. In early times, maps had to be based only on what man had observed. Since methods of measuring and recording these observations were not very advanced, many of the maps were inaccurate. Because of undiscovered land, they were incomplete as well. Today maps are still based to some extent on observation. But photography and telescope astronomy now produce accurate maps for any traveler.

Exercise 2. Read the selection carefully. Then, organize the items according to topics and write them in outline form in the blanks. Use the Modern Method. C. Summarizing it is the restating something more concisely than it was originally stated. A summary is a lot shorter and contains fewer details than its original. - it is a brief, accurate restatement of speakers or writers words. Steps: Read first the selection carefully and list down the basic/important ideas. Following the authors process of thinking, in your own words, put these basic ideas in as few words as possible, condensing and choosing words that would encompass these ideas. Omit ideas that are not important Study your summary to make sure that all necessary ideas have been included and all unnecessary ones omitted. The summary may approximately be one third of the original. Example: Height connotes status in many parts of the world. Executive offices are usually on the top floors; the underlings work below. Even being tall can help a person succeed. Studies have shown that employers are more 25

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willing to hire men over 6 feet tall than shorter men with the same credentials. Studies of real-world executives and graduates have shown that taller men make more money. In one study, every extra inch of height brought in an extra $1,300 a year. But being too big can be a disadvantage. A tall, brawny football player complained that people found him intimidating off the field and assumed he "had the brains of a Twinkie. Topic sentence: Height connotes status in many parts of the world. Main point: Even being tall can help a person succeed. Main point: Executive offices are usually on the top Main point: being too big can be a disadvantage Summary: Though height may connote slowness to some people, in the business world, it is almost universally associated with success. For example, taller men are more likely to be hired and to have greater salaries. Further, those in top positions within a company are more likely to work on the top floors of office buildings (Locker, 2003).

Exercises: Write a summary paragraph of the following passages: 1. Vocalizations that might be construed as symbols of various sorts in different animals are usually accompanied by gestures. One student found that only 3 percent of the signals among rhesus monkeys were not accompanied by gestures. Whatever animals express through sounds seems to reflect not a logical sequence of thoughts but a sequence accompanying a series of emotional states. Animals communicative activities thus differ from human language in that they consist essentially of signs not arbitrary symbols. 2. 'At a typical football match we are likely to see players committing deliberate fouls, often behind the referee's back. They might try to take a throw-in or a free kick from an incorrect but more advantageous positions in defiance of the clearly stated rules of the game. They sometimes challenge the rulings of the referee or linesmen in an offensive way which often deserves exemplary punishment or even sending off. No wonder spectators fight amongst themselves, damage stadiums, or take the law into their own hands by invading the pitch in the hope of affecting the outcome of the match. 3. Write a summary paragraph of the selection, In the eyes of the child. In the Eyes of a Child 26

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It was well past 10:00 P.M. when I came home from a grueling day of school work and extra-curricular activities. The wind was whishing overheads as I walk through the door of our home. The harrowing news of my parents marriage annulment began echoing in my head again. I immediately dismissed the thought and moved toward the nearest couch and plopped myself into it to rest. Defeat and exhaustion filled my frame as I laid back against the soft cushions. I was about to close my eyes when I remembered our hematology project which was due the next day. I struggled to lift my weary bones to get up and set out for the computer situated on the other side of the room. Just then my little brother Michael in Osh Kosh overalls dashed out of his room and headed straight at me. Ate, can you help me with my assignment? Mom was here this afternoon but she was too busy packing her clothes to even mind me. I was wondering if youwell... My brothers words didnt seem to filter through my mind at first. My attention was so glued at the computer screen that my brother had to nudge me and pull the tip of my blouse to get my attention. You see, its about Seven Wonders of the World and Look, not right now, I am busy I snapped while ticking on the keyboard. Youre always like that! Youre no different from mom and dad! he wailed stomping back into his room. For a moment, Michaels words fiddled in my mind. I felt a twinge of guilt as his words lingered in my thoughts. But feeling adamant, I convinced myself that the urgency of my work seemed more important to me than my brothers. I sighed a few times and continued to polish my school work. The next day, I went home late again. I went straight to my room to change my clothes for the night. When I was about to turn off the lights, I heard thumping on the door. It was Michael. I know you are busy, but theres something I want to show you, he began. I was just wondering if my classmate was right when he said that my assignment was wrong. I snatched the paper from him and looked over his written assignment without saying a word. All I wanted was to get rid of him and finally get some rest. Suddenly, I felt a wave of jolt sweep over me. There he wrote in gothic letter: The Seven Wonders of the World: 1. LOVE 2. FRIENDSHIP 3. JOY 4. WISDOM 5. FUN 6. PEACE 7. FAMILY I stood there stunned and speechless as the words make their way into my brain. I could not believe what my seven year old brother just scribbled on paper. Regaining my composure, I thought, How could such an innocent little child fathom such things in life? Trying hard to push back my emotion to the farthest 27

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recesses of my mind, I didnt notice the tears welling up in my eyes and threatening to flow down my cheeks. Ate, why are you crying? Is it really wrong? No baby brother, its not. This is the other set of answers most people dont know, I said as I whisked away the tears trickling down my cheeks. I hugged him tightly then gestured him toward his room. He didnt say a word, he just deed as he was told. I paused for a moment and gently closed the door. I wished my parents were here so they could read what Michael wrote. Perhaps, someday they will. (Health and Home, October 2006, pp. 16-16) D. Asking Information or Confirmation A: B: A: B: A: B: A: A: B: A: B: A: B: Conversation A Single? Double. Double? Yes. cone? cup. Conversation C Cup of coffee? Milk? Coffee. Pardon? Black please. Milk? No! A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: Conversation B locked? locked. key? key? Key. Okey? Okey. Conversation C Apple? Starved. Hungry?. Sure? Take it.

Information Question Patterns/Tag Questions The intonation pattern of tag questions vary according to the speakers intention. Rising Intonation is used when a question is asked. Rising-falling intonation is used simply to invite confirmation of something that the speaker already knows. How a Tag question is Transformed 1. When the first statement is affirmative, the tag phrase is negative. 2. When the first statement is negative, the tag phrase is affirmative Examples: 1. The real meaning of peace is not clearly defined, is it? 2. Peace springs from within, doesnt it? 28

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3. You will promote justice and peace, will you? 4. Good leaders establish laws based on Gods laws, dont they? 5. We need to avoid persons afflicted with AIDS, dont we?

EXERCISES: Exercise 1. Supply for the tag questions in the following statements. 1. It precludes economic and social conditions, ________________ 2. Nations and leaders must be governed by Gods laws, _________ 3. It will not lead to new conflicts, _________ 4. Justice gives to each what is hers or hers, _______ 5. All humans dont give love to all, ________ 6. Nations must be ruled with kindness, ____________ 7. It cannot be achieved without social peace, _________ 8. Personal peace is important, ________ 9. Understanding does not lead to greed and social disintegration, ______ 10. It does not bring any good to anyone, ________ Exercise 2. Get a partner and read the sentences in A and B which illustrate two ways of expressing the tag question. A. The Rising Intonation 1. Pope Pius XII didnt speak of peace for the world, did he? 2. I didnt notice the tears welling up in my eyes and threatening to flow down my cheeks, did I? 3. He didnt say a word, did he? 4. Youre always like that, arent you? 5. Michaels sister realizes that she really loves him, doesnt she? Rising-falling Intonation 1. I was just wondering if my classmate was right, wasnt I? 2. Michael wrote the Seven Wonders of the World in gothic letters, didnt he? 3. I struggled to lift my weary bones to get up, didnt I? 4. The students did not understand the lesson, did they? 5. Some teenagers who turned 18 did not register for 2010 elections, did they?


Exercise 3: A. Change the following statements to affirmative simple questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. World peace must be born of the spirit. It must be rooted, nurtured, guarded and preserved in the soul. Universal solidarity will help us escape this mess. Nations and leaders must be governed by Gods laws. Mutual interests and aspirations strengthen universal solidarity. 29

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B. Change sentences in Exercise 3A into negative simple questions. Language Focus: Verb Verb - The part of speech that expresses action, or state of being. Example: action: rum, eat, swim, dance, teach, sway State of being: is, are, was, were, am, look, become, remain Forms of verbs We like pizza 1. Base form I eat pizza I am/ they are hungry. He likes pizza. 2. S-form She eats pizza. He is hungry. They liked pizza. 3. Past form She ate pizza. He was/they were hungry. liking 4. Present participle (-ing form) eating being liked 5. Past Participle eaten been Vocabulary Building: Structural Analysis (Identifying Root words) Root words a word which other words are formed by adding beginning part or an ending part. Exercise 1 Identify the root words. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. dictionary adequately addition spacious natural 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. excessive interview government independent maladjustment

Exercise 2 All the words in each number are built on the same base word. Write the base word. 1. deserve, serviceable, disservice 2. knowledgeable, knowing, unknown 3. inform, uniform, deformity 4. condense, density, condensation 5. gracious, disgraceful, gracefully 30

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Exercise 3 The words are all but one are built on the same word. Find the word that has a different base word. 1. period, perilous, imperil 2. provide, reprove, approval 3. finely, unrefined, refinish 4. carrier, carrying, career 5. bushy. business, busybody

LESSON 4 GIVING AND FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS Imperative Sentence - It expresses a command, request, or plea. - The subject you is not stated which is represented by an interaction between persons: the speaker and the listener. 31

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Examples: 1. Sow the seeds of peace Allow no barrier: creed, religion, race Promote genuine harmony among Brothers, sisters, and nations 2. Come, let us all unite and Bond together as we Enrich the world with diversity and uniqueness Be happy under Gods care And love for all humankind

Word List (Asking for and Giving Directions) How do I get to ? What's the best way to ? Where is ? Go straight on (until you come to ). Turn back./Go back. Turn left/right (into -street). Go along Cross Take the first/second road on the left/right It's on the left/right. straight on opposite near next to between at the end (of) on/at the corner behind in front of (just) around the corner traffic lights crossroads, junction signpost


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What's the best way to the post office? (Use the map for orientation.) 1. Excuse me, where is the post office, please? 2. ______ at the next corner. 3. Then ______ until you come to the traffic lights. 4. there _______. 5. The post office is ______ the cinema.

Selected Activity: (Group Singing) Let There be Peace on Earth Let there be peace on earth And let it begin with me. Let there be peace on earth, The peace that was meant to be. With God as our Father, Brothers all are we. Let me talk with my brother In perfect harmony. Let peace begin with me, Let this be the moment now. With every step I take, Let this be my solemn vow; To take each moment and live each moment in peace eternally. 33

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Let there be peace on earth and let it begin with me. Processing Activity: 1. What are the commands expressed in the song 2. To whom are these commands addressed? 3. What id Gods plan for all his creation? 4. How can you promote peace on earth/ 5. What is the message Language Focus: Preposition Preposition denotes different relationships. - It links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. - The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. - A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. Different relationships a preposition represents: 1. Place or position at, from, in front of, to under, by, beside, between, in 2. Direction toward, into, by way of, from, out of, to 3. Manner by, on, in, with, like 4. Time before, until, during, at the end of, since, at the beginning of, by, at, on, in 5. Agent by, with 6. Accompaniment - with 7. Similarly - like 8. Purpose - for 9. In the capacity of - as 10. Association - of 11. By reason of - for 12. Measure by, of

Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in 34

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We use at to designate specific times. The train is due at 12:15 p.m. We use on to designate days and dates. My brother is coming on Monday. We're having a party on the Fourth of July. We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. She likes to jog in the morning. It's too cold in winter to run outside. He started the job in 1971. He's going to quit in August. Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in We use at for specific addresses. Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc. Her house is on Boretz Road. And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents). She lives in Durham. Durham is in Windham County. Windham County is in Connecticut. Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition We use to in order to express movement toward a place. They were driving to work together. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you. We're moving toward the light. This is a big step towards the project's completion. With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs , we use no preposition. Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. They both went outside. 35

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Prepositions of Time: for and since We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years). He held his breath for seven minutes. She's lived there for seven years. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. We use since with a specific date or time. He's worked here since 1970. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

EXERCISES: Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions. 1. ____ March 2. ____ March 8, 2000 3. ____ Rizal Park 4. ____ San Pedro St. 5. ____ 3 Jade Street, 4 Ecoland 6. ____ the bridge (pass through) 7. ____ the rooftop 8. ____ the graduates (divided the tasks) 9. ____ bed (due to sickness) 10. ____ two friends (secret) Exercise 2. Supply for the correct prepositions. I'm Peter and I live _______ Germany. _______summer I like to travel _____ Italy, because ____ the weather and the people there. Last summer I took a plane _____ Munich to Rome. ______the airport we went to our hotel ____ bus. We stopped _____ a small restaurant for a quick meal. The driver parked the bus _______ the restaurant. Nobody could find the bus and the driver, so we waited ________the restaurant _____one hour. The driver was walking ________the small park _______the restaurant which we did not know. So we were very angry _________ him. But my holidays were great. We sat _______campfires and went dancing _______the early mornings. Exercise 3. Fill in at, on or in 1. The headquarters of the United Nations is 2. In the most countries people drive New York. the right. 36

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3. I usually buy a newspaper 5. San Francisco is

my way to work. the Swiss Alps. the window. the front page of the newspaper.

4. Last year we had a lovely skiing holiday 6. She spends most of the day sitting 7. The report about the accident was 8. In the theatre we had seats 9. Write the name and address 10. It's dangerous to play football

the west coast of the United States.

the front row. the front page of the envelope. the streets.

Command Prepositions Game

Introduction: This activity can be used as a review of prepositions. Put the students into two teams and form them into two lines. You then give them the following commands and count the score on the whiteboard. Put your foot under a table. Say the word over 3 times. Put a pencil in a pencil box/bag. Write the teachers name on the whiteboard. Put your hand in a classmates pocket. Put a pencil in your shoe. Sing the X Song in front of a student. Look under a book. Dance between two classmates. Hold a pencil between your legs. Jump between two classmates. Sit on the floor.

Command Prepositions Game 2

Introduction: This activity can be used as a review of prepositions. Put the students into two teams and form them into two lines. You then give them the following commands and count the score on the whiteboard. Put your hands over your eyes. Stand behind a table/desk. Take a book from a book bag. Stand behind the teacher. Put your foot under a classmates foot. Write your name on the whiteboard. Put your hands over your ears and shout. Stand between two desks. Put your shoe on a desk. Put a kiss on the whiteboard. Vocabulary Building: Prefixes and Suffixes 37

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a. Prefix - a word part added to the beginning of a word. It is made up of one or more syllables. Exercise 1 Match each prefix in Column A with the correct meaning in Column B. Column A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. postsubpreinterintraa. b. c. d. e. Column B between, among before within, inside under, below, beneath later, afterward

Exercise 2 Which prefix in Column A goes with a word in Column B? Column A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. autotrimiscircumdisa. b. c. d. e. Column B understand navigate contented angle biography

b. Suffix a syllable or syllables added at the end of a word to form a new word with a different meaning. Exercise 1 Choose the appropriate word to complete the meaning of the sentence. 1. chemist, chemistry a. Thomas Edison is a _______. b. When he was in college, his favorite subject is _______. volcanologist, volcano a. Mt. Mayon is a _______. b. The _______ headed the group who investigated Mt. Mayons latest eruption. electrician, electricity a. _______ is the property of matter associated with atomic particles. b. An _______ is an expert in handling tools and instruments in relation to electricity. 38



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photographer, photography a. _______ is an art of producing images of objects on sensitized surfaces by the chemical action of light. b. A person skilled in (letter a) technology, technologist a. One who learns the technical details and special techniques of an occupation is a ________. b. ________ is the science of industrial arts and manufactures.


Exercise 2 Add an appropriate suffix to make the word in the parenthesis fit the sentence. 1. The process of (digest) of food starts from the mouth. 2. All living things undergo the process of (reproduce) 3. (Distil) is one way of purifying water. 4. Chemical weathering is brought about by several processes. One of it is (carbon). 5. There should be a specified (admit) policy for students.

LESSON 6 READING AND INTERPRETATION OF GRAPHIC MATERIALS Graphic materials The term graphics is a Greek origin which refers to the art of expressing ideas by lines, pictures, charts or diagrams. They are sometimes referred to non-photographic materials. a. Maps and globes Maps are flat representation and projections of the earths surface. Globes are circular representation of the earths surface which can be very useful in the development of such concept bodies in space, the comparative sizes of nations and continents, of longitudes and latitudes, of time relation and distance, and the like.


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Graphs are flat pictures which employ dots, lines, or pictures to visualize numerical and statistical data to show statistics or relationships. They represent quantitative data for analysis, interpretation, and comparison. There are types of graphs: circle/pie graph, bar graph, line graph, area graph, and pictorial graph.


Charts and Tables are diagrammatic presentations. There are types of charts time chart, tree or stream chart, flow or organization, and comparison and contrast charts Diagram is used to show the parts of a thing or stages of a process.


LANGUAGE FOCUS: Verb Tenses Tense is a verb attribute that shows the time of the action, condition or state of being in relation to the time of action and condition or state of being in relation to the time of speaking or writing. - action verb achieve, force, serve, walk, lie, give - state of being or condition is, are, was, were, am, become, remain Principal Parts of verb tenses: 40

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Simple Form take, bring, formulate, survive, answer The S Form (V +s) - takes, brings, formulates, survives, answers The Past Form took, brought, formulated, survived, answered The Present Progressive (V+ing) - taking, bringing, formulating The Past Participle (has/have +V)

EXERCISES: Exercise 1. Read the selection Mothers Day Today and answer the questions that follow after the selection. MOTHERS DAY TODAY by Carmelita T. Baring Definitely and indefinite harder than bearing a child is being a mother. For motherhood does not end after 9 months, but lasts a lifetime. Because of this, a mothers work is never done, not even after a child has grown up and has her own children. In most families through out the world, mother is cook, nanny, laundress, cleaning-woman, doctor, arbiter, treasurer, and adviser, among other things, are rolled into one unsalaried package. In a growing number of households, she is also a career woman and Fathers business partner. Believe it or not, after centuries since eve of doing her thing, Mother was first honored just 75 years ago in the United States. A certain Anna Jarvis of Grafton, West Virginia, started the crusade for the celebration of mothers day in honor of her beloved mother. Miss Jarvis was 41 when her mother died and from thereon spent the remainder of her life to establish the second Sunday of May as a memorial to all mothers of the world, living or dead. At 84, she died penniless and nearly blind, her fortune devoted to her crusade. But her mission was successful. In 1908, then American President Woodrow Wilson officially proclaimed every second Sunday of May as Mothers Day. Today, most English and European nations follow the tradition. Asian countries, including Japan and China have also adopted the day as special occasion to remember mothers. In the Philippines, the lush and lusty month of May brings with its fruits and flowers the season of harvest and fiestas, Flores de Mayo and Santa Cruzan, and the now popular Mothers Day. As other Catholic-populated countries, Mothers Day in the Philippines assumes greater significance because it falls on the month of Blessed Mother Mary, the paragon of all mothers. With book launchings, essay-writing contests, theater presentations, commercial premiums, Mothers Day movies and other festivities dizzying one and all, the true spirit of Motherhood is always felt but sometimes overshadowed. Indeed, whatever the gift, whoever the giver, wherever the gift-giving takes place, the best way to celebrate this sentimental day is to be with dear ever-youthful Mom, showering her with Thank You Kisses, that she deserves and needs. 41

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After all, your mother may have just about the toughest job of all: loving a face that only she could love. Processing Activity: 1. Enumerate the role of mothers in the selection. Are these roles being done by all mothers? Defend your answer. 2. In what month is Mothers Day celebrated? 3. Compare mothers of the 21st century from mothers during the olden times. 4. As a child, how do you show your love to your mother? Exercise 2. From the selection, list down 10 sentences, underline the predicates used and identify the tenses used. Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in the parenthesis. A miser, to make sure of his property, sold all that he had and _____ (convert) it into great lump of gold, which he _____ (hide in a hole in the ground, and ____ (go) continually to visit and inspect it. This ____ (rise), the curiosity of one of the workmen, who, _____ (suspect) that there ____(be) a treasure. _____ (go) to the spot and _____ (steal) it away. When the miser _____ (return) and ____ (find) the place empty, he _____ (weep) and tore his hair. But a neighbor who _____ (see) him in this extravagant grief, and ____ (learn) the cause of it, said, Fret no longer, but take a stone and ____ (put) it in the same place, and ____ (think) of it as your lump of gold, as you never meant to use it, the stone will do you as much good as the gold.

LESSON 7 DRAWING INFERENCES (Making Predictions) DRAWING INFERENCES Means sensing relationships that are not stated but implied by the author. These inferences may be assumptions, predictions, conclusions, and generalization. MAKING PREDICTIONS Is stating something about the future behavior or actions based on present or past actions or behavior. Predictions with high probability are based on facts, not on assumptions or on others predictions. Selected Reading: 42

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BORN TO FLY One day, a prairie chicken found an egg and sat on it until it was hatched. Unbeknown to the prairie chicken, the egg was an eagle egg, abandoned for some reason. Thats how an eagle came to be born into a family of prairie chickens. While the eagle is the greatest of all birds, soaring above the heights with grace and ease, the prairie chicken doesnt even know how to fly. In fact, prairie chickens are so lowly that they eat garbage. Predictably, the little eagle, being raised in a family of prairie chickens, thought he was a prairie chicken. He walked around, ate garbage, and clucked like a prairie chicken. One day, he looked up a majestic bald eagle soar through the air, dipping and turning. When he asked his family what it was, they responded, Its an eagle. But you could never be like that because you are just a prairie chicken. Then they returned to pecking on the garbage. The eagle spent his whole life looking up at eagles, longing to join them among the clouds. It never once occurred to him to lift his wings and try to fly. The eagle died thinking he was a prairie chicken. Processing Activity: Group activity 1. What possible problems can you predict from the situation presented in the first paragraph? 2. Why did the little eagle act like a prairie chicken? 3. Why didnt he try to fly? 4. What happened to the little eagle at the end? 5. How can we be like the little eagle? Vocabulary Building: SYNONYMS Synonyms are words that have nearly or similar meaning. Ex: house mansion, igloo, palace, condominium happy jubilant, merry, joy, excited new fresh, modern, latest, recent delicate fragile Antonyms are words with opposite meaning Ex: happy gloomy, depressed, disheartened, sad, lonely new old-fashioned, aged, old delicate coarse, crude, common


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EXERCISES: Exercise 1. Indicate whether the pairs of words are synonyms or antonyms 1. Arrogant proud 2. optimist pessimist 3. perilous dangerous 4. ornament - decoration 5. fresh stale 6. victory defeat Exercise 2. Choose the synonym of the following words from the choices in the box hand-driven proud sleepy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. drowsy perilous manual ornament arrogant decoration dangerous

Exercise 3. Identify the homonym of the following words. 1. made 2. plain 3. waste 4. for 5. new LANGUAGE FOCUS: Compound Words and Modals Compound Words it is a combination of 2 or more words which are considered as one word. It may be separated, hyphenated, or two word. Examples: One word eyesore underground overcome dreamland Hyphenated mother-in-law sister-in-law editor-in-chief attorney-at-law Separated back pay fruit salad safe house traffic jam 44

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freeway chalkboard schoolhouse timetable thumbtacks outlay

officer-of-the-day officer-in-charge lady-in-waiting

baby carriage potato chips street car trash can extension cord American flag

Modals are little HELPERS to the VERB. They help change the IDEA of the VERB. Example: I play piano. I can play piano. (expresses ability) I might play piano. (possibility) I should play piano. (its a good idea to play) I must play piano. (obligation) Each modal above changes the IDEA of the verb. FORM: Modals are ALWAYS used with the SIMLE FORM OF THE VERB: NEVER: He can plays piano He can playing piano right now. He can played piano yesterday. ALWAYS: He can play piano. Modal Auxiliaries are helping verbs which are used with the principal verb to express certain moods like ability, inability, permission, obligation, willingness, and conjecture. 1. For permission use may. Can is also colloquially used. 2. To suggest obligation - use should, ought to and had better 3. To suggest necessity , requirement, or the imperative use must or have to 4. For desire or determination use will 5. to suggest ability use can (present ability) and could (past ability) 6. For inability - use cant and couldnt 7. To suggest possibility use may, might, could

EXERCISES: Exercise 1: Matching Type: Column A contains the first word and Column B contains the second word that will complete the first word to form a compound word. Match Column A with Column B. Write your answers before each number. 45

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1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 4. _____________________ 5. _____________________ 6. _____________________ 7. _____________________ 8. _____________________ 9. _____________________ 10. _____________________

Column A chest hand card fore bar under straw mush handle ear

Column B a. gain b. fast c. head d. some e. board h. room i. bars j. ring k. ground l. berry

Exercise 2: Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. Don't forget to capitalize when necessary. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. can could have to must might should be

1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He exhausted after such a long flight. He get some rest.

prefer to stay in tonight and

2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you walk downtown and explore the waterfront. 3. Hiking the trail to the peak be dangerous if you are not well research the route a

prepared for dramatic weather changes. You little more before you attempt the ascent. 4. When you have a small child in the house, you objects lying around. Such objects injury or even death.

leave small

be swallowed, causing serious

5. Dave: you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No, I can't. 6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It have cost a fortune.

7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they die. 46

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8. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I just say a few things in the language. 9. The book is optional. My professor said we extra credit. But we read it if we needed

read it if we don't want to.

10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It be in there. That's the only other place it be.

LESSON 8 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS Are statements based on written materials or observed facts. When the reader makes a conclusion, he makes a statement telling about the nature of an evidence or a fact. In doing so, he must see to it that his statement really consists of factual evidence instead of assumptions. Selected Reading: Group singing "The Impossible Dream" (from MAN OF LA MANCHA (1972) To dream the impossible dream To fight the unbeatable foe 47

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To bear with unbearable sorrow To run where the brave dare not go To right the unrightable wrong To love pure and chaste from afar To try when your arms are too weary To reach the unreachable star This is my quest To follow that star No matter how hopeless No matter how far To fight for the right Without question or pause To be willing to march into Hell For a heavenly cause And I know if I'll only be true To this glorious quest That my heart will lie peaceful and calm When I'm laid to my rest And the world will be better for this That one man, scorned and covered with scars Still strove with his last ounce of courage To reach the unreachable star Processing Activity: 1. Who do you think is speaking in the song? 2. What kind of person is he/ 3. Does the speaker have the qualities of a hero? 4. What does the speaker want to do? 5. Why is the dream impossible? 6. What other dreams are impossible aside from those mentioned in the song? Vocabulary Building: Using Contextual Clues Linguistic signals a. Homonyms or Homophones words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings. Cain cane, made maid, tail tale b. Homographs words that are spelled the same but different in meaning. Some homographs sound the same. the run in my stockings; the home run he made 48

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his blue coat; he feels blue

EXERCISES: Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks. Complete the sentence by supplying the appropriate word on the blank. Choose between the given words before each number. 1. right write Did you say, _____ the _____ answer? 2. 3. 4. 5. meat meat He promised to _____ us in the _____ section of the market. knew new We ____ there was a ____ hole near the garage. by buy Did you ____ this for the two of us ____ yourself? plain plane She wore a ____ dress which is required by the _____ attendant.

Exercise 2. Choose the meaning of the underlined word as it is used in the sentence. 1. I forgot to dress the chicken a. to wear b. to prepare c. to adorn 2. 3. We placed cream in our salad. a. milk b. a kind of cosmetic c. the best from the group

She is the editor of our school organ. a. a musical instrument b. a part of he body with special function c. a publication You have to pass the bar to be a lawyer. a. exams for lawyers b. place offering liquor and drinks c. something that divides or blocks To start a business, one must have enough capital. 49



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a. official seat of government b. money to invest in the production of more wealth c. most important factor Exercise 3. Read the passage and find out how wrong decisions can help you learn better. RIGHT DECISIONS A young man was appointed to the presidency of a bank at the age of thirty-two. The promotion was far beyond his widest dreams and very frightening to him, so he went to the venerable old chairman of the board to ask for advice on how to become a good bank president. What is the most important thing for me to do as the new president? he asked the older man. Make the right decisions, was the gentlemans terse answer. The young thought about that for a moment and said, Thank you very much; that is very helpful. But can you be a bit more specific? How do I make the right decisions? The wise old man answered, Experience. Exasperated, the young president said, but sir, thats why Im here. I dont have experience I need to make the right decisions. How do I get experience? Wrong decisions, came the old mans reply. Processing Activity: 1. How young was the man when became the president of the bank? 2. What were his feelings when he was first appointed president? 3. To whom did he go for advice? 4. Why did he ask for advice? Wasnt he confident of his knowledge and experience/ 5. What was the advice of the old man? 6. How can the young bankers experience be compared to your own experiences/ 7. Are you afraid to make decisions? Why? 8. How can you learn from your wrong decisions?


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LESSON 9 PARAGRAPH AND PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT PARAGRAPH It is a group of related sentences joined together to develop one/single idea which is called the main idea which deals with the topic. The sentence that expresses the main idea is the topic sentence. a subdivision of a written composition that consists of one or more sentences, deals with one point or gives the words of one speaker, and begins on a new usually indented line. A distinct division of written or printed matter that begins on a new, usually indented line, consists of one or more sentences, and typically deals with a single thought or topic or quotes one speaker's continuous words. Characteristics of a good paragraph 1. Unity/Oneness - which means that all sentences in the paragraph directly support the topic sentence. 51

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Example: Employees' attitudes at Jonstone Electric Company should be improved. The workers do not feel that they are a working team instead of just individuals. If people felt they were a part of a team, they would not misuse the tools, or deliberately undermine the work of others. Management's attitude toward its employees should also be improved. Managers at Jonstone Electric act as though their employees are incapable of making decisions or doing their own work. Managers treat workers like objects, not human beings. Note that there are two main ideas presented in this paragraph. The topic sentence indicates that the paragraph will deal with the subject of "employees' attitudes," but the paragraph shifts unexpectedly to the topic of "management's attitudes." To achieve unity in this paragraph, the writer should begin a new paragraph when the switch is made from employees to managers.


Coherence, which means that all the information of the paragraph is well-organized, logically ordered and easy to follow. This is accomplished by: a. Repetition of key words and phrases (often from the topic sentence) b. Arranging sentences reasonable chronological order, spatial order, order of importance, Inductive and deductive c. Transition words and phrases. Example: Schools should offer courses to help students with the problems of unemployment. Such a course might begin with a discussion of where to find employment, then cover resume writing and interviewing. Algebra and history don't help students with real-world needs. They are required courses that students aren't interested in, and this is frustrating for students who would rather learn about other subjects. If schools offered job-skills courses, students would be well prepared for the difficult task of finding a job once they finish school. In this paragraph, the writer begins with the topic of job-skills courses, but veers off onto the topic of algebra and history before returning to the subject of courses on employment. As a result, the paragraph is disjointed and difficult to understand.

3. Emphasis it is making the important ideas stand out from the rest of the details.


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Process of Writing a Paragraph: 1. Compose your topic sentence. Think of a topic and a controlling idea that will narrow the topic enough to support it well in one paragraph. Topic Sentences All paragraphs start out well with a topic sentence. A topic sentence is a sentence whose main idea or claim controls the rest of the paragraph; the body of a paragraph explains, develops or supports with evidence the topic sentence's main idea or claim. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph, but not necessarily. It may come, for example, after a transition sentence; it may even come at the end of a paragraph. Topic sentences are not the only way to organize a paragraph, and not all paragraphs need a topic sentence. For example, paragraphs that describe, narrate, or detail the steps in an experiment do not usually need topic sentences. Topic sentences are useful, however, in paragraphs that analyze and argue. Topic sentences are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused, unified paragraphs (i.e., writers who tend to sprawl). Topic sentences help these writers develop a main idea or claim for their paragraphs, and, perhaps most importantly, they help these writers stay focused and keep paragraphs manageable. Topic sentences are also useful to readers because they guide them through sometimes complex arguments. Many well-known, experienced writers effectively use topic sentences to bridge between paragraphs. 2. Brainstorm supporting ideas. Choose 2 - 6 supporting ideas that do a good job supporting your topic sentence. 3. Write your paragraph in topic outline form as follows. Don't actually write sentences in the outline, except for the topic sentence. Topic sentence: A. Supporting idea 1. 1. 2. 3. B. Supporting idea 2. 1. 2. 3. C. Supporting idea 3. 53

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1. 2. 3. D. Concluding sentence:

Reading Comprehension: Selection: Children Learn what They Live Children Learn What They Live By Dorothy Law Nolte, Ph.D. If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn. If children live with hostility, they learn to fight. If children live with fear, they learn to be apprehensive. If children live with pity, they learn to feel sorry for themselves. If children live with ridicule, they learn to feel shy. If children live with jealousy, they learn to feel envy. If children live with shame, they learn to feel guilty. If children live with encouragement, they learn confidence. If children live with tolerance, they learn patience. If children live with praise, they learn appreciation. If children live with acceptance, they learn to love. If children live with approval, they learn to like themselves. If children live with recognition, they learn it is good to have a goal. If children live with sharing, they learn generosity. If children live with honesty, they learn truthfulness. If children live with fairness, they learn justice. If children live with kindness and consideration, they learn respect. If children live with security, they learn to have faith in themselves and in those about them. If children live with friendliness, they learn the world is a nice place in which to live. Types of Paragraph Development 1. Narration Best used by the author to describe personal experiences. It helps the reader understand the authors feelings. Normally chronological (though sometimes uses flashbacks) A sequential presentation of the events that add up to a story. A narrative differs from a mere listing of events. Narration usually contains characters, a setting, a conflict, and a resolution. Time and place and person are normally established. 54

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In the example below, the "story" components are: a protagonist (Hanson), a setting (the park), a goal (to camp), an obstacle (nature), a climax (his panic), and a resolution (leaving). Specific details always help a story, but so does interpretive language.

Around 2 a.m. something woke Charles Hanson up. He lay in the dark listening. Something felt wrong. Outside, crickets sang, tree-frogs chirruped. Across the distant forest floated two muffled hoots from a barred owl. It was too quiet. At home in New Jersey, the nights are filled with the busy, comforting sounds of traffic. You always have the comforting knowledge that other people are all around you. And light: At home he can read in bed by the glow of the streetlight. It was too quiet. And much too dark. Even starlight failed to penetrate the 80foot canopy of trees the camper was parked beneath. It was the darkest dark he had ever seen. He felt for the flashlight beside his bunk. It was gone. He found where his pants were hanging and, as he felt the pockets for a box of matches, something rustled in the leaves right outside the window, inches from his face. He heard his wife, Wanda, hold her breath; she was awake, too. Then, whatever, was outside in the darkness also breathed, and the huge silence of the night seemed to come inside the camper, stifling them. It was then he decided to pack up and move to a motel.

2. Exposition Exposition is explanatory writing Exposition can be an incidental part of a description or a narration, or it can be the heart of an article Aside from clarity, the key problem with exposition is credibility. What makes your explanation believable? This family was a victim of a problem they could have avoided-a problem that, according to Florida park rangers, hundreds of visitors suffer each year. "Several times a month," ranger Rod Torres of O'Leno State Park said, "people get scared and leave the park in the middle of the night." Those people picked the wrong kind of park to visit. Not that there was anything wrong with the park: The hikers camped next to them loved the wild isolation of it. But it just wasn't the kind of place the couple from New Jersey had in mind when they decided to camp out on this trip through Florida. If they had known about the different kinds of parks in Florida, they might have stayed in a place they loved. 55

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3. Definition Informal definitions of term to explain what it is the writer meant. It is then supported throughout the paragraph. "Park" is difficult to define in Florida, because there are so many kinds of parks. Basically, a park is a place to go for outdoor recreation-to swim, picnic, hike, camp, walk the dog, play tennis, paddle your canoe, and, in some places take rides in miniature trains or swish down a waterslide. Florida has a rich variety of parks, ranging from acres of RVs ringed around recreation halls, to impenetrable mangrove wilderness. To make things more complicated, not all of them are called "parks," and even the ones called "parks" come in several varieties. 4. Description Describing the topic sentence to give a mental picture to the reader. Description is not what you see, but what readers need to see in order to imagine the scene, person, object, etc. Description requires you to record a series of detailed observations. Be especially careful to make real observations. The success of a description lies in the difference between what a reader can imagine and what you actually saw and recorded O'Leno is a good example of a state park in Florida. Surrounded by the tall, shaded woods of a beautiful hardwood forest, the Santa Fe River disappears in a large, slowly swirling, tree-lined pool. After appearing intermittently in scattered sinkholes, the river rises three miles downstream in a big boil, then continues on to meet the Suwannee and the sea. Nearby, stands of cypress mirror themselves in the still waters, walls of dense river swamp rise before you, sudden sinkholes open in the woodlands-rich with cool ferns and mosses. Farther from the river, expanses of longleaf pinelands stretch across rolling hills. In the midst of this lovely setting, you find 65 campsites, 18 rustic cabins, and a pavilion for group meetings. A diving platform marks a good place to swim in the soft, cool waters of the Santa Fe, and canoeing up this dark river is like traveling backwards in time in the direction of original Florida. 5. Comparison Seeing how things are similar, or different. There is a helpful technique for writing a comparison. If you follow it, your comparisons will benefit. Before writing a comparison, draw up a chart and fill it in, to make certain you have all the elements necessary to write a comparison. 56

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List the two items being compared, and the criteria by which they will be compared. If you do not make such a chart, there is a chance you will have a hole in your comparison. Forest and river dominate O'Leno State Park. By contrast, Lloyd Beach State Recreation Area, near Fort Lauderdale, is dominated by the oily bodies of sun-worshippers who crowd into it every summer weekend. Where O'Leno gives you so much quiet you can hear the leaves whispering, Lloyd Beach is a place of boisterous activity. You can walk a few yards in O'Leno and pass beyond every sign of human civilization. When you walk at Lloyd Beach, you have to be careful to step over the picnic baskets, umbrellas, jam boxes, and browning bodies. At night, O'Leno wraps itself with the silence of crickets and owls. Lloyd Beach is busy with fishermen till well past midnight. If you want to fish near town, or dive into the busy bustle of an urban beach, Lloyd Beach is the place to go. But if you want to stand at the edge of civilization and look across time into an older natural world, O'Leno is the park to visit.

6. Process Analysis Describing how a process happens or how to perform a series of actions, Always think of your readers: can they follow this? Analyze the process into a series of steps. Put the steps into sequence. Then isolate the steps: number then, use bullets, put them in separate paragraphs Use illustrations keyed to the steps when appropriate: people can often read diagrams better than they can read lists of steps. When you find the park you are looking for, you will need to make camp. One person can set up the Family Proof Tent, though it is easier with two, yet almost impossible with three or more. Here's how: First, clear a 9 by 9 foot area of snags, limbs, and anything that might pierce the bottom of the tent. Unfold the tent so that the corners of the waterproof bottom form a square. Peg down the corners of the bottom. Next, snap together all four external tentpoles (they are held together by shock cords to ake sure you get the pieces matched up). Place a pole near each of the pegs. Thread each pole through the two loops leading toward the top of the tent. After you have all four poles in place, lift one of the poles. While holding the pole up, pull its guyrope tight and peg the guyrope down, so that the pole is held up by the guyrope and the pegs on opposing sides of the tent bottom. Lift the pole on the opposite side of the tent in the same way, but this time, fit it into the upper end of the standing pole before securing its guywire. 57

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Assemble the two remaining tent poles in a similar manner. Finally, unroll the front flap to form an awning. Prop up the awning with the two remaining poles and secure them with guyropes. Now you are ready to move in. 7. Persuasion To persuade people to change their minds or take an action, more is needed than your opinion or sense of conviction. You need to supply them with the information, analysis, and context they need to form their own opinions, make their own judgments, and take action. Remember: Readers are interested in only one opinion--their own. If you can help them formulate and deepen that opinion, they will be glad they read your article. Before you go camping in Florida, plan ahead. Don't wind up in the wilds when you want to be near Disney World, and don't wind up on a concrete RV pad when you really want the forest primeval. Find out what parks are available, and what they are like. Get good information on what to expect, and what your options are. This can make all the difference in the quality of your vacation.

Alcantara, Rebecca D. et. al. Essentials of English Grammar. Katha Publishing Co., Inc. Quezon City. 1999. Baraceros, Esther. Communication skills: Improving study and thinking skills. Rex Bookstore, Inc. Manila. 2005. Carpio, Rustica C. Private and Public Speaking. Rex Bookstore. Manila. 2003. Casuyon Armida G. et. al. English Plus. Manila: Rex Bookstore. 2001. Patron, Ida Y. English Plus: A Communicative Approach. Revised Edition. Great Books Publishing. Quezon City. 2005. CONSTEL Teacher Support Materials