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4

(
, )
:





()



(acceptance sampling)
,
,
,

.



( )
.

,
.
,

( )

(
)
.

.
H0 H1

(H0):


(H1):

,

.
H0 H1

(H0):
( )

(H1):
(
)

H0

H0

H0

H0

1-

2-

4s 2


=0.05

4s

s - ,
-

4[( p(1 p)]



p - ,
-

4[( p(1 p)]2

=
= 1 - 2- (
H0)
= 1-




.

,

(
).

.
21
.

.
37
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21
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-
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3
.

, 99%

.


, ,
.

74.0 .02 .
= 74.0 - 0.02 = 73.98 ,
= 74.0 + 0.02 = 74.02.

= -



(Cp) =
/
Cp = (-)/(6*)
1980 .
Cp =4 / 6 = 0.67
80- .
Cp = 1.33
Minolta

Cp = 2.0

>=5



(Cp) =
/
Cp = (-)/(6*)

Cp = 1


(Cp) =
/
Cp = (-)/(6*)

Cp =6 / 6
0,007%

Cp =8 / 6

Cp =12 / 6


(Cr) Cr = 1 / Cp


Cr = 100 / Cp %

(Cpl) Cpl = ( - ) / 3*

(Cpu) Cpu = ( - ) / 3*

Cpl Cpu -

(Cpu) Cpu = ( - ) / 3*


(K) k = abs( - )/(1/2(-))

(Cpk) Cpk = (1-k)*Cp


Cpk = Cp
Cpk < Cp

-
-

4
1. , ,

- .

2.

3.

.
.

4.



- .


1960 .
,



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,

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L(x)=c(x-x0)2

x0





()
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TQC
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, (),
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General Electric
:

" "?
" " - ,


, .

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.

-
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- ,

Cp >= 2,0


Motorola
1988 480 . . ,

.Malcolm Baldrige.

General Electric - 1997


. 13,8 14,5%,
600 . ., "
" " .

Allied Signal
800 . ., 1995 1997 .

" ".


" " - ,

3,4 ( )
1,5 .

" "


6

.


" "

, %

3,4
10

233

13

4
3
2
1

6210
86807
308537
690000

15-20
20-30
30-40
40


" "

" "

:

DMAIC :

Define :
.

Measure :
, .

Analyze :
.

Improve :
, .

Control :
.

" "
STATISTICA
STATISTICA 6
,

.

DMAIC
.

DMAIC
Define

,
,
.
:

:
.
:
.

DMAIC
Measure
-
,

.
:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

DMAIC
Analyze


.
:



DMAIC
Improve
-
( ),
().
:






DMAIC
Control
-
() .


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H0 H1,



()

6

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