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# 4

(
, )
:

()

(acceptance sampling)
,
,
,

.

( )
.

,
.
,

( )

(
)
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.
H0 H1

(H0):

(H1):

,

.
H0 H1

(H0):
( )

(H1):
(
)

H0

H0

H0

H0

1-

2-

4s 2

=0.05

4s

s - ,
-

p - ,
-

## 4[( p(1 p)]2

=
= 1 - 2- (
H0)
= 1-

.

,

(
).

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21
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3
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, 99%

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.

74.0 .02 .
= 74.0 - 0.02 = 73.98 ,
= 74.0 + 0.02 = 74.02.

= -

(Cp) =
/
Cp = (-)/(6*)
1980 .
Cp =4 / 6 = 0.67
80- .
Cp = 1.33
Minolta

Cp = 2.0

>=5

(Cp) =
/
Cp = (-)/(6*)

Cp = 1

(Cp) =
/
Cp = (-)/(6*)

Cp =6 / 6
0,007%

Cp =8 / 6

Cp =12 / 6

(Cr) Cr = 1 / Cp

Cr = 100 / Cp %

(Cpl) Cpl = ( - ) / 3*

(Cpu) Cpu = ( - ) / 3*

Cpl Cpu -

(Cpu) Cpu = ( - ) / 3*

(K) k = abs( - )/(1/2(-))

## (Cpk) Cpk = (1-k)*Cp

Cpk = Cp
Cpk < Cp

-
-

4
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4.

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L(x)=c(x-x0)2

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TQC
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General Electric
:

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.

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Cp >= 2,0

Motorola
1988 480 . . ,

.Malcolm Baldrige.

## General Electric - 1997

. 13,8 14,5%,
600 . ., "
" " .

Allied Signal
800 . ., 1995 1997 .

" ".

" " - ,

3,4 ( )
1,5 .

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6

.

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, %

3,4
10

233

13

4
3
2
1

6210
86807
308537
690000

15-20
20-30
30-40
40

" "

" "

:

DMAIC :

Define :
.

Measure :
, .

Analyze :
.

Improve :
, .

Control :
.

" "
STATISTICA
STATISTICA 6
,

.

DMAIC
.

DMAIC
Define

,
,
.
:

:
.
:
.

DMAIC
Measure
-
,

.
:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

DMAIC
Analyze

.
:

DMAIC
Improve
-
( ),
().
:

DMAIC
Control
-
() .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

H0 H1,

()

6