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De la WIKIPEDIA, enciclopedia liber

De la WIKIPEDIA, enciclopedia liber

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TRUFE si Micoriza
Trufa este una dintre putinele produse agricole a caror cerere este mult mai mare decat oferta. Spre deosebire de alte culturi traditionale (porumb, grau, vitade-vie etc.), cultura trufelor nu implica cheltuieli mari anuale cu investitia. Daca exista terenul, este vorba practic doar despre achizitionarea puietilor micorizati si infiintarea plantatiei, o investitie ce o faceti o data si o exloatati zeci de ani. Dupa cativa ani de la infiintare, va mai trebuie cca 2.000 de euro pentru achizitionarea unui caine dresat sa caute trufe. Cultivarea de trufe reprezinta o activitate ce poate fi foarte rentabila, fata de investitiile initiale limitate si fata de efortul mic pe care-l cere. Pentru cine poseda un teren potrivit (cu pH neutru, usor bazic, umed, putin expus la soare), exista diferite moduri de a o practica. Cultivarea trufelor nu este posibila decat prin tehnici de cultura incepute in laborator, unde sunt selectionate acele plante-gazda (alun, carpen, stejar, plop, fag etc.), adica plantele tartufigene si miceliile ciupercilor, care sunt compatibile intre ele si ofera cele mai bune performante pentru a realiza o micoriza. Acestea sunt plante ale caror radacini sunt special destinate a se asocia cu trufele cu care apoi vor trai in simbioza. Planta superioara micorizata asigura ciupercii glucide, vitamine,

substante stimulatoare de crestere si fructificare, iar ciuperca, la randul ei, furnizeaza plantei azot, fosfor si alte elemente in forma usor asimilabila. Datorita acestei relatii simbiotice, plantele cu micoriza cresc mai bine, iar ciupercile fructifica mai abundent. Trufele se gasesc la cativa centimetri sub pamant, in general la 10 30 cm sau chiar pana la 70 cm, acest lucru depinzand de pH-ul solului. Exista aproximativ 60 de specii de trufe, dar numai cateva au importanta gastronomica si valoare comerciala. Spre exemplu, exista tipuri de trufe la care pretul de vanzare este foarte scazut, cum ar fi trufa chinezeasca (Tuber indicum) si specii cum ar fi trufa neagra (Tuber melanosporum) la care pretul de vanzare este de patruzeci de ori mai mare. Pretul ridicat al trufei negre a starnit un mare interes in jurul globului. Iar asta inseamna ca si o mica ferma de trufe negre se poate transforma in profit curat. Intretinerea si ingrijirea alunilor necesita costuri minime pe toata perioada lor de viata. Daca luam ca exemplu o plantatie de alun micorizat, avem o dubla cultura (cea de alun si evident, dupa 5-7 ani, cea de trufe), alunele fiind cautate si pe piata externa de catre cei din industria producatoare de dulciuri.

MICORIZA
http://www.bioterapi.ro/aprofundat/index_aprofundat_index_enciclopedic_botanicMicoriza.h tml Micoriza este o asociaie simbiotic (asociaie micorizal) de tip biosistem, reciproc avantajoas (bilateral pozitiv; +,+), realizat ntre miceliu unei ciuperci i rdcinile unei plante ierboase sau lemnoase. Pentru arbori, relaia dintre ciuperc i plant, este deosebit de important, multe pduri neputnd exista n lipsa micorizei. Aproape toate familiile angiospermelor (cu excepiachenopodiaceelor i cruciferelor) prezint, mcar cteva specii, care realizeaz micorize. De asemenea, micoriza este ntlnit frecvent i la gimnosperme. Nu numai rdcinile plantelor triesc n simbioz cu miceliile ciupercilor, ci i prile subterane ale multor ferigi (Pteridophyta) i muchi (Bryophyta).

Rolul micorizei
n micoriz, miceliul ciupercii prin hifele sale, aduce arborelui, arbustului, sau plantei ierboase, ap ncrcat cu sruri minerale i diferii metabolii, primind n schimb, materie organic indispensabil metabolismului (glucide, vitamine, fitohormoni). Ciuperca care realizeaz micoriza, poate hidroliza i mobiliza, la nivelul hifelor, substane anorganice greu solubile (sruri cu radicali azotat, azotit, fosfat sau fosfit), ajutnd astfel, absorbia lor n forme facile, la nivelul rdcinilor plantei, fapt ce ntreine o activitate metabolic intens, la nivelul esuturilor vegetale. Din acest motiv, plantele cu care fungul ntreine relaii trofice simbiotice, cresc mult mai bine dect celelalte, iar miceliul ciupercii fructific mai abundent. Mai mult, s-a demonstrat c plantele cu micoriz sunt mai rezistente la secet i la boli, dect vegetalele care nu realizeaz astfel de asociaii simbiotice.

Rolul micorizei, nu se oprete doar la beneficiile de pe urma crora profit plantele i ciupercile asociative, ci se se extinde asupra ntregului ecosistem. n faa variailor aritmice (furtuni, incendii, poluare, invazii de populaii duntoare, etc.) petrecute n biotopurile i biocenozele naturale sau artificiale (culturi agricole), micorizele ajut n mod semnificativ la reechilibrarea i stabilizarea ecosistemelor.

ncadrarea sistematic a ciupercilor micorizante


Ciupercile micorizante aparin urmtoarelor ncrengturi ale regnului Fungi: - Incertae sedis, - Glomeromycota, - Ascomycota, - Basidomycota.

Clasificarea micorizelor
Dup selectivitate, micorizele sunt: - neselective sau generaliste (de exemplu, ciupercile Amanita rubescens, Amanita pantherina, Boletus edulis sau Russula cyanoxantha, realizeaz micorize cu mai multe specii de plante lemnoase), - preferenial selective (Suillus luteus micorizeaz de preferin pinii, dar migreaz i la gorun; Tricholoma suphureum stabilete relaii simbiotice preponderente cu fagul, dar trece i la speciile de Quercus) - strict selective (de pild: Leccinum carpinus realizeaz micorize doar cu carpenul, Boletus elegans micorizeaz doar zada, Boletus luteus stabilete relaii simbiotice doar cu pinul de pdure). Dup raporturile stabilite ntre hifele ciupercii i celulele rdcinilor plantelor, micorizele

se mpart n: - ectomicorize sau micorize ectotrofe (hifele ptrund intercelular, deci printre celulele corticale ale rdcinii plantelor, n spaiul interstiial), - endomicorize sau micorize endotrofe (hifele ptrund n celulele corticale ale rdcinii, localizndu-se intracelular), - ectoendomicorize sau micorize ectoendotrofe (combinaie ntre tipurile precedente). - perimicorize sau micorize peritrofe (miceliul ciupercii se dezvolt n jurul rdcinilor)

Micorizele ectotrofe, micorizele endotrofe i micorizele peritrofe


Micorize ectotrofe Micorizele ectotrofe sunt realizate de ctre unele ciuperci ascomicete ibazidiomicete. n cazul ectomicorizelor, miceliul ciupercii formeaz agregate, realiznd un manon n jurul celulelor radiculare, aa cum se poate observa n imaginea de mai sus. n cadrul acestui agregat, cteva hife penetreaz esutul rdcinii, asigurnd nutriia reciproc avantajoas. Foarte muli arbori (brad, molid, pin, mesteacn, plop, carpen, stejar, fag, etc.) depind de micoriza ectotrof. De asemenea, o serie de ciuperci (Russula, Lactarius, Amanita, Boletus, .a.) nu ar putea supravieui n lipsa arborilor sau arbutilor. Rdcinile speciilor lemnoase care realizeaz micorize ectotrofe, au cunoscut modificri. Ele nu mai prezint peri absorbani i sunt abundent ramificate, lund aspectul unor corali (Mohan, Ardelean). Dezvoltarea unor ciuperci care realizeaz ectomicorize cu speciile de plante lemnoase, nu depinde numai de afinitatea dintre fungi i arbori, ci i de vrsta arboretelor. Astfel, spre exemplu, numeroasele specii ale genului Cortinariuis, se instaleaz n perioada de maturitate a pdurilor, n timp ce ciupercile genuluiLaccaria, apar n faza de tineree sau de btrnee a codrului. De asemenea, conteaz pH-ul solului, n pdurile de foioase marcate de aciditate, crescnd masiv ciupercile micorizante cortin (Cortinariuis). Micorize endotrofe Aceste micorize, sunt este realizate de ctre glomeromicete (mai multe despre micorizele endotrofe). Micorize periotrofe Micorizele perritrofe sunt realizate de ctre unii fungi imperfeci (familaMucoraceae), de unele ascomicete (familia Trichocomaceae), precum i de unele basidiomicete. Cele mai multe perimicorize se realizeaz prin mprejmuirea rdcinilor plantelor, de ctre mucegaiurile Mucor, Aspergillus i Penicillium. Pteromicorizele, pe lng faptul c intensific schimburile nutritive la nivelul rdcinilor, pot schimba reacia solurilor, acionnd ca nite tampoane vii. De exemplu, speciile de Penicillium din rizosefer modific pH-ul solului, fcnd posibil dezvoltarea cvercetelor pe soluri alcaline (speciile de Quercus nu suport pmnturile bazice, n lipsa acestor ciuperci, existena arborilor pe solurile alcaline, fiind compromis) [Mohan, Ardelean].

http://www.bioterapi.ro/aprofundat/index_aprofundat_index_enciclopedic_botanicMicoriza.h tml

FURNIZOR

Micoriza un nou sistem de ajutor pentru plante


Micoriza un nou sistem de ajutor pentru plante. http://www.klastorf.ro/articole/ http://www.klastorf.ro/articole/ Utilizarea micorizei la plantare (vii, livezi, sere, iarba etc.) este o practica agronomica de mare interes, deoarece permite beneficii importante agronomice si economice. Este simplu ca mod de aplicare. Micoriza este o asociatie simbiotica benefica Intre ciuperci de sol de tipul micorize si radacinile plantelor agricole, arbusti, vie, pomi fructiferi, plante forestiere, etc... Ambele beneficiaza de aceasta simbioza: ciuperca colonizeaza radacinile plantelor, facilitand absorbtia usoara a substantelor nutritive minerale si apei de catre planta, prin reteaua sa de radacini, In timp ce planta ofera ciupercii hrana necesara (extrudatele) Procesul de pornire a simbiozei incepe prin introducerea de spori de micorize pe radacina plantei la plantarea acesteia in sol. Sporii germineaza pe radacina plantei si cresc in exteriorul radacinii in sol (miceliul extern), explorand un volum de sol inaccesibil radacinilor. In acest fel, planta creste foarte mult suprafata de absorbtie, de la 100 la 1000 de ori si In consecinta creste capacitatea de absorbtie a nutrientilor si a apei. Unul din produsele cele mai utilizate, ce contine spori de micorize este AEGIS. Produsul AEGIS este un inocul ( produs pe baza de spori) micorize, al carui testare a fost facuta in Europa In colaborare cu institutii publice de cercetare. Acesta este format din mai multe tulpini de ciuperci, dintre care cele mai importante sunt: GLOMUS INTRARADICES si GLOMUS MOSSEAE. Tulpinile de Intraradices Glomus si Glomus Mosseae selectate in AEGIS sunt caracterizate prin usoara lor adaptarea la cele mai diverse habitate In care acestea se aplica, colonizand rapid si eficientaa sistemul radicular al plantelor. Cum actioneaza Aegis? AEGIS colonizeaza radacinile plantelor si le asigura absorbtia usoara si rapida a mineralelor si apei pe care planta o extrage din sol prin intermediul retelei sale de radacini, In timp ce planta pune la dispozitia ciupercilor radicali micro-compusi organici. Avantajele pentru plante Efectele pozitive ale simbiozei micoriza-planta sunt numeroase. Principalul avantaj consta in cresterea absorbtiei de nutrienti minerali din sol de catre planta. Extinderea miceliului extern al ciupercii peste rizosfera este principala consecinta a acestui efect, deoarece permite absorbtia de nutrienti In afara zonei de actiune a radacinilor. In fotografie se poate

observa cu usurinta diferenta dintre plantele cu micorizate cu AEGYS (dreapta) si fara AEGYS (stanga).

Alte beneficii ale utilizarii micorize sunt: rezistenta crescuta a plantelor la stres si salinitatea apei, rezistenta crescuta si toleranta fata de agentii patogeni de sol, absorbtie mai mare de micro si oligoelemente, o productie mai mare si mai uniforma , Imbunatateste cresterea plantelor, utilizarea mai eficienta a Ingrasamintelor si apei, o mai buna adaptare a plantelor la mediul Inconjurator, minimizarea influentei starii de oboseala a terenului asupra plntelor. Produsul este permis In agricultura ecologica AEGIS este disponibil In diferite forme (granule, tablete) pentru a satisface nevoile diverse de cultivare si pentru a oferi usurinta si flexibilitate maxima de aplicare.

Wikipedia - Mycorrhiza
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This mycorrhiza includes a fungus of the genus Amanita A mycorrhiza (Gk. , myks, "fungus" and , riza, "roots", [1] pl. mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic (generally mutualistic, but occasionally weaklypathogenic) association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular plant.[2] In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus colonizes the host plant's roots, either intracellularly as in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF or AM), or extracellularly as inectomycorrhizal fungi. They are an important component of soil life and soil chemistry. Contents [hide] 1 Mutualist dynamics o 1.1 Sugar-water/mineral exchange o 1.2 Mechanisms o 1.3 Disease and drought resistance o 1.4 Colonization of barren soil o 1.5 Resistance to toxicity 2 Occurrence of mycorrhizal associations 3 Types of mycorrhiza o 3.1 Endomycorrhiza o 3.2 Ectomycorrhiza o 3.3 Ericoid mycorrhiza 4 Discovery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [edit]Mutualist dynamics Mycorrhizas form a mutualistic relationship with the roots of most plant species. While only a small proportion of all species has been examined, 95% of those plant families are predominantly mycorrhizal.[3] They are named after their presence in the plant's rhizosphere (root system). [edit]Sugar-water/mineral exchange This mutualistic association provides the fungus with relatively constant and direct access to carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose.[4] The carbohydrates are translocated from their source (usually leaves) to root tissue and on to the plant's fungal partners. In return, the plant gains the benefits of the mycelium's higher absorptive capacity for water and mineral nutrients due to the comparatively large surface area of mycelium: root ratio, thus improving the plant's mineral absorption capabilities. [5] Plant roots alone may be incapable of taking up phosphate ions that are demineralized in soils with a basic pH. The mycelium of the mycorrhizal fungus can, however, access these phosphorus sources, and make them available to the plants they colonize. [6] Nature, according to C.Michael Hogan, has adapted to this critical role of phosphate, by allowing

many plants to recycle phosphate, without using soil as an intermediary. For example, in some dystrophic forests large amounts of phosphate are taken up by mycorrhizal hyphae acting directly on leaf litter, bypassing the need for soil uptake. [7] Inga alley cropping, proposed as an alternative to slash and burn rainforest destruction,[8] relies upon Mycorrhiza within the Inga Tree root system to prevent the rain from washing phosphorus out of the soil.[9] Suillus tomentosus, a fungus, produces specialized structures, known as tuberculate ectomycorrhizae, with its plant host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia). These structures have in turn been shown to host nitrogen fixing bacteria which contribute a significant amount of nitrogen and allow the pines to colonize nutrient-poor sites.[10]

Mechanisms

Leccinum aurantiacum, anectomycorrhizal fungus The mechanisms of increased absorption are both physical and chemical. Mycorrhizal mycelia are much smaller in diameter than the smallest root, and thus can explore a greater volume of soil, providing a larger surface area for absorption. Also, the cell membrane chemistry of fungi is different from that of plants (including organic acidexcretion which aids in ion displacement[11]). Mycorrhizas are especially beneficial for the plant partner in nutrient-poor soils.[12]

Disease and drought resistance


Mycorrhizal plants are often more resistant to diseases, such as those caused by microbial soil-borne pathogens,[13][14] and are also more resistant to the effects of drought. [15][16][17]

Colonization of barren soil


Plants grown in sterile soils and growth media often perform poorly without the addition of spores or hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi to colonise the plant roots and aid in the uptake of soil mineral nutrients.[18] The absence of mycorrhizal fungi can also slow plant growth in early succession or on degraded landscapes.[19] The introduction of alien mycorrhizal plants to nutrient-deficient ecosystems puts indigenous non-mycorrhizal plants at a competitive disadvantage.[20]

Resistance to toxicity
Fungi have been found to have a protective role for plants rooted in soils with high metal concentrations, such as acidic and contaminated soils. Pine trees inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius planted in several contaminated sites displayed high tolerance to the prevailing contaminant, survivorship and growth. One study discovered the existence of Suillus

luteus strains with varying tolerance of zinc. Another study discovered that zinc-tolerant strains of Suillus bovinus conferred resistance to plants of Pinus sylvestris. This was probably due to binding of the metal to the extramatricial mycelium of the fungus, without affecting the exchange of beneficial substances.[20] [edit]Occurrence of mycorrhizal associations At around 400 million years old, the Rhynie chert contains the earliest fossil assemblage yielding plants preserved in sufficient detail to detect mycorrhizas - and they are indeed observed in the stems of Aglaophyton major.[21] Mycorrhizas are present in 92% of plant families studied (80% of species), [22] with arbuscular mycorrhizas being the ancestral and predominant form,[22] and indeed the most prevalent symbiotic association found in the plant kingdom. [4] The structure of arbuscular mycorrhizas has been highly conserved since their first appearance in the fossil record,[21] with both the development of ectomycorrhizas, and the loss of mycorrhizas, evolving convergently on multiple occasions.[22]

Types of mycorrhiza

Arbuscular mycorrhizal wheat Mycorrhizas are commonly divided into ectomycorrhizas and endomycorrhizas. The two types are differentiated by the fact that the hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi do not penetrate individual cells within the root, while the hyphae of endomycorrhizal fungi penetrate the cell wall and invaginate the cell membrane. Additionally, many plants in the order Ericales form a third type, ericoid mycorrhizas, while some members of the Ericales form arbutoid and monotropoid mycorrhizas.[23][24] All orchids aremyco-heterotrophic at some stage during their lifecycle and form orchid mycorrhizas with a range of basidiomycete fungi.

Endomycorrhiza
Main article: Arbuscular mycorrhiza Endomycorrhizas are variable and have been further classified as arbuscular, ericoid, arbutoid, monotropoid, and orchid mycorrhizas.[25] Arbuscular mycorrhizas, or AM (formerly

known as vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas, or VAM), are mycorrhizas whose hyphae enter into the plant cells, producing structures that are either balloon-like (vesicles) or dichotomously branching invaginations (arbuscules). The fungal hyphae do not in fact penetrate the protoplast (i.e. the interior of the cell), but invaginate thecell membrane. The structure of the arbuscules greatly increases the contact surface area between the hypha and the cell cytoplasm to facilitate the transfer of nutrients between them. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are formed only by fungi in the division Glomeromycota. Fossil evidence[21] and DNA sequence analysis[26] suggest that this mutualism appeared 400-460 million years ago, when the first plants were colonizing land. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are found in 85% of all plant families, and occur in many crop species.[22] The hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce the glycoprotein glomalin, which may be one of the major stores of carbon in the soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have (possibly) been asexual for many millions of years and, unusually, individuals can contain many genetically different nuclei (a phenomenon calledheterokaryosis).[27]

Ectomycorrhiza

Ectomycorrhizal beech Ectomycorrhizas, or EcM, are typically formed between the roots of around 10% of plant families, mostly woody plants including the birch, dipterocarp, eucalyptus, oak,pine, and rose[22] families, orchids,[28] and fungi belonging to the Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Zygomycota. Some EcM fungi, such as many Leccinum and Suillus, are symbiotic with only one particular genus of plant, while other fungi, such as the Amanita, are generalists that form mycorrhizas with many different plants.[29] An individual tree may have 15 or more different fungal EcM partners at one time.[30] Thousands of ectomycorrhizal fungal species exist, hosted in over 200 genera. A recent study has permitted to conservatively estimate global ectomycorrhizal fungal species richness around 7750 species, although, on the basis of estimates of knowns and unknowns in macromycete diversity, a final estimate of ECM species richness would likely be between 20000 and 25000.[31] Ectomycorrhizas consist of a hyphal sheath, or mantle, covering the root tip and a Hartig net of hyphae surrounding the plant cells within the root cortex. In some cases the hyphae may also penetrate the plant cells, in which case the mycorrhiza is called an ectendomycorrhiza. Outside the root, the fungal mycelium forms an extensive network within the soil and leaf litter. Nutrients can be shown to move between different plants through the fungal network. Carbon has been shown to move from paper birch trees into Douglas-fir trees thereby promoting succession in ecosystems.[32] The ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor has been found to lure and kill springtails to obtain nitrogen, some of which may then be

transferred to the mycorrhizal host plant. In a study by Klironomos and Hart, Eastern White Pine inoculated with L. bicolor was able to derive up to 25% of its nitrogen from springtails.
[33][34]

The first genomic sequence for a representative of symbiotic fungi, the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor, has been published.[35] An expansion of several multigene families occurred in this fungus, suggesting that adaptation to symbiosis proceeded by gene duplication. Within lineage-specific genes those coding for symbiosis-regulated secreted proteins showed an up-regulated expression in ectomycorrhizal root tips suggesting a role in the partner communication. Laccaria bicolor is lacking enzymes involved in the degradation of plant cell wall components (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins and pectates), preventing the symbiont from degrading host cells during the root colonisation. By contrast, Laccaria bicolor possesses expanded multigene families associated with hydrolysis of bacterial and microfauna polysaccharides and proteins. This genome analysis revealed the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots.

Ericoid mycorrhiza

An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus isolated from Woollsia pungens[36] Main article: Ericoid mycorrhiza Ericoid mycorrhizas are the third of the three more ecologically important types, They have a simple intraradical (grow in cells) phase, consisting of dense coils of hyphae in the outermost layer of root cells. There is no periradical phase and the extraradical phase consists of sparse hyphae that don't extend very far into the surrounding soil. They might form sporocarps (probably in the form of small cups), but their reproductive biology is little understood.[23] Ericoid mycorrhizas have also been shown to have considerable saprotrophic capabilities, which would enable plants to receive nutrients from not-yet-decomposed materials via the decomposing actions of their ericoid partners.[37]

Discovery
Associations of fungi with the roots of plants have been known since at least the mid-19th century. However early observers simply recorded the fact without investigating the relationships between the two organisms. [38] This symbiosis was studied and described by Franciszek Kamieski in 18791882.[39] Further research was carried out by Albert Bernhard Frank, who introduced the term mycorrhiza 1885.[40]

See also
Fungi portal Basidiomycota

Ascomycota Effect of climate change on plant biodiversity Glomeromycota Mucigel - substance that creates symbiotic environment for fungi Rhizobia - bacteria which fix nitrogen in legumes [edit]References 1. ^ Frank, A. B. (1885). "ber die auf Wrzelsymbiose beruhende Ehrnhrung gewisser Bum durch unterirdische Pilze". Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 3: 128145. 2. ^ Kirk, P. M.; Cannon, P. F.; David, J. C. & Stalpers, J. (2001). Ainsworth and Bisbys Dictionary of the Fungi (9th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 3. ^ Trappe, J. M. (1987). "Phylogenetic and ecologic aspects of mycotrophy in the angiosperms from an evolutionary standpoint". Ecophysiology of VA Mycorrhizal Plants, G.R. Safir (EDS) (Florida: CRC Press). 4. ^ a b Harrison MJ (2005). "Signaling in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis". Annu Rev Microbiol. 59: 19 42. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.58.030603.123749. PMID 16153162. 5. ^ Selosse MA, Richard F, He X, Simard SW (2006). "Mycorrhizal networks: des liaisons dangereuses?". Trends Ecol Evol. 21 (11): 621 628. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.07.003.PMID 16843567. 6. ^ Li H, Smith SE, Holloway RE, Zhu Y, Smith FA. (2006). "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to phosphorus uptake by wheat grown in a phosphorus-fixing soil even in the absence of positive growth responses". New Phytol. 172 (3): 536543. doi:10.1111/j.14698137.2006.01846.x.PMID 17083683. 7. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Phosphate. Encyclopedia of Earth. Topic ed. Andy Jorgensen. Ed.-in-Chief C.J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC 8. ^ Elkan, Daniel. Slash-and-burn farming has become a major threat to the world's rainforest The Guardian 21 April 2004 9. ^ rainforestsaver.org: What is Inga alley cropping? 10. ^ Paul, L.R.; Chapman, B.K.; Chanway, C.P. (2007). "Nitrogen Fixation Associated with Suillus tomentosus Tuberculate Ectomycorrhizae on Pinus contorta var. latifolia". Annals of Botany 99 (6): 1101 1109. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm061. PMC 3243579. PMID 17468111. 11. ^ [1][dead link] 12. ^ "Botany online: Interactions - Plants - Fungi - Parasitic and Symbiotic Relations - Mycorrhiza". Biologie.uni-hamburg.de. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 13. ^ "Abstract". SpringerLink. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 14. ^ "Dr. Susan Kaminskyj: Endorhizal Fungi". Usask.ca. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 15. ^ "Dr. Davies Research Page". Aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu. Retrieved 201009-30. 16. ^ Lehto, Tarja (1992). "Mycorrhizas and Drought Resistance of Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. I. In Conditions of Nutrient Deficiency". New Phytologist 122 (4): 661668. JSTOR 2557434. 17. ^ Nikolaou, N.; Angelopoulos, K.; Karagiannidis, N. (2003). "Effects of Drought Stress on Mycorrhizal and Non-Mycorrhizal Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine, Grafted Onto Various Rootstocks".Experimental Agriculture 39 (3): 241252. doi:10.1017/S001447970300125X. 18. ^ Root fungi turn rock into soil Planet Earth Online 3 July 2009 19. ^ Jeffries, P; Gianinazzi, S; Perotto, S; Turnau, K; Barea, J-M (2003). "The contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sustainable maintenance of

plant health and soil fertility". Biol. Fertility Soils 37: 1 16. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=14498927. 20. ^ a b David M. Richardson (2000). Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 336. ISBN 0-521-78910-9. 21. ^ a b c Remy W, Taylor TN, Hass H, Kerp H (1994). "4 hundred million year old vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae". Proc. National Academy of Sciences 91 (25): 11841 11843.Bibcode:1994PNAS...9111841R. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.25.11841. PMC 45331.PMID 11607500. 22. ^ a b c d e Wang, B.; Qiu, Y.L. (2006). "Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants". Mycorrhiza 16 (5): 299 363. doi:10.1007/s00572-005-0033-6. PMID 16845554. Retrieved 2008-0121. 23. ^ a b Allen, Michael F. 1991. The ecology of mycorrhizae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 24. ^ Harley, J.L. and S.E. Smith 1983. Mycorrhizal symbiosis (1st ed.). Academic Press, London. 25. ^ Peterson, R. L.; Massicotte, H. B. & Melville, L. H. (2004). Mycorrhizas: anatomy and cell biology. National Research Council Research Press. ISBN 978-0-660-19087-7. 26. ^ Simon, L., Bousquet, J., Lvesque, R. C., Lalonde, M. (1993). "Origin and diversification of endomycorrhizal fungi and coincidence with vascular land plants". Nature 363 (6424): 67 69.Bibcode:1993Natur.363...67S. doi:10.1038/363067a0. 27. ^ Hijri, M.; Sanders, IR. (2005). "Low gene copy number shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inherit genetically different nuclei". Nature 433 (7022): 160 163. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..160H.doi:10.1038/nature03069. PMID 1565074 0. 28. ^ "Orchids and fungi: An unexpected case of symbiosis". American Journal of Botany. July 12, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 29. ^ den Bakker, Henk C.; Zuccarello, G. C.; Kuyper, TH. W.; Noordeloos, M. E. (2004). "Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum" (PDF). New Phytologist 163: 201215.doi:10.1111/j.14698137.2004.01090.x. 30. ^ Saari, S. K.; Campbell, C. D.; Russell, J.; Alexander, I. J.; Anderson, I. C. (2005). "Pine microsatellite markers allow roots and ectomycorrhizas to be linked to individual trees" (PDF). New Phytologist165 (1): 295 304. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01213.x. PMID 15720641. 31. ^ Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W. (2008). "Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: separating the wheat from the chaff". Fungal Diversity 33: 145. 32. ^ Simard, Suzanne W.; Perry, David A.; Jones, Melanie D.; Myrold, David D.; Durall, Daniel M. & Molina, Randy (1997). "Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field".Nature 388 (6642): 579 582. doi:10.1038/41557. 33. ^ Fungi kill insects and feed host plants BNET.com 34. ^ Klironomos, J. N.; Hart, M. M. (2001). "Animal nitrogen swap for plant carbon". Nature 410 (6829): 651 652. doi:10.1038/35070643. PMID 11287942. 35. ^ Martin, F.; Aerts, A. et al. (2008). "The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis". Nature 452 (7183): 88 92. Bibcode:2008Natur.452...88M. doi:10.1038/nature06556.PMID 18322534 .

36. ^ Midgley, DJ; Chambers, SM; Cairney, JWG (2002). "Spatial distribution of fungal endophyte genotypes in a Woollsia pungens (Ericaceae) root system". Australian Journal of Botany 50 (5): 559 565. doi:10.1071/BT02020. 37. ^ Read, D. J. & Perez-Moreno, J. (2003). "Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystemsa journey towards relevance?". New Phytologist 157 (3): 475 492. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00704.x. 38. ^ http://books.google.com/books? id=dMrzAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA99&dq=Mycorrhiza+Kamienski&hl=en&ei=n7lCTrW 7J5PYiAKC4bmZAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFcQ 6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Mycorrhiza%20Kamienski&f=false 39. ^ Kamieski, F. (1882). "Les organes vgtatifs de Monotropa hypopitys L.". Mmoires de la Socit nat. des Sciences naturelles et mathm. de Cherbourg, ser. 3, tom. 24. 40. ^ Frank, A.B. (1885). "ber die auf Wurzelsymbiose beruhende Ernhrung gewisser Bume durch unterirdische Pilze". Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesells 3: 128145. [edit]External links Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americanaarticle Mycorriza. Mycorrhizal Associations: The Web Resource Comprehensive illustrations and lists of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants and fungi Mycorrhizas a successful symbiosis Biosafety research into genetically modified barley International Mycorrhiza Society International Mycorrhiza Society MycorWiki a portal concerned with the biology and ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi and other forest fungi. Categories: Plant roots Soil biology Symbiosis Oligotrophs

Soil Stabilization

Mycorrhizal Fungi - A Restoration Practitioner's Point of View


By Bala Chaudhary and Margot Griswold Published in the Spring 2001 Ecesis, Newsletter of the California Society for Ecological Restoration - SERCAL As restoration ecologists, we are constantly looking for techniques to improve our efforts. And we would like to know if our new methods actually produce improved restoration or revegetation projects. The addition of mycorrhizal fungi in restoration and reclamation of native habitats is believed by many to be a logical step in the restoration process for sites that lack these important components of the soil ecosystem. Questions still abound over how

and when to apply mycorrhiza as well as which species to add to a site. The following article focuses on methods used in southern California coastal sage scrub restoration and revegetation, and on some of the ongoing mycorrhizal research with which we are involved.

Mycorrhizal Fungi in Restoration Ecology


Mycorrhizae first began being used as a tool in restoration simply because it increases plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (also known as AM fungi) are the most common type of mycorrhiza as well as the most commonly used type in restoration in southern California. AM fungi form an underground symbiosis between fungi and plant roots. The fungi act as a nutrient superhighway, delivering inorganic nutrients from the soil to the plant, in exchange for photosynthates. While some plants do not need AM fungi to survive, others can be quite dependent on it for optimal growth rate, vigor, and longevity. Additionally, AM fungi can be valuable tools in restoration for their ability to control particular invasive weeds. Native plants are known to be more mycotrophic (dependent on mycorrhiza) than weedy species; but in some cases AM fungi can actually have an adverse effect on weeds. In southern California, the application of AM fungi has been shown to reduce the growth and survival of non-mycotrophic weeds such as Russian thistle (Allen, M.F., E.B. Allen, C.F. Friese. 1989). At San Onofre State Beach populations of the weed species black mustard (Brassica nigra) were significantly reduced over time in test plots inoculated with AM fungi (Reiffner et al. 1998). However, AM fungi have little effect against weeds such as sweet clover (Melilotus spp.) (personal observation).

Soil structure and erosion control


More recent interest in AM fungi as useful tools in restoration focuses on their relevance to soil structure and erosion control. Mycorrhizal fungi strengthen soil structure in both a physical and chemical manner. Physically, the hyphal network of these fungi link soil particles to each other and to plant roots. Chemically, AM fungi produce glomalin, a sticky substance that is important in soil aggregation (Wright and Upadhyaya 1998). Glomalin naturally binds soil aggregates together while still allowing water, nutrients, roots and soil fauna to move within the soil (St. John 1998).

Methods of Application in Southern California Restoration


Any type of disturbance, such as grazing or tilling, suppresses mycorrhizal fungi and eventually causes it to die out. Although the fungi can reestablish if suitable host plants and other conditions are in place, this process is often slow. In coastal sage scrub restoration in southern California a site may become naturally colonized depending on the distance of the site from intact habitat and the level of disturbance of the site itself. On the highly disturbed soils at Coyote Canyon landfill in Orange County, AM fungi were found in native plant roots across the site four years after seeding (EARTHWORKS 1998a). Therefore, passive reestablishment of AMF is an option in restoration; however, with this "method" the site does not benefit in the first years of plant establishment and diversity may suffer. Addition of AMF early in the restoration process gives the site the edge on reestablishing soil structure 2 and increased native plant establishment. Generally, AM fungi are added to disturbed soils where root or soil tests show little or no native mycorrhiza present in the soil. As all would agree, the best way to inoculate a restoration site is with a layer of properly stored local topsoil. The topsoil contains propagules of native mycorrhiza as well as many other soil organisms, organic matter and native seeds. On the San Joaquin Hills Toll Road in Orange County, California, topsoil was applied on 15 acres of coastal sage scrub revegetation on the slopes above Bonita Channel. Roots sampled from seedlings a year after site installation showed that 100 percent of the samples were colonized with mycorrhiza (EARTHWORKS 1998b).

When topsoil is not available due to project timing or storage space restrictions, mycorrhiza may be added to disturbed soils using several methods. These application methods generally use some form of commercial inoculum, which usually contains only one species of AM fungi, Glomus intraradices. A few projects have used local collections to develop site specific AM fungi inocula, and this specification is becoming more common. Early methods for introducing AM fungi in coastal sage scrub restoration sites used inoculated container plants to establish the fungi. Commercially available AM fungi was incorporated into coastal sage scrub slope plantings along the San Joaquin Hills Toll Road mainly by using inoculated purple needle grass (Nassella pulchra) liners planted in a grid (3.5m on center) as well as inoculated container shrub species planted in random groups. The seed mix applied on the slopes included several species considered to be good mycorrhizal hosts, including Hemizonia fasiculatum, Eriophyllum confertiflorum, Isocoma menziesii, and Encelia californica. Examination of roots of native plant seedlings sampled at 1 1/2 years after planting and 2 1/2 years after planting showed AM colonization in 67 percent and 91 percent, respectively, of roots sampled across the 120 acres of roadway slopes (EARTHWORKS 1998b). More recent techniques to directly inoculate sites during seeding include imprinting and hydroseeding. These direct methods allow an even application of inocula over the site and hopefully, a shorter time for the development of the mycorrhizal network between host plants and AM fungi. Although it was long thought that hydroseeding would not be conducive to establishing AM fungi on a site, tests have proved that it is a viable method for rocky, steep slopes with no possibility for imprinting, container planting or topsoil application of AM fungi. In a split plot test on a cut slope seeded in 1997, significantly more seedling roots sampled from the plot hydroseeded with AM fungi were colonized after one year compared to the plot seeded without the fungi (EARTHWORKS 1998b ). Evaluations of the slope showed more vegetative cover on the inoculated plot. More recent applications of hydroseeded AM fungi also compared plant cover in inoculated and uninoculated plots. The Templin Highway Caltrans District 7 project implemented in 1998 reported more total plant cover and twice the native plant cover in plots hydroseeded with inocula compared to uninoculated plots (St. John 2001).

The Issue of Host Specificity


With the exception of topsoil, the mycorrhizal applications described above used some form of commercial inocula, which usually contains mainly one species of AM fungi, Glomus intraradices. However, natural soil communities contain a wide variety of AM fungal species. While drastically disturbed soils, such as those found in min reclamation or highway cut/fill slope projects, generally lack any kind of mycorrhizal fungi, some less disturbed soils can 3 contain a variety of different AM fungal -species. It is important to note, however, that species composition and eveness may be very different between the undisturbed soils and disturbed soils (Miller, Jastrow, Bever, and Schultz, unpublished data). One might say that just as there are successional stages for native plant reestablishment, similar successional stages exist for native fungal species re-establishment. An Illinois study related to prairie restoration compared the AM fungal species diversity of undisturbed, remnant sites to the fungal species of sites that had been disturbed by grazing or tillage. Species richness was twice as high in undisturbed soil with three species found only in the undisturbed soil types (Miller, Jastrow, Bever, and Schultz, unpublished data). In a follow up study, various native prairie plants were grown in these two types of soil. Easy to establish, early successional plants did not show a preference for either type of soil. But difficult to establish, late-successional plants grew better in native soil. In fact, a few extremely difficult to establish native plants grew best and only flowered when planted with native fungi (Bever, Schultz, Chaudhary, Miller, Jastrow, unpublished data). Similar results were found when the same experiment was carried out with native southern California

grassland and coastal sage scrub species (Bever, Yoshida, Subramanium, Chaudhary, Schultz. unpublished data). These studies suggest that native soil communities are important in trying to re-establish native plant communities. As part of a soil community, AM fungi may make a difference in re-establishing diverse coastal sage scrub communities. We are collaborating with principal researchers, Jim Bever and Peggy Schultz at Indiana University, Keith Vogelsang at UCI, and Ted St. John, to compare the effectiveness of single species commercial inocula, to diverse native inocula and uninoculated controls. In the design of the project and development of the native AM fungal inocula, the research focuses on both the influence of the source and the diversity of mycorrhizal inocula on plant establishment and soil stabilization. This is a multi-year research project that started in 1998 with collection and development of native inocula. Field trials began in the fall of 2000 and will run for at least two years.

Is Natural Succession Occurring?


We are also interested in whether succession of native AM fungi occurs on restoration and revegetation sites that have experienced different methods of inoculation. We began a study, in collaboration with Priscilla Ross at Irvine Valley College, with two goals in mind. The first goal is to begin to build, and/or add to, a southern California coastal sage scrub AM fungal species list. Preliminary results show southern California's native AM fungi to be quite diverse. As we build the AM fungal species list, our second goal is to compare the AM fungal diversity of four different coastal sage scrub restoration and revegetation projects. These projects include sites with no AM fungal application, sites inoculated by topsoil application, sites inoculated with commercial (single species of AM fungus) application, and a site with inocula developed from locally collected species. This is also a long-term project. Results of this project will be made available through the SERCAL's coastal sage scrub guild workshops as soon as possible over the next few years.4 Literature Cited Allen, M. F., E.B. Allen and C.F. Friese. 1989. Responses of the Non-mycotrophic Plant Salsola kali to Invasion by V A Mycorrhizal Fungi. 1 New Phytologist 111:45-49. EARTHWORKS Construction & Design. 1998a. Coyote Canyon Coastal Sage Scrub Mitigation Performance Monitoring Report. Prepared for the Transportation Corridor Agencies. EARTHWORKS Construction & Design. 1998b. San Joaquin Hills Toll Road Coastal Sage Scrub Mitigation Performance Monitoring Report. Prepared for the Transportation Corridor Agencies. Reiffner R, T. St. John, D. Pryor. 1998. Restoration at San Onofre State Beach, California. Land and Water July/August 1998:15-18. St John, T. 2001. Mycorrhizal inoculation at the Caltrans Templin Highway site. IECA Western Chapter News 5(1):6. St John, T. 1998. Mycorrhizal inoculation in habitat restoration. Land and Water September/October 17-19. Wright, S.F. and A. Upadhyaya. 1998. A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil. 198;97107. http://www.newfieldsrestoration.com/PDFs/Mycorrhizal_Fungi_Ecesis.pdf

Soil Structure
Mycorrhizae and Soil Structure Ted St. John, Ph.D.

Mycorrhizae can produce better plant growth and otherwise be of benefit to individual plants, but perhaps the most important reasons to inoculate may have to do with effects on the plant community and the soil. Structure is one of the most important qualities of a soil, and is perhaps the crucial difference between soil and "dirt". The tiniest soil particles attach themselves to each other, and those clumps cling to each other, on up through a size hierarchy of soil aggregates. The aggregates define pore space that is vital for movement of water, air, soil animals, and for the growth of roots. Soil aggregates are held together by different forces at different size scales. In the smallest sizes ionic forces dominate, then bacterial polysaccharides take over in somewhat larger aggregates. In the size range that is readily visible in soil, mycorrhizal fungi play the central role. They produce a glycoprotein called "glomalin", named after the group of fungi that form endomycorrhizae. You can find a great deal of information on the internet by performing a search for the word "glomalin".

Mycorrhizae and Weeds


Ted St. John, Ph.D. The best ecological term for a weed is "ruderal". A ruderal is a plant adapted for life on disturbed soil. Ruderals grow fast, a property that depends heavily on readily available forms of plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen tied up in organic form is not of much use to ruderals; they need soluble nitrate to realize their fast growth rates. Other components of the ruderal strategy are high reproductive rates and independence of symbiotic fungi. In other words most ruderals, at least in arid climates, do not need to become mycorrhizal. These traits make ruderals very well suited for life on disturbed sites and newly graded soil, exactly the places where restoration projects are planted. Slower-growing native plants on the other hand do not benefit from these characteristics and must find mycorrhizal symbionts in the soil if they are to survive. Nitrate and other readily available forms of plant nutrients are of no particular advantage to natives, which get along on very slowly released forms of nutrients in their native habitats. The differences in optimum soil conditions are only some of the factors that select for either late successional natives or ruderals. The network of mycorrhizal fungi exerts an effect of its own on many ruderal plant species. In the case of Russian thistle, the mycorrhizal fungi behave almost as pathogens, causing death of the ruderal plant's roots. Other ruderal species do not react in quite such a dramatic way, but most cannot grow rapidly in the presence of a well-developed mycorrhizal network. The mechanisms are not understood, but a number of experiments have demonstrated the effect. See the restoration project section of this web site for examples from practical projects.

Mycorrhizae and Plant Diversity


Ted St. John, Ph.D. Most kinds of plants need to be mycorrhizal in order to survive in the wild, but every flora includes a few species that are independent of the symbiosis. Among these nonhosts and independent species are most ruderals (weeds). If the fungi are missing from the soil, plants that depend upon the symbiosis, known as "mycotrophs", will be unable to survive. In between the extreme forms are facultative mycotrophs, which can survive on their own if the soil is rich in plant nutrients, but need to be mycorrhizal in nutrient poor soils. Even if your seed mix includes a diversity of species, the diversity that you see on the project will depend on the presence of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil. Non-mycotrophic species will do fine if the soil has some fertility, and many such plants are in common use for roadside plantings, mine reclamation, and casual attempts at restoration. The wheat grasses, widely used in the Great Basin, are representative of such plants. Facultative mycotrophs can survive in soil with some fertility, but must be mycorrhizal

in most conditions. The obligate and facultative mycotrophs are the plants that appear on an inoculated job but do not appear, or perform poorly, on an uninoculated project.

The Kinds of Mycorrhiza


Ted St. John, Ph.D. Seven kinds of mycorrhiza are recognized in the scientific literature. The most common is arbuscular (named for internal structures called arbuscules) or vesicular-arbuscular (arbuscules and another structure called vesicles), abbreviated as AM. This is an endomycorrhiza, which means the fungus enters the cells of the root. There are other kinds of endomycorrhiza, but this one is so much more common that many people are now just calling AM endo, and referring to the others by other names. AM are found on grasses, most crop plants, many trees, shrubs, flowers, and in fact about 80% or so of the world's plant species. The fungi are nondescript soil fungi that are not evident without a microscope. The next most common kind is ectomycorrhiza (ECM), which means that the fungus enters the root but not the root cells. There is only one kind of ECM, so this name is unambiguous. The host plants are pines, firs, spruce, oaks, and several other kinds of plants, mostly forest trees. The fungi often form mushrooms or truffles. A related category is ectendomycorrhiza, in which the fungus enters the root cells. Manzanita, madrone, and a few other plants form arbutoid mycorrhizas. These look like ECM and have similar fungi, but are technically endomycorrhizas. A separate but apparently related category is monotropoid, found on certain plants without chlorophyll. While these traditionally have been called "saprophytic," it turns out that they share a mycorrhizal fungus with a nearby tree, and they are in effect parasites of the tree by way of the mycorrhizal fungus. Blueberries and related plants have ericoid mycorrhizas. The fungi are obscure and there is apparently no commercial inoculum. Orchid mycorrhizas are unique in that they are required for seed germination. Some kinds of orchids never photosynthesize, but instead parasitize the mycorrhizal fungi.

Mycorrhizae and the Plant Community


Ted St. John, Ph.D. Endomycorrhizal fungi, and to a lesser extent ectomycorrhizal fungi, are quite nonspecific for host plants. In other words, you do not need a "right" mycorrhizal fungus for each plant species, except that an endomycorrhizal plant needs and endomycorrhizal fungus. One consequence of this non-specificity is that the same mycorrhizal fungus can interconnect a number of unrelated plant species. The interconnected plants are, to some extent, suggestive of the old ecological idea (largely discredited among ecologists) that the plant community is a sort of "super organism." The interconnected plants share a nutrient uptake system, and jointly contribute to its energetic support. In a natural ecosystem, the network interconnects a number of plant species, and also consists of between one and two dozen fungal species, each with its own network, either patchy in distribution or interwoven through other networks.

The Benefits of Mycorrhizal Inoculation


Ted St. John, Ph.D. The main benefit is improved uptake of soil phosphorus. Because of better phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizal plants can grow much more quickly than non-mycorrhizal plants. The experiments that show this growth response are done in controlled conditions, and it is unusual for a user in the field to see responses of the kind that are often shown in scientific (or advertising) photos. The user may see a gain of a few percent up to double or triple, depending on plant species, soil factors, fertilization, and whether they already may have native mycorrhizal fungi.Mycorrhizas appear to have only a minimal effect on uptake of nitrogen, although ECM and ericoids may have some effect. Mycorrhizas do not fix nitrogen, but some people

may confuse this symbiosis with the N-fixing symbiosis between legumes and bacteria of the genus Rhizobium. There are sometimes big effects of mycorrhizas on certain micronutrients, especially zinc and copper. Mycorrhizal plants are often more drought tolerant. This is a tricky point, since big mycorrhizal plants in pots use water much more quickly than little non-mycorrhizal plants in pots. However, it appears that it can be a very real effect in the ground. This is probably an indirect effect of phosphorus nutrition; plants fertilized with phosphorus show the same improvement. However, in natural conditions, mycorrhizal plants are certainly better suited to face dry conditions than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants are more resistant to many root diseases. The scientific results do not all agree, and tests with certain pathogens have shown the reverse. However, in nature it appears that a range of beneficial organisms really do fight disease, and those good guys are more abundant if the plants are mycorrhizal. This explains most of the inconsistent findings, and we can now say with some confidence that mycorrhizal inoculation is an important part of a holistic disease-fighting program. In restoration, reclamation, and erosion control, a very important ingredient is the network of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil. The network builds soil structure, which helps hold the soil together. It also allows survival of many kinds of seedlings that would otherwise never get big enough to be evident on the job site. Because some species in the seed mix show up only when inoculated, inoculation in effect increases plant diversity. The soil network, in combination with healthy mycorrhizal host plants, is very important in resisting weed invasion. There have now been a good number of field projects that have successfully fought off weeds, where other methods that did not involve inoculation have consistently led to nightmare weed infestations. Inoculation is often not enough in itself, but must work with rapidly growing native plants and in many cases, some means to temporarily immobilize nitrate, such as a layer of straw or wood chips.

The Plants That Become Mycorrhizal


Ted St. John, Ph.D. See the myco-bit on types of mycorrhizas for part of the story here. This part is intended to quickly figure out what kind of inoculum your plants may need. In the majority of cases the right kind is arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), often just called endomycorrhiza. In this group are all grasses, palms, almost all bulb plants, anything related to roses, apples, peaches, pears, strawberries etc. (the rose family), most tropical plants apart from orchids, and the great majority of horticultural species. Almost all crop plants, apart from the mustard and spinach families, have this kind. The majority of wild plants, including shrubs, wildflowers, and broad leaf trees, have this kind. A few conifers do, especially the ones related to redwoods, cedars, and junipers. It is easier to list the non-host species (no mycorrhizae) than the ones that have AM. The forest timber trees (apart from redwoods and cedars) are ectomycorrhizal (ECM). This includes all pines, firs, Douglas firs, spruce, larch, oaks, birch, beech, and some willows and cottonwoods, which have both ECM and AM. A few nut crops have EM, including chestnut, hazel, and sometimes walnut and pecan. There are recent reports that very old grape vines might be EM, although grape is normally a good AM host. Manzanita and madrone have the arbutoid type, and there seems to be no commercial inoculum for those. Blueberry, huckleberry, heather, and related plants have ericoid mycorrhizas, and there is also no inoculum for those. Orchids have their own kind and there is no need to inoculate them. Commercial orchid production is done with special chemical media that bypass the need for mycorrhizas. Grown orchids usually have rejected the fungus and are non-mycorrhizal. Some plants do not become mycorrhizal at all- the "non-hosts". These include the mustard family (cabbage, radish) and the spinach family. Some related wild plants and

many kinds of weeds also lack mycorrhizas. Inoculation is often part of a program to fight weeds, since non-host weeds have more trouble competing with mycorrhizal plants. In your list of plants, look for the ones that may be ECM, arbutoid, ericoid, and nonhosts. Since the mycorrhizal status is known with certainty for only a fraction of the world's plant species, many recommendations will have to be guesses. The best guess is usually AM. The soil network, in combination with healthy mycorrhizal host plants, is very important in resisting weed invasion. There have now been a good number of field projects that have successfully fought off weeds, where other methods that did not involve inoculation have consistently led to nightmare weed infestations. Inoculation is often not enough in itself, but must work with rapidly growing native plants and in many cases, some means to temporarily immobilize nitrate, such as a layer of straw or wood chips. http://www.ipcp.org.br/storage/Solos/Mycorrhizae/Dr.%20Teds%20Mycorrhiza %20Fungus.pdf

Micoriza

Bradutul http://gradina-mirela.blogspot.ro/2013/02/bradutul.html#comment-form

Bradutul impodobit de Craciun, care ne-a incantat privirile si ne-a adus bucuria Sarbatorilor de iarna, a asteptat cuminte pana ieri, cand si-a gasit locul in gradina si i-a schimbat culoarea. Locul ales pentru el a fost langa padure si foisor.

Am pregatit culcusul radacinilor cu pietris si ciupercute micorize, care se aplica in faza de mocirlire , pe fundul gropii, avand rol in dezvoltarea sistemului radicular al plantei.

Ciupercile pereche se aplica la suprafata solului, dupa ce planta a fost fixata si udata, fiind acoperite cu un strat fin de pamant, astfel incat produsul sa poata primi oxigen.

Informatii despre ciupercile micorize puteti gasi aici Posted by Mirelun at 8:58 AM Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook 3 comments: 1. AngelikueFebruary 3, 2013 at 10:30 AM Foarte Va doresc sa va bucure, sa creasca bine, inalt si sanatos Reply Replies 1. MirelunFebruary 3, 2013 at 10:37 AM Multumim frumos pentru urare! Reply frumos

2. pasiunea mea :gradinaFebruary 3, 2013 at 12:06 PM Ce ma bucur cind vad ca uni oameni nu mai impodobesc brad tiat!mirela Reply

FURNIZORI

INGRASAMANT BIO MYKOSOIL

5,00 lei
http://www.4garden.ro/ingrasaminte/ingrasaminte-bio/ingrasamant-bio-mykosoil_P287

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MYKOSOIL BT & MYKOSOIL CON Pachetul de ingasamant bio format din cele doua produse (MYKOSOIL BT & MYKOSOIL CON) reprezinta recomandarea noastra pentru inlocuirea cu succes a ingasamantului natural (gunoiul de grajd) si intarirea sistemului imunitar al plantelor. Caracteristici fundamentale Ciupercile micoriziene aprovizioneaza plantele cu nutrienti si apa, primind in schimb o parte din elementele asimilate de plante prin fotosinteza. Proportia de productie primara, distribuita la ciuperca poate fi de pna la 25%.

Spre deosebire de alte ciuperci de sol, ciupercilor micoriziene le lipsesc numeroase enzime, care sunt necesare pentru a descompune glucide complexe. Prin urmare, acestea sunt dependente de aprovizionarea plantelor cu aceste enzime. Ciupercile micoriziene dispun de o capacitate considerabil mai mare de extrage minerale si apa din sol n comparatie cu cea a plantelor. De cele mai dese ori aprovizionarea cu apa, azot si fosfati a plantelor "infectate" este mbunatatita, iar in continuare micorizarea ofera protectie mpotriva patogenilor radiculari si a creste rezistenta plantelor la seceta, ceea ce poate fi de mare avantaj n special n regiuni cu temperaturi extreme. Moduri de actiune Micoriza formeaza o comunitate utila din ciuperci si plante: unde ciuperca se creste n sau n jurul radacinii plantelor. Ciuperca dezvolta prin miceliul fin sistemul radicular si pune astfel plantelor substante nutritive si apa la dispozitie. Deseori ciupercile micoriziene emit fitohormoni, care si accelereze dezvoltarea radacinilor. In schimb plantele aprovizioneaza ciupercile cu carbohidrati si vitamine. Suprafata radiculara dezvoltata mbunatateste capacitatea de absorbtie de apa si de nutrienti si toleranta de stres la seceta. La speciile de plante cu sistem de peri radiculari bine dezvoltat (de ex. arbustii) si n conditii de sol favorabile aceasta comunitate se regaseste foarte rar. Avantajele plantelor micorizate - Canititati suplimentare de apa si substante nutritive sunt distribuite plantelor. Datorita sistemului de hife al micorizei capacitatea de absorbtie a radacinilor se mareste pna la 1000 de ori. - Economisirea apei si ngrasamintelor (ngrasaminte minerale, n principal, fosfati) poate sa ajunga pna la 50% - Cresterea mai rapida a plantelor nseamna mai multa biomasa, calitate mai buna a plantelor, randamente de productie mai mari si calitate n agricultura, legumiculura, pomicultura si pepinierele de paduri. - Plantele micorizate dezvolta un sistem imunitar puternic datorita alimentatiei optime. Ceea ce nseamna o reactivitate mai buna la boli si daunatori.
- Recolte mai mari si scurtarea perioadei de vegetatie - Reduce socul transplantarii si pierderile. - Mai multe flori si prelungirea perioadei de nflorire. - mbunatatirea gustului. - mbunatatirea producerii de arome. Un aspect important pentru plante condimentare, plante medicinale si plante aromatice. - Factorii de stres, de ex. seceta, lipsa de apa, radiatia solara, deficitul de nutrienti sunt considerabil mai usor de depasit de plantele micorizate. - Crestere mai buna a pepinierelor inculate. - nverzire mai rapida si mai eficienta a suprafetelor de recultivare. - Productie mai rapida si mai eficienta de gazon. - Optimizarea simbiozei dintre plantele leguminoase si Rhizobium si rate mai ridicate n fixarea azotului. - Plante mai sanatoase si mai rezistente mpotriva agentilor patogeni din sol. - Toleranta sporita mpotriva stresului abiotic cauzat de metalele grele si marile concentratii de saruri din sol. - Stabilizare mai buna a agregatelor solului (2-4mm ) datorita efectului glicoproteinei glomalina (extrase de ciupercile micoriziene VA), cu efecte pozitive pe termen lung pentru fertilitatea solului.

Aplicare :

- Mykosoil BT se va aplica in faza de mocirlire, pe fundul gropii, fiind o ciuperca si avand rol in dezvoltarea sistemului radicular al plantei. - Miykosoil CON se va aplica la suprafata solului, dupa ce planta a fost fixata si udata, fiind acoperit cu un strat fin de pamant, astfel incat produsul sa poata primi oxigen. ATENTIE ! ACEST PRODUS TREBUIE FOLOSIT CONFORM INDICATIILOR MAI SUS MENTIONATE, PLASAREA ACESTUIA ALATURI DE MYKOSOIL BT PE FUNDUL GROPII VA DUCE LA PUTREZIREA PLANTEI. MOD DE AMBALARE : Produsele astfel ambalate se aplica la o plantare. MYKOSOIL BT - 50 ML
MYKOSOIL CON - 500 G

mykosoil.ro
http://www.mykosoil.ro/bio-adjuvants.html

http://www.ecomagazin.ro/micorize/
Ing. Cristian Carlan Product Manager GREENBASE SRL e-mail : cc.greenbase@gmail.com Tel.: +40(0)749450888 +40(0)727997900 Domnule Ing. Cristian Carlan, Va transmit lista cu pomii pe care intentionez sa-i plantez, ca urmare a discutiei noastre de astazi, in urma careia mi-ati promis o evaluare a cantitatii si sumei de plata pentru pamantul/ sau ingrasamintul mizorizat de care dispuneti. Observati ca preferintele lor de aciditate difera (Tulipanul, de ex, prefera soluri mai mult acide). As aprecia in mod deosebit un raspuns in timp util. Va multumesc mult

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Nume 1 Arborele de lalea - Liriodendron tulipifera x 3 2 Cei apte fii ai raiului - Heptacodium miconioides x 2 3 Photinia Red Robin x 2 4 Coacz ornamental - Ribes sanguineum Atrorubens x 1 5 Fructifer - Cires salbatic x 2 6 Fructifer - Mar x 2

Ingrasamant bio si mycorrhiza fungi


Formular afisare toate anunturile nisera NOU ! Alternativa BIO la ingrasamintele chimice pentru legumele, fructele si florile tale. Foloseste gama de produse cu mycorrhiza fungi si ingrasamintele din alge marine brune si vei obtine plante viguroase, sanatoase si recolte bogate. Produse 100% BIO. Pentru mai multe detalii sunati la: 0728-056807. Pret: RON 1,00 Contact: Moldovan Septimiu 0728056807 Targu Mures

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MYKOSOIL MICORIZE

Un produs inovativ in domeniul biotehnologiei

Ce este micoriza ? Micoriza este o ciuperca care intra in simbioza cu majoritatea plantelor . Ciupercile si plantele au reusit de multe ori in timpul ciclurilor de dezvoltare ale vietii sa traiasca in simbioza . Gruparea celor mai frecvente simbioze cu micorize : 1 ) Endo Micorize 2) Ecto Micorize

Ce face planta pentru ciuperca ? Alimenteaza ciuperca cu carbohidrati (zahar )

Stanga rosie micorizata nemicorizata

dreapta rosie

Ce face ciuperca ? Stocheaza suplimentar apa si elementele nutritive pentru planta Alimenteaza planta suplimentar cu apa si elemente minerale solubile Protejeaza planta de daunatorii de sol (ex; nematozi ) Disponibilizeaza fosfatii vitali plantelor din fosfati de sol insolubili Plantele micorizate pot cu ajutorul micorizei sa exploreze un volum mai mare de sol pentru aprovizionarea cu substane nutritive i alimentarea cu ap. Capacitatea de absorbie a plantelor crete pn la 10.000 de ori. Totodata crete i masa radicular

Avantajele plantelor micorizate Canititi suplimentare de ap i substane nutritive sunt distribuite plantelor. Datorit sistemului de hife al micorizei capacitatea de absorbie a rdcinilor se mreste pn la 1000 de ori. Economisirea apei i ngrmintelor (ngrminte minerale, n principal, fosfai) poate s ajung pn la 50%. Creterea mai rapid a plantelor nseamn mai multa biomas, calitate mai bun a plantelor, randamente de producie mai mari i calitate n agricultur, legumiculur, pomicultur i pepinierele de pduri. Plantele micorizate dezvolt un sistem imunitar puternic datorit alimentaiei optime. Ceea ce nseamn o reactivitate mai bun la boli i duntori. Recolte mai mari i scurtarea perioadei de vegetaie. Reduce ocul transplantrii i pierderile. Mai multe flori i prelungirea perioadei de nflorire. mbuntirea gustului. mbuntirea producerii de arome. Un aspect important pentru plante condimentare, plante medicinale si plante aromatice. Factorii de stres, de ex. seceta, lipsa de ap, radiaia solar, deficitul de nutrieni sunt considerabil mai uor de depit de plantele micorizate. Cretere mai buna a pepinierelor inculate. nverzire mai rapid i mai eficient a suprafeelor de recultivare. Producie mai rapid si mai eficient de gazon. Optimizarea simbiozei dintre plantele leguminoase i Rhizobium i rate mai ridicate n fixarea azotului.

Plante mai sntoase i mai rezistene mpotriva agenilor patogeni din sol. Toleran sporit mpotriva stresului abiotic cauzat de metalele grele i marile concentraii de sruri din sol. Stabilizare mai bun a agregatelor solului (2-4mm ) datorit efectului glicoproteinei glomalina, cu efecte pozitive pe termen lung pentru fertilitatea solului.

Aplicaii n practic Agricultur i silvicultur Legumicultura i pomicultur Cultivarea plantelor ornamentale Terasament diguri i ramblee Peisagistic Spaii verzi, parcuri Recultivarea minelor de crbuni deschise i a gropilor de gunoi Ecologizari Tehnologii de aplicare Gazon: Sol cat. 1 (soluri bune): Sol cat. 2 (soluri normale): Sol cat. 3 (soluri dificile ): Sol cat. 4 (soluri deertificate): Rsaduri / arbuti: Dimensiune pana la 20 cm: Dimensiune 20 - 40 cm: Dimensiune 40 - 80 cm: Dimensiune 80 - 100 cm: Copaci Dimensiune pana la 50 cm: Dimensiune 50 la 100 cm: Dimensiune 100 - 150 cm: Dimensiune 150 - 200 cm: Dimensiune peste 200 cm: 1 / 2 linguri 1 linguria 1 lingura 2 linguri 2 linguri 4 linguri 5 linguri 6 linguri 1 litru 1 ha = 1 m3 sau 1 m2 = 0,1 l 1 ha = 2 m3 sau 1 m2 = 0,2 l 1 ha = 3 m3 sau 1 m2 = 0,3 l 1 ha = 5 m3 sau 1 m2 = 0,5 l

In figura de sus aveti argila infectata cu micoriza . Pentru a putea manipula mai usor micoriza substratul de argila este infectat cu micoriza astfel fiind mai usoara modalitatea de transport .

Ing. Cristian Carlan Product Manager GREENBASE SRL e-mail : cc.greenbase@gmail.com Tel.: +40(0)749450888 +40(0)727997900