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LTE

4G

. , [13].
Super 3G Long-Term Evolution
(LTE), -
. .

., ...; .; .
, / ( TCP/IP),
- ( IEEE 802.16).
, ..
, , (4G) ( ) . .
WiMAX ( IEEE 802)
"c 3G".
.
WiMAX (IEEE 802.16-2004)
, .

WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e),
, .
3G .
UMTS (WCDMA)
CDMA (cdma200). ,



, , . ,
. , , .
, .
,
.
, , , , .
, GSM CDMA, IEEE 802 (.1).
( )
(Wi-Fi, WiMAX).
. , (3G)
(.2), HSPA
[4]. ,
(QoS) . : , , 1/2009

.1.

62

1,4 20 (
1,25 ), , . LTE
200
(.. 200 ) 5-
. , LTE
, .. , . LTE
50 / ( ) 100 /
( )
( 20 ). ,
350/. 30
,
100. MIMO.
LTE ,

3GPP 3GPP2 [58], 4G. LTE ,
4G, " 3,9G".
LTE . , LTE-Advanced. .

.2.
WCDMA [4]

"" 2008 - 45
UMTS/HSPA. 3G .
" " "
" CDMA20001X EV-DO
450 31 a .
(.3) . , , ,

. 3GPP (3G
Partnership Project) LTE.
LTE
LTE 2004 (.4).
, . : W-CDMA ( HSPA)
OFDM.
OFDM, 2006
3GPP
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). , LTE 3GPP Release 7. 2008
3GPP (Release 8), LTE. 2009
LTE, 2010 .
3G,
LTE . , LTE -

.3. ,
3G

.4. LTE

63

: , , 1/2009

LTE .
1
, .
20 ( 0,5 ),
0 19. (.5).
, .
2 (.6) .
5 . 5 1 .
5 10 . 1- 6- DwPTS, UpPTS GP.
10- TDD 6-
. 0 5,
DwPTS , 2
UpPTS .
. 1. DwPTS, UpPTS GP,
1 .
, LTE OFDM,
DVB, Wi-Fi WiMAX [1]. , OFDM
Sk(t)=aksin[2(f0+kf)],
f.
OFDM- . OFDM-
( ) CP (Cyclic Prefix)
(.7).
.
, ,
. LTE
f = 15 ,
OFDM- 66,7 .

.5. LTE


LTE
LTE : OFDM (Orthogonal
Frequency-Division Multiplexing), MIMO
(Multiple Input Multiple Output) (System Architecture Evolution).
, (FDD), (TDD).

. , . , FDD ,
" "
. FDD , TDD, ( , ..).
() () ( LTE ) [9]. 10 .
LTE Ts=1/(2048f), f , 15 . ,
307200Ts. 30,72 , 3G (WCDMA 5 ) 3,84 (83,84 = 30,72).

.6. LTE

: , , 1/2009

64

1. 2, D , U , S

TDD,

MBSFN-
.
4-, 16 64- - (QPSK, 16-QAM 64-QAM). ,
2, 4 6 .
14000
/, , FDD-, 28 84 / .
20 100 1200
,
33,6 100,8 /.

10

10

10

.7. OFDM-

()
(.8) .
OFDM- . . 12
(.. 180) 7 6 OFDM-, (.2) ,
0,5 . NRB 6 110 (
/ LTE 1,4 20 ).
,
.
.
4,7 , 1,4
, .
. ,
120 .

(MBMS), -. ( )
, 7,5 33,4 .
OFDM-. MBSFN ( ).

.8. LTE f = 15
2. f = 15

Ts

160

5,2

144

4,7

512

16,7

, OFDM

65

: , , 1/2009

ell-specific-
( MBSFN-). (
m-), (Cell ID).
(.9). , 0- 4- OFDM-, 0- 3- OFDM-.
, , 6.
, .
Cell ID. LTE ,
WCDMA. ,
504 ell ID.
168 ID-, 3 .
N1 (0167) N2 (02) ID .
. 62-
, - N2. 62 ,
, 1 OFDM- 0 10 ( 0 5). 2 OFDM- 1 6.
ID- N1. 0 10 -

3.
,

1,4

10

15

20

15

25

50

75

100

72

180

300

600

900

1200

128

256

512

1024

1536

2048

1,92

3,84

7,68

15,36

23,04

30,72

LTE

( E-UTRA) (.3.). OFDM
(),
N = 2n (.. 128,
256, ..., 2048).
Fs = fN. 3,84 WCDMA. , WCDMA, LTE. , ""
( ) .


OFDM . , (OFDMA) .. .
. ,

. .
, LTE ,
.

. , (Cell-specific), ,
,

MBSFN. (
). .
: , , 1/2009

.9. (ell-specific)
LTE

66

1 ( OFDM- )
1 11 2 ( OFDM-
).

(.10). , ,
, OFDM-. (CRC-24)
, -.
1/3. LTE
, -. () (
{x(i)} dscr(i) = x(i) + c(i), c(i)
).
(QPSK,
16- 64-QAM) .
OFDM-, , - .
.

.10.

).

, , .
LTE SC-FDMA (Single-Carrier FrequencyDivision Multiple Access).
OFDMA , SC-FDMA
, . OFDMA
, SC-FDMA .
OFDM,
(
).
SC-FDMA- OFDM. , f.
, ..
(.11).
. ,
, 12
f=15 ( 180 ) 0,5
. 7SC-FDMA- 6 . SC-FDMA- ( )


OFDM
, .
, ,
.

, .
,
.
OFDM (PAR). , OFDM-
,
PAR. , OFDM,
, . ,


(.. 67

: , , 1/2009

OFDMA- SC-FDMA- (. .10 12).


, ( , .. ), (FH).

.

,
. (.13),
- .
, ,

.
, .
.
, ,
.
. ,
, .
"" (sounding).
. . ,

SC-FDMA-
. . , .

.11. OFDMA SC-FDMA


QPSK-

FDMA- 66,7
(
). 6 110 ,
2; 3 5,
-.
64-QAM .

.

.
OFDMA
(QPSK, 16- 64-QAM) OFDM- (15 , 66,7 ), SC-OFDMA
. (
). SC-FDMA ,
OFDMA, -.
SC-FDMA- OFDMA. ,
SC-FDMA (.12). ,
15
N , N . , ( < N),
- - (), .. .
N-
- , , -.
: , , 1/2009

.12.
SC-FDMA

68

Channel PDSCH); (Physical Downlink Control


Channel PDCCH); (Physical Multicast
Channel PMCH); (Physical Broadcast
Channel PBCH); (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel PCFICH)
(HARQ) Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH).
. PDCCH ,
. PCFICH, , OFDM-, PDCCH. PHICH
.
. ( ) , 40 .
.

.13. SC-FDMA


. , .
(PUSCH), (PUCCH) (PURCH).
.
, ,
(ACK/NACK) (
). .
.
PUCCH (.14), m.

, ,
.. (
), . -
, 64
. , ,
( ) . , .
. (Physical Downlink Shared


,
LTE (MIMO).

.14.
PUCCH

69

: , , 1/2009

.15. SAE [10]

, MIMO LTE . MIMO-, 1, 2


4 .
MIMO- . ,
. . - (SU-MIMO)
(MU-MIMO). .
,
. MU-MIMO - ( ).
, (..
). , ,
MU-MIMO - .
,

.
. , .
: , , 1/2009

MU-MIMO. , ,
- ,
.

. . LTE . .
( , , ),
. ,
.
,
(, IP-TV), , ,
. LTE .
LTE
70

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ).


LTE , ( 8) HARQ-. (), HARQ-, , /
(ACK/NACK).
NACK . ( - ) ,
,
. ,
ACK, . .
,
,
, . LTE
( 4 9), , , TDD .


(Evolved Packet Core) .
- . , 3GPP-
( )
. , MME UPE
.
SAE , ,
( 2). ,
.
,
IP-.
,
SAE mesh-.
3GPP Release 8 , .
, , ,
Wi-Fi , -

SAE
LTE 3GPP (SAE System Architecture Evolution).
SAE IP

,
3GPP (GSM, UMTS,
WCDMA ..) (.15) [10].
SAE
(evolved NodeB, eNodeB) (Access Gateway, AGW).
LTE/SAE, .
SAE :
(Mobility Management
Entity, MME) ,
;
(User Plane Entity, UPE) , , ;
3GPP- 2G/3G LTE;
SAE- ,
3GPP,
(I-WLAN ..).
71

: , , 1/2009

. SAE , .
SAE, ,
, VoIP
. ,
10 (5
IP- ). ,
, 50% 3G.

; ;
OFDMA S-FDMA ,
(MIMO).
,
LTE,
. , , , .
LTE , , .
. LTE .
3GPP,
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp. !

LTE
3GPP
Release8, , LTE. ,
2007 Ericsson
LTE 144/.
2007 NTT Docomo LTE 200 / 100 . 2008 LG
Nortel
LTE 50 / 110/. 18 2008
T-Mobile Nortel Networks
170/
50 / . 67 /
.
LTE
3GPP Release 10 (LTE
Advanced). , LTE Advanced
[11]. ,
(4G):

1 /, 500/
(
, LTE);
70,
40 ;

30 /c/,
15 /c/ ( , LTE);
LTE 3GPP .

( 100 ),
: , , 1/2009

1. .., .., ..,


..
. .: ,
2005.
2. . . UMTS. .: , 2007.
3. J.G.Andrews, A.Ghosh, R.Muhamed.
Fundamentals of WiMAX. Prentice Hall, 2008.
4. Long Term Evolution (LTE): an introduction. White
Paper. Ericsson, October 2007.
5. Jim Zyren. Overview of the 3GPP Long Term
Evolution Physical Layer. White Paper.
www.freescale.com/
6. Moray Rumney. 3GPP LTE: Introducing SingleCarrier FDMA. Agilent Measurement Journal,
2008, 4, p. 1827.
7. ., ., .. LTE . ,
2008, 9.
8. Tomislav Blaich. Evolution of radio access network
in 3G mobile systems. Revija 19.2006.2 p. 5468
9. GPP TS 36.211. Physical Channels and
Modulation (Release 8). 3GPP, 12.2008.
10. 3GPP TR 23.882. 3GPP System Architecture
Evolution: Report on Technical Options and
Conclusions (Release 8). 3GPP, 09.2008.
11. 3GPP TR 36.913 V8.0.0. Requirements for Further
Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced), Release
8. 3GPP, 06.2008.
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