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Concept-Development Practice Page


Light

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1. The Danish astronomer Olaus Roemer made careful measurements of the period of a moon about the planet Jupiter. How this data enabled a calculation of the speed of light is described in your textbook on pages 534 and 535. a. What is the diameter, in kilometers, of Earths orbit around the sun? 300,000,000 km b. How much time is required for light to travel across the diameter of the orbit? 1000 s c. How do these two quantities determine the speed of light? Speed = distance/time = (300,000,000 km)/(1000 s) = 300,000 km/s 2. Study Figure 27.4 on page 536 in your textbook and answer the following: a. Which have longer wavelengths, radio waves or light waves? Radio waves b. Which have longer wavelengths, light waves or gamma rays? Light waves c. Which have higher frequencies, ultraviolet or infrared waves? Ultraviolet waves Pearson Education, Inc., or its afliate(s). All rights reserved. d. Which have higher frequencies, ultraviolet waves or gamma rays? Gamma rays 3. Carefully study Section 27.4 in your textbook and answer the following: a. Exactly what do vibrating electrons emit? Energy that is carried in an electromagnetic wave b. When ultraviolet light shines on glass, what does it do to electrons in the glass structure? Ultraviolet light causes electrons to vibrate in resonance with the ultraviolet light. c. When energetic electrons in the glass structure vibrate against neighboring atoms, what happens to the energy of vibration? The energy of vibration becomes heat. d. What happens to the energy of a vibrating electron that does not collide with neighboring atoms? The energy is emitted as light.

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e. Which range of light frequencies, visible or ultraviolet, is absorbed in glass? Ultraviolet f. Which range of light frequencies, visible or ultraviolet, is transmitted through glass? Visible g. How is the speed of light in glass affected by the succession of time delays that accompany the absorption and re-emission of light from atom to atom in the glass? The average speed of light is less in glass than in air. h. How does the speed of light compare in water, glass, and diamond? The speed of light is 0.75c in water, 0.67c in glass, and 0.41c in a diamond. 4. The sun normally shines on both Earth and the moon. Both cast shadows. Sometimes the moons shadow falls on Earth and, at other times, Earths shadow falls on the moon. a. The sketch shows the sun and Earth. Draw the moon at a position for a solar eclipse.

b. This sketch also shows the sun and Earth. Draw the moon at a position for a lunar eclipse.

In a solar eclipse, the moons shadow falls on Earth. In a lunar eclipse, Earths shadow falls on the moon. 5. The diagram shows the limits of light rays when a large lamp makes a shadow of a small object on a screen. Shade the umbra darker than the penumbra. In what part of the shadow could an ant see part of the lamp? Penumbra

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Polarization
The amplitude of a light wave has magnitude and direction and can be represented by a vector. Polarized light vibrates in a single direction and is represented by a single vector. To the left, the single vector represents vertically polarized light. The vibrations of non-polarized light are equal in all directions. There are as many vertical components as horizontal components. The pair of perpendicular vectors to the right represents non-polarized light.

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1. In the sketch below, non-polarized light from a ashlight strikes a pair of polarizing lters.

a. Light is transmitted by a pair of polarizing lters when their axes are (aligned) (crossed at right angles) and light is blocked when their axes are (aligned) (crossed at right angles). b. Transmitted light is polarized in a direction (the same as) (different than) the polarization axis of the lter. 2. Consider the transmission of light through a pair of polarizing lters with polarization axes at 45 to each other. Although in practice the polarizing lters are one atop the other, we show them spread out side by side below. From left to right: (a) Non-polarized light is represented by its horizontal and vertical components. (b) These components strike lter A. (c) The vertical component is transmitted, and (d) falls upon lter B. This vertical component is not aligned with the polarization axis of lter B, but it has a component that is component t; (e) which is transmitted.

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a. The amount of light that gets through Filter B, compared to the amount that gets through Filter A is (more) (less) (the same).

b. The component perpendicular to t that falls on Filter B is (also transmitted) (absorbed).

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3. Below are a pair of polarizing lters with polarization axes at 30 to each other. Carefully draw vectors and appropriate components (as in Question 2) to show the vector that emerges at (e).

The amount of light that gets through the polarizing lters at 30 compared to the amount that gets though the 45 polarizing lters is (less) (more) (the same). 4. Figure 27.17 in your textbook shows the smile of Ludmila Hewitt emerging through three polarizing lters. Use vector diagrams to complete steps (b) through (g) below to show how light gets through the three-polarizing lter system.

The occupants can see outside views normally out their windows, but if the side windows are polarized with axes at 90 degrees to each other, then from inside their homes, they cannot see through the side windows of their neighbors.

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5. A novel use of polarization is shown below. How do the polarized side windows in these next-toeach-other houses provide privacy for the occupants? (Who can see what?)

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