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A Project Report on

Design and Fabrication of Domestic Refrigeration Unit


Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of BACHLER OF TECHNOLOGY
Degree

In Mechanical Engineering

By
Anand Mishra Anshul Verma Saurabh Singh Shashank Verma Shreshtha Tuli 0714740004 0714740007 0714740044 0714740045 0714740047

Name of Guide

Mr. Vaibhav Trivedi Asst. Professor Mechanical Department


Name of Guide

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, IFTM CAMPUS, MORADABAD May 2011


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Certificate

Certified that Anand Mishra, Anshul Verma, Saurabh Singh, Shashank Verma & Shreshtha Tuli have carried out the research work presented in this Project Report entitled Design and Fabrication of Domestic Refrigeration Unit for the award of Bachelor of Technology from College Of Engineering & Technology, IFTM campus, Moradabad under my supervision. The Project Report embodies result of original work and studies carried out by Students themselves and the contents of the Project Report do not form the basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else.

Mr. Vaibhav Trivedi Asst. Professor Mechanical Department

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ABSTRACT
The object of the project is to design, fabricate and assemble an economically priced '' domestic refrigeration unit'' having, aesthetic look efficient and small in size. This unit is unique in the sense that it body is in the form of a bucket which works as an evaporator and easy in transport from one place to another place. This unit can be utilized in a heavy duty manufacturing shop consist 25 to 35 workers as a sources cold water and to store eatables things. The basic idea behind refrigeration is to slow down the activity of bacteria (which all food contains) so that it takes longer for the bacteria to spoil the food. There are five basic parts of our refrigeration unit

Compressor Heat- exchanging pipes- serpentine or coiled set of pipes outside the unit. Expansion valve Heat- exchanging pipes- serpentine or coiled set of pipes inside the unit Refrigerant pipes- liquid that evaporates inside the refrigerator to create the cold temperatures

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to take this opportunity to express our gratitude to our guide Mr. Vaibhav Trivrdi for his consistent super vision, valuable guidance and encouraging attitude during the preparation of this project We are also highly indebted to all the faculty members for providing a very congenial atmosphere to avail each and every opportunity. At last but not least we want to thanks our parents and friends for helping us and giving valuables suggestion and moral support.

Submitted By: Anand Mishra Anshul Verma Saurabh Singh Shashank Verma Shreshtha Tuli

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

Page No.

Abstract Acknowledgement Table of content List of Figures 1. Introduction to refrigeration unit Introduction Refrigeration cycle Pressure- enthalpy chart 2. Refrigeration history 3. Components of refrigeration unit Refrigerant Compressor Condenser Evaporator
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iii iv v vii 1-15 2 4 8 9-14 15-38 18 22 25 30

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Expansion devices

35

4. Specification & Tools required 5. Mathematical Analysis Outside geometry Cooling load estimation Mass of refrigerant for compressor Coefficient of performance

39-41 42-47 43 43 45 47 48-56 57-59 58 58 59 60-66 67-68 69-70

6. Fabrication of Refrigeration unit 7. Controls of Refrigeration Unit Starting relay Over load protector Thermostat 8. Future potential 9. Conclusion 10. Bibliography

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LIST OF FIGURES
S. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

FIGURE NAME
Refrigeration Cycle Vapor Compression Cycle P-h Diagram Component of Refrigerator Compressor Condenser P-h Diagram of simple refrigeration system Evaporator Expansion Valve 4 6 8 17 23 25 27 31 36

PAGE NO.

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Introduction to Refrigeration Unit

INTRODUCTION
The health, welfare, comfort and productivity of nations are interwoven with new development in both the refrigeration and air- conditioning fields. Refrigeration is essential for the preservation of foods, the production and safe storage of medicines and numerous other application. Through refrigeration, better
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controls of industrial processes are possible. Dimensional accuracy is improved, new materials may be developed and processed and other production processes may be increased. Refrigeration is need to produce correct climatic conditions for domestic as well as certain manufacturing processes. For example, cool cutting fluid helps in machining operations by lowering the temperature of the work piece to prevent overheating. Quenching baths for heat treating operations may be controlled through refrigeration process. In the pharmaceutical field, refrigerating units are used to store, process and test many chemical and biological materials. Refrigeration as a quick cooling process, speeds production, cuts moisture losses in foods and other engaged in the preparation, marketing and purchasing of foods, all depend on refrigeration, Important studies of exact nature of electron movement slow down to a point where it may be deserved has also wide application in submarine ships, aircraft and rockets. Component design is another important area. There is scope for improving all aspects, including developing more efficient condensers and evaporators. Expansion valves motor drives and fan controls. Energy savings can also be achieved by improved management, e.g. related to: Control systems.

Air purge cycles.


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Defrost cycles. Maintenance. Investment and management costs differ for the various options available. Investing in improved design will lead to decreasing costs. The installation of super heat pumps, however, may need large investment. In the general, the investment costs for new refrigeration systems are considered to be comparable with, or lower than, currently installed system, if system design analysis is applied. Costs are estimated to be slightly lower than for conventional refrigeration systems.

Units of Refrigeration
The practical unit of refrigeration's is expressed in terms of ' tone of refrigeration' (briefly written as TR). A tone of refrigeration is defined as the amount of refrigeration effect produced by the uniform melting of one tone (1000 kg) of ice from at 0o C in 24 hours. Since the heat of ice is 335 kj/kg, therefore one tone of refrigeration,

ITR = 1000335 kj in 24 hours = 1000335 = 232.6 kj/ min 2460


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In actual practice, one tone of refrigeration is taken as equivalent to 210 kj/ min or 3.5kW(i.e.3.5. kj/s)

REFRIGERATION CYCLE

Fig. :- Refgeration Cycle

The term ' refrigeration' may be defined as the process of removing heat from a substance under controlled conditions. It also include the process of reducing and maintaining the temperature of a body below the general
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temperature

of its

surrounding. In other words, the refrigeration

means a

continued extraction of heat from a body whose temperature is already below the temperature of its surroundings. Theoretically, a refrigerator is a reversed heat engine or a heat pump which pumps heat from a cold body and delivers it to hot body. This substance , which works in heat pump to extract heat from a cold body and to deliver it to a hot body, is, called a refrigerant. As scientists, technicians and crafts person experiment at still lower and temperatures, approximately (-273oC), the new science of cryogenics

(refrigerants) will reveal materials in a state that is a neither a solid, liquid nor a gas. System design can be improved by the use of new components, e.g. the development of super heat pumps with high COPs of greater them seven. Another major trend is the drive to reduce the amount of refrigerant used and to develop new working fluids. Traditionally, the most common working fluids for

compression heat pumps have been ammonia and CFCs, but energy saving of 220% have been reported when using alternative working fluids such as halogen refrigerant mixtures , and natural refrigerants such as air and CO2. Systems that use compact and cost-effective components have reported 20% higher coefficient of performance values than conventional CFC systems.
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Absorption refrigeration offers considerable scope for energy saving when driven by waste heat. When configured correctly in conjunction with CHP, it can actually increase the viability ( and also viable size) of CHP plant, by providing a productive use for the heat, especially during summer periods. Despite these benefits, in practice only heating capacity is discussed in the relevant literature.

Fig. :- Vapour Compression Cycle

A cooper compression refrigeration system is an improved types of air refrigeration system in which a suitable working substance , termed as termed as refrigerant , is used. It condenser and evaporates at temperatur.es and pressure close to the atmospheric conditions. The refrigerants usually used for this purpose

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are ammonia (NH3) carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). There refrigerant used, doesn't leave the system, but is circulated throughout the system alternately condensing and evaporating, the refrigerant absorbed its latent heat from the brine (salt water) which is used for circulating it around the cold

chamber, While condensing, it gives out its latent heat to the circulating water of the cooler.

Advantages and disadvantages of Vapour compression


Refrigeration System Over Air Refrigeration System

Advantages:
It has smaller size for given capacity of refrigeration

It has less running cost If can be employed over a large to temperatures. The coefficient of performance is quite high.

Disadvantages:
The initial cost is high The prevention of leakage of the major problem in vapour compression system. Mechanism of a simple vapor compression Refrigeration system

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PressureEnthalpy (p-h) Chart


The actual vapor compression cycle differ from the theoretical vapor compression cycle in many ways, some of which are unavoidable and cause losses. The main deviations between the theoretical cycle and actual cycle are as follows: 1. The vapour fefigerant leaving the evaporator is an superheated state. 2. The compression of refrigeration is neither isentropic nor polytropic. 3. The liquid refrigerant before entering the expansion valve is sub- cooled in the condenser.The pressure drops in the evaporator and condenser.

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Fig. :- p-h diagram

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Refrigeration History

REFRIGERATION HISTORY
In prehistoric times, man found that his game would last during times when food was not available if stored in the coolness of a cave or packed in now. In China before the first millennium, ice was harvested and stored.

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Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans placed large amounts of snow in to storage pits dug in to the ground and insulated with wood and straw. The ancient Egyptians filled earthen jars with boiled water and put them on their roofs, thus exposing the jarsm to night's cool air. In India , evaporative cooling was employed. When a liquid vaporizes rapidly, It expands quickly. The rising molecules of vapor abruptly increase their kinetic energy and this increase is drown from the immediate surroundings of the vapor. These surroundings are therefore cooled. The intermediate stage in the history of cooling foods was to add chemicals like sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to water causing the temperature to fall. Cooling wine via this method was recorded in 1550, as were the words'' to refrigerate" The first known artificial refrigeration. Was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748. Cullen let ethyl ether boil in to a partial vacuum; he did not, however, use the result to any practical purpose. Ice was first shipped commercially out of canal street in New York city to Charleston, South Carolina in 1799. Unfortunately, there was not much ice left when the shipment arrived.. New Englanders Frederick Tudor and Natthaniel Wyeth saw the potential for the ice business and revolutionized the industry through their efforts in the first half of the 1800s. Tudor who became known as the "Ice King", focused on shipping ice to tropical climates. He experimented with
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insulating materials and built icehouses that decreased melting losses from 66 percent to less than 8 percent. With devised a method of quickly and cheaply cutting uniform blocks of ice that transformed the ice industry, making it possible to speed handling techniques in storage, transportation and distribution with less waste. In 1805, an American inventor, Oliver Evans, designed the first refrigeration machine that used vapour instead of liquid. Evans never constructed his machine, but one similar to it was built by an American physician, John Gorrie. In 1842, the American physician John Gorrie, to cool sickrooms in a

Florida hospital, designed and built an air- cooling apparatus for treating yellowfever patients. His basic principle- that of compressing a gas, cooling it by sending it through radiating coils, and then expanding it to lower the temperature further is the one most often used in refrigerators today. Giving up his medical practice to engage in time- consuming experimentation with ice making, he was granted the first U.S. patent for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. Commercial refrigeration is believed to have been initiated by an American businessperson, Alexander C. Twinning, in 1856. Shortly afterward an Australian James Harrison, examined the refrigerators used by Gorrie and twinning and introduced vapor- compression refrigeration to the brewing and meatpacking industries.
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Ferdinand carre of Frane developed a somewhat more complex system in 1859. Unlike eatlier compression- compression machine, which used air as a coolan, carre's equipment contained rapidly expanding ammonia. Ammonia liquefies at a much lower temperature than water and is thus able to absorb more heat.) Carr;s refrigerators were widely used, and vapor compression refrigeration became, and still is, the most widely used method of cooling. However, the cost, size and complexity of refrigeration systems of the time, coupled with the toxicity of their ammonia coolants, prevented the general use of mechanical refrigerators in the home. The refrigerated railroad car was patented by K.B. Sutherland of Detorit, Michigan in 1867. He designed an insulated car with ice bunkers in each end. Air came in on the top, passed through the bunkers, and circulated through the car by gravity, controlled by the use of hanging flaps that created differences in air temperature. The first refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was built in 1867 by parker Earle of Illinois, who shipped strawberries on the Illinois Central Railboard. Each chest contained 100 pounds of ice and 200 quarts of strawnerries. It was not until 1949 that a refrigeration system made its way in to the trucking industry by way of a roof- mounted cooling device, patented by Fred Jones. Natural ice supply became an industry unto itself. More companies entered the business, prices decreased, and refrigeration using ice became more
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accessible. By 1879, there were 35 commercial ice plants in America, more than 200 a decade later and 2,000 by 1909. No pond was safe from scraping for ice production, not even Thoreau's Walden pond, where 1,000 tons of ice was extracted each day in 1847. Car ( Paul Gottfried) von linde in 1895 set up a large- scale plant for the production of liquid air, six years later he developed a method for scaparating pure liquid oxygen from liquid air. that resulted in widespread industrial conversion to processes utilizing oxygen (e.g., in steel manufacture). Though meat- packers were slower to adopt refrigeration than the breweries, they ultimately used refrigeration pervasively. By 1914, the machinery installed in almost All- American packing plants was the ammonia compression system, which had a refrigeration capacity of well over 90,000 tons/ day. In 1973, Prof. James Love lock reported finding trace amounts of refrigerant gases in the atmosphere. In 1974, sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina predicted that chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant gases would reach the high stratosphere and there damage the protective mantle of the oxygen allotrope, ozone. In 1985 the ' ozone hole' over the Antractic had been discovered and by 1990 Rowland and Molina's prediction was proved correct. The basic components of today's modern vaor- compression refrigeration system are a compressor; a condenser; an expansion device, which can be a valve,
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a capillary tube an engine, or a turbine; and an evaporator. The gas coolantis first compressed, usually by a piston, and then pushed through a tube in to the condenser. In the condenser, the winding tube conttaining the vapor is passed through either circcculating air or a bath bath of water , which removes some of them heat energy of the compressed gas. The cooled vapor is passed through an expansion device to an area of much lower pressure; as the vapor expands, it draws the energy f its expansion from its surroundings or the medium in contact with it. Evaporators may directly cool a space by letting the vapor come in to contact with the area to be chilled, or they may act indirectlyi.e. by cooling a secondary medium such as water. In most domestic refrigerators,, the coil containing the evaporator directly contacts the air in the compartment. At the end of the end of the process, the warmed gas is drqwn toward the compressor.

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Components of Refrigeration Unit

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COMPONENTS OF A REFGREGERATION UNIT The basic idea behind a refrigerator is very simple : It uses the evaporation of a liquid to absorb heat. You probably know that when you put water on your skin it makes you feel cool. As the water evaporates, it absorbs heat, creating that cool feeling. Rubbing alcohol feels even cooler because it evaporates at a lower temperature. The liquid, or refrigerant, used in a refrigerator evaporates at an extremely low temperature, so it can create freezing temperatures inside the refrigerator. If you place your refrigerator refrigerant on your skin (not a good idea), it will freeze your skin as it evaporates. There are five basic parts of any refrigerator (or air-conditioning system) : Compressor Heat-Exchange Pipes Serpentine or coiled set of pipes outside the unit. Expansion Valve Heat-exchange pipes- Serpentine or coiled set of pipes inside the unit Refrigerant - Liquid that evaporates inside the refrigerator to create the cold temperatures.

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Fig. : Components of Refrigerator

Many industrial installations use pure ammonia as the refrigerant. Pure ammonia evaporates at 27 degrees Fahrenheit (-32 degree Celsius). The basic mechanism of a refrigerator works like this : 1. The compressor compresses the refrigerant gas. This raises the refrigerant's pressure and temperature (orange), so the heat-exchanging coils outside the refrigerator allow that refrigerant to dissipate the heat of pressurization. 2. As it cools, the refrigerant condenses into liquid form (purple) and flows through the expansion valve. 3. When it flows through expansion valve, the liquid refrigerant is allowed to move from a high-pressure zone to a low-pressure zone, so it expands and evaporates (light blue). In evaporating, it absorbs heat, making it cold.

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4. The coils inside the refrigerator allow that refrigerant to absorb heat, making the inside of the refrigerator cold. The cycle then repeats. This is a fairly standard-and somewhat unsatisfying- explanation of how a refrigerator works. So let's look at refrigeration using several real-world examples to understand what is truly happening.

REFRIGERANT
The refrigerant is a heat carrying medium which during their cycle in the refrigerant system absorb heat from a low temperature system and discard the heat so absorbed to a higher temperature system. The natural ice and a mixture of ice and salt were the first refrigerants. In 1834, either, ammonia, sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride and carbon dioxide came into use as refrigerant in compression cycle refrigerant machines. Most of the early refrigerant materials have been discarded for safety reasons or for lack of chemicals or thermal stability. In the present days, many new refrigerant including halo-carbon compounds are used for air conditioning and refrigeration applications. The suitability of a refrigerant for a certain application is determined by its physical, thermodynamic, chemical properties and by various practical factors.
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There is no one refrigerant which can be used for all types of applications. If one refrigerant has certain good advantages, it will have some disadvantages also, Hence, a refrigerant is chosen which has greater advantages and less disadvantages. DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL REFRIGERANT We have discussed above that there is on ideal refrigerant. A refrigerant is said to be ideal if it has all of the followings properties : 1. Low boiling point. 2. High critical temperature. 3. High latent heat of vaporization. 4. Low specific volume of vapour. 5. Low specific volume of vapour. 6. Non-corrosive to metal. 7. Non-flammable and non-explosive 8. Non-toxic. 9. Low cost. 10.Easy to liquefy at moderate at pressure and temperature. 11.Easy of locating leaks by odder or suitable indicator. 12.Mixes well with oil.

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The standard comparison of refrigerant, as used in the refrigeration industry, is based on an evaporating temperature of 150C and a condensing temperature of +300C.

CLASSIFICATION OF REFRIGERANTS The refrigerant may, broadly, be classified into the following two groups: 1. Primary refrigerants and 2. Secondary refrigerants. The refrigerant which directly take part in the refrigerant system are called primary refrigerants whereas the refrigerants which are first cooled by primary refrigerants and then used for cooling purpose, are known as secondary refrigerants. The primary refrigerant are further classified into the following four groups : 1. Halo-carbon refrigerant. 2. Azeotrope refrigerants. 3. Inorganic refrigerants. 4. Hydro-carbon refrigerants.

R-12, DICHLORODIFLOUROMETHANE (CCL2F2)

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The R-12 is a very popular refrigerant. It is colorless, almost odorless liquid with boiling point of 290C at atmospheric pressure. It is non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-irritating and non-flammable. It has a relatively low latent value which is an advantage in small refrigerating machines. The large amount of refrigerant circulated will permit the use of less sensitive and more positive operating and regulating mechanisms. It operates at a low but positive head and back pressure and with a good volumetric efficiency. This refrigerant is used in many different types of indu trial and commercial applications such as refrigerators, freezers, water coolers, room and window air conditioning units etc. Its principal use is found in reciprocating and rotary compressors, but it use in centrifugal compressors for large commercial air conditioning is increasing. R-12 has a pressure of 0.82 bar at-150C and a pressure of 6.4 bar at 300C. The latent heat of R-12 at 150C is Kj/Kg. The leak may be detected by soap solution, halide torch or an electronic leak detector. Water is only slightly soluble in R-12. At-180C, it will hold six parts per million by mass. The solution formed is very slightly corrosive to any of the common metals used in refrigerator construction. The addition of mineral oil to the refrigerant has no effect has no effect upon the corrosive action. R-12 is more critical as to its moisture content when compared to R-22 and R-502. It is soluble in oil down to-600C. The oil will begin to separate at this
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temperature and due to its lightness than the refrigerant, it will collect on the surface of the liquid refrigerant. The refrigerant is available in a variety of cylinder sizes and the cylinder colour code is white.

COMPRESSORS
As any experienced cruiser knows, many refrigeration systems seem to spend more time being repaired than they do cooling the bear. While there can be many causes for a system to break down, one of the most common is compressor failure. In fact, it is not uncommon for some full-time live aboard vessels to need annual, or even bi annual compressor replacements. Interestingly enough, the frustrated owners of these boats rarely realize than the source of their problem likely stems from the type of compressor they are using. A holding plate type refrigeration/freezer system is quite hard on it's compressor. Unlike a constant "evaporator temperature", the evaporator coil temperature inside a holding plate varies considerably during each "freeze-down" cycle. To achieve the lowest temperatures (at the end of each cycle) the low
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pressure side of the compressor frequently pulls down to only slight positive pressure and in some systems even a vacuum. Aside from a few industrial cooling systems, marine holding plate applications are about the only time this occurs. That fact that this unique conditions exists only in marine refrigeration system is signification since all marine refrigeration manufacturers use compressors which were designed for more traditional uses. Since it is impractical for any marine manufacturer to design and build their own compressors due to the relatively small market, the question is which existing type is best suited for this application.

Fig. : Compressor

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There are currently three types of compressors which are used in refrigeration. These are : REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR TYPES Must be able to describe the function and types of compressors in refrigeration systems. Compression Ratio Heat of compression. Capacity controls on compressors. Understand the difference in booster compressor and high stage. Know the various operating limits of different compressors. Dynamic displacement compressor. Positive displacement compressor. Hermetically sealed compressor. Semi-hermetic compressor. Swash Plate. While all of these compressors offer excellent performance when used in the cooling environments for which they were designed, some are not equally suited for reliable application in a marine holding plate system. SWASH PLATE

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The swash plate compressor has several points to recommend it. Because it is so widely used in cars it is relatively inexpensive and readily available. It is also compact and operates safely over a wide R.P.M. range. However, it is also at the top of the "No-no list" for marine holding plate use. These units are designed for automotive air conditioning systems and are primarily seen in engine-driven marine applications. The manufacturers of these compressors are Sanden (i.e. Sankyo/Sanden) and Diesel Kiki. They may have anywhere from three to seven pistons and cylinders arranged in a circle. The pistons are connected to a "swash plate" which wobbles when the compressor shaft is rotated. This "wobble" action in turn moves the pistons up and down in sequence. Many "home built" refrigeration systems use swash plate compressors as well as number of wellknown manufactures including Sea Frost (C.F. Horton Co.), Grunert and Terchnautics.

Condenser
The condenser is an important device used in the high-pressure side of a refrigeration system. Its function is to remove heat of the hot vapour refrigerant discharged from the compressor. The hot vapour refrigerant consists of the heat absorbed by the evaporator and the heat of compression added by the mechanical energy of the compressor motor. The heat from the hot vapour refirgerant in a

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tubes to the condensing or cooling medium. The cooling medium may be air or water or a combination of the two. The selection of condenser depends upon the capacity of the refrigerating system, the type of refrigerant used and the type of cooling medium available.

Fig. : Condenser

Working of A Condenser The working of a condenser may be understood by considering a simple refrigerating system as shown in fig. 10.1 (a) The corresponding p-h diagram showing three stages of a refrigerant cooling is shown in fig.
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(b) The compressor draws in the suppurated vapour refrigerant that contains the heat it absorbed in the evaporator. The compressor adds more heat i.e. the heat of compression to the superheated vapour. This highly superheated vapour from the compressor is pumped to the condenser through the discharge line. The condenser cools that refrigerant in the following three stages :1. First of all, the superheated vapour is cooled to saturation temperature (called desuperheating) corresponding to the pressure of the refrigerant. This is shown by the line 2-3 in fig. 10.1 (b). The desuperheating occurs in the discharge line and in the firs few coils of the condenser. 2. Now the saturated vapour refrigerant gives up its latent heat and is condensed to a saturated liquid refrigerant., This process, called condensation, is shown by the line 3-4. 3. The temperature of the liquid refrigerant is reduced below its saturation temperature (i.e. sub-cooled) in order to increase the refrigeration effect. This process is shown by the line 4-5.

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Fig. : p-h Diagram of simple refrigeration system

Factors Affecting the Condenser Capacity The condenser capacity is the ability of the condenser to transfer heat from the hot vapour refrigerant to the condensing medium. The heat transfer capacity of a condenser depends upon the following factors : 1. Material since the different materials have different abilities of heat transfer, therefore the size of a condenser of a given capacity can be varied by selecting the right material. It may be noted that higher the ability of a material to transfer heat, the smaller will be the size of condenser.
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2. Amount of contact the condenser capacity may be varied by controlling the amount of contact between the condenser surface and the condensing medium. This can be done by varying the surface area of the condenser and the rate of flow of the condensing medium over the condenser surface. The amount of liquid refrigerant level in the condenser also affects the amount of contact between the vapour refrigerant and the condensing medium. The portion if the condenser used for liquid sub-cooling can not condense any vapour refrigerant. 3. Temperature difference the heat transfer capacity of a condenser greatly depends upon the temperature difference between the condensing medium and the vapour refrigerant. As the temperature difference increase, the heat transfer rate increases and therefore the condenser capacity increases. Generally, this temperature difference becomes so great that it becomes a problem, devices are available that will change the amount of condensing surface and the air flow rate to control condenser capacity. Classification of Condensers According to the condensing medium used, the condensers are classified into the following three group : 1. Air cooled condensers, 2. Water cooled condensers, and
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3. Evaporative condensers. These condensers are discussed, in detail, in the following pages. Air Cooled Condensers An air-cooled condenser is one, which the removal of heat is done by air. If consists of steel of copper tubing through which the refrigerant flows. The size of tube usually ranges from 6mm to 18mm out side diameter, depending upon the size of condenser. Generally copper tubes are used because of its excellent heat transfer ability. The condensers with steel tubes are used in ammonia refrigerating systems. The tubes are usually provided with plate type fins to increase the surface area for heat transfer, as shown in fig. The fins are usually made from aluminum because of its lightweight. The fin spacing is quite wide to reduce dust clogging. The condenser with single row of tubing provides the most efficient heat transfer. This is because the air temperature rises at it passes through each row of tube. The temperature difference between the air and the vapour refrigerant devereases in each row of tube and therefore each row becomes less effective. However, single row condensers require space more than multi condensers. The single row condensers are usually used in small capacity refrigeration system such as demestic refrigerators, freezers, water cooler and room air conditioners. The air cooled condensers may have two or more rows of tubing, but the condensers with upto six rows common. Some condensers have seven or eight
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rows. However more than eight rows of tubing are usually not efficient. This is because the air temperature will be too closed to the condenser temperature to absorb any more heat after passing through eight rows of tubing.

EVAPORATORS
The evaporator is an important device used in the low- pressure side of a refrigeration system. The liquid refrigerant from the expansion value enters in to evaporator where it boils and change in to vapour. The function of an evaporator is to absorb heeat from the sirrounding location or medium, which is to be cooled , by means of a refrigerant. The temperature of the boiling refrigerant in the evaporaator must always be less than of the surrounding medium so that the heat flows to the refrigerant. The evaporator becomes cold remains cold due to the following two reasons; The temperature of the evaporator coil is low due to the temperature of the refrigerant inside the coil. The low temperature of the refrigerant remains unchanged because any heat it absorbs is converted to latent heat as proceeds.

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Fig. : Evaporator

Working of an evaporator The working of an evaporator may be best understood by considering the simple refrigerating system as shown in fig (a) the corresponding p-h diagram is shown in fig (b). The point 5 in the figure represents the entry of liquid refrigerant in to the expansion valve. Under proper operating condition, the liquid refrigerant is sub- cooled (i, e cooled below its satruration temperature). The sub- cooling ensures that the expansion valve receives pure liquid refrigerant with no vapour to restrict the flow of refrigerant through the expansion vale. The liquid refrigerant at low pressure enters the evaporator at point 6, as shown in fig.

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As the liquid refrigerant passes through the evaporator coil, it continually absorbs heat through the coil walls from the medium being cooled, During this, the Refrigerant continues to boil and evaporate. Finally at point 1; all the liquid refrigerant has evaporated and only vapour refrigerant remains in the evaporate coil. The liquid refrigerant's ability to convert absorbed heat to latent heat is now used up. Since the vapour refrigerant at pint 1' is still colder than the medium being cooled, therefore the vapour refrigerant continuesn to absorb heat (or temperature) of the vapourn refrigerant. The vapour temperature continues to rise until the

vapour leaves the evaporator to the suction line at point 1. At this point , the temperature of the vapour of the vapour is above the saturation temperature and the vapour refrigerant is superheated. The variation of refrigerant temperature ( or sensible heat ) and the refrigerant heat content (or enthalpy) within the evaporator. We see that the temperature of the refrigerant is constent during evaporation of the liquid refrigerant from point 6 to 1 and the enthalpy increases steadily. It shown that the latent heat is absorbed by the evaporating liquid with no change in temperature,. Both the temperature and enthapy of the refrigerant increases from 1' to 1. At point 1, all the liquid refrigerant has evaporated. The line 1'- 1 shows the increase in sensible heat of the vapour refrigerant
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Factors affecting the heat transfer capacity of an Evaporator


1. Material. In order to have rapid heat rapid transfer in an evaporator, the material used for the construction of an evaorator coil should be a good conductor of heat . The material, which is not affected by the refrigerant , must also be selected. Since metal are best conductors of heat, Therefore they are always used for evaporators. Iron and steel can be used with all common refrigerants. Brass and copper are used with all refrigerants except ammonia, Aluminum should not be used with Ferro 12.

Temperature Difference The temperature difference between the refrigerant with the evaporator and the product to be plays an important role in the transfer capacity of an evaporator, The following tables show the suggested temperature difference for some of the products and be cooled. Types of evaporators Though there are many are types of evaporators, yet the following are important from the subject point of view:
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a. Bare tube coil evaporator, b. Finned tube evaporator, c. Plate evaporator, d. Shall and tube evaporator, e. Shall and coil evaporator, and f. Tube- in tube evaporator,

Bare tube coil evaporators The bear tube coil evaporator is also k now as prime- surface evaporators. Because of its simple construction, the bore tube coil is easy to clean and defrost. A little consideration will show that this type of evaporator offers relatively little surface contact area as will show that this type of evaporator offers relatively little surface contact area as compared to other types of coils. The amount of surface area may be increased by simply extending the length of the tube , but there are disadvantages of excessive tube length. The effective length of the tube is limited by the capacity of expansion valve. If the tube is too long for the valve's capacity, the liquid refrigerant will tend to completely vaporize early in its progress through the tube, thus leading to excessive superheating at the outlet.The long tubes will also cause considerably greater pressure drop between the inlet and outlet of the evaporator. This result the inlet suction line pressure.
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The diameter of the tube in relation to tube length may also be critical. If the tube diameter is too large the refrigerant velocity will be too low and the volume of refrigerant will be too great in relation to the surface area of the tube to allow complete vaporisation. This in turn may allow liquid refrigerant to enter the suction line with possible damage to the compressor. On the other hand, if the diameter is too small, the pressure drop due to friction may be high and will reduce the system efficiency. The bare tube coil evaporators may be used for any type of refrigeration requirement. Its use is however, limited to applications where the box temperatures are under 00C and in liquid cooling, because the accumulation of ice or frost on these evaporators has less effect on the heat transfer than on those equipped with fins. The bare tube coil evaporators are also extensively used in house hold refrigerators because they are easier to keep clean.

Expansion Devices
The expansion device (also know as metering device or throttling device) is an important device that divides the high-pressure side the low-pressure side of refrigerating system. It is connected between the receiver (containing liquid

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refrigerant at high pressure). The expansion device performs the following function : It reduces the high-pressure liquid refrigerant to low pressure liquid refrigerant before being fed to the evaporator. It maintains the desired pressure difference between the high and lowpressure sides of the system, so that liquid refrigerant vaporises at the designed pressure in the evaporator. It controls the flow of refrigerant according to the load on the evaporator.

Fig. : Expension Valve

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Types of Expansion Devices Following are the main types of expansion devices used in industrial commercial refrigeration and air conditioning system. 1. Capillary Tube 2. Hand-operated expansion valve, 3. Automatic or constant pressure expansion valve, 4. Thermostatic expansion valve, 5. Low side float valve and 6. High Side float valve.

Capillary Tube The capillary tube, as shown in fig is used as an expansion device in small capacity hermetic sealed refrigeration units such as in domestic refrigerators, water coolers, room air conditioners and freezers. It is a copper tube of small internal diameter and of varying length depending upon the application. The inside diameter of the tube used in refrigeration work is generally about .05mm to 2.25mm and the length varies from .5mm to 5m. It is installed in the liquid line between the condenser and the evaporator as shown in fig. A fine mesh screen is provided at the inlet of the tube in order to protect in from contaminants.

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In its operation, the liquid refrigerant from the condenser enters the capillary tube. Due to the functional resistance offered by a small diameter tube, the pressure drops. Since drop the frictional resistance is directly proportional to the length and inversely to the diameter, therefore longer the capillary tube and smaller is inside diameter, greater pressure difference between the condenser and evaporator is needed for a given flow rate of the refrigerant. The diameter efficiently at other conditions. The refrigeration system using capillary tube have the following advantages. The cost of capillary tube is less than all other forms of expansion devices. When the compressor stops, the refrigerant continues to flow into the evaporator and equalises the pressure the high side and low side of the system. This considerably decreases the starting load on the compressor. Thus a low starting torque motor can be used to drive the compressor, which is a great advantage.

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Specification
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& Tools Required

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SPECIFICATIONS

Materials Compressor Relay 5/6' copper tube Capillary tube

Application 1/6 HP for electrical connections for evaporator (22 feet) for expansion (12 feet)

Condenser Air-cooled; for condensing the liquid Filter drier Thermostat Indicator lamps Dehydrator Automatic defrost control Red-for main supply Green- for automatic defrost Glass wool Pitch tubes Gas (Freon 12) Oil Brazing rod Lead Insulator Black surface, leak proof and rigidiy (2 Kg) Joining the tubings (4 feet) Refrigerant for lubrication for brazing the tubings For soldering
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Wooden planks Wheels Wires Tin sheets

For making the outer cabinet For transport For electrical connections insulating the wires To cover the sides of the table

TOOLS REQUIRED
Soldering Iron Lead Solder Blow Lamp Brazing Rod Tube Cutter Hammer Carpentry Tools Charging Line Gauge Hand Shut-off Valve Vacuum Pump Cutting Flair

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Mathematical Analysis

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MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
Outside dimension of unit- 774760 cm3 Dimension of cylinderical evaporator- diameter- 22 cm. DepthCapacity of evaporator = r2h =111154 =20.535 L temperature ( amient)= 43oc (inside the cylindrical evaporator) =5oc refrigerent used (r-12) = dichlorodifloromethane (CC1212) 54 cm.

freezing point = 157.780c boiling point = - 29.780C COOLING LOAD CALCULATION For Water Cooler. For heavy duty manufacturing shop LOAD REQIRED, Q = 1.1 NO. OF OCCUPANTES = 1.130 L/h Spec. heat temp diff. = 33 L/h 4.18(30-6) =3 310 . 56Kj/h
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HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH INSULATION Thermal conductivity of, Aluminium, Plastic Copper Glass Wool ka1=225W/m.k kp=0.15W/mk kcu = 385W/mk kg= 0.038W/ mk

Convective heat transfer cofficient, Inside film Outside Film Thus, hi = 15 W/m2k ho= 15W/m2k

Heat conducted inside the evaporator due to infiltration Q= (T1- To) 2 rh

1/h1r1+1/k1In(r2/r1)+1/k2 In r (rx1/r2) +1/k3 In (rx2/ rx1)+1/ (rx2ho)

rx 1 =4/54+15.5

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= 0.074+15.5 =rx2= 4/54+16 =0.074+16 Approximately Q = 2/3 Qmax. Q =2/3(-7-43)25410-2 {1/1510 +1/225 In (10.2/10)+ 1/.038 In (19.5/11)+1/385 In (11/10.2)+1/0.15 In (20/19.5+1/1510-220} =2.2174Watt =2.2174j/s =8kj/hr Total cooling load on the unit, Q total =2(Q infiltare+ Q actual) =2(8+3310.6) =2(3318.6) kj per hour =6637.2Kj/h =1.844 Kwatt = 0.512 TR =0.5 TR Mass of refrigerant required
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From p-h chart at 6oC, h8 = 183 KJ/Kg h5 =189Kj/Kg

40oC, h2 =205kj/kg hf3=76 kj/kg

For cylindrical evaporater, m1= 210Q /(183- 76)= 0.588 kg/ min. For rectangular evaporater m2= 210Q/(189- 76)= .0377 KG/ MIN.

Power required for compressor Work done by compressor per kg of refrigerant, h1 = m1 h8 +m2 h5 (m1+m1) =0.589183+0.377189 0.589+0.377 =185.34kj/kg W=(0.589+0.377) (h2-h1)
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=(0.589+0.377) (205-185.36) =18.49kj/min =0.3165kw =0.422hp =1/2h

Coefficient of performance of refrigeration unit

Cop

= = =

RE/w 85/18.49 4.648

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Fabrication
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of Refrigeration Unit

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Fabrication of Refrigeration Unit


Domestic refrigeration is rather limited in scope, being concerned primarily with household refrigerators and home freezers. However, because the number of units in services is quite large, domestic refrigeration represents a signification portion of the refrigeration industry. Domestic units are usually small in size, having horse power ratings of between 1/20 and hp, and of the hermetically sealed type. The domestic refrigerator, in our case, is a small, compact unit, which works on the principle of vapour compression system. It has been designed as per economical considerations for a middle-class family. This unit is unique in the sense that its body is in the form of a bucket (plastic) which works as an evaporator. For fabricating the unit, initially a plastic bucket of conical cross-section with 90 liters capacity was purchased. The diameter of the upper portion of bucket is 45 cm while that of lower surface is 37 cm since the material of the bucket, therefore certain material was necessary to conduct heat for cooling purpose inside the bucket. Therefore, a sheet-metal internal container (evaporator) of conical cross-section was designed.

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Designing of Internal Container Because the bucket is in conical cross-section, therefore the internal container was also made in the same shape. For this purpose, the development of the cone was considered. The sheet metal of 30mm gauge was used to serve the purpose. The sheet of 6 feet 3 feet was made use of and the development calculations are evolved. Now as the sheet is not big enough to take the center of 264 cm, hence the point was taken outside the sheet. The point was marketed making use of a string and marker pin. The angle was 260 after wards the height of 54.5 cm was marked and the undesired portion of the sheet is cut off, in a circular are on both ends of the sheet. Thus, the sheet metal of required tapering dimensions be obtained which is then soldered from the sides to get the internal container. Accumulator It is just like a cylinder tapering at both ends and made up of copper. The length of the accumulator is 10 inches. This is used to trap the liquid, which is not vaporized from the compressor, and it returns the same to the compressor. It is used for balancing of oil pressure also.

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The one end of the copper tube is joined to the one extreme side of the accumulator by the help of brazing. Brazing was done with the help of brazing rod and blow lamp. First of all, the two ends were heated red-hot and the brazing rod was brought in contact with them. Due to this, the brazing rod melted and filled the space between the two junction. The brazing rod is acting as a filler material. Brazing Process It is process of joining metal pieces by means of hard solder. Brass is mainly the main constituent of this solder. The brazing solder used in modern practice is commercially known as spelter, which is mixture of Cu, Zn and Sn. The most important phenomenon in this that the pieces to be joined are heated instead of the bit. Winding of Cu Tubes Once the internal container is repaired, it is soldered at its ends. Now 5/6" copper tubes of length 22 feet was wound a round the outer surface of the sheet metal internal container, with equal spacing between them. These "Cu" tubes were positioned in their place firmly and rigidly with the help of soldering at place. Now these assembly functions as our Evaporator and these coils are called as "Evaporator Coils."

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Both the ends of the Cu tubes Viz, the top and bottom of the internal container, where left free or unwound the upper portion of the tube was taken below along the external surface of the container and finally taken out of the bottom of the plastic bucket through a small boring. The other end of the coil was connected to the accumulator which is placed in between the bottoms of the bucket and the container. Ten this end was also taken out of the same boring and connected to the capillary tubes. Capillary Connection One end of the capillary was brazed inside the accumulator to prevent leakage. The total length used for the purpose was 12feet. Initially, some portion of the capillary was wound around the 5/16' tube coming out from the lop surface of the container. Then, this capillary is made in the from of a uniform coil and was suspended freely. This capillary tube acts as an expansion valve. Dehydrator The dehydrator or the filter drier is located in the fluid line at the outlet end of the condenser. Its purpose is to filter, trap minute particles of foreign materials and absorb any moisture which may be in the system. Fine mesh screens filter out foreign particles and the desiccant absorbs the moisture. The one used in this refrigerator desiccants is silica gel (silicon dioxide).

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Condenser Connections Now a small piece of copper tubes id again brazed to the free end of he filter drier, which is then connected to the condenser. The condenser used in this unit is of air cooled type. In this the tube is bent in the shape of U and placed in conjunction with the fins are responsible for holding the air in their gaps that extract heat from the hot refrigerant flowing in the tubes of the condenser. The evaporator coils surrounding the internal container absorb the heat from the hot boy inside the container and this heat is taken by the refrigerant. This refrigerant which is ultimate passing through the condenser radiates heat to the atmosphere with help of the condenser fins. In our unit the condenser is fixed to the rear side of the cabinet, facing the atmosphere air. Compressor Connection The 5/16' copper tube of the evaporator oil is connected to one end the compressor with the help of brazing. The outgoing end of the compressor is brazed to the condenser to complete the circuit. The compressor used in this case is reciprocating type sealed unit. The horsepower of the compressor is 1/6 HP. Compressor is used to establish a pressure difference and thus cause the refrigerant to flow from one part of the

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system to the other. At the same time the compressor raises the refrigerants pressure above the condensing pint. At the temperature of the room air, so it will condense. It is this difference in pressure between the high low sides forces liquid refrigerant through the capillary tube an into the evaporator. Thermal Insulation In any refrigeration process thermal insulation is necessary so that no heat is radiated out of the system thereby reducing its efficiency. Since heat will always flow from a region of high temperature to a region of low temperature, there is always a continuos flow of heat into the refrigerated region from the warmer surroundings. The various types of the insulators used are 1. Thermocoal 2. Glass Wool. In this unit glass wool is used which was stuffed between the two surfaces of the plastic bucket and sheet-metal container. The glass wool is tightly packed by ramming heavily so that no air gap remains between the glass wool and hence provides maximum operating efficiency. Thermostat

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This is a temperature controlled electrical switch located on the evaporator wall. It is fastened to the evaporator will with a clamp at the lower region of the internal container. When the sensing element mounted on the evaporator wall senses the temperature lower than the operating conditions then it sends the signal to the thermostat switch immediately breaks the circuit in the relay and thus gets Tripped Off. The thermostat switch is connected to the relay. The rely thermostat has the bimetal strips, which is responsible for the make and break of the circuit.

Gas Charging When the whole of the connections has been made then gas is charged with the help of the charging cylinder and the value is closed. The whole is now checked for the leakage by applying soap solution to the joints formed by brazing. Now when no leakage was there then the gas was filled. The amount of gas by weight was 15 ibs. The gas used for this was refrigerant 12 or Freon 12 (CCl 2F2 Dichloro- Difluro Methane). Fabrication Of Cabinet

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Wooden planks used to make the table of appropriate shape and size to accommodate the bucket in the bucket in the top tier while the other components in the basement. The top plank is cut in the from of a round hole in which 2/3 nd of the bucket can go inside with remaining portion projecting outwards. It has got one more bottom plank supporting the compressor, the condenser and other accessories. The compressor is rigidly with the help of 4 bolts bolted to the base. This table-like structure is mounted on four wheel making the whole unit mobile. Lubrication Function of lubricating oil in a refrigeration system. Understand the importance of and dangers associated with draining oil Describe the properties of refrigerate oils Describe the purpose and functions of an oil separator List and explain three types of indirect oil cooling systems Identify major oil contaminants and described contamination control in refrigerant oils Explain three types of heat exchange in lubrication.

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Controls Of Refrigeration Unit

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Controls In Refrigerator
The controls are very essential for satisfactory and economical working of any refrigerator. The refrigerator is fitted with the following controls. Starting Relay The starting relay is used to provide the necessary starting torque required to start the motor. It also disconnects the starting winding of the motor when the motor speed increases. When the compressor motor is to be started the thermostat is in closed position. When the electric supply is given, an electric through the running winding of the motor and the starting relay. Due to the flow of electric current through relay coil and due to electromagnetism its armature is pulled thereby closing the starting winding contacts. The current through starting winding provides the starting torque and the motor starts. As the motor speed increase, the running winding current decreases. The current in the starting relay is no longer able to hold the relay and it gets released thereby opening the starting winding contacts. Thus, the starting winding gets disconnected. Overload Protector The basic function of an overload protector is to protector is to protect the compressor motor winding from damage due to excessive current. It consists of a bimetallic strip. During the normal working of the compressor, the contacts are
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closed. Wherever there is any abnormal behaviour (i.e. overheating, overcorrect due fault or overload), the bimetallic strip gets heated and bends, there by opening the motor contacts and de-energising it. The overload protector is fitted on the body of the compressor and operates due to combined action of heat produced when current when current passes through the bimetallic strip and a heater element and heat transferred from the compressor body. It may be noted that the abnormal behaviour of the compressor may be due to low voltage, high load, low suction pressure, and high suction and discharge pressure. Thermostate A thermostate is used to control the temperature in the temperature in the refrigerator. The bulb of the thermostat is clamped to the evaporate of freezer. The thermostat bulb is charged with few drop of refrigerant. The thermostat can be set to maintain temperatures at a time. When the desired temperature is obtained, the bulb of the thermostat senses it, the liquid in it compresses and operate bellow of the thermostat and opens the compressor motor contacts. The temperature at which compressor motor stops is called cutout temperature. When the temperature increases, the liquid in the bulb expands thereby closing the blows contact of the compressor motor. A thermostat is very crucial in the operation of refrigerator as the running time of compressor is reduced considerably thereby cutting the

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operation cost as well as enhancing the compressor life due to non-continous working.

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Future Potential

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Future Potential
Total energy saving potential in the EU is estimated at 15% [Eichhammer, 1995], but may be more, as illustrated by a classification of opportunities for energy efficiency from 1992, summarised in figure 1. R&D to achieve this should aim at alternative refrigeration cycles, combined power and cooling and alternative working fluids.
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Category 1 Process Design System Design Component Design Improved O&M

Energy savings realised in demonstration projects by category We focus here on various demonstration projects, to give some insight in the technologies to achieve energy savings in refrigeration in the food industry.

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Process Design For process integration and process control, Mann (Mann 1992) describes a project where 30% energy savings are realised by changing the process design. New cold stores for apples were constructed together with a test store. In this test store, some adaptations compared to the other cold stores were made, thereby creating the possibility for frequency controlled fanning. The energy consumption of the fans was reduced by about 30% by reducing the circulation factor to half the normal value. This example shows that changes in process design allow for energy savings in components designs. Additional savings have been achieved by optimising cold air flow distribution in stores, also reducing product losses. System Design Some technological advancements and trends can lead to large energy savings in the near future in system design. The first trend is the development of super heat pumps. These heat pumps are developed in the Japanese Super Heat Pump Accumulation System Program, leading to high COP-values of about 7.1 for closed cycled electric heat pumps for cooling with a heat source of 32c and an output temperature of 7c (Mottal, 1995).

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Other major trends are a reduction of refrigerant charges and the development of new working fluids. Traditionally, the most common working fluids for compression heat pumps are ammonia and (H) CFCs, R&D is aimed at alternative working fluids, especially for the (H) CFCs due to the Toronto agreements. These alternative working fluids, like halogen refrigerant mixtures, decompressed air and CO2, can also save energy. Savings of 2-20% have been reported (Trepp et.al. 1992, Lorentzen, 1993a; Lorentzen, 1993nb). Other recent development are the focus on natural refrigerants (IEA, 1996b). For example CO2 is considered a completely safe and environmentally compatible refrigerant. COPvalues 20 percent higher than convectional CFC systems with compact and cost effective components have been reported (Lorentzen, 1993a). Another example is absorption cooling. Lazarrin (Lazarrin et.al. 1996) described a theoretical analysis of an open-cycle absorption heating and cooling system. They concluded that with relatively low investment costs PER values of 1.2-1.4 in heating mode can be obtained, as well as energy savings in cooling mode of about 5-20%. Absorption cooling in general is an energy-saving option if regenerative systems are used (Hajji et.al. 1995). Absorption heat pumps have large energy savings potentials. However, in practice, only the heating capacity is discussed in literature. RTD in this area should aim at absorption heat pumps for refrigeration, air conditioning and cooling.
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An example of combined power and cooling is given by Erickson (Erickson, 1995). In a community in Alaska, electricity is produced using generators. The waste heat in the summer is used to power an absorption cycle, thereby reducing electricity demand by 70% with equal capital costs. Another example is the combined cold and power production for air conditioning purpose. Component Design Energy savings of more than 30% are estimated to be technically achievable through improved component design in areas such as adjustable speed drives and computer controlled fans. Improved Operation & Maintenance In refrigeration, energy savings could by made by improved operation and maintenance. The examples of frequency controlled fans and adjustable speed drives have already been mentioned. Another example can be found in the United Kingdom. On a cold store refrigeration plant, an automatic air purger was installed in 1989. Energy savings are estimated at 630 GJ/year, together with reduced maintenance due to less refrigerant loss and total installed costs of $8,980 leading to a simple payback period of 10 months (Caddet, 1996). The investment and O&M costs differ for the various options. Because different systems are discussed for different purposes, no general economic data

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can be given. Investing in improved design for O&M will lead to decreasing O&M costs. The installation of super heat pumps however, may require large investment costs. In general, the investment costs for new refrigeration systems are considered to be comparable with (Lorentzen, 1993; Gigiel, 1989) or lower than the currently installed systems if system design analysis is applied (Maczedk et.al. 1993). O&M costs are estimated to the slightly lower than for conventional refrigerating systems (Caddet, 1996; ETSU, 1992). The total energy savings potential of the four categories is estimated at 20% in 2010 (ETSU, 1992). Most promising technologies are heat pumps and combined power/cooling systems. Projected savings both of energy and of environmental emissions by 2000 and 2010, compared with 1995, are presented in Table 1.
1995 Technical Data Typical Size Life-time (yr) Construction (yr) Energy Data Fuel use (PJ) Electr. Use (PJe) Primary Energy (PJ) 30 75 27 67.5 24 60 15 1 15 1 15 1 2000 2010

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www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com Savings (%) Economic Data Investments (relative) Fixed O&M (relative) Variable O&M (relative) Environmental Data CO2 Emissions SO2 NOX Emissions Other Emissions Capacity EU Capacity Outside EU Remarks (based on) Current mix of refrigerating systems 10% 10% Less CFCs 10% 10% Less CFCs Technology Dependent 10% 10% decrease expected 20% 10% decrease expected

Note : Economic data are relative to conventional refrigerating systems. Electricity generation efficiency is assumed to be 40% Table 1 : Summary of projected data for refrigeration

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Conclusion
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Conclusion
In the last it is to be stated of further developments are done in the present fabricated refrigerator then the cost of the refrigerator can be curtailed so that it can be with in the reach of middle class families. Keeping in view of economical aspects we have tried to fabricate a refrigerator which would cost low and function equally good. In this the main part of interest is the body which is easy to fabricate and at less prices. Now with this the capacity of refrigerator has reduced. If it is possible to manufacture compressors suitable for such unit made of plastic or fibre and of lesser HP. Then the prices would go down so as to suffice our needs. For such unit the condenser also can be a made small and of smaller gauge which would further curtailed the prices. The linear container is also fabricated in such a way that if is cheap and serves the purpose of deep freezer as cooling water bottles. Hence seeing the above mentioned improvements if possible then it would serve the ideal. Refrigerator for a middle class family because it will curtail barriers have cost and be with in reach of all general people.

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Bibliography

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Bibliography

Author Edwin P. Anderson

Title of Text Audels Refrigeration and AirCondition Guide

Publisher D.B. Tarapore Vala Sons & Co. Pvt. Ltd. 1944 McGraw Hill Bock Co., 1976

Robert Schorff

Refrigeration AirConditioning Range & Oven Servecing

Roy, J. Dossat

Principal of Refrigeration Refrigeration

John Wiley & Sons 1966

Richjer C. Jordon & Gay Le B. Priester S. Domkundwar

Refrigeration and AirConditioning

Prentice-Hall of India (P) Ltd. 1948

A Course in Refrigeration Ration and Air-Conditioning

Dhanpat Rai & Sons

C.P. Arora

Refrigeration and AirConditioning

Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Co., Ltd. S. Chand & Co., New

R.S. Khurmi

Mechnical Technology

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Delhi

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