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Single Horseshoe Vortex Wing Model

b b

trailing vortices

bound vortex

Lift due to a horseshoe vortex Kutta-Joukowsky Theorem


b 2

L = V dy = V b
b 2

1 V2 S 2 2 b 2 CL = V b S
CL = 2 A V b

CL =

V b
1 V2 S 2

Single Horseshoe Vortex Wing Model

Induced Drag To estimate the induced drag using this simple model, we will assume that the 3-D lift is tilted by the downwash occurring at the wing root ( y = 0 ).

Leff

L V L Di

Di

i eff

wi

eff = i
L = Leff cos i Leff Di = Leff sin i Leff i = L i
For small & i

wi V

To calculate downwash, we apply Biot-Savart:

x +
b

v r

b ( x , ,0) 2 dl

v w( x, y, z ) = 4 v v dl r r3 filament

x +

16.100 2002

Single Horseshoe Vortex Wing Model

At x = y = z = 0 (i.e. wire root), the bound vortex does not produce a downwash, so, we only have the 2 trailing vortices at y = b . 2

v + w(0,0,0) = 4 b y = b y =+ 2 2
Lets do the y =

b integral first: 2
v v b v (dx i ) ( x ) 2 i + (+ ) 2 j 2 2 b 2 2 x +( ) 2 v b dx k 2
3 3

v v dl r r3 = x = +
x =0

x = +

2 b 2 2 x +( ) 2

w(0,0,0) =

Then, combining this we can find:

Di L i = L

wi V ) bV

Di = L( Di =

L bV

But

L = V b = L2 V2 b 2

L V b

Di =

16.100 2002

Single Horseshoe Vortex Wing Model

C Di =

Di 1 V2 S 2
2 CL 2A

=(

L 1 V2 S 2

)2

S 2b 2

C Di =

Hmmm is this ok??


Recall: Lifting line:

C Di =

2 CL ,e 1 Ae

16.100 2002