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1

... 04.10.04.

4:
.
, .
. .
( , 1 ....)
, .
. .
( , .)

: 4.1. .

. . 4.2.
. . 4.3.
. . . 4.4. . . 4.4. . .

.
.

: yk = hn * xk-n,
xk , hn ( ) , k n
, k = 0,1,2, ,K; n = 0,1,2, ,N; K N. yk
k "" ( k-N) .
(). (0-N) "" . N+1 , , .. "" , .
. N x(k-n) k<n. , (0), .. x(0) .
. "", "" (k+n, k+N')
k,
N'
(k+n)>K. N' = N . , , .
4.1. .

()
, , , :
N

yk =

hn sk-n .

n=-N

. : - ( , ),
- ( , ) (
). - , ,
, . 4.1.1.

2
, .

, , .
. , ,
-
:
N

y(k) = s(k)

h(n) s(k-n).

n=-N

,
:
h(0) = 1-h(0), h(n) = -h(n) n0.
, ..
' = ( t = 1).
, ,
:
cos n(-) = cos n cos n = (-1)n cos n.

,
. 4.1.1. .
, .

.
h - , h - :
vk = h(n) * s(k-n),
yk = h(n) * vk = h(n) * h(n) * s(k-n).
,
: hn = h(n) * h(n).
. , .
:
1. .
2. ( ).
3. ,
.
4.
, . ( ). , 3 4
()
( ).

3
5. .
4.2. .

, - , (
- ).
( )
H(). :
h(nt) = (1/2)

H() exp(jnt) d.


, - .
, ( N) (N = /t), , (t = /N).
, :
h(nt)= (1/)

N
0

H() cos(n/N) d, n = 0,1,2,...

(4.2.1)

H()=1 ,
(4.2.1) .
0
N .
t, 1, -
. 1,
.
1. t = 0.1 . fN = 1/2t = 5 . N = /t = 10 .
2. x = 10 . fN = 0.05 -1. N= 0.1 .

t, , 1.
H()=A=1 -, H()=0 ,
(4.2.1) :
h(n) = (/) [ sinc(n) - sinc(n)],
(4.2.2)
ho = ( - )/, h(n) = (sin n - sin n)/(n).
sinc(n) = sin(n)/(n) - ( ),
.

. 4.2.1. .

. 4.2.2. .

. 4.2.1 ( , ,

4
). ,
,
. 4.2.2, ( ).
. 4.2.3
, (4.2.2)
, N=100. ,
,
. . 4.2.3. .

.
4.3. /24/.

, (4.2.2), , :

H() =

h(n) cos n.

n =

(4.3.1)

(4.3.1)

N

H'() =

h(n) cos n,

n = N


(. 4.3.1,
N=100).
/(2(N+1)) ( ). p

H(), /(N+1) = p.

. 4.3.1. .
. , -

, ,
. , ,
p = 2/N. :
N = 2/p.
(4.3.2)
. 4.3.1 N 200, ( H'(), N=200),

5
.
, .. .
( (4.3.2)) pn, :
hn = h(n)pn.
(4.3.3)
(4.3.3) (4.3.1)
. . 4.3.1,
. Hp() , H'() N=100
. , .
4.2.1, . 4.3.2.

. 4.3.2. ( , ).
.

:
p(n) =

J o [ 1 (n/N) 2 ]
J o []

, p
(
).
,
.
D-:
D = Np/.
, D :
D = (-7.95)/14.36
>21.
= 0.9222
<21.
= 0.1102(A-8.7)
>50.
=0
<21.
= 0.5842(A-21)0.4 + 0.07886(A-21), 21<<50.
: = -20 log - .

, D- :
N = D/p.
. , -

6
, ,
, . ,
.
.
:
= 0.3, = 0.6, p = 0.1, = 0.02.
1. = -20 log . = 34.
2. N = (A-7.95)/(14.36 p). N = 18.
3. = 0.5842(A-21)0.4 +0.07886(A-21). = 2.62.
4. h = (-)/. h = 0.3
5. h(n)= (sin n-sin n)/(n). h(n)= 0.04521, -0.24490, -0.09515, ... , 0.02721.
6. pn= Jo{ 1 (n/N)2 } / Jo{}. pn = 1.00, 0.997, 0.9882, .......
7. : hn = h(n)pn, n = 0,1,2,...,N. h-n = hn. hn = 0.3000, 0.04508, -0.2420, ....
N

8. : H() =

n=-N

hn cos n, 0 .

0- 2N, .. /36.
7 .
8
.

4.4. .
. d(exp(jt))/dt = j exp(jt)

, H() = j.
(h-n = -hn)
hn [exp(jn)-exp(-jn)] = 2j hn sin n,
:
H() = 2j(h1 sin + h2 sin 2 + ... + hN sin N),
.. , a
sk . :
N

yn =

hn(sk+n - sk-n).

n =1

,
, :
H() = , , H() = 0, < N.
:
h(n) = (1/)

B
0

H() sin(n/N) d, n = 0,1,2,...

(4.4.1)

, , N = (t = 1) (4.4.1) H() = , :
hn = (1/)[sin(n)/n2 - cos(n)/n],
(4.4.2)
h = 0, h-n = -hn.
:

H() =

n =

n =1

hn sin n = 2 hn sin n.

(4.4.3)

. 4.4.1. .

. 4.4.1
{0-0.5} t=1 ( = /2). , , , ,
(4.4.3) .

. 4.4.2. .

(4.4.3) N .
, . , . 4.4.1, H'()
. 4.4.2.

= /2. (4.4.2) :
h0-10 = 0, 0.3183, 0.25, -0.0354, -0.125, 0.0127, 0.0833, -0.0065, -0.0625, 0.0039, 0.05.
sn = n,
1.
, n=0, :
=

n=-N

n=-N

hn so-n = 2 n hn,

: =0.5512 N=5, =1.53 N=10.



, =0
,
4.4.2,
H()= . . 4.4.3
. 4.4.3. .
= H'()/H() N . . 4.4.4 s*h

8
s N=10 ds/dk.

. 4.4.4. .

.
N=10 . 4.4.5.
sn = n =1.041, .. .

. 4.4.5. .

(4.4.1) . :
hn = (cos n-cos n)/(n) + (sin n-sin n)/(n2).
9 .
10
.

4.5. /24/.

( ,
..)
.
. , ,
.
, :
N

H() = h+ 2

hn cos n.

n= 1

(4.5.1)

, cos n cos n, (4.5.1)


:
H() =

n= 0

n= 0

gn (cos )n = gn xn,

(4.5.2)

=cos -1 1 ( 0 ).

9
180o ( , ) . ,
.
, ,
:
g(x)= (1+x)z (1-x)r,
(4.5.3)
z r - .
(4.5.3) z r = -1 = 1 (.
4.5.1), z r (
, "" ).

. 4.5.1. .

(4.5.3) -1
-1 1 , ( 4.5.1):
x

-1

-1

H(x)= g(x)dx / g(x)dx.

. 4.5.2. .

(4.5.4)

H(x) (z-r)/(z+r)
, ,
z r. x=cos .
,
hn (4.5.2)
(4.5.1). ,
. 4.5.2. /24/.

.
c
/3. (4.5.3).
1. x= cos(/3)= 0.5= (z-r)/(z+r). : z=3, r=1.
: g(x) = (1-x)(1+x)3 = 1+2x-2x3-x4.
x

2. h(x)=

-1

g(x)dx = C+x+x2-0.5 x4-0.2 x5. = -1, h(-1)= 0, =0.3. =1, h(1)=1.6.

: H(x)= (3+10x+10x2-5x4-2x5)/16. gn = {3/16, 10/16, 10/16, 0, -5/16, -2/16}.

10
3. , : hn= {(98, 70, 20, -5, -5, -1)/256}.

(4.5.4) . .
11 .

24. .. . .: , 1987. 221 .

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