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REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTSPOLLINATION

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Location of gametes Look at the diagram to your right.

The male sex cells are located in the anther, while the female sex cells are located in the ovary. YES !!!!!! Arent they far from one another?
So how do we bring them closer?

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Pollination
What is it? It is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the flower. What is its significance? Pollination leads to fertilisation, resulting in the production of seeds and fruits, thus ensuring continuity of life There are TWO types of pollination: (i) Self- pollination (ii) Cross- pollination
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Self Pollination
It is the transfer of the pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of either: the same flower or
of another flower borne on the same plant.

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Cross Pollination

It is the transfer of the pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower borne on a different plant of the same species.

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SO HOW DOES THE POLLEN MOVE FROM ONE LOCATION TO ANOTHER?

INSECTS

OTHER ANIMALS ( bats, birds, mammals)


WIND

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ADAPTATIONS FOR INSECT-POLLINATION Large, brightly coloured petals Scented petals Nectaries- secrete nectar Shape of the flower (mimicry) Stamen and pistils found within petals Provide food for insects (nectar and sometimes pollen grains) Pollen grains which are rough sticky surface and can therefore get stuck on body surfaces of insects The surfaces of the stigmas is sticky Inflorescence (flowers grouped
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Guidelines Inflorescence Shape caters to the insect

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Brightly coloured petals

How insects see flowers


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Other animals that aid in pollination

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ADAPTATIONS FOR WIND POLLINATION

Compare these two flowers


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Feathery and large stigmas Filaments and styles are long, hanging outside of flower Pollen grains are light, smooth and often produced on stamens with long filaments hence can easily be carried by wind.

Species that are wind pollinated include: Grass family corn, sugar cane, rice
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ADAPTATIONS FOR CROSS POLLINATION


Stamen developing and releasing pollen before the carpel are mature (seen in wind pollinated species)
Carpel developing before stamen mature (is less common)

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ADAPTATIONS FOR CROSS POLLINATION

Male and female flowers. Eg. Pawpaw Some plants are female and some are male.
Structure of parts of flowers allow only cross pollination. Eg. primrose

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An insect butterfly visiting a pin-eyed flower, gets pollen stuck to the middle of its proboscis from the anthers half-way down the flower tube. If it then goes to visit a thrum-eyed flower, the pollen is perfectly positioned to be wiped off on the stigma, in this case, halfway down the flower tube. The reverse is also true. If the butterfly first visits a thrum-eyed flower, pollen is wiped off onto the top of its proboscis as it searches for nectar. This is then ideally placed to be transferred onto the stigma of the next pin-eyed flower which it visits.