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Paul Czanne

Paul Czanne
Paul Czanne

Paul Czanne, c. 1861 Born 19 January 1839 Aix-en-Provence, France 22 October 1906 (aged67) Aix-en-Provence, France French Painting Acadmie Suisse Post-Impressionism Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from Bellevue (c. 1885) Apothose de Delacroix (18901894) Rideau, Cruchon et Compotier (18931894) The Card Players (1890-1895) The Bathers (18981905)

Died

Nationality Field Training Movement Works

Influenced by Eugne Delacroix, douard Manet, Camille Pissarro Influenced Georges Braque, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Arshile Gorky, Caziel

Paul Czanne (US /sezn/ or UK /szn/; French:[pl sezan]; 18391906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Czanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Czanne "is the father of us all." Czanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Czanne's intense study of his subjects.

Paul Czanne

Life and work


Early years and family
The Czannes lived in the town of Cesana now in West Piedmont, and the surname may be of Italian origin.[1] Paul Czanne was born on 19 January 1839 in Aix-en-Provence, in Provence in the South of France.[2] On 22 February, Paul was baptized in the parish church, with his grandmother and uncle Louis as godparents.[2] His father, Louis-Auguste Czanne (28 July 1798 23 October 1886),[3] was the co-founder of a banking firm that prospered throughout the artist's life, affording him financial security that was unavailable to most of his contemporaries and eventually resulting in a large inheritance.[] On the other hand, his mother, Anne Elisabeth Honorine Aubert (24 September 1814 25 October 1897),[4] was "vivacious and romantic, but quick to take offence".[5] It was from her that Paul got his conception and vision of life.[5] He also had two younger sisters, Marie and Rose, with whom he went to a primary school every day.[2][6] At the age of ten Paul entered the Saint Joseph school in Aix.[7] In 1852 Czanne entered the Collge Bourbon (now Collge Mignet), where he met and became friends with mile Zola, who was in a less advanced class,[][6] as well as Baptistin Baillethree friends who would come to be known as "les trois insparables" (the three inseparables).[8] He stayed there for six years, though in the last two years he was a day scholar.[9] In 1857 he began attending the Free Municipal School of Drawing in Aix, where he studied drawing under Joseph Gibert, a Spanish monk.[10] From 1858 to 1861, complying with his father's wishes, Czanne attended the law school of the University of Aix, while also receiving drawing lessons.[11]

Femme au Chapeau Vert (Woman in a Green Hat. Madame Czanne.) 18941895

Going against the objections of his banker father, he committed himself to pursuing his artistic development and left Aix for Paris in 1861. He was strongly encouraged to make this decision by Zola, who was already living in the capital at the time. Eventually, his father reconciled with Czanne and supported his choice of career. Czanne later received an inheritance of 400,000 francs (218,363.62) from his father, which rid him of all financial worries.[12]

Czanne the artist


In Paris, Czanne met the Impressionist Camille Pissarro. Initially the friendship formed in the mid-1860s between Pissarro and Czanne was that of master and disciple, in which Pissarro exerted a formative influence on the younger artist. Over the course of the following decade their landscape painting excursions together, in Louveciennes and Pontoise, led to a collaborative working relationship between equals. Czanne's early work is often concerned with the figure in the landscape and includes many paintings of groups of large, heavy figures in the landscape, imaginatively painted. Later in his career, he became more interested in working from direct observation and gradually developed a light, airy painting style. Nevertheless, in

The Card Players, an iconic work by Czanne (1892)

Paul Czanne Czanne's mature work there is the development of a solidified, almost architectural style of painting. Throughout his life he struggled to develop an authentic observation of the seen world by the most accurate method of representing it in paint that he could find. To this end, he structurally ordered whatever he perceived into simple forms and colour planes. His statement "I want to make of impressionism something solid and lasting like the art in the museums",[13] and his contention that he was recreating Poussin "after nature" underscored his desire to unite observation of nature with the permanence of classical composition.

Optical phenomena
Czanne was interested in the simplification of naturally occurring forms to their geometric essentials: he wanted to "treat nature by the cylinder, the sphere, the cone" (a tree trunk may be conceived of as a cylinder, an apple or orange a sphere, for example). Additionally, Czanne's desire to capture the truth of perception led him to explore binocular vision graphically, rendering slightly different, yet simultaneous visual perceptions of the same phenomena to provide the viewer with an aesthetic experience of depth different from those of earlier ideals of perspective, in particular single-point perspective. Czanne's innovations have prompted critics to suggest such varied explanations as sick retinas,[14] pure vision,[15] and the influence of the steam railway.[16]

Les Grandes Baigneuses, 18981905: the triumph of Poussinesque stability and geometric balance

Exhibitions and subjects


Czanne's paintings were shown in the first exhibition of the Salon des Refuss in 1863, which displayed works not accepted by the jury of the official Paris Salon. The Salon rejected Czanne's submissions every year from 1864 to 1869. He continued to submit works to the Salon until 1882. In that year, through the intervention of fellow artist Antoine Guillemet, he exhibited Portrait of Louis-Auguste Czanne, Father of the Artist, reading 'l'Evnement', 1866 (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), his first and last successful submission to the Salon.[17] Before 1895 Czanne exhibited twice with the Impressionists (at the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874 and the third Impressionist exhibition in 1877). In later years a few individual paintings were shown at various venues, until 1895, when the Parisian dealer, Ambroise Vollard, gave the artist his first solo exhibition. Despite the increasing public recognition and financial success, Czanne chose to work in increasing artistic isolation, usually painting in the south of France, in his beloved Provence, far from Paris. He concentrated on a few subjects and was equally proficient in each Still Life with a Curtain (1895) illustrates Czanne's increasing trend towards terse of these genres: still lifes, portraits, landscapes and studies of bathers. compression of forms and dynamic tension For the last, Czanne was compelled to design from his imagination, between geometric figures. due to a lack of available nude models. Like the landscapes, his portraits were drawn from that which was familiar, so that not only his wife and son but local peasants, children and his art dealer served as subjects. His still lifes are at once decorative in design, painted with thick, flat surfaces, yet with a weight reminiscent of Gustave Courbet. The 'props' for his works are still to be found, as he left them, in his studio (atelier), in the suburbs of modern Aix. Although religious images appeared less frequently in Czanne's later work, he remained a devout Roman Catholic and said, "When I judge art, I take my painting and put it next to a God-made object like a tree or flower. If it

Paul Czanne clashes, it is not art."[18] Czanne's paintings were not well received among the petty bourgeoisie of Aix. In 1903 Henri Rochefort visited the auction of paintings that had been in Zola's possession and published on 9 March 1903 in L'Intransigeant a highly critical article entitled Love for the Ugly. Rochefort describes how spectators had supposedly experienced laughing fits, when seeing the paintings of an ultra-impressionist named Czanne. Erroneously believing that Czanne's paintings in fact represented the art dear to Zola (Rochefort's Dreyfusard arch-enemy), he drew connections between Dreyfusard snobs, the French officer who was accused but innocent of having sold defense plans to Germany and Zola's supposedly cherished artist, Czanne. The public in Aix was outraged, and for many days, copies of L'Intransigeant appeared on Czanne's door-mat with messages asking him to leave the town he was dishonouring.[19]

Death
One day, Czanne was caught in a storm while working in the field.[20] Only after working for two hours under a downpour did he decide to go home; but on the way he collapsed. He was taken home by a passing driver.[20] His old housekeeper rubbed his arms and legs to restore the circulation; as a result, he regained consciousness.[20] On the following day, he intended to continue working, but later on he fainted; the model with whom he was working called for help; he was put to bed, and he never left it again.[20] He died a few days later, on 22 October 1906.[20] He died of pneumonia and was buried at the old cemetery in his beloved hometown of Aix-en-Provence.[21]

The Overture to Tannhuser: The Artist's Mother and Sister, 1868, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

Main periods of Czanne's work


Various periods in the work and life of Czanne have been defined.[22]

Dark period, Paris, 18611870


In 1863 Napoleon III created by decree the Salon des Refuss, at which paintings rejected for display at the Salon of the Acadmie des Beaux-Arts were to be displayed. The artists of the refused works included the young Impressionists, who were considered revolutionary. Czanne was influenced by their style but his social relations with them were inepthe seemed rude, shy, angry, and given to depression. His works of this period[23] are characterized by dark colours and the heavy use of black. They differ sharply from his earlier watercolours and sketches at the cole Spciale de dessin at Aix-en-Provence in 1859, and their violence of expression is in contrast to his subsequent works. In 186667, inspired by the example of Courbet, Czanne painted a series of paintings with a palette knife. He later called these works, mostly portraits, une couillarde ("a coarse word for ostentatious virility").[24] Lawrence Gowing has written that Czanne's palette knife phase "was not only the invention of modern expressionism, although it was incidentally that; the idea of art as emotional ejaculation made its first appearance at this moment".[24] Among the couillarde paintings are a series of portraits of his uncle Dominique in which Czanne achieved a style that "was as unified as Impressionism was fragmentary".[25] Later works of the dark period include several erotic or violent subjects, such as Women Dressing (c.1867), The Rape (c.1867), and The Murder (c.186768), which depicts a man stabbing a woman who is held down by his female accomplice.

Paul Czanne

Impressionist period, Provence and Paris, 18701878


After the start of the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870, Czanne and his mistress, Marie-Hortense Fiquet, left Paris for L'Estaque, near Marseilles, where he changed themes to predominantly landscapes. He was declared a draft dodger in January 1871, but the war ended the next month, in February, and the couple moved back to Paris, in the summer of 1871. After the birth of their son Paul in January 1872, in Paris, they moved to Auvers in Val-d'Oise near Paris. Czanne's mother was kept a party to family events, but his father was not informed of Hortense for fear of risking his wrath. The artist received from his father an allowance of 100 francs.[citation needed]

Jas de Bouffan, 1876

Camille Pissarro lived in Pontoise. There and in Auvers he and Czanne painted landscapes together. For a long time afterwards, Czanne described himself as Pissarro's pupil, referring to him as "God the Father", as well as saying: "We all stem from Pissarro."[26] Under Pissarro's influence Czanne began to abandon dark colours and his canvases grew much brighter.[27] Leaving Hortense in the Marseille region, Czanne moved between Paris and Provence, exhibiting in the first (1874) and third Impressionist shows (1877). In 1875, he attracted the attention of the collector Victor Chocquet, whose commissions provided some financial relief. But Czanne's exhibited paintings attracted hilarity, outrage, and sarcasm. Reviewer Louis Leroy said of Czanne's portrait of Chocquet: "This peculiar looking head, the colour of an old boot might give [a pregnant woman] a shock and cause yellow fever in the fruit of her womb before its entry into the world."[28] In March 1878, Czanne's father found out about Hortense and threatened to cut Czanne off financially, but, in September, he relented and decided to give him 400 francs for his family. Czanne continued to migrate between the Paris region and Provence until Louis-Auguste had a studio built for him at his home, Jas de Bouffan, in the early 1880s. This was on the upper floor, and an enlarged window was provided, allowing in the northern light but interrupting the line of the eaves. This feature remains today. Czanne stabilized his residence in L'Estaque. He painted with Renoir there in 1882 and visited Renoir and Monet in 1883.[citation needed]

Mature period, Provence, 18781890


In the early 1880s the Czanne family stabilized their residence in Provence where they remained, except for brief sojourns abroad, from then on. The move reflects a new independence from the Paris-centered impressionists and a marked preference for the south, Czanne's native soil. Hortense's brother had a house within view of Montagne Sainte-Victoire at Estaque. A run of paintings of this mountain from 1880 to 1883 and others of Gardanne from 1885 to 1888 are sometimes known as "the Constructive Period". The year 1886 was a turning point for the family. Czanne married Hortense. In that year also, Czanne's father died, leaving him the estate purchased in 1859; he was 47. By 1888 the family
Mont Sainte-Victoire (c. 1887), Courtauld Institute of Art

was

in

the

former

manor,

Jas

Paul Czanne

de Bouffan, a substantial house and grounds with outbuildings, which afforded a new-found comfort. This house, with much-reduced grounds, is now owned by the city and is open to the public on a restricted basis. Also in that year Czanne broke off his friendship with mile Zola, after the latter used him, in large part, as the basis for the unsuccessful and ultimately tragic fictitious artist Claude Lantier, in the novel L'uvre. Czanne considered this a breach of decorum and a friendship begun in childhood was irreparably damaged.
Jas de Bouffan, 18851887

Final period, Provence, 18901905


Czanne's idyllic period at Jas de Bouffan was temporary. From 1890 until his death he was beset by troubling events and he withdrew further into his painting, spending long periods as a virtual recluse. His paintings became well-known and sought after and he was the object of respect from a new generation of painters. The problems began with the onset of diabetes in 1890, destabilizing his personality to the point where relationships with others were again strained. He traveled in Switzerland, with Hortense and his son, perhaps hoping to restore their relationship. Czanne, however, returned to Provence to live; Hortense and Paul junior, to Paris. Financial need prompted Hortense's return to Provence but in separate living quarters. Czanne moved in with his mother and sister. In 1891 he turned to Catholicism.

Czanne alternated between painting at Jas de Bouffan and in the Paris region, as before. In 1895 he made a germinal visit to Bibmus Quarries and climbed Montagne Sainte-Victoire. The labyrinthine landscape of the quarries must have struck a note, as he rented a cabin there in 1897 and painted extensively from it. The shapes are believed to have inspired the embryonic "Cubist" style. Also in that year, his mother died, an upsetting event but one which made reconciliation with his wife possible. He sold the empty nest at Jas de Bouffan and rented a place on Rue Boulegon, where he built a studio. The relationship, however, continued to be stormy. He needed a place to be by himself. In 1901 he bought some land along the Chemin des Lauves, an isolated road on some high ground at Aix, and commissioned a studio to be built there (now open to the public). He moved there in 1903. Meanwhile, in 1902, he had drafted a will excluding his wife from his estate and leaving everything to his son. The relationship was apparently off again; she is said to have burned the mementos of his mother. From 1903 to the end of his life he painted in his studio, working for a month in 1904 with mile Bernard, who stayed as a house guest. After his death it became a monument, Atelier Paul Czanne, or les Lauves.

Pyramid of Skulls, c. 1901, The dramatic resignation to death informs several still life paintings Czanne made in his final period between 1898 and 1905 which take the skulls as their subject. Today the skulls themselves remain in Czanne's studio in a suburb of Aix-en-Provence.

Paul Czanne

Czanne's Doubt: An Essay by Maurice Merleau-Ponty


Czanne's stylistic approaches and beliefs regarding how to paint were analyzed and written about by the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty who is primarily known for his association with phenomenology and existentialism.[29] In his 1945 essay entitled Czanne's Doubt, Merleau-Ponty discusses how Czanne gave up classic artistic elements such as pictorial arrangements, single view perspectives, and outlines that enclosed color in an attempt to get a "lived perspective" by capturing all the complexities that an eye observes. He wanted to see and sense the objects he was painting, rather than think about them. Ultimately, he wanted to get to the point where "sight" was also "touch". He would take hours sometimes to put down a single stroke because each stroke needed to contain "the air, the light, the object, the composition, the character, the outline, and the style". A still life might have taken Czanne one hundred working sessions while a portrait took him around one hundred and fifty sessions. Czanne believed that while he was painting, he was capturing a moment in time, that once passed, could not come back. The atmosphere surrounding what he was painting was a part of the sensational reality he was painting. Czanne claimed: "Art is a personal apperception, which I embody in sensations and which I ask the understanding to organize into a painting." [30]

Legacy
After Czanne died in 1906, his paintings were exhibited in Paris in a large museum-like retrospective in September 1907. The 1907 Czanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne greatly affected the direction that the avant-garde in Paris took, lending credence to his position as one of the most influential artists of the 19th century and to the advent of Cubism. Czanne's explorations of geometric simplification and optical phenomena inspired Picasso, Braque, Metzinger, Gleizes, Gris and others to experiment with ever more complex multiple views of the same subject and eventually to the fracturing of form. Czanne thus sparked one of the most revolutionary areas of artistic enquiry of the 20th century, one which was to affect profoundly the development of modern art. A prize in his memory, called the Czanne medal, is granted by the city of Aix en Provence, in France for special achievement in the arts. Czanne's painting The Boy in the Red Vest was stolen from a Swiss museum in 2008. It was recovered in a Serbian police raid in 2012.[31]

Madame Czanne (Hortense Fiquet, 18501922) in a Red Dress (1888-90), oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.5 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Paul Czanne

Gallery
Paintings

The Black Marble Clock 18691871

A Modern Olympia 18731874 Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Mont Sainte-Victoire 18821885 Metropolitan Museum of Art

L'Estaque 18831885

The Bay of Marseilles, view from L'Estaque 1885

Mont Sainte-Victoire 18851887 Courtauld Institute Galleries, London

Jas de Bouffan 18851887 Minneapolis Institute of Art

Bather 18851887 Museum of Modern Art

Fatnacht (Mardi Gras) 1888 Pushkin Museum, Moscow

Boy in a Red Waistcoat 18881890 National Gallery of Art

Madame Czanne in the Greenhouse 18911892 Metropolitan Museum of Art

The House with Burst Walls 18921894 Metropolitan Museum of Art

Paul Czanne

Maison Maria on the way to the Chteau Noir 1895 Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas

Road Before the Mountains, Sainte-Victoire 18981902 Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Chteau Noir 19001904 National Gallery of Art, Washington, US

The Bathers 18981905 National Gallery, London, UK

Still life paintings

Still Life with an Open Drawer 18771879

The Basket of Apples 18901894 Art Institute of Chicago

Still Life, Drapery, Pitcher, and Fruit Bowl 18931894 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City

Still Life with Cherub 1895 Courtauld Institute Galleries, London

Watercolours

Boy with Red Vest 1890

Self-portrait 1895

Mill at the River 19001906

River with the Bridge of the Three Sources 1906 Cincinnati Art Museum

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Portraits and self-portraits

Portrait of Uncle Dominique 18651867 Metropolitan Museum of Art

Portrait of the Artist's Father Louis-Auguste Czanne, Reading 1866 National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Portrait of Achille Emperaire 1868 Muse d'Orsay

Paul Alexis reading to mile Zola 18691870 So Paulo Museum of Art

Self-portrait 1875 Muse d'Orsay

Portrait of Victor Chocquet 18761877

Self-portrait 18791882 Kunstmuseum, Bern

Madame Czanne Oil on canvas c. 1886 The Detroit Institute of Arts

Portrait of Paul Czanne's Son Pastel 18881890 The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Madame Czanne in a Red Dress c. 18901894 So Paulo Museum of Art

Portrait of Gustave Geffroy 1895 Muse d'Orsay

Self-portrait with Beret 18981900 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

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Notes
[1] J. Lindsay Czanne; his life and art, p.3 [2] J. Lindsay Czanne; his life and art, p.6 [5] A. Vollard First Impressions, p.16 [6] A. Vollard, First Impressions, p.14 [7] P. Machotka Narration and Vision, p.9 [9] J. Lindsay Czanne; his life and art, p.12 [10] Gowing 1988, p. 215 [11] P. Czanne Paul Czanne, letters, p.10 [12] J. Lindsay Czanne; his life and art, p.232 [13] Paul Czanne, Letters, edited by John Rewald, 1984. [14] Joris-Karl Huysmans, Trois peintres: Czanne, Tissot, Wagner, La Cravache, August 4, 1888. [15] Hans Sedlmayr, Art in Crisis: The Lost Center, London, 1957. (original German 1948) [16] Tomoki Akimaru, Czanne and the Steam Railway (1): A Transformation of Visual Perception in the 19th Century, 2012. (http:/ / tomokiakimaru. web. fc2. com/ cezanne_and_the_steam_railway_1. html) [17] Gowing 1988, p. 110 [20] Vollard, p.113114 [22] The scheme presented here is essentially that of the Encyclopdia Britannica. Some alternative names are mentioned. On the whole the various classifications tend to converge. [23] It is sometimes called "the Romantic Period", but Czanne was not primarily interested in Romanticism. The term here refers to personal disposition, rather than connection with a historical movement. [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [30] Gowing 1988, p. 10. Gowing 1988, p. 104. Brion 1974, p. 26 Rosenblum 1989, p. 348 Brion 1974, p. 34 Merleau-Ponty 1965

References
Brion, Marcel (1974). Czanne. Thames and Hudson. ISBN0-500-86004-1. Chun, Young-Paik (2006). "Melancholia and Czanne's Portraits: Faces beyond the mirror". In Griselda Pollock (ed.). Psychoanalysis and the Image. Routledge. ISBN1-4051-3461-5. Czanne, Paul; John Rewald, mile Zola, and Marguerite Kay (1941). Paul Czanne, letters. B. Cassirer. ISBN0-87817-276-9. OCLC 1196743 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1196743). Danchev, Alex (2012). Czanne: A Life. Profile Books (UK); Pantheon (US). ISBN978-1846681653. Gowing, Lawrence; Adriani, Gtz; Krumrine, Mary Louise; Lewis, Mary Tompkins; Patin, Sylvie; Rewald, John (1988). Czanne: The Early Years 18591872. Harry N. Abrams. Lehrer, Jonah (2007). "Paul Czanne, The Process of Sight". In Jonah Lehrer. Proust Was a Neuroscientist. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN0-618-62010-9. Klingsor, Tristan (1923). Czanne. Paris: Rieder. Lindsay, Jack (1969). Czanne: His Life and Art. United States: New York Graphic Society. ISBN0-8212-0340-1. OCLC 18027 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18027). Machotka, Pavel (1996). Czanne: Landscape into Art. United States: Yale University Press. ISBN0-300-06701-1. OCLC 34558348 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/34558348). Pissarro, Joachim (2005). Czanne & Pissarro Pioneering Modern Painting: 18651885. The Museum of Modern Art. ISBN0-87070-184-3. Rosenblum, Robert (1989). Paintings in the Muse d'Orsay. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. ISBN 1-55670-099-7. Vollard, Ambroise (1984). Czanne. England: Courier Dover Publications. ISBN0-486-24729-5. OCLC 10725645 (http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/10725645).

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External links
Artworks video (http://www.celalkaraman.net/guncel/paul-cezanne-google-logosu) Biography, Style and Artworks (http://www.artble.com/artists/paul_cezanne) National Gallery of Art, Czanne in Provence (http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2006/cezanne/index.shtm) Paul Czanne (http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=1053) at the Museum of Modern Art Czanne at the WebMuseum (http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cezanne/) Paul Cezanne studio (http://www.atelier-cezanne.com/aix-en-provence.html) The Murder c. 1867 (http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/walker/collections/19c/cezanne.aspx) Ecole Spciale de dessin (http://web.archive.org/web/20080602015004/http://www.cezanne-ecole.com/) Czanne's earliest works, from his time as a pupil at the art school of Aix-en-Provence (1859) (French) Map of Jas de Bouffan (http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2006/cezanne/mapb.shtm) smARThistory: Still Life with Apples, 18951898 (http://smarthistory.org/blog/39/ making-an-enhanced-podcast-with-camtasia/) www.paul-cezanne.org (http://www.paul-cezanne.org) Nearly 500 images of works by Paul Czanne Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies. (http://www.getty.edu/vow/ULANFullDisplay?find=paul+ cezanne&role=&nation=&prev_page=1&subjectid=500004793) ULAN Full Record Display for Paul Czanne. Getty Vocabulary Program, Getty Research Institute. Los Angeles, California.

Grafico Topico's Sue Smith reviews "Classic Cezanne" The art of Paul Cezanne Art Gallery of NSW 1998 (http://www.grafico-qld.com/content/classic-cezanne) Tomoki Akimaru, "Czanne and the Steam Railway (1)~(7)", 2012. (http://tomokiakimaru.web.fc2.com/ cezanne_and_the_steam_railway_1.html) Paul Cezanne (http://www.pubhist.com/person/287/paul-cezanne) at PubHist : Related navpages: {{Post-Impressionism}} {{Fauvism}} {{Western art movements}}

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors


Paul Czanne Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=567483980 Contributors: 12.88.160.xxx, 12.88.164.xxx, 1exec1, 207Jensen, 2A01:348:24E:B:0:0:0:46, 5 albert square, 777sms, Abdullais4u, Adambro, AderS, AdjustShift, AgnosticPreachersKid, Ahoerstemeier, Akuru, Alansohn, Alcmaeonid, Ale jrb, All Hallow's Wraith, Ambagrimma, And we drown, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andrea105, Andrewrost3241981, AnnaFrance, Arakunem, Art LaPella, Artethical, Artlover, Aruton, Asrghasrhiojadrhr, AssistantX, Astarte, Atif.t2, Attilios, Avijja, BD2412, Baddog144, Ballista, BarbarellaTwo, Baseball Bugs, Bashereyre, Benfo-Dutch, Besseyman, Betterusername, Bhadani, Bharat.jat1, Bigbluefish, Blehfu, Bobo192, Bongwarrior, BoomerAB, Bopsqueebedee, Brogman, Broom71, Brownga, Bsadowski1, Bullzeye, Bunnybix, Bus stop, Cacophony, CalJW, CambridgeBayWeather, Camw, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Canthusus, Capricorn42, Catgut, Cbernasc, Cekli829, Celithemis, Cesanne, Ceyockey, Ch'marr, Chasingsol, Chaszz, Chickenmayomaster1, Chimino, Chrisch, ChristensenCT, Chun-hian, Chuy611, Ciceronl, Ckatz, Coldcreation, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Conversion script, Coonknight, Cornischong, Costonboy1, Courcelles, Crzycheetah, Cst17, Ctbolt, Cymsdale, Cynthia B., CyrilB, D6, DVD R W, DVdm, DW, Dachshund, Danny, Darth Panda, Deflective, Dekisugi, Deor, DerHexer, Derek R Bullamore, Devoxo, Dgw, Diecor397, Diogenes5, Dirkbb, Discospinster, Dlae, Docboat, Donarreiskoffer, Dornicke, DoubleBlue, Download, Dpeters11, DropDeadGorgias, Drszucker, Duncanssmith, Dwight Burdette, Dysepsion, E. 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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Paul cezanne 1861.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_cezanne_1861.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Crakkerjakk, Durova, G.dallorto, Jarekt, Neitram, Raymond, Scewing, 1 anonymous edits File:Woman in a Green Hat (by Paul Czanne, 1894-95).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Woman_in_a_Green_Hat_(by_Paul_Czanne,_1894-95).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ceoil, Donarreiskoffer, DragonflySixtyseven, Mwanner File:Paul Czanne, Les joueurs de carte (1892-95).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne,_Les_joueurs_de_carte_(1892-95).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Avatar, Ham, Luestling, Mattes, Olivier2, Rlbberlin, Wmpearl, Wst, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 047.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_047.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E, Mattes, Sumanch, Talmoryair, Zolo File:Czanne, Paul - Still Life with a Curtain.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Czanne,_Paul_-_Still_Life_with_a_Curtain.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bohme, Boo-Boo Baroo, Olpl, Platonides, Shakko, Sumanch, Sv1xv, Yann, Zolo, 1 anonymous edits File:Overture.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Overture.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ghirlandajo, Hellevoetfotoshoot, Kaganer, Shakko, File:Jas de bouffan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jas_de_bouffan.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, Diomede, Ghirlandajo, Mattes, Shakko File:Paul Czanne 107.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_107.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Ham, Jmdesbois, Okki, Olivier2, Oxxo, Rlbberlin, Scewing, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 079.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_079.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, Diligent, EDUCA33E, Jmdesbois, Mattes, Olivier2, Sumanch File:Paul Czanne, Pyramid of Skulls, c. 1901.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne,_Pyramid_of_Skulls,_c._1901.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Avatar, Goldfritha, Jarekt, Luestling, Olivier2, Ranveig, Xenophon, Yone Fernandes, Zolo, 3 anonymous edits

File:Paul Czanne, 1888-90, Madame Czanne (Hortense Fiquet, 18501922) in a Red Dress, oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.5 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne,_1888-90,_Madame_Czanne_(Hortense_Fiquet,_18501922)_in_a_Red_Dress,_oil_on_canvas,_116.5_x_89.5_cm,_The_Metropolitan_Museum_of_Art,_New License: Public Domain Contributors: Coldcreation File:Paul Czanne 052.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_052.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E File:Paul Cezanne, A Modern Olympia, c. 1873-1874.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Cezanne,_A_Modern_Olympia,_c._1873-1874.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Avatar, Luestling, Olivier2, Pimbrils, Ranveig, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 115.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_115.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Aavindraa, Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, Diomede, EDUCA33E, Jmdesbois, Okki, Olivier2, Sailko, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 090.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_090.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Ionutzmovie, Olivier2 File:Paul Czanne 044.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_044.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Irnie, Olivier2, Rlbberlin, Zolo File:Paul Czanne 083.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_083.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, Diomede, EDUCA33E, Jmdesbois, Lna, Olivier2, Wst File:Paul Czanne 014.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_014.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Jastrow, Jynto, Skipjack, Zolo, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 060.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_060.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E, Emijrp, Julmin, Luigi Chiesa, Mattes, Rlbberlin, Shakko, Wst, Zigeuner File:Paul Czanne 088.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_088.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk, Civvi, EDUCA33E, G.dallorto, Ham, Shakko, Taragui, Wst

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Paul Czanne 125.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_125.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Alcmaeonid, Boo-Boo Baroo, Diomede, EDUCA33E, Hsarrazin, Krscal, Olivier2, Sailko File:Paul Czanne 033.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_033.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, EDUCA33E File:Paul Czanne 100.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_100.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Jmdesbois, Juanpdp, TomAlt File:Paul Czanne 210.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_210.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, Diomede, EDUCA33E, Okki, Olivier2, Shakko File:Paul Czanne 026.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_026.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Scewing File:Paul Czanne 048.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_048.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AxelBoldt, Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E, Ham, Scewing File:Paul Czanne 193.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_193.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E, Flominator File:Paul Czanne 185.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_185.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E, Jenaesthetics, Skipjack, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 169.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_169.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Bohme, Boo-Boo Baroo, Conrad Leviston, EDUCA33E, Ecummenic, Jean-Frdric, Mindmatrix, Nillerdk File:Paul Czanne 195.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_195.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, EDUCA33E, Ham, Oxxo, Wst File:Paul Czanne 086.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_086.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Bohme, Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E, Jarekt, Mogelzahn, Quibik, 2 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 151.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_151.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Deerstop, EDUCA33E, Jarekt, Quibik, Vincent Steenberg, Warburg, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 117.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_117.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, EDUCA33E File:Paul Czanne 063.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_063.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Bukk, Diomede, EDUCA33E, Emijrp, Ronaldino, Wmpearl, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 133.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_133.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bohme, Diomede, EDUCA33E, Olivier2, Sailko, Sumanch File:Paul Czanne 130.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_130.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Docu, EDUCA33E, Emijrp, FA2010, Scewing, Tamba52, Wst, Xenophon File:Paul Czanne 127.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_127.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: EDUCA33E, Ecummenic, FA2010, Olivier2, Vassil, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne - Paul Alexis L um Manuscrito a Zola.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_-_Paul_Alexis_L_um_Manuscrito_a_Zola.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Dornicke, Mattes, Saibo, Xenophon File:Paul Czanne 149.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_149.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, EDUCA33E, Jarekt, Olivier2, Tancrde, Vincent Steenberg, Warburg, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 137.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_137.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boo-Boo Baroo, Cirt, EDUCA33E, Mu, Zolo File:Paul Czanne 154.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_154.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Diomede, Docu, EDUCA33E, Frank C. Mller, Jarekt, Kramer Associates, Mattes, Xenophon, Zolo File:Paul Czanne Madame Czanne.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_Madame_Czanne.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Dwight Burdette, Mu, Sailko, Themightyquill File:Paul Czanne 143.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_143.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk, EDUCA33E, Krscal, Mel22, Tamba52 File:Cezanne - Madame Cezanne in Rot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cezanne_-_Madame_Cezanne_in_Rot.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dornicke, Krscal, Mefusbren69, Sumanch File:Paul Czanne 141.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_141.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Docu, EDUCA33E, Emijrp, Shakko, Solbris, Sumanch, Tamba52, 1 anonymous edits File:Paul Czanne 156.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paul_Czanne_156.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk, Cirt, Dierker, Docu, EDUCA33E, Hsarrazin, Jacklee, Jarekt, Rlbberlin, Sumanch, Takabeg, Zolo, 1 anonymous edits

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