Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 79

CAHKT-nETEPEyPrCKMM FOCYAAPCTBEHHblH YHHBEPCMTET BOCTOHHWM OAKYJIbTET HHflMHCKOH

CCTaeacTiiiepHa B KnacctmecKyK)

noco6ue

CaHKT-IIeTepSyprcKoro 2003

: R. (J)HJIOJI. HayK npoc)}. B.F.3pMaH (CFI6ry) H KaH,n. (J)HJIOJL HayK JXOIX. H.B.FypoB (CF16ry)
HH/JHHCKOH (J)HJiojiorHH
K nenaTH

yneHbiM COBCTOM BocTOMHoro (|>aKyjibTeTa

TaBacTiiiepHa C.C. BBeACHHe B KjiaccMHecxyK) caHCKpHTCKyio MeTpHKy. yne6Hoe noco6He. CI16.: H3^-BO C.-fIeTep6. yH-Ta? 2003. 76 c.

M3dctHue nodaomoejieno npu (puHaHcoeou noddepotCKe Flocojibcmea Mnduu e MocKse, FeHepcuibHoso Koncyjibcrnea Hnduu e CauKm-Ilemepdypee u l^enmpa UH6UUCKUX uccjiedoeanuu npu

J1nuen3Hfl M A ^ 05679 OT 24.08.2001 nozurtHcano B nenaTb 7.07.2003. OopMaT 60x84'/16. ByMara 0(|)ceTHa. neMaTbO(j)ceTH Yc^i. neM. JI. 4,28. THpa>ic 100 3K3. 3aKa3 $ . 199034, Camcr-rieTepGypr, y H H B e p c M T e T C K a H Ha6., 7/9 Ten. (812) 328-77-63; ( [ ) a K C (812) 328-44-22 E-mail: books@dk2478.spb.edu www.unipress.ru LJOn THnorpa(|)HH M3#aTejiLCTBa CU6FY 199061, C.-neTep6ypr, C p e A H H H np., 41

Om aemopa ffaHHoe yne6uoe nocoSue pa3pa6omano na ocuoee Kypcoe neKuuu no meMe "Beedeuue e KJiaccunecKyw cancKpumcKyto AtempUKy" u npedHasnaneno dm cmydeHmoeuudojioeoe cmapuiux Kypcoe ((pmiojioeoe, ucmopuKoe). Aemop ebipaotcaem znySoKyio npU3HamejibH0cmb IJocoJibcmey Muduu e MocKee, FenepajibNOMy Koucyjibcmey Hnduu e CaHKm-F[emep6ypee u U,enmpy uuduucKiix uccjiedoeauuu npu CndFV 3a (j)uuaHCoeyio noddepjKKy dawiOBO u3daHiw. Ocodyio djiaaodapnocmb xonemcH ebipa3umb npocj). Hlpuuueaca Aiiun UlpuHueacany (Fcmdyps), Hbu ayduo-3anucu ucnojib3oecuiucb npu nmenuu Kypca u pa3pa6omKe noco6m no MempuKe, a maKoice npocp. T.M.OpaucKou (FaM6ypz) u npo<p. FIypo6u Pou (KcuibKymma) 3a codeucmeue e co3dauuu dannoeo nocodun.

L K j i a c c H H e c K a n m M U K kasi "MempuKa - zpaMMamuKa no33uu "

1.1. MeTpHKa KaK coBOKyiraocTb npaBHji CTpoeHHH CTHxa O#HHM H3 BaHCHeihirax acneicroB noarHnecKOH peMH. H3yneHHe Taioax npaBHji BacHO He TOJIBKO noTOMy, MTO no/jaBiunomee 6ojnniHHCTBO TCKCTOB B HH#HH co3AaBajiocb B MeTpHMecKOH (})opMe. CymecTBeHHbiM BjmeTCH H TO, H T O MeTpHHeCKH OpraHH3OBaHHbIH TCKCT BLinOJIHfleT pa3JIHHHBie 1) MHeMOHHHeCKa^ (J)yHKI|HH, ripaiCTHHeCKH B C H HHAHHCKaa CJIOBeCHOCTb Ha MHornx CTOJieTHii cymecTBOBajia B ycraoH 4>opMe. HMCHHO pHKe y,nejiHjiocL oco6oe BHHMaHHe, nocKOjn>Ky pHTMH3OBaHHtiH T, Kaic H3BecTHO, jtyHine coxpaHaeTCH H P&KQ MoaceT 6brri> BOCcraHOBjieH npH BO3HHKHOBCHHH GIHH6OK. 2) GMi>icjioo6pa3yK)maJi 4>yHKi^Hii. MeTpiwecKH ynopOToneHHa^ pent - 3TO TO^ce peiib, noaTOMy OHa noAHHmieTCH npaBHjiaM npOH3HOiueHHH, CHHTaKCHCa, HHTOHHpOBaHHH H T.A- 3HaHHe MCTpHKH ^a He TOJIBKO JUUI npaBHjn>Horo npoH3HonieHHfl, HO H ^KaHHa CXHXOTBOpHblX TeKCTOB. 3) 3cTeTHHecKaa ^yHKUiPw. Bonpoc 06 3CTeTHMecKOH pojiH BjiaeTCH Hpe3BbnaHHO cjio^KHbiM H eiue Majio H3yHeHHWM, HO Bce-TaKH He Sy^eT OHIH6OMHI>IM yTBep^a,eHHe, HTO MeTpnica ecrb O#HH H3 KjooneH K nOHHMaHHK) nO33HH, a H H A H H C K O H B OCO6eHHOCTH. 1.2. HCTOKH CailCKpHICKOH MCIpIIKM B caMbix paHHHx naMHTHHicax HHAHHCKOH cjiOBecHOCTH - Be#ax Mbl HaXOAHM y>Ke pa3BMTyK> CHCXeMy CTHXOCJIO5KeHH5I C M H O S K e C T B O M CTHxoTBOpHbix pa3MepOB. MeTpw (Hxcwdac) B ApeBHeii HHAHH nacTO O6O)KeCTBJMJIHCb H IiepCOHH(j)HIJHpOBaJIHCb (o6bPIHO B O6pa3e MH<J)HHeCKHX cynapn), Ha^emuracb nyAecHbiMH CBOHCTBaMH, no3TOMy HM eme H MarHHecKaa ^yHK^3^- TaK, HanpHMep, sanmpu, Han6ojiee noMHTaeMbra MeTp, COCTOHIUHH H3 Tpex nad (T.C cxpyicrypHbix e/HiHHU. CTpO^bl, CM. HH>Ke) no BOCeMb CJIOFOB B Ka>K^OH? HCnOJIb3OBajICH PJISL o6peTeHiw eAHHCTBa c BpaxManou - a6cojnoTOM. Tpuiumy6x (4 nadu no 11 cjioroB) - Merp KiuaTpHeB H uapcKoii BjiacTH. Yutnux, cocroflmHH H3 28 cjioroB, cHMBOJiH3Hpyer B Be#ax cH3Hb, cueAOBaTejibHo, c ero

Ao6HBajraci> #ojiroH 2KH3HH. JHoicazamu (12 cjnoroB x 4 nadbi) u nauKmu (8 CJIOIDB x 5 nad) - J\JW o6peTeHna o6HJii>Horo CKOTa. Epuxamu (36 cjioroB) jxnsi cjiaBbi H npH3HaHHi!. Anywmy6x (8 cuoroB x 4 nadbi) - JIJISI o6peTeHHfl Mecra Ha He6ecax. Bupadotc (30 cjioroB) - JUIR OSHJILHOH ronnH. B B KjiaccHHecjcyio 3noxy, H3 CTaptix BeAHHCKHX BO3HHKJIO HOBblX CTHXOTBOpHtLX pa3MepOB. CJIOB HeoSxo^HMO CKa3aTi> o cjioBe "chandas", KOTopoe ynOTpe6jMK)T RSW 0603HaHeHHfl MeTpHHeCKOH peHH. CJIOBO 3T0 BectMa >sipeBHee H 3a(})HKCHpOBaHO y^ce B PHrBe^e. CymecTByeT nonyMpHaa 3THMOJiorHfl, Bocxo^ama^ K jiHTepaType 6paxMaH H ynaHHuia^, r^e H3JiaraeTCH MH$ O TOM, Kaic 6orH, y6oaBniHCb CMepTH? npoHHKjiH B TpoHHoe 3HaHHe (TpH Be#M) H 3aKpbijiHCb (3aimiTHjiHCb) HxaiwacaMH (chandobhir acchadayan, ^xaimorta-ynaHHinaAa 1.4.2), T.e. 3Aecb CJIOBO BO3BOAHTC K Koprao "chad" - "noKpMBaTB". Ilo^o6Hoe xojiKOBaHHe BCTpexiaeTca B IlIaTanaTxa-SpaxMaHe (8.5.1.1). 3Ty me 3THMOjiorrao npeAJiaraeT ilcKa B "HHpyicre", HO, BepOHTHO, 3aHMCTBya ee H3 6paxMaHHnecKOH jiHTepaTypbi. TaKoii XOR MLICJIH BnojiHe onpaB^aH, H6O, i<aK 6I>IJIO cica3aHO Bbinie, pent BwnojiHHeT (^yHKutmo coxpaHeHHH, TeM 6ojiee, ecjm pent o cB^meHHOM 3HaHHH. 3HaMeHHTbiH KOMMeHTaTop Be,a Ca^Ha T, HTO "MerpHHecKaa pent 3amHmaeT Bapm>i-(|)OHeMi>i" (KOMM. Ha ^HaHBaTa-6paxMaHy 3.19). B caHCKpHTe ecrb eme O^HH OMOHHMHHHWH KopeHt "chad", o3HaHaiomHH "crpeMjieHHe", "jKenaHHe", "npoHBjieHHe BOJIH" (^xaTynaTxa 1.801: "chadl urjane"), a TaK^ce 3a(J)HKCHpOBaHO H OMOHHMHHHoe OTrjiarojibHoe HMH "chandas" B 3HaneHHH BO3MO^CHO, o6a CJIOBH poACTBeHHw H CKJIOHHW BO3BOAHTb ASHHOe CJIOBO K O BTOpOMy KOpHK). T.e. MO>KHO 6bijio 6bi noHTb icaic 1.3. CHCTeMI*! CTHXOCJIOJKeHHJI 1.3.1. BeAHMCKan MexpHKa IlepByK) (BeAHHCKyK)) CTaAHK) pa3BHTHM CTHXOCJIO5KeHH Ha3bIBaK)T CHJIJia6HMeCKOH. CHJIJia6HHeCI<HMH MeTpbi. OCHOBHOH crpyicrypHOH eAHHHueH crpo(j) B ravmax mrweTCH nada (pada) HJIH CTHX, B KOTOPOM K2CKM% CTpoc[)a, KaK npaBHjio, COCTOHT H3 Tpex HJIH neTbipex naA, o6pa3y>i TpeXCTHIHHil, HeTBepOCTHHIHJI H T.A- CTpO^H o6bIHHO ACJiaTCa Ha ABe HaCTH, H ecjiH B OAHOH- Tai<OH HacrH 6ojiee OAHOH naAw, TO OHH npOH3HOc^Tca Ha

#bixaHHH, T.e. c codjnoACHHeM 3B(J)OHHH (caHAXH) Ha crBiKax naAMe>*cAy nojiOBHHaMH cTpoc[)w 3B(J)OHHH He nponcxoAHT H3-3a He6ojibinoH (nay3w) B HTCHHH. JJjw Be^HHCKHx MeTpoB xapaicrepHo KOJiHnecTBO cjioroB, npOH3BOjn>HOCTb HanajibHbix (KaK npaBHjio, nepBLix neTbipex) cjioroB H HeKOTopaa ynop^AoneHHOCTb B 3aKjnoHaiomeH Macro na^bi (KaAeHnjtm, KOTopaa, KaK npaBHjio, cocraBjraeT nocjieAHHe 4-5 CJioros). B Be^ax MM o6Hapy)KHBaeM TpH ocHOBHbix THna CTHxoTBopHbix pa3MepoB: a) BOCbMHCJIOHCHblH, 6) B) OT B 3THX Tpex THnax Bbi#ejiaeTCJi TpH caMwx CTHxoTBopHbix pa3Mepa: ra^rrpH, TpHnny6x H /pKaraTH, o KOTopbix B AHrapea-6paxMaHe H3JiaraeTc^i HHTepecHbrti MH$ O 3THX Tpex pa3MepoB. Bo-nepBbix, MeTpw, KaK H Boo6me Penb (Vac), TCCHO CB^3aHbi c pmyajiOM COMM 6eccMepTHfl. C noMombio PenH HJIH ^[xaimacoB, KOTopwe cyTb TO^ce 60 rn o6peTaK>T Co My. B yKa3aHHOH 6paxMaHe (AHTapea-GpaxMaHa 3.25-28) TOBOpHTCH, M T O H3HaMajIbHO BCe MeTpbl 6bIJIH OAHHaKOBblMH H COCTOHJIH H3 neTbipex cjioroB-aKniap (3aMeTHM, HTO name Bcero Merpw onpeAejiniOTCii HMeHHO no KOjiHHecTBy cjioroB B naja,e 6e3 yKa3aHH KOJinnecTBa naA HJIH no oSnjeMy KOjiHHecTBy cjioroB B CTpo({)e). 3TH ^IxaHAacbi npHHJura O6JIHK nTHi^ CynapH H OTnpaBHjincb Ha HeGeca, r/je o6HTaeT CoMa. ,3^caraTH npojieTeji TOJibKO nojiOBHHy nyTH H BepHyjica, noTep^B npn 3TOM Tpn cjiora. TpHiiny6x TO^ce BepHyjicn HH C neM, noTepaB OAHH cjior. FaaTpn 5Ke Aocrnr uejiH, HO npn 3TOM noAo6paji yTpaneHHbie ApyrHMH MeipaMH nerape aicniapbi. T.o. Tenepb y Fa^Tpn BoceMb cjioroB ( 8 x 3 na^w). Ho npn STOM ocraBniHecH ABa Merpa, 6yAynH ym,ep6HbiMH, He MoryT coBepnrarb pHTyan. H TorAa FaaTpH BOCcoeAHHiieTca c ocTaTKaMH TpHniTy6xa (8 + 3), no3TOMy Tenepb y TpHinTySxa 11 cjioroB (11 x 4 naAw). Taioice H JJ^KaraTu, BOCCOeAHHHBniHCb C FaaTpH H TpHHITy6xOM (8 + 3 + 1), CTaHOBHTCfl ABeHaAU,aTHCJio)KHbiM (12 x 4 naA*>i).
OAHOM

BoCbMUCJIOJICHbie pO3Mepbl B BOCbMHCjioacHbix BeAHHCKHx Meipax nepBbie neTbipe cjiora npOH3BOJibHbie, a nocjieAHHe (KaAeHn;Ha), icaK npaBHjio, XXXX KJ LJ X BCTpexiaiOTGH BOCbMHCJIOCHHICH C "TpOXeHHCCKOH" XXXX U X

nocreneHHO AamibiH MeTp cxpeMHTca K ynopjmoiieHHocra H B nepBbix H npHHHMaeT cjieAyiomHH BHA: X KJ L^X x Han6ojiee pacnpocTpaHeHHbiii H noHHTaeMbiH BOCBMHCJIOH<HI>IH B BeAax - eanrnpu (gayatri), KOTOPWH COCTOHT H3 Tpex naA. Crpo(})a
Ha JIBQ nacTH: 16 + 8.

IIpHMep C "flM6MHeCKOH" Ka^eHlUHeH! agnim lie purohitam yajnasya devara rtvijam I hotaram ratnadhatamaim \\ (PHrBe^a 1.1.1) FIpHMep c "TpoxeHHecKoii" Ka/i^Hi^HeH: tuvam no agne mahobhih palii visvasya arateh I uta dviso martiyasya II (PHrBe/ja 8.7.1) pacnpocTpaHeHHfciii BOCBMHCJIOJKHHK - 3TO anyiumy6x (anustubh), COCTO^IUHH H3 Menbipex naA no BOceMb CJIOFOB, T.e. 16 anoroB + 16 cjioroB. MeTpHHecicaji crpyicTypa TaKaa TKQ, KZK H y rampH. npHMep: k yas te sarpirasute agne sam asti dhiyase I aisu dyumnam uta srava a cittam martiyesu dhali II (PHraeAa 5.7.9) B npoaecce pa3BHTHa B ^aHHOM MeTpe npoaBjwexca TeimeHmw HeneTHwx H HCTHBIX na#: npuneM neTHbie ocraiOTCH Hce, KaK onncaHO BLiuie, a B HeneiHtix npeAnocjieAHHH cuor x x x x u - X xxxxu u x 10.136.07a 10.136.07b 10.136.07c 10.136.07d vayiir asma upamanthat pinasti sma kunansiama I kesi visasya pMrena yad radreii^pibat saha II (PHrBe^a 10.136.7) aHyinTy6xa iuiaccHxiecKoro pa3Mepa - UUIOKIL

JJpyrUQ pa3H0BHH0CTH BOCbMHCJIOtfCHHKOB B Be#aX OTJIHHaiOTCfl OT yKa3aHHbix Bbiine TOJIBKO KOJimecTBOM naA, npHHeM OHH BocnpHHHMaiOTOi B KanecTBe "paciuHperow" HMeroniHxcn MeTpoB. Macro "#onojiHHTejii>Hi>ie" na#bi BBirjDiA^T KaK pe(J)peHbi (noBTopti). Pa3Mep nauKmu (paiikti) npozjcraBjifleT CO6OH "paciuHpeHHe" aHyniTy6xa Ha o#Hy na/^y, T.e. OH COCTOHT H3 nnTH BOCI>MHCJIO^HI>IX na,A (Bcero 40 cjioroB). fleneHHe CTpo(})bi: 2 na#Bi + 3 na^ti. TIpHMep: itthi hi soma in made brahma cakara vardhanam I savistha vajrin ojasa prthivyS nih sasa ahim drcann dim svardjiyam II sa tvamadad vfsa madah somah syenabhrtah sutah I yena vitram nir adbhiyo jaghantha vajrin ojasa drcann dnu svardjiyam II (PnrBeAa 1.80.1-2) Pa3Mep uaxananKmu (mahapankti) npeACTaBJiaeT CO6OH "paciiiHpeHHe" anyinTy6xa Ha ^Be na^w, T.e. OH COCTOHT H3 uiecTH BOCbMHCJiO5KHbix naA (Bcero 48 cjioros). ^ejieHHe CTpo(J)bi: 2 na^w + 4 na#bi. TlocjieAHHe ^Be na^w - pe(|)peH. mahi vo mahatim avo varuna mitra dasuse I yam aditya abhi dmlio raksatha nem agham nasad anehdso va iitdyah suiltdyo va iitdyah II

vida deva aghanam Sdityaso apakrtim I paksS vayo yathopari vi asme sarma yachata anehdso va utdyah suutdyo va iltdyah II (PnrBe,na 8.47.1-2) Pa3Mep uicmeapu (sakvarl) npe/jcraBjraeT CO6OH "pacuiHpeHHe" naHKTH na #Be na^w, T.e. OH COCTOHT H3 ceMH BOCbMHCJiOHCHbix naA (Bcero 56 cjioroB).fl,ejieHHecrpo^wi 2 na#i>i + 5 na^ IlocjieAHHe 2 najw - pet})peH. IIpHMep: pro su asmai puroratham Indraya susam arcata I abhlke cid ulokakft samge samatsu vrtrahi asmakam bodhi codita tidbhantdm anyakesdm jiyakd ddhi dhdnvasu II tuvam sindhur avasrjo adharico ahann ahim I asatmr indra jaj&ise visvam pusyasi viriyam tarn tva pari svajamahe tidbhantdm anyakesdm jiyakd ddhi dhdnvasu II (PnrBeAa 10.133.1-2)

MeTpw HMeiOT TpexHjieHHyio CTpyioypy. "aa^iHHa", nocjie KOTOporo cjie;iyeT i^e3ypa, cpeAHeii nacTH H Ka^eHEtHH. U,e3ypa cjie/iyeT nocjie HCTBepToro HJIH n^Toro cjiora. 3aiiHHbi C O C T O H T H3 4-X HJIH 5-H CJIOrOB, npHHeM pHTM
OHH COCTOHT H3

3axiHH H3 MeTbipex cjioroB:

x x 10

3HHHH H3 IDITH CJIOrOB.'

a) ())

X X

X X XUX

a) KJ KJ (ije3ypa nocne naToro cjiora) 6) ^ u (u,e3ypa nocne iieTBepToro cjiora) (nocneAHHe neTLipe cjiora) "TpoxeHMecicafl": JIOTLTHH + KparicHH + IlpOH3BOJIbHBIH.

B HTore nojiyMaeTCH TpH pa3H0BHAH0CTH OAHHHazmaTHCJiOHCHoro Merpa: a) 6)


B)

x x x , u u | u

x|

x x u x, u u | - u x | x x, u u - | w x |

O6mee Ha3BaHHe Bcex OAHHHaAi^aTHCJiOMCHHKOB mpuuimySx (tristubh). CaMbiH pacnpocrpaHeHHWH BapHaHT TpHimy6xa H3 neTbipex na# no 11 cjioroB (2 najihi 4- 2 na^w), HO pe,AKO BCTpenaiOTca H TpHiirry6xH H3 AByx (dvipada, PB 7.17) HJIH Tpex (viiaj, PB 3.25) na^IIpHMep: hiranyagarbhah sam avartatigre kVu"\tasya jatah patir eka a sit I sa dadhara prthivim dyim utetnam kasmai devaya havisa vidhema II (PHrBe/ja 10.121.1) adityiaam avasa nutanena sakslmalii sarmana samtamena I anagastve adititve turSsa imam yajnam dadhatu srosamanah II (PHrBe^a 7.51.1) JJeenadiiamucjioMmbie mempbi Meipw, Ha3biBaeMbie dycaeamu (jagatl) co6oii "pacnrapeHHe" TpHniTySxa Ha OAHH cjior, T.e. B a) g) x x x, u u | xX , KJ ^J I
KJ KJ

x I KJ X

KJ

11

CTaH#apTHfeiH MeTp AHcaraTH COCTOHT H3 HeTtipex na# no 12 cjioroB. IIpHMep: ananudo vrsabho dodhato vadho gambhira rsvo asamastakaviyah I radhracodah snatkano vilitas prthur indrah suyajna usasah suvar janat II (PHrBe.ua 2.21 A) CMeutanuhie mempbi FaflTpH H A^caraTH o6pa3yK)T uejibin p ^ T.H. CMeinaHHbix O6pa3yK>TCH OHH CMeineHHeM na^ yica3aHHBix MeTpoB. Yiuuux (usnih): 8 + 8 + 1 2 (Bcero 28 cjioroB). IlpHMep: agne vijasya gomata Isanali sahaso yaho I asrae dhehi jatavedo malii sravah II (PHrBe^a 1.79.4) llypayuihux (purausnih): 12+8 + 8. IIpHMep: apsu antar amftam apsti bhesajam apira uta prasastaye I deva bhavata vajinah II (Pn:rBe,aa 1.23.19) KaKySx (kakubh): 8 + 1 2 + 8. IlpHMep: adha hi indra girvana upa tva kaman mahah sasrjmahe I udeva yanta udabhih II (PnrBeAa 8.98.7) Bpuxamu (brhati): 8 + 8 + 1 2 + 8 (Bcero 36 cjioroB). saclbhir nah sacivasu diva naktam dasasyatam I m5 vam ratii- upa dasat kada cana asmad ratih kada cana II (PHrBe^a 1.139.5) Camo6puxamu (satobrhati): 12 + 8 + 1 2 + 8 (Bcero 40 cjioroB). IIpHMep: janaso agniin dadhire sahovfdham havismanto vidhema te I sa tvam no adya sumana ihavitS bhava vijesu santiya II (PnrBeAa 1.36.2) 12

AmutuaKeapu (atisakvari): 8 4- 8 + 8, 8 + 8, 12 + 8 (Bcero 60 cjioroB). npHMep: susuma yatam adribhir gosrita matsara ime somaso matsari ime I k rajana divisprsa asmatra gantam upa nah I ime vam mitravaruna gavasirah somah sukra gavasirah II (PHrBe#a 1.137.1) AmbHuimu (atyasti): 12 + 12 + 8, 8 + 8, 12 + 8 (Bcero 68 ejioroB). IlpHMep: sa no nedistham dadrsana k bhara agne devebhih sacanah sucetuna maho rayah sucetuna I malii savistha nas krdhi samcakse bhuje asyai I mahi stotfbhyo maghavan suvlriyam mathlr ugro na savasa II (PHrBe^a 1.127.11) 1.3.2. Ha nepBOH cra^HH pa3BHTH CHCTeMbi craxocjioDKeHira B i BH^HM Hanajio o4>opMjieHiw CHjuia6o-MeTpiwecKoro CTHxa. Ho OKOHnaTejibHO CHjuia6o-MeTpHKa ycroHjiact B KjiaccH^iecKH^; nepHOA. TOJILKO O^HH p33Mep B KJiaCCHHeCKOH CaHCKpHTCKOH nO33HH OCTaeTCH He nojiHOCTbio yperyjiHpOBaHHbiM: 3TO uuioKa - caMtiM pacnpbcTpaHeickbiH H3 H H A H H C K H X p33MepOB, KOTOpblH COXpaHfleT CTpyKTypy nO3AHeBeAHHCKOrO aHyuiTy6xa. IlOHTH BCe pa3MepW KJiaCCH^ieCKOH CaHCKpHTCKOH II033HH CHJIJia60e, T.e. HHCJIO CJIOrOB B HHX nOCTOHHHO, H nOJIO^CeHHC ROJITVLX H cjioroB HeTKo onpeACJieHO. HHBIMH cjiOBaMH, Ka>i<3biH pa3Mep CO6OH cnporo onpeAejieHHbrii pHTMHHecKHH pncyHOK. TaKce Bee CTpo(})fci cocroflT H3 HeTwpex nwiy pas^ejieHHBix Ha RBQ napsi (padayuga), ueyxjiy KOTOPBIMH AejiaeTCfl He6ojn>inaa nay3a. OCHOBHOH upumxnu nocTpoeHHfl, a xaioKe HTCHIW CHjuia6o-MeTpHHecKHx CTHXOB MO)KHO c(JK>pMyjiHpOBaTb OAHHM CJIOBOM: uampa (matra). Mampa - 3TO 13

jno6oro KpaTKoro cjiora, npHneM AJiHHa juo6oro .AOJiroro cjiora JSPJUKHSL npHpaBHHBaTbCfl #ByM MampoM: u u =no33HH nonuia Aajibiiie: OT CHjuia6o-MerpHHecKoro CTHXa K H H C T O MCTpKHeCKOMy HJIH KBaHTHTaTHBHO-MeTpHHCCKOMy. KoJIHHeCTBO CJIOrOB B CTpO(})e T H K H X MeTpOB M O H C e T MeHflTbCH, H O AJIHHa, Bbipa^eHHaa B Mampax, ocraerca HeH3MeHH0H. KBaHTHTaTHBHwe pa3Mepw He HanijiH uiHpoKoro npHMeHeHHH B caHCKpHTCKoii no33HH. B 3TO ace BpeM)i pa3BHBaK)TC>i T3K Ha3biBaeMfcie "neceHHbie" pa3Mepbi HJIH zana-nxandac. 3TO TO5Ke "MepocHHTaioiuHe" pa3Mepbi, HO OCHOBHOH e,zniHHJjeH cneTa B HHX BjiaeTC He uampa, a xaicr (earn), paBHbiH no AJiHTejitHOCTH neTbipeM MampaM. HanpHMep, O^HH H3 caMbix pacnpocTpaHeHHwx pa3MepoB TaKoro po^a apm COCTOHT H3 neTLipex CTHXOB - nad, npnneM nepBaa H TpeTbH HMeiOT no Tpn zanu HJIH 12 Mamp, BTopaa - 4,5 aanu HJIH 18 mamp, a HeTBepTaa nada - 15 Mamp, T.e. COCTOHT H3 3,5 ean c OAHHM KpaTKHM cjioroM 2-H H 3-H eauoMu. HeneTHbie H neTHbie zattbi, O K npaBHjio, B pHTMHHecKH KOHTpacTHpyK)H^He napbi, B pe3yjibTaTe nero
BO3HHKaeT HCHBOH H neBy^HH PHTM: I vj u I u U 1 . 3TH pa3Mepbi

T 3 K H C C He HCnOJIb3OBajIHCb UIHpOKO B CaHCKpHTCKOH nO33HH, nO3TOMy M03KH0 CKa3aTfc, H T O B OCHOBHOH CBOeH MaCCe CaHCKpHTCKHe

1.4. ^ojirwe H KpaTicne cjiorw HmpiHCKHe TeopeTHKH pa3JiHHaiOT ecrecTBeHHyio ^ojiroiy (dirgha) KpaTKoCTb (hrasva) cjiora H MeTpHHecicyio ^ojiroTy (guru) HJIH (laghu). CaMa no ce6e MerpHHecicaH AJiHHa cjiora OT i naeTC^ TOJibKo OAHHM: AOJITHH cjior Bcer^a paBeH ^ByM no AJiHHe 3ByMaHH^. KpaTKHe H ^ojirne cjiorn B MeTpHKe ie,zryK)rnHM o6pa3OM: 1. KpaTKHM CHHTaeTCfl JIK)6OH OTKpblTHH CJIOT, COAep>KamHH KpaTKHH rjiacHbiH (a, i, u, rf 1). 2. ^ojirne - Bee CJIOTH c /^ojirHM rjiacHbiM (a, I, u, I) HJIH ^ByrjiacHbiM (ef of ait au) H jno6oH 3aKpbiTbiH cjior. IIOMHMO Bcero ^OJITHMH CHHTaiOTCH CJIOTH c aHycsapOH, aHyHacHicoii H BHcapron.

14

3. IlpoH3BOJibHO TpaiayiOTCfl cjiorn, nocjie KOTOpbix cjie#yK)T coneTaHHfl kra, pray bra, hra. B TOICHX cjiynaax, B 3aBHCHM0CTH OT Tpe6oBaHH>i MeTpa, cjior ipaioyeTOi JIH6O KHK 3aicpbrrbiH, JIH6O Kax OTRPMTBIH. HanpHMep, B CJIOBC viprah (MyApeu) nepBbra cjior 3aKpbrrbiH, T.e. AOJiran, H iipoH3HOCHTbCfl CJIOBO 6y#eT xax: vip-rah. Ho ecjra pa3Mep Tpe6yeT, HTO6W nepBtoi cjior AaHHoro cjiOBa 6WJI KpaTKHH^ TO OH 6y,o;er np0H3H0CHTbc HHane: vi-prah 4. TaK >Ke npOH3BOJibHO TpaicryeTCH nocjiQAHHH cjior B JHO6OH nade, T.e. KOHeHHblH CJIOr, He3aBHCHM0 OT CBOeH KpaTKOCTH HJIH ^OJITOTbl, IIp0H3H0CHTCH KaK KpaTKHH HJIH AOJITHH B COOTBTCTBHH C Tpe6OBaHHCM

1.5. KowpoBKa MeTpoii H ycjioeHbie o6o3HaH


HHAHHCKOH CHcreMe o6o3HaneHHH jim KpaTKoro cjiora Qiaexy) cjior na (H) HJIH 3HaK danda (I), AOJiroro (zypy) JIH6O cjior za (^t), JIH6O 3Haic aeaepaxa (s). TaK, HanpHMep, pa3Mep undpamdotcpa (11 cjioroB) MOJICHO 3anHcarb AByMH cnoco6aMH*. CHMBOJIW:

2. 55 155 1 1 51 5 5 Ho Taicaa 3anwcb? B o6meM, He Hcnojib3yeTca, a Bee CHjijia6HHecKne pa3Mepbi B TpaAHUHOHHbix TpaicraTax no onHCbreaiOTca c noMOinbio CHCTeMbi ean. Fana - 3TO rpynna, cocroiiniaa H3 Tpex cjioroB H CHMBOJiHHecKH npeAcraBjieHHan B BH^e OAHOFO cjiora. Bee aanbi H HX o6o3HaHeHHfl nepenHCJieHbi HH^Ke: 1. ^r i s$ 2. T SIS 3. < T SSI 4. vr s \ i 5. *r is i 6. ^ i is 7. *r sss 8. T in C noMombK) 3THX ycjiOBHbix CHMBOJIOB, o6o3HaHaion^HX cpa3y TpH cjiora, H onHCbmaiOTCfl Bee pa3Mepw. ECJIH KOjinnecTBO cjioroB B nade He KpaTHO TpeM, Tor^a ^odaBjunoTCH npocTO cjiorn ^ T HJIH CT. TaK BbnneyKa3aHHbiH pa3Mep uudpaeadotcpa MO>ICHO 3anncaTb

15

1.6. Hjcnne caiiCKpiircKHx CTHXOB. caHCKpHTCKoro CHjijia6HHecKoro CTHxa OT npHHaToro B pyccKOH HJIH eBponencKOH no33HH. 3TO, KOHeMHO, CBfl3aHO C TeM, M T O B pyCCKOM H3WKe HCT 0Iin03HU,HH A O J H T H XH KpaTKHX cjioroB. Ho Bee )*ce MOHCHO ycMOTpeTb HeicoTopyio aHajiorrao B pyccKOM neceHHOM TBOpnecxBe, r^,e TCKCT IIOJXHUWIQTCK B OCHOBHOM pHTMHKe My3bIK3JIbHOH, a He eCTeCTBeHHO-CJIOBeCHOH. CaHCKpHTCKHH C T H X r MOCHO Ha3BaTb "M) 3biicajrbHi>iM", H Me^K^y ero HcnojmeHHeM H HCT 6OJII>IIIOH pa3HHi;bi (3aMeTHM7 HTO B HauieM noHHMaHHH CTHXH He MHTaiOT, a noiOT, Hcnojib3yfl npocTenuiHe MQJIQJXUK, HTO He HCKjnonaeT nepejiOKeHHH Ha 6onee cjio^cHyio MCJIOAHK), H Tor^a CTHX craHOBHTca yace necHefi). ECJIH npoAOJDKHTb aHajiormo /jajibme, TO MOH<HO CKa3aTb, MTO HeKOTopwe Mejio^HH B pyccKOM neceHHOM TBopnecrBe pHTMHHeCKH nOJIHOCTbK) COOTBeTCTByiOT HeKOTOpbIM CaHCKpHTCKHM CTHXOTBOpHbIM pa3Mep3M. BOT IIpHMep TaKOH neCHH! Ma MO,

Ma - Ma,

HTO

% 6y - #y

A$

U J U j IJ) j> j> * U B TpaAHUHOHHOH caHCKpHTCKOH McipHKe ^aHHaa Mejio/nifl 6bi

,HaHHbIH pHTM nOJIHOCTbK) COOTBeTCTByeT CaHCKpKTCKOMy ,I3,eCTHCJ10>iai0My pa3Mepy Mamma. FlpHMep: pitva raatta madhu madhupall kalindlye tatavanakufije/ uddivyantir vrajajanaraiiiah kainasakta madhujiti cakre// IIpH HTeHHH CaHCKpHTCKHX CTHXOB CJie/iyeT npHH^ITb B O BHHMaHHe 4>aKT, HTO rpaHHE[bi CJIOB H cjioroB MoryT He coBna^aTb, T.e. ecjin CJIOBO 3aKaHHHBaeTca Ha KpaTKHH rjiacHbiM, a cue^qyiomee HaMHHaeTCH Ha rpynny corjiacHbix, TO AaHHbiH cjior 6y#eT TpaicTOBaTbCH icaK AOJIFHH. npHMep: 3aunci>: siva siva siveti prajapatah : si- va- si- va- si- ve- tip- ra- ja- pa- tah U U U U KJ U U U 16

TOT

HacMOTpa Ha cymecrBeHHoe pa3JiHHHe CHCTCM CTHxocjio:aceHHfl B pyCCKOH H H H A H H C K O H II033HH, MeTpHMCCKOe nepeJlOHCCHHe CaHCKpHTCICHX CTHXOB Ha pyCCKHH H3bIK BO3MO3KHO. H TaiCHe nOnblTKH 6bUIH. B CBOeM HcropHH eBponeHCicoro craxa" (M. Hayica, 1989) M.JI.FacnapoB myTOHHoe nocjiaHHe M.BojioinHHy OT jinua HHAHHCKOFO no3Ta i, HanncaHHoe B.H.^pxo. flaHHoe nocjiaHHe HMHTHpyeT caMWH pacnpocTpaHeHHbiH H3 HHAHHCKHX BOCbMHCjiocHbix pa3MepoB - uuioKy, r#e B Kaj3&m\nnx (nocjieAHHx HerBepocjio)KHflx) AOJirnx H KpaTKHx HepeAOBaHHeM yAapHbix H 6e3yAapHbix: ArHH TWMH BOcnoftTe AeTH ARKTU ! - JTK)6OBb, Hh5l

IIpHBOAHTCH HeCKOJIbKO CaHCKpHTCICHX CTpOC}), HailHCaHHblX nonyjmpHbiMH pa3MepaMH, c nepesoAOM, HMHTHpyiomHM 3TH pa3Mepbi B CTopoHe, nocicojn>Ky npoH3HeceHrao pa3MepoB).

US MS I \SS

KyM- K y )KeM- qy. FyC H KTO ne

M O M TeJ I O ra H H T b na 6pa- cjie- TbI H H T - C H

no rpyua Ta-

KpblJIOK O H

T O eT O Kpa-

ny- IIIHCe CMyrcax- C T O C T O - T O -

T b l N J 1 O H nax 10!

17

S IS 11 IS IS IS

B cepa- up CBeT H T Tex Ha npe-

npapanop, M y -

H O M M a noK a Apo- ro
3y-

Be,a-

BceHeH e ra-

iTja 3a6po3e-

V M y ie-

M y T H e H oco-

^ipeK b l H T p H H K a -

^a C B C T B3ra H .

SSISSIISISS

J ApyBOT

Her Ho

J 3ba! npaB M H H

CKaB ^ a pe y .

acy o c e M nyH6 e A

npHnpaiiie ocex

M O B ^ a M AeHer

H H B b l ^py-

6ecHeK p y roK

npnT y T O npH-

cTpaBtl 6emi-

C T H O me. Apov H B I .

PeKOMeii/jyeMasi jiHTepaTypa: A.Macdonell "A Vedic Grammar for Students". London 1962. C 436-447. V.Apte "The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary". Delhi 1996. Appendix I, "Sanskrit Prosody". Arati Mitra "Origin and DeveJopement of Sanskrit Metrics". Calcutta 1989. A.Keith "A History of Sanskrit Literature". Delhi 1996. C. 415-421. A.il.CbipKHH "O6i>>iCHeHHe CTHXOTBOPHWX pa3MepoB" // ITaHHaTaHTpa. M., 1958. C. 324-339. M.Jl.FacnapOB "OnepK H C T O p H H eBponeiiCKOro eraxa". M, 1989. C. 51-55. 18

2.

"Tpw

COHCKPHTCKHX pa3MepoB Bbi6paHbi cTpo(j)bi H3 3HaMeHHTwx uiamaK (CTOCTHHIHH) ExaprpnxapH. Bbi6op He cjiynaeH, nocKOjibicy 3TO OAHH H3 HCMHorHx TeKCTOB, B KOTOPOM npeAcraBjieHO Bee MHoroo6pa3He HHAHHCKHX MCTPOB: O6LIHHO aBropti H36HpaiOT JIH6O OAHH , JIH6O HecKOJibKO, HO pe,znco npnGeraiOT KO BceM BO3MOHCHOCTHM Crpo(})bi pacnojio^ceHw He B aBTOpCKOM nopWKe, a no MerpaM (npHHi^nn pacnpeAejieHHH 3aHMCTBOBaH y B. Airre, OH Hcnojn>3yeT B CBoeM onepKe no HHAHHCKOH MeTpHKe B npHJiO3KeHHH K ero caHCKpHTCKOMy cjiOBapio): 1) CHjuiaGH^iecioie pa3Mepw c paBHbiMH nadaMu B nopHAKe BO3pacTaHHa cjioroB B nadey 2) cmijiaSHHecKHe pa3Mepbi c HepaBHbiMH nadajuu, 3) MeTpHnecKHe pa3Mepbi. Ka^waH CTpo(|>a CHa6>KeHa KOMMeHTapHeM, r^e 3TO Heo6xoAHMO. riocjie yKa3aH0, KaKoii H3 utamaK OHa npHHa^jie^KHT:
^TT a" HJIH "CTO CTpo4> o
HJIH "CTO

^5 - "IIIpHHrapa-inaTaKa"

CTpo(j) o JIK)6BH",

<A - "BaHparbH-uiaTaKa" H.TIH "CTO CTpocJ) 06 OTpeneHKH OT MHpa". a noA6opKa BKjnonaeT npH6jiH3HTejn>HO nojiOBHHy caMoro TeKcra BxapTpuxapH.

2,1. CwjijiaSHHecKHe Mcrpki c paBiiOMepiii>iMH nadaMu. 2.1.1. B0CbMHCJ10>KHI>ie MCTpbL Boci>MHCJio>KHHe MeTpti npoHCxoAHT H3 Be#HHCKoro cmyiumy6xa, H paCnpOCTpaHeHHHH H3 HHX - UUIOKO, eAMHCTBeHHblH H3 pa3MepOB, B KOTOPOM He AO KOHua ynopaAOHeHa MerpHHecKaji CTpyKTypa. IlDioKa COCTOHT H3 neTbipex nad no BOceMb CJIOTOB; 1-il, 2-H, 3if, 4-ii H 8-H cjiorn npOH3BOjibHbi, 5-H Bcer#a KpaTKHH, 6-ii Bcer^a AOJITHH, 7fi AOJirHH B HeneTHbix nadax H KpaTKHH B neTHbix: HeneTHbienadu: X X X X U X nerabie nadbi: X XX XU U X H3-3a KOHTpacTHpyionjiHx KOHUOBOK UUIOKCX HanoMHHaeT HHTOHainiK) CHBOH H, no3TOMy HeyAHBHrejibHO, HTO 3TO OCHOBHOH pa3Mep MaxaGxapaTbi H H HTO OCHOBHJIH Macca HaynHoi jiHTepaTypbi Tome HanncaHa 19

UUIOKOU. B "BMCOKOH" ace IIO33HH 3TOT pa3Mep pe^KO ynoTpe6jiHeTCH, a ecjiH H BCTpenaeTca, TO name B AH#aicrHHecKHx CTpocj)ax. 3TO MO>KHO O6T>HCHHTI>

TeM, HTO uuioKa BocnpHHHMaeTCH no3TaMH KaK "npo3aHiiecKHH" pa3Mep H33a ero npocroTbi H o6meynoTpe6HTejibHOCTH. \\\ ii
J M W II

\ n

<*><)fci

KOMMeHTapHH! a. ^RT ^IIJcl ~ npnxoAHT B no/jqnHeHHe b. IHU>S .- JieneuiKa, KycoK, no^anKa -p a 3 H O B H A H o c T L 6apa6aHa noponioK THna xajibKa, K O T o p b i M nocwnaeTCH MeisiGpaHa 6apa6ana

a. Hld^4l - ropHoe ymejibe c. 'HHi - C B H 3 B , o6meHHe d. ^ ^ ^ ^ " I ~flBopeuHH^pb

a. ^vO^rRT - y#ap p y K O H c. ^RT noBe#eHHe - H e n O C T O H H H W H ,M H M O J i e T H W H ,

20

-C T p a H L I CBeTa, T.e. H H K a K H X ORGyKR H O C H T f e , : - K qeMy M H e [TorAa] napu?

c. d. d<>uINn

~ cjia6eioT .) - MOJio/jeeT

K p o M e - 6yKB. Ta, y K O T o p o H Kpyn>ie CKJIOHW, T.e. KpyTo6eApaa, KpacaBHija JIO33, CO^amaflCfl a M p H T O H cHFTPT *TcrfcT ^FfT ^TFT

d. ilH (Hapeq.) - H M C H H O

HK a K 5ice

ee nocjie 3ix>ro [Ha3Baxb] JIIOGHMOH?

21

b. M^l * T <^CIH<HI ~ nyTb He x a K O H yae A & n e K H H c. 3i^1<l - nocpe^H d. HJ^^UII (6axyBp,) - xa,

a. sfrltiK - rjiyxoH^peMy^HHnee b. ^ ^ - H c e H C K a n rpyAb c. d.

^"TcR

a. -ci^TiMH'H^IKI^ ~ OT nepenojiHflJomeH [ee] 6 e 3 y M H O H CTpacTH b. " ^ T ^ C. HC^J^ - n p O T H B O A e H C T B H e


d. " ^ T c T T - PO6KHH

- 6jiaropo,fl[CTBo, AOCTOHHCTBO

22

c. ^fp^ H^l^ - B naTH qacxaxrena,T.e. d. ^*Ti (qacr.) - rope! oroHt cTpacni l crff%

p b. M,chl'T=incll - e/jHHOMbicjiHe, corjiacne c. 3i^|*c|Ti <J)q chm ~ Kor/jaCTpacrb yBo^HTpa3yM B cTopoHy d. ^N - xpyn

(npHH. nacc.) - BOCiuiaMeHeHHLiH, pacnaneHHWH

ftp?: (Pjo) b. ^RlW ~ K O K e T J T H B b l H


d. * 1 I H (Hapen.) - HMCHHO

p b. cr1iT:l'iJli"cl< (6axyBp.) ~ Haxo/jHiUHHca B nojie 3pe d. 3Tm+VKT^ - npeBocxoAHTb nmo-nudo (Abl.) 23

KOMMeHTapHH! a. Jrl*tk (qacTHqa) - paaBe He, H e n p e M e H H O 3il^||4)< ~ cjiyra b. Hch^^^i (6axyup.) - "TOT, y Koro Ha 3 H a M e H H ny^oBHme-MaKapa", 3nHTeT KaMbi C. "^RR^ ~ Tax K a K ^W^FNrR - A B H S K e H H e rjia3 d. ^jfad - y K a 3 a H H L i H

f^FTT

(6axyBp.) - c i\jra3aMH K a K y ojieneHKa

"^TII (5J>) KOMMeHTapHH! - jiyHHbiH b. H^Iilcrl - T e M H W H can4)Hp rpaHaT

a. *\fi ~ a)TaacejiwH, 6) njiaHeTa lOimrep b. <Hl<rclTtls - a) cumomuvt, 6) COJIHUC c. ^m^K a) Me/uieHHo, njiaBHO ujxymuii, 6) njiaiiexa CaiypH 24

- cocrroamaH H 3 njiaHei

H C K y C C T B O BJia#eHHH J i y K O M b. ^iH[q ~ He6bmajDbiH d. TJyll - npenecTHMH

: Bfc^dl ^TT^

- H M e i o m H HO T H o m e H H e K TaHre, ranrcKHH - a) K p a A y i U H M , oT6HpaiomHH, 6) H M e i o m H H (yKpauienHbiH)

2.1,2. O,fl[HHHaAi^aTMCjio>iCHi>ie pa3Mepw B KJiaccHnecKOH IIO33HH BeAHHCKOMy mpuiumydxy. Y BxaprpHxapH MW BcrpenaeM nnTb pa3HOBHAHOCTeH T3KHX pa3MepOB: lucuiuHu, pamxoddxama, dodxaKa, uudpaeadjicpa H ynadjfcamu. IIocjieAHHH - civieinaHHbiH pa3Mep. Ero CTpyioypa coBnaAaeT c pa3MepOM undpaeadDtcpa, 3a HCKjnoiieHHeM nepBoro cjiora: B undpaeadotcpa nepBbiH BcerAa AOJirHH, a B ynadoicamu IIpOH3BOJIbHbIH, H O HHKOrAa TOJIbKO AOJirHH HJIH TOJIbKO KpaTKHH.

II 3 II V l l l d i l II ^ II

SS55 5 \SS \SS

25

a. ^TI^fT - roTOBHocTt ncnojiHan. b. n\*\

a, ^"Clld^ - J I O B K H eA B H 3 K e H H HG p O B e H ftf: - HrpHBoe npninypHBaHHe K O K e T J i H B b i e Kocwe B3rjumi>i C. dlCilH*^ yR^RT ^f K^RT ^f - r p a U [ H O 3 1 I O C T l > H B RTiVlMQHHnX, H B I I O K O e

a. %7I^[ - BHimiy c. Hli - ropoA d. "^tl - nemepa 26

SIS 11 IS IS IS

Kpan rjia3a II X II

5 I IS 11 S 1155

1FTT (530)

b. TTK c. "JHji ~ HOJKHOH 6pacjieT

27

(6axysp.) - "Ta, y K O T O p o H na CTonax-Jicrrocax SBCHJIT

5 5 155 115 155

a. * T "'T^IHIdiC^ - Henpe,n;B3aTO, 6ecnpHCipacTHO b. < H Kifl 2^4-^ - BLicuiaa H C T H H a II ^ ll ^MMflfd: II ^ II

a, <HU^C^-'H^llc|-ct)Qil - T p HO C H O B H W XC B e T C K H X BH^a H C K y C T B " . C J I O B e C H O C T L ,M y 3 L I K aH J K H B O n H C b d. ^fPT^T - aom, ycTaHOBJieHiiaH RJW BCHKOH T B a p H CBbime, TflopuoM

28

f ^ f^rsrr

C. ^ T T T ^ J c f - jieruiHH 6peMeHeM

a. WNf ~ H e 3 a B H C H M L I H ^ ~H C K J I O M ~ Teopeu, BpaxMa b. 3^^di - rjiynocTb, d. Hn - MormaHHe

a. ic| "d b. ^cl^


- TOHKHH

opaTop 29

d. sfrl^gH "30JI0TO 3 T T + vT^F - 3aBHceTb om ^eao-Jiu6o(Ace.)

b. d. H ^ J I - flpyc6a

"^cPPT

a. b. HHI^H^(HH^).) - cTepeTL, ycTpaHHTt

cFct

30

facial:

(BTopofi BapHaiiT) "ScT

OT6POCHB Bbi coKOMepHe BK O H n e KOHUOB CKJIOH ropw

H 3 J i y M a i O l L ( H HC T p a C T b - KpacaBHua

( f ) KOMMCHTapHH c. T?FTITRPT ~ nojioca TKaiiH, npHKpLiBaioiuaa rpyA^ npunoawnhiPi p y K O H (npHH. HacT. Bp.)~ a) saKpLiBaiomaaca, 6) 3aTMeBaioman

31

a. H W (Hapen.) - TOJILKO, j b. MRM^ ~ O6T,HTHH

M.^dld (6axyBp.) - TOT, y Koro OAHO jKejiaHHe d. 3 T T + W ^ ~ xcejiaTL


ftW - TCJIO

2.1,3. ^.BeHa^qaTHCJioHciiwe pa3Mepii. pa3Mepw BOCXO,ZW K BCAHHCKOMY dotcaaamu* BoMutacmxa, undpaeaMiua H dpymaeuJiaMduma BectMa ynoTpe6HTejii>Hbi B nO33HH. U V 9

15 15 15

C . ^'Ic&d - H e 3 a H O C H H B L I H ,C K p O M H W H - 6oraTCTBo

did^11

32

a. ^TF^ - M H M H K a b. H<I^H(<3 - oTBopanHBaHHe, H3o6pa>KeHHe oTBpameHHfl HJIH 6e3pa3JiHiiHfl cqena peBHOcra


n \\ ^ C J V I I II c II

5SISS MS IS IS

KoMMeHTapnn: d. ^IHiCt^ ~ O A e p a C H M b l HC T p a C T H M H II % u ^ r f ^ r f s r ^ u % w

i n s i is i is is

a. W - cojineHHoe HJIH JiyHHoe 3 a T M e H H e b. ^F^Ff - 3anaAHfl, nona^auHe B 3anaAHio 33

d. ftfe - cy#b6a "O!"

c. ^RrFT ^cft - ycep^He B y H e H H H d. itTqS ~ H 3 B e c T H W H , ycTaHOBJiemibitf

H<M\Mi\

- HeiepnHMOCTb, pa3jjpayKUTejibiiocrh

34

a. dMC^ - BO-neputix, ~B M e C T H J I H m eB C e B O 3 M O H :C H b I XA O C T O H H C T B c. "cR^T^T^I^ - B TOT caMbiii M O M e m r norH6aiomHH d. <H$$ (MacTHua) - O! (nape H.)~ rope! 6e,nia!

(Sf) KOMMeHTapHH. a. , i^ caMKa HHJGIHHCKOH KyicyuiKH -H T H H H f iK p H K - ropti H a lore HHAHH, 3HaMeHHTbie npoH3pacTaiomHM Ha HHX caHaanoBbiM A e p e B O M d. ^ti (qacTHua)- yBbi! (AeHOM.) ~ C T a H O B H T C HJ

2.1.4. O6mee Ha3BaHHe STHX pa3MepOB - ruaKeapu. B Be^ax TaK OCO6WH pa3Mep? cocroHmHH H3 ceMH nad no BoceMb cjioroB. FIo35Ke 3TO Ha3BaHHe crajiH HOCHTb MeTpw, cocToaiUHe H3 neTbipex nad no HepHaznjaTb cjioroB. O^Ha nonyjwpHaa pa3HOBiiHHOCTb 3Toro Merpa, eacanmamujiaKa, BCTpeiiaeTC y ExapTpnxapH.

II ^ o II

5S IS I MS

I IS ISS

35

(PJo)

a. b. "IJ^fTH^R? -flOMauiHHHpa6, Rf c. Hi'^HMI'HVHKfllHl^mCI - TOT, y Koro y^HBHTejibHbi noncoHc^eHHH, HeonncyeMbie C J I O B a M H d l|> <rljHIM^l (6axyBp.) - "TOT, Hbe opyjKHe - UBeTbi", n o c T O H H H W H 3nHTeT KaMbi ^Tcicf

f^rasr

(qacT.) * ", KaMa

p a. W ^Hp|RuH - HTO npoKy B 3OJIOTOH rope? b. 3TlT2fcF - 6yKB. "onepeBiiiHHOi H a MTO-JIH6O", IR. npoH3pacTaiomHH na (Ace.)

36

T p H HanSoJiee pacnpocTpaHeHHbie H HeueHHbie nopoAti AepeBkes B

- cuoBa H c H O B a

R#T

a. ^il^i - 6pbi3rH ^lldol - npoxjia b. "M^H^R - K y A e c H H K H ; nojiy6o>KecTBa, > K H B y m w eB d.

clef:

a. cfcf! l^H^ ~ HIITO c Toro? c. 37

- y B a > K a e M f e i H (HEMH) ~ SoraTCTBo

: II

p a. HrlCl - 6ejn>iH c. ^KiiMctH^^Ci^l (GaxyBp.) ~ (KOJIOACU), H a KoroptiH nocraBHjiH K y m u H Hc ^rfr+Vl - 06x0WTh d. ^!U>SIC1<J) H ~ KOJio^eu .OJIH "HemcTbix"

38

a. ^F^T - 6 j i a > K e H H W H , C , M^TT - T p HC K J i a A K H Ha J K H B O T eyH C e H d. ^TIcpTcT - BH#, o6pa3

- H C K y C H b l H ,J 1 O B K H H d. ^^H^H^crl^ - c6HBaHHe cnecH c KaMbi

(Sf) KoMMeHTapHH*. a. 3T^F^ ~ 6ejiocHe>KHbiH b. ^Ki4]^ ~ A O M ,p f l A O Mc K O T O p b I MH a X O A H T C H

39

KOMMeHTapHH! a. fl b. " ^ 1% %

^ (sy)

cIT:

f% %RT

KOMMCHTapHH! C. Q. 2,1.5. IIsiTHa^iiaTHCJio>KHi>ie O6iu.ee Ha3BaHHe 3THX pa3MepoB amuvuaKsapu. Y ExapTpnxapH BCTpenaeTCH TOJIBKO OAHH pa3Mep - MCUIUHU. II \ \ II H l f d i ) II %\ II

iimiss

SISSISS

40

b. ^T^Rt - 6oraTCTBo d. T e R T C P c f ,- B O J I O K H O CTe6ilH J l O T O C a IKUI - a) nperpa^a, 6) CJIOH

a. qc^hd - ofleaa OTUiejibHHKa, cflejiannas H 3 Kopu b. Piiy^5?! Iq^lq: - Hexpa3JiHMna

: II

a. ^ilqi^T -- pacreHHe, JieKapcTBeHHoe pacreHHe b. WTnT^T^ - co3Be3AHe c. TT^PT^F^ ~ "ujapcKaH 6ojie3HL", d. 41

nepexo/jHTb,

a. tfftlN ~ H e K T a p b. H < H 1 ul,

^
(J?O)

II

"^TrU - nycTafl 6OJITOBHH C B f l 3 b[ O K e H J U H H a M H J (nocjiejior) ~ oniocHTejibHo, KacaTejibHO b. ^KHl^RJl^ - CHO6, "TOT, KTO KHUHTCJI cBoeft ynenocTbio" c. ^i<?y|^i4ir^lcbl^ichcrllH - [TajiHH, yKpauiennafl] n o H C O M cK O J i o K O J i b H H K a M H , B 3BeHbx KOToporo [CBepKaiOT] rpanaTbi d.

KOMMeHTapHH! a. ^iTb^i^ - 6eccBH3HLifi, c. 3Tl^4r1cmc^Qiicr1M1^1'H > K a C A y i M H H Bee HOBLIX JIIOGOBHLIX d.

-WHHIHJ

(5J.)
b. HRHQI - apoMaT

c. ^ClH<Hl^i (6axyBp.) - TOT, joyia KOToporo iieT H H K a K O H BticuieH uejiH, cp.: HOT HHHero C B f l T O r O d. ^T^T^T^T^Jn - M o m e H H H K ,3 a 6 o T 5 i m H H C H TOJII>KO O csoeH B

(Sf) a. ^itfl^H-H^^I (6axyBp.) - "xa, y K O T o p o H pacTpenanw BOJIOCM" (6yKB. b. H^)<rlct*1^Hl (6axyBp.) ~ c 3 a K p b m > i M H [ox uacjia^K^eiiHfl] rjia3aMH C. ^(<Cl JII060BHbIH 3 K C T a 3 noxa 2.1.6. pa3MepOB ambautmu. pa3HOBiWHOCTH 3THX MeTpOB: npumxeu, xapumi, MandaKpanma n uiuKxapunu. MandaKpauma 3HaMeHHT TeM, HTO HM HanncaHa no3Ma KajiH^acw "O6jiaico-BecTHHic". UluKxapunu - OAHH H3

43

paenpOCTpaHCHHWX B KJiaCCHHeCKOH H3Jno6jieHHtix y ExapTpuxapH. II ^ M^JS^II ^ II

II033HH

MeTpOB H O#HH H3

IS 1115 IS

I I IS ISS IS

<*lPHd

ecjiH nocxapaTbca ^ c. "N^^ d, i, ocTpwe K a K no6erH TpaBbi

"^Icf:

a. IvJcfrCII- necoK pacTHTejibHoe Macjio b. c. ^I^IN^I"! - por 3afiua - O#HH H 3 H3JiK>6jieHHbix napaaoKCOB B HH^HHCKOH ^HTeparype 44

: <Hdd<|4d: : Heft

KOMMeHTapHH! ^ - 6yKB. "o6jia^aiomHH 3aftue\i"; JiyHa, npoaBaHHaa T a K H3-3a nsrrna, no 4>opMe no6jieKUiHH OT joiHeBHoro C B e T a (6axyBp.) ~ TOT, Hh% MOJio^ocTb npouuia b. 3HK (6axyBp.)~ 6eccjioBecHbiH, H e M O H HJIH TOT, KTO lie M O c e Tc B H 3 a T b AByx CJIOB ^I^ICl (6axyBp.)~ o6jia/jaiomnii npeKpacHoii HapyacHocTtio c. ^FTOFFI - cKyneu C ^ T c f - nonaBiiiHH B 6e,ny d. 'JHI^'I ~ uapcKHH ABop

^JTTSTHTT 11 m s s s s s is i is is

(6axyBp.) KHIUMS

- n O K p L I T b l HC J 1 H 3 H M H b. M ^ ? HHi'UylcHI - c HeonHcyeMbiM yj^oBOJibCTBHeivi d. HKil^^hcr1^! - y6orocTb O K p y > K e n H H

45

a. JT^i^*<. - M H M O J i e T H L i H , pacctinaiomHHCH B c. ^Kl^t>l*t1 - yKpaineHHBiH oacepeJibeM d <ul**^PfIH<9lcrl (6axyBp.) - H a KoropoM noacoK3BeHHTAparoueHHocTHMH

: ^TRIT : f5RT:

p gbil<i (6axyBp.) - noKpMTbiHTbicanaMH MOJioAbix no6eroB b. c. IcKCi^iCl ,BtojTro5KaaHHoe y j o t o B O J i b C T B H e d. "W,

b. c. ^ScT ~ npoBopubiH 46

^ ^llli - O T K a 3 b I B a K ) T C H JieHHTb 3 H a T 0 K [uejiHTejiLHbix] M a H T p

5 5 5 5 III 115 5 155 155

- a) H3AajieKa, 6) c Tpy^oM - a) rocyflapcTBeHnafl nojiL3a 6) nosTHHecKHH CMWCJI ~ a) K p H B O T O J i K H ,H H T p H r H , 6) H e r p a M O T H a H pe^b b. 'Hr^T^IT - a) uapcKoe co6paHHe, 6) co6paHHe 3 H a T O K O B no33HH c. "^ - a) inar, nociynoK, 6) cTpocfa ^l^l^rlM^r^l - onpaBAMBaa OHCHA^HHH jiKVjeft d. ^IH-H^CnapeH.) ~ H e c o M H e H H o "*$>

c. 3T^rT ^ld^*t^ - 6pocaioinHH A B e HrpaJibHbie KOCTH d. ^Idi - KajiH, cynpyra 6oacecTBa BpeMeiiH - Kajiu, 6ormm c M e p T H - qpe3BbiiiaHHO HCKyciibiH

47

?M

- no3T, H C K y m e H H b i H B ncoTHKe H 3 C T e T H K e lomibiH, )KHTejib IOra; toacHbiw C T H J i b B no33HH OTjiHHajioi OCO6OH H 3 b I C K a H H 0 C T b K ) b. cKrH - 6pacjieT "cIlHi ~ onaxaJio, H3roTOBjieMoe H 3 XBOCTOB HKOB c. ^n-R^C^f - H e H a c w T H O C T b , HeyeMnocTb d. i'iWct)CrH~rHHll^r - npeACJibiiaa cTaAHfl co3epu(aHHa (caMadxu) y HorHHa, Kor.ua jiHHHocTb n O J I H O C T b K )p a C T B O p H e T C H B A6cOJlK)Te, T.e. yCipaHfleTCfl A B O H C T B e H H O C T b ,K O T O p a H npHcyrcTByeT Ha npeAiuecTByiomHX CTA^HJIX co3epi;aiiH5i

b. "ozpn: ^R-Tt - nycToe 3 a H H T H e c. <iH<d sjlcr^^ -fleTCTBonpomjio

48

- PO6KHH

, 6jiaropo,aHi>iH 1 1

ISS55S

1111ISS 11 IS

"^T W\

49

p 1>R ^T - "6yAb [y Mena Ha mee] 3Mea HJIH a c e M H y v K H o e oaeepejibe", B nepBbix Tpex na^ax cjioBa B MCCTHOM naAeace cjieAyeT nepeBOAHTb aHajionmHbiM o6pa3OM b. oTfS - KOM rp*BH c. dul - TpaBHHKa, 6wjiHHKa, H e M i x > MajiOBaacHoe HJIH npocTo HHHTO B npoTHBonojiojKHocTb (a6crrpaKTHoe cym. OT *M\) - O6HJIHC ^KCHIUHH, rapeM

b. I^Hi0^ - 6yKB. "co3peBaHHe", co3peBaHHe nJio^oB AypHbix A^JI; 3#ecb ^<e BxapTpHxapH, roBopH o Ao6poAeTejiH, yKasbmaeT Ha neraTHBHbiH xapaKTep "Bbi3peBaHHa" njio^oB H 6narHx C. T^T-Vf^- pa3MbIUIJiaTb, T^PT - o6i>eKT M y B C T B e H H o r o onbixa d. < * T O * T - CTpaAanne | - o6jiaAaTejib o6i.eKTa HyacrrB

"^TPT:

"^FIT: II

a. ^11ul ~ T O H H J I b H W HK a M e H b RT pana C l X ) m e H H b I HT e * I K O H (CJIOH) (6axyBp.) - c 3a6ojiOHeHHbiMH 6eperaMH c. ^Qil^l^ (6axyBp.) - Mecan B HOBOJiynne & dMH*l - HCTomeuHe, yGbmanne (6axyBp.) - TOT, KTO J 50

Ofr) a ." ^ c T T ^ T~ ^ o c T O H H b i H c . ^Ri - noBeAeHHe, n o c T y n K H - 6oraTCTBo, BJiacTb B e j i H K H H no cBoen npHpo^e yjcpameHHe

rp3Hoe, rpexoBiioe ^H - B cjiynae yrpo3bi AWMIU (6axyp.) - 6yKB."io, HTO H e JierKO caeJiaTb", 3Aecb HMQ&TCH B B H A y 0iKa3 OT b. f v ^ H (6axyBp.) c. "3^": 1-2J2? - cjieAyeT BWCOKO A e p > K a T b rojioBy ^^ H^cll- cjie^yeT npeKJioHHTbCfl cTonaM B e j i H K H X - 1) "o6eT J i e ? . B H H Mena", o6eT uejiOMyApHH cynpyroB, npH K O T o p o M Ha JioHce noMemajica Men, 2) Jiio6oe BecbMa TpyAHoe npeAnp

"5FFTFTF:

51

a. H , < ? * I I S H M- c a M O M H e H H e , Bepa B co6cTBeimbie CHJIW b. 'HHM - p o B e c H H K f: - He6o O f l H O B p e M e H H O ,B T OB p e M HK a K (6axyBp.)~ TOT, KTO npe6braaeT paBHbix no HCH3HH ycuoBHflx HJIH COCTOJIHHJIX C. "^ITS ~ K J I I O K a d. ^PS - A e p 3 K H H , He6jiaropa3yMHbiH - HcnyraHHbiH

5"^%

- BeJiHHHe, cHJia - 6a6omca - pbl60JI0BHbIH K p I O H O K


MCO, H a ^ E C H B K a

nepenjieTeHHbiH ceTbio HeB3roA

a. H^KI^Tcf - ycnpaHeHHe a 4 > 4 > b. fe C. ^IKSfRjH^ - O T B p a T H B U I H H C aO TM y ^ p O C T H UiaCTp d. 3^t"^g - Ojrope! : - Bee H H M c e H HHUKG

52

b.

M(UMC;K -

6o)KecTBeHHaH peKa Faura C J i a B H b l H^ O C T O H H C T B a M H < ^ K - CJIOBO M y 5 K C K o r o po^a H ynoTpe6jweTCH T O J i b K O BO M H O J K e c T B e H H O MH H C J i e H o3HaiaeT

d. fr IdH'MHH^H'H (GaxyBp.) - "TOT, m>n XCH3HI> - Jinuib H e c K O J i b K O MrnoBeHHH"

^ H I K ci^HHpM C T T

- peKa 6oroB, FaHra b. ^KCit ( M H . M ) ~C T O p O H L IC B e T a c. ^T^^T^cf - npeo^ojieHHe COSCTBCHHOH AYXOBHOH d. ^R^Cti - BO3JiK>6jieHHafl

<Mim1

53

a. ^^CMI'W (JIOK. a6c.) - Kor^a nepecbixaeT ropjio b. - pnc d CAoGpemibiH oBomaMH H noAo6HbiM d. T^FRrPflcT - craBHT c Hor Ha rojioBy, Biia^aeT B 3a6/iyHQjeHHe

a. b. u\ u tfa*^ - 6orarbiH c. 'fS - aicrep l - cTOJiHua 6ora C M e p T H 51MM

cocya

54

t %5pT

KOMMCHTapHH ap d. RT^FKT^FT^T T- peKa c necnaHbiMH 6eperaMH

H^1I H - H e n o c T H 5 K H M c noMombio Mamp fl JieqeHHio b. ^TTKRIcW- nocToaHHoe noBTopeHHe "IIIaHTH! lIIaHTH!" <rro6bi nporaaTb HeB3ro^bi, cp.
pyccK.. "CBHT! CBST!"

4 T U

c. ^HlH^li^ ~ H3-3a B B e a e H H H B 3a6jiyacaeHHe lhHiH - H e K H H , HeBbipa3HMbiH; HeonpeAeJienHoe MecroHMeuHe B^EHHOM K O H T e K C T e ~B b I 3 b I B a K ) m H HH HC H e MH e C p a B H H M b i eK O p H H - 3a6BeHHe, noMyTHeHHe paccy^Ka, n p o H 3 B O y O ( H M o e CiwapoH

55

~ X p O M O H X B O C T O M b. ^I^cr!^ - Becb BraoHmHXCflpanax c. ^ T P T - o6eccHJieBiiiHH IHcHcbct> HMIIHd'lCl (GaxyBp,) - TOT, y Kcnroporo rojioBa - 3TO nepen,, HacaaceimbiH na meio CJIOBHO ropiiioK (Ha nanKy) '

a. ^)CiPhcl<? - /jepeBo A y u i H C T i > i H b. UTSR^ - B b l C O K H H i K p H K a A a K > d. ^PjcK^H. nojiHbiH JiioSoBHbix nepe^cH 2.1J. ,HeBHTnaiwaTMCjiO5icni>ie Merpi>i.

fleBHTH^Au.aTHCJiOKHbie pa3Mepbi Ha3BaiOTCii amudxpumu. B "Tpex uiamaKax" MM BcrpenaeM TOJibKo OAHH AeBHTHaAuaTHCJiOKHHic uiapdyjiaeuKpuduma, HO npn 3TOM nojioBHHa Bcero c6opHHica HanncaHa B pa3Mepe. II

5 5 5 115 IS 1115 5 5 15515

56

a. ^J-Si0 0<^|^cj<: (6axyBp.)~ TOT, y KOToporo CHHCT MepaaiomHMH BcnbiiuicaMH C B e T a neo6biKHOBeHHoii KpacoTbi nojiyiviecHU, BeHnaiomHH MaKyuiKy b. QiMiC^^ - C O 3 K ) K e H H I > I H C JierKOCTbK) H, H e y r O M O H H b l H '

(.nieHOM.) ~ npeBpamaeaca ^J^TFTd (aeHOM.) ~ npeBpamaeTca B pyneeK b. ^CTMRIdNn (ACHOM.) c T a H O B H T c a rajibKOH ^Hj^RTu (^enoM.) ~ npeBpam;aeTCH B aHTHJiony c. oEncT ~ 3Meii d (^eHOM.) ~ C T a H O B H T C HT H p J l H H A O HU B e T O B (.aeHOM.) - npojiHBaeTCH A O i K A e M HeKTapa

57

p a. *1N Q ^iHm - uer RJ\H Te6ji BpeMeHH, ne ja;o Te6n ceftHac c. "HCU - o, #yma!
C d iT1<^lc(IKch0 H < ? < (6axyBp.) peqeH n p H B p a T H H K O B

rpyGbix H 6e3McaJiocTHbix

: ^HH^dl KOMMCHTapHH: p O A O B H T O C T b

a. lil^-KISpm - B H a A e ^ f C A eH a H T H coKpoBHme ^Id - pacnjiaBJieHHbiH c. C l O R - Bceuejio norjiomemibiH neM-nu6o A. "^T^T^JH^T - j i O M a H M H rpom

HdPd

KOMMeHTapHH! a. ^vtlR - KycrrapHHK HanoAo6He Bep6jiK>acteH KOJIIOHKH, pacrryiiniH B-nycTbiinx H a6coJiioTHo JlHUieHHblH J I H C T b e B b. "BQJ^F ~ coBa c. ^fTcRr - M H ^ H H e c K H e riTHUbi, B nniny K O T o p b i M OT p o a c A e H H H nojioHcenu KaiuiH Aoxga^ji, HO no B O J i e 3JIOH cyAb6Li KanjiH H H K a KH e nonaAaior B KJIIOB 3 T H MH e c q a c T H W M nTHuaM Uk <

- JIOTOC

c. ^Illcl - 3Be3Aa Apicryp; corjiacHO JiereHAe, ecjin Kanjia BOAW nonaAeT noA3TOH 3Be3Aofi B p a K O B H H y , TO npeBpamaeTca B M c e M i y ^ c H H y

a. b. dlcri - KOKocoBaa nanbMa c. "^T^ - c T p e c K O M d. ^lgtH<l^d - TOT, K O M yH e conyTCTByeT cyAb6a

59

b. (^(chJei^Kil,t) - O T H r o m e H H W H 6peMeHeM cyeT d. HHl^Hl<vU - x M e j i> H O Hn a n H T O K 6ecneliHocTH

fcjsg

5%

c. HM$ - O, Bama d

: MKJldl

C. 3^|qd - B O A O B O p O T - 6ecnoKOHCTBo

60

p b. H ^ f M~J I O B K H H , c. ^cH^IN^hcrH^crHH^i - 6ojixaiomHH see, HTO B36peaeT B rojiosy

b. foa c. T^f^cl^-lchlCilTiCi - [icaic] ry6HTejibHbiH oroHL K O H i j aC B e T a d. ^'QH - y c H J T H e - ToprauiecTBO, cneKyjwuHH, 6a3apHaa cyexa

c. 'H|<J)CllS\cb - 6jiaroe p c, d. M^0 H\$H\ (6axyBp.) ~ "TOT, y KOTOporo nojinocTbio ycTponeH M p a K HeBe^eHna [OKOM] M H C T O r O3 H a H H H ,C H H K > I U H M 6jiarOCTHOH I I p e H C n O J I H C H H O C T b l O ,B O 3 H H K U i e HO Te A H H e H H f lC BaMH" 61

c. 3"llcH*N'H^ - cnaceHHe AyuiH,


d. <J)'H - KOJIOA^U

:< = > t l^^fl ~ HTO 3a npe,anpHHTHe? (T.e. CMexoTBOpnoe

c. 3iJcH<rllCl+V^ - npHCBaHBaTb, AejiaTb CBoeii co6cTBeHHOcTbio d.

RFT

62

cf J iRir^iRnai WJ

*nfcqcl

a. b. ^U^-Kcll - rjiyxora CTIcTFTu (j3;eHOM.) ~ C T a H O B H T C B J i a 5 K H b I MO T CJlIOHbl d. ^T WE ~ o, rope! )-c x a H O B H T C H HeApyroM

a. "Sc^R^T - o6i>flTbiH cTpacxfcK) d. Hr^^lT^I^I - HQHUCThlH B O O H H K )

- conepHHHaiomHH -cnoco6iB>iM BwcMeTb (T.e. npeBocxoAaiUHH no Kpacoxe) 63

B O J 1 O C L I C. "*? - C J I O H

Jlyiia - Tejio (6yKB. xysp.)

a. ^T^fqrcFT (6axyBp.) - TOT, y xoro MopcKoe n y A O B H m e na3HaMeHH, K a M a c. T14r1l<})Cl - cAejiaHHbiH HarHM, ^ - 6pHTbiH, - H O C H m H H oco6yio npHHecKy B B H A e n^TH n y M K O B , d. - HOCHII^HH nynoK Ha rojioBe ( K a K IIlHBa), mHBaHT-oTinejiBHHK -H O C H L U H HM H C K y RJin I I O A a H H H J lH 3 Hepena, 6 p O A H H H HO T U i e J l b H H KI U H B a H T Tff^Tg

(PJO)

64

~ Kpa^ymHH noJioBHHy Tejia JIIO6HMOH (HMeeTca B B H f l y IIlHBa, p m B o6pa3e c IIOJIOBHHOH Tejia H C C H C K O H , T.e. cBoeii cynpyra b. * 1 K H I -H 3 6 a B H B i U H H C H O T C T p a c T e H J O C B o 6 o > K A e H H eO TI l p H B H 3 a H H O C T HKM C e H U lH H a M

(6axyBp.) ~ a) no a) M O U t H b l H , 6) O C T p W H ,n p O H 3 H T e J I b H I > I H - a) rojioAHtifi, b. mcriM^Kt (6axyBp.) - a)TeMHbm (KaK JIOTOC), 6) cHaiomnn K a K ro;iy6oH JIOTOC c. d.

T: II

- a) y G p a n H W H B npH^ecKy H yKpauieHHMH, 6) cMHpeHHbiH, - a) yxo, 6) CBflmeHHtie Be^bi - a) 6ejibiH OT npHpo/jw, 6) HHCTWH OT npHpo^fci - a) 3y6, 6) 6paxMaH (H(tt3) - a) ^ceMHyxcHHa, 6) ocBoSoac^eHHbiH,flocTHrniHHAyxoBHoro ocBo6o3KAeiiHH

65

Tt "T^cT

(T) KOMMeHTapHH! ~C H J I b H b l H JIHBeHb # p O 3 K LO T XOJlO^a - ycipaHHioiuHH ycTaJiocn,, B03HHKiuyio nocjie JIK>6OBHLIX Ha

a. "TU^TS - KpauienbiH, UBCTHOH b. S^^'HI*^ - Macjio JVIH TeJia d.- cil^Qiic^crl^4! - 6eTejieBbitt opex, aasepHyTbiH B 6eTejieBbiH JIHCT

"RFT: f t f ^ K "

- pacTpeni>iBaioinHH MypauiKH -H 3 # a i O I U H H CHJIbHbie B 3 A O X H 66

~ KycaiomHH - 3 H M H H H[ 2.1.8. MeTpw M 3 nnajm&TH ojinoro cjiora. H3 ppajm&m OAHOTC) cuora, AOcraTOHHO pe^KHe B H3BecTHbi noA o6mnM Ha3BaHHeM npaKpumu. Y BxapTpHxapH BCTpenaeTCH TOJB>KO o^Ha pa3HOBH#HOCTt - cpaadxapa. II

I N I I IS

aparoqeHHWH MHHepaji JiasypHT - K y H M c y T H a a noxjie6Ka - ^epeBo c M o r y M H M HK o p H a M H - c uejifcio, Z C J I ^ - KaM(J)opHoe .aepeBo npoco,

^fg^FTT: (sy)

67

X H T p O C T b I -H e A O B ~ KOpo6, K O p 3 H H a

^RTI:

noBepxHocTt
- JIOKOH

~T O M H L I HB 3 ^ O X (6axyBp.) ~ [rpyAfc], c KOTOPOH copBaHa K o 4 ) T O H K a iiotfBJieiiHe MypauieK


(

e, io6Ka 2.2. Merpi>i c ncpaBiiOMCpni>iMii

d. ftd - c J i a A O C T p a c T H W H JIK>6OBHHK

C3HCKPHTCKHX CHJUia6HHeCKHX pa3MepOB HepaBHOMepHyio CTpyicrypy nad. ^ame Bcero B Taioix Merpax HepaBHOMepHti neTHbie H HeneTHbie nadu. CaMBiii pacnpocTpaHeHHtra H3 TaKHX pa3MepOB, eaitmanm, Mbi Haxo#HM y BxapTpHxapH.

68

Tf

(HeneTHbie

b. 'HrAdiH^iHlldi^ ~ TOTOBMH n p H H K T b jio^cHyio TOHKV 3peHH*i, jibCTeu d. 3iM[^a - corSeHHbiH 2.3. MeTpwHecKHe pa3\iepi>i. CaMwe pacnpocTpaHeHHwe MexpHwecKHe pa3Mepw 3TO apbx H zumu. B pa3Mepe apb% 1-a H 3-n nadu HMeiOT no 12 Mamp, 2-a wada - IS Mamp, 4-H - 15 Mamp (c ije3ypOH nocne Bropoii eaubi), B 2wmw CTpyiaypa : 1-a H 3-H nadu - no 12 Mamp, 2-H H 4-n - no 18 Mamp. aanu MOiyr HMeTb JHO6OH PHTM (^sa AOJDTHX, nerbipe njnoc ABa KpaTKHx HJIH Asa KpaTKHx njnoc AOJirHH), HO KpaTKHH+AOJirHH+KpaTKHH. MeTHbie 5 K C ZaUbl TaiOKe MOryT 6WTB 3IK)6bIMH, H O npeAnOMTHTeJILHeH KpaTKHH+AOJirHH+KpaTKHH. IIocjieAHHH B A^HHOM pa3ACJie pa3Mep, nadaKyjiam, npeAcraBjifleT CO6OH pa3HOBHAHOCTJ> MCTpHHeCKHX CTpO^), B KOTOpWX BCe HCTLipe nadbl HMeiOT no 16 Mamp HJIH no 4 zanu. TaKHe MeTpbi Ha3WBaiOTCH MampacoMaKa.

69

b. c. ^T5 - njiyr *T2 - npHCJi ^ t b pa6 d. rT;8

-K J i e B e T H H K

sfq

w f

sfq

70

a. ^^TORTR^F - o6ManbiBaiomHH H ce6a, H /jpyrax

sfq

WVR:

wti

(T) KoM C. 1^W2cf - pa3pO3HeHHLIH,

: ^RT:

d. jcmrJ(CJ - nonaBiDHH B 6ejxy


II

^ ^ ii

:I

a. ^IIHclcfr !H (6axyBp.) - a) B KOTOPOM BCH {npHpo^a] nanojiHena JIK)6OBLIO, 6) C T p a C T L I O b. f^Ff RHd^ilCllH^^lP^T (6axyBp.) - a) 6jiaroioxaK)mHH pacnycxHBmHMHca acacMHHa, 6) 6jiaroyxaK>mHH K a K pacuBeTUiHH 6 y T O H ^cacMHHa c. H^ilfcR ~ a) Tyna, 6) ^KencKaa rpy^b

71

n P H J I O 3 K E H H E : Onpe#ejinTejii> pa iMepoii (no B.AnTe). 4 uajxiA no 4 cjiora kanya pankti 4 iinjxiA no 5 cjioroe ^TfTf
4 na;>i no 6 CJIOI OB

tanumadhya (tanumadhyama) vidyullekha (vani) sasivadana somaraji 4 na/n>i no 7 cjioroe kumarlalita madalekha madhumatl sloka 4 nanbi no 8 cnoroB FlepBbie qeTbipe cjiora npoH3BOJibHbi, 5-H cjior KpaTKHH, 6-H cuor AOJirHH, 7-H cjior flpnruii B HeqeTHbix na^ax H KpaTKHH B neTHbix, 8-H ~ npOH3BOJlbHbIH

gajagati pramanika manavaka vidyunmala (van!) samanika bhujagasisubhrta bhujangasangata manimadhya

" T cf ? T "T, ^TcfefT

4 na/u>i no 9 cjioros

no 10 cjioroB tvaritagati matta rukmavati

72

(campakamaia) 4 na/ju>i no 11 cjioroo indravajra upendravajra upajati

pa3Mep H3 AByx Bbimenepe-HHCJieHHWx. CTpyicrypa TaKaH >Ke, HO nepBbiH an or npOH3BOJibHbiH, HO He M O ? K e T 6biTb Bcer^a K p a T K H M nnu E[oAo6Hoe cMeiueHHe ^pyrax ^eyx Ha3bmaeTc.H upajati, HanpHMep, vanisastha H indravamsa.

dodhaka bhramaravilasita rathoddhata vartorml salinl svagata 4 na/if>i no 12 cjioroe indravamsa candravartma jaladharamala jaloddhatagati tamarasa totaka drutavilambita prabha (inandakini) pramitaksara bhujangaprayata manimala malati (yamuna) vamsasthavila (vamsastha, vamsastanita) vaisvadevi sragvini

,e f^ T ^e T^

T f^ fT fT fQ ?T ^

73

4 iia/n>i no 13 cjioroe kalahamsa ksama (candrika, utpalini) praharsim manjubhasinl (sunandini, prabodhita) mattamayurl rucira (prabhavatl) no 14 cjioroB aparajita asambadha pathya (man jar i) pramada (krkariruta) praharanakalika madhyaksama (haipsasyeni, kiitila) vasantatilaka (vasantatilaka, uddharsini, simhotinata) vasantl no 15 cjioroo tunaka ma lini lilakhela sasikala citra pancacamara vanini 4 naj*i>i no 17 cjioroB citralekha (alisayini) nardataka (kokilaka) 74 !, n e TT T^c T ^T TTTTTTTTTTTTTTT no 16 cjioroo

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

prthvi mandakranta vamsapattrapatita sikharlni harinl 4 iuijii>i no 18 cjioroe kusiimalatavellita citralekha nandana naraca (mahamalika, mahamalini) sardulaialita 4 na;ui no 19 cjioroe meghavisphurjita sardulavikridita sumadhura surasa 4 na/ji>i no 20 cjioroe gitika suvadana pahcakavall (sarasi, dhrtasri) sragdhara hamsi adritanaya tanvl krauncapada T T7 JT f7 7 ^7 JT f 7 J^ f7 JT J ^7 T7 | 4 na/ibi no 22 criora 77 7 7 7 7 7 7 I T T T T T T T, 4 ii a AM no 23 cnora QTeTef^f7?^7!^^^7!,^ 4 luviM no 24 cnora ^T7!7!, ^f e To Te Tc Te T n, 4 na;ii>i no 25 cnoroe ^TT7?, 7T^^7T7T,cTQ:r? 4 na/iM no 26 cjioroB
7 7 7 7

T T T T^7T7T, 4 na;ii>i no 21 cjiory

bhujangavijhrmbhita Pa3Mepi>i c iicpaBiioMepni>iMi{ aparavaktra Hene-rawe na^u: 75

(vaitalrya) upacitra puspitagra (aupacchandasika) viyogini (vaitaliya, sundarl) vegavati harinapluta udgata

HeTHbie Heneffiwe na^w: HeTHbie na^Lf: *I rf < ? T^ Te fe T T.ef c ? f .T ^ neMcrHbie na^w: ^f e T ef ^r ef cf 7 T cf T Q T ^JI
HeTHbie na bl:

^ iieMeTuwe na#t>i: weTHbie naflw:

HeneTHbie na^u: HeTHbie HeneTHbie 1 -ana^a: 2-iina^a: 3-

Оценить