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2007

512.1+517.1+511.1
22.141+22.161
70

70

. .
, :
. .: , 2007. 608 .: .
ISBN 978-5-94057-263-3
, ,
, , ,
. ,
.
1000 .
, ,
, .

22.141+22.161

ISBN 978-5-94057-263-3

. ., 2007
, 2007

12

14

1.

16

1.1. (16).
1.2. (16). 1.3. (17). 1.4. (18). 1.5. (19). 1.6. (19).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.

26

2.1. (26). 2.2. (26).


2.3. (26). 2.4. (27).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3.

31

3.1. (31). 3.2. (31). 3.3. (32). 3.4. (32).


3.5. (33).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.
4.1. (42). 4.2.
(43). 4.3. (44). 4.4. (44). 4.5. (45).

42

4.6. (46). 4.7. (47). 4.8. (48). 4.9.


(49). 4.10. (49). 4.11. (50).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5.

65

5.1. (65). 5.2.


(65). 5.3. (65). 5.4. (66). 5.5. (67). 5.6. (67). 5.7. (67).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.

74

6.1. (74). 6.2. (74). 6.3. (75). 6.4. (76).


6.5. (76). 6.6. (77). 6.7. (78).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

7.

88

7.1. (88). 7.2. (88).


7.3. (89). 7.4. (90). 7.5. (91).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

8.

96

8.1. x + 1/x > 2 (96). 8.2. (96). 8.3. (97). 8.4. (98). 8.5. ,
(99). 8.6. (99).
8.7. (100). 8.8. (101).
8.9. (102).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

9.

116

9.1. (116).
9.2. (117). 9.3.
Sk (n) = 1k + 2k + . . . + nk (117). 9.4. (118).
9.5. (119).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

10. I

125

10.1. (125). 10.2.


(125). 10.3. (125).
10.4. (126). 10.5. (126).
10.6. (128). 10.7.
(128). 10.8.
(128). 10.9. (129).
10.10. (130). 10.11.
(130). 10.12.
(131).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

11.

142

11.1. (142). 11.2. (143). 11.3. (143).


11.4. , (144). 11.5.
(144). 11.6.
. . (145). 11.7. cos n
(146). 11.8.
(147).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

12.

159

12.1. (159). 12.2. (159). 12.3. (160).


12.4. (161).
12.5. (161). 12.6. (162).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

13.

171

13.1. (171). 13.2. (171).


13.3. (172). 13.4. (172).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

14.

178

14.1. (178). 14.2.


(179). 14.3. (180). 14.4. (180). 14.5. (181). 14.6. (181). 14.7. (181). 14.8. (182). 14.9. (182). 14.10. (184).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

15.

201

15.1. (201). 15.2. (201).


15.3. (203).
15.4. (203). 15.5. (204).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

16.

210

16.1. (210). 16.2. (211). 16.3. (211).


16.4. (211).
16.5. (212).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

17. .

218

17.1. (218). 17.2. (219).


17.3. (220). 17.4. (220).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

18.

228

18.1. (228). 18.2. (229). 18.3. (229).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

19.

236

19.1.

(236).
19.2.
(237). 19.3. (238).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

20. . .

242

20.1. (242). 20.2. (243).


20.3. (243). 20.4. (244). 20.5. (245).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

21.

256

21.1. (256). 21.2. (256).


21.3. (257). 21.4. (257).
21.5. (257).
21.6. (258).
21.7. d- (259). 21.8. (259). 21.9. (260).
21.10. (261).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

22.

269

22.1. (270). 22.2. (270). 22.3. (270).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

23.

275

23.1. (276). 23.2. (276). 23.3. (277). 23.4. (279).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

24. ,

285

24.1. (286). 24.2. (286). 24.3. 4- (287). 24.4. , (287).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

25.

293

25.1. (293). 25.2. (294). 25.3. (295). 25.4. e (296). 25.5. (297). 25.6.
(297).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

26.

310

26.1. (310). 26.2.


(310). 26.3. (310). 26.4. (311). 26.5. (312). 26.6. , (312). 26.7. (313). 26.8. (314). 26.9.
(314).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

27.

322

27.1. (322). 27.2. (323). 27.3. (323). 27.4. (324). 27.5. (324).
27.6. (324). 27.7. (324).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

28.

331

28.1. (331). 28.2.


(332). 28.3.
(333). 28.4. (333).
28.5. (334). 28.6. (335).
28.7. , (335).
28.8. (337). 28.9. (338).

28.10. (338). 28.11.

(339).
28.12.
(339). 28.13.
(340). 28.14.
(340).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

29.

361

29.1. (361). 29.2. (362). 29.3. (364).


29.4. (365). 29.5. (365). 29.6. (366). 29.7. (367). 29.8. (367). 29.9. (368). 29.10. (369). 29.11. (369). 29.12. (369).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

30.

384

30.1. (384). 30.2. (384). 30.3. (384). 30.4. (386). 30.5.


(387). 30.6.
(387). 30.7. (388). 30.8. (388). 30.9. (388).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

31.

399

31.1. (399). 31.2.


(399). 31.3. (400). 31.4. (400). 31.5. (401).
31.6. k (n). (402). 31.7. (403). 31.8. (404). 31.9. (406). 31.10.
(406). 31.11. (407).
31.12. (408).
31.13. (409).
31.14. (410).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

10

32. II

434

32.1. (434). 32.2. (436). 32.3. (439).


32.4. (442). 32.5.
(444). 32.6.
(445).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

33.

460

33.1. (460). 33.2. . (460). 33.3. (461). 33.4. (463).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464

34.

470

34.1. (470). 34.2.


(470). 34.3. (471).
34.4.
(472). 34.5. (472).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

35.

484

35.1. (484). 35.2. (486). 35.3. (486).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

36.
493
36.1.

(493).
36.2.
(494). 36.3. (494).
36.4. (494). 36.5.
(495). 36.6.
(496). 36.7. (497). 36.8. (497). 36.9.
(498).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

11

37.

510

37.1. (510). 37.2. (511). 37.3. (511).


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512

38.

515

38.1. (516). 38.2. (516). 38.3. (519). 38.4. (520). 38.5. . (521).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

39.

531

39.1. (531). 39.2. (531). 39.3. (532).


39.4. (533). 39.5. (533). 39.6. (534). 39.7.
(534).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535

539

1. (539).
2. (543). 3.
(546). 4.
17- (549). 5. (553). 6.
(565).
(561). 7. e
8. (570). 9. (584). 10.
(589).
11. (594).

597
598

39 , , ,
. . ,
.
,
, .
, , .
, .
,
: ,
,
, , .
. 39 ,
. ,
(, , ,
. .).

13

,
: , . .
, , : ;
; ; 17-;
; ;
e ; ; ; . ,
.

. ,
.
, . 1415.



[x] x, , x
{x} x, x

n! = 1 2 3 . . . n
(2n)!! = 2 4 6 . . . 2n
(2n + 1)!! = 1 3 5 . . . (2n + 1)
Ckn =

n!

k! (n k)!


d | n d n
lim
P

Q

min{a1 , . . . , an } min(a1 , . . . , an )
a1 , . . . , an
max{a1 , . . . , an } max(a1 , . . . , an )
a1 , . . . , an
lg 10
ln , e ( )
sgn

sh
ch
th
cth
Arsh
Arch
Arth
Arcth
f (x) f(x)
]

15

1.1.
1.1. , x > 0, x + 1/x > 2.
1.2. ) , x(1 x) 6 1/4. ) ,
x(a x) 6 a2 /4.
1.3. , a, b, c, 0 1,
a(1 b) > 1/4, b(1 c) > 1/4 c(1 a) > 1/4.
1.4. x f(x) = (x a1 )2 + . . . + (x an )2
?
1.5. x, y, z , 1. , 1/x + 1/y + 1/z > 9.
1.6. , (x0 , y0 ) ax + by + c = 0

|ax0 + by0 + c|
p
.
a2 + b2

1.7. a1 , . . . , an ,
a1 + . . . + an = a. ,
a1 a2 + a2 a3 + . . . + an1 an 6 a2 /4.
1.2.
1.8. ) a, b, c . ,

(x a)(x b) + (x b)(x c) + (x c)(x a) = 0

.
) , (a + b + c)2 > 3(ab + bc + ca).

17

1.9. a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn .

(a1 b1 + . . . + an bn )2 6 (a21 + . . . + a2n )(b21 + . . . + b2n ).
1.10. , (a + b + c)c < 0, b2 > 4ac.
1.3.
1.11. )
,
,

.
?
) a
72 , b . , a b a + b
.
1.12. , ax2 + bx + c
x
, 2a, a + b c .
1.13. x2 + ax + b = 0 x2 + cx + d = 0 a+c
, x0 . , x2 +
x+
+

b+d
= 0 , x0 .
2

1.14. ,
x2 + p1 x + q1 = 0,
x2 + p2 x + q2 = 0
, p1 = p2 q1 = q2 .
1.15. , p
ax2 + bx + c + p = 0 , a .
1.16. ) ax2 + bx + c x
. , a = b = 0.
) ax2 + bx + c x . , ax2 + bx + c = (dx + e)2 .

18

1.

1.17. x1 x2 x2 +
+ ax + b = 0, sn = xn1 + xn2 . ,
(n m 1)! n2m m
sn X
=
(1)n+m
a
b ,
n

m! (n 2m)!

m,
0 6 m 6 n/2 ( ).
1.4.
,
.
f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, a 6= 0. f( )f( ) 6 0,
[ , ] ax2 + bx + c = 0.
f(x) = (x) (x) , , ,
( ) > ( ) ( ) 6 ( ), [ , ] x0 ,
(x0 ) = (x0 ).

a b

a b

fa ya

f
y
fb yb
f
y

a b

1.18.
.
1.19. x2 + ax + b = 0, x2 ax b = 0. , x2 2ax 2b = 0.
1.20. f(x)
, n >
> 2. , f(x) + f(x + 1) + . . .
. . . + f(x + n) .
1.21. ax2 + bx + c = 0 ax2 + bx + c = 0.
, x1 , x2
a
, x3 x2 + bx + c = 0,
2
x1 6 x3 6 x2 , x1 > x3 > x2 .
1.22. , [1, 1] f(x) = x2 + ax + b ,
1/2.
1.23. , |ax2 + bx + c| 6 1/2
|x| 6 1, |ax2 + bx + c| 6 x2 1/2 |x| > 1.

a b

19

1.24. , |ax2 + bx + c| 6 1 |x| 6 1,


|cx2 + bx + a| 6 2 |x| 6 1.
1.5.
1.25. ax2 +
+ bxy + cy2 + dx + ey + f = 0 (x0 , y0 ).
1.26. ) , (x0 , y0 ) ( ) ax2 + by2 = 1
ax0 x + by0 y = 1.
) , (x0 , y0 ) xy = a x0 y + y0 x = 2a.
1.6.
1.27. , x2 + p1 x + q1 =
= 0 x2 + p2 x + q2 = 0 (
) ,
(q2 q1 )2 + (p1 p2 )(p1 q2 q1 p2 ) = 0.

(q2 q1 )2 + (p1 p2 )(p1 q2 q1 p2 )


x2 + p1 x + q1 x2 +
+ p2 x + q2 .
1.28. , p1 , p2 , q1 , q2 (q2 q1 )2 + (p1 p2 )(p1 q2 q1 p2 ) < 0,
x2 + p1 x + q1 x2 + p2 x + q2
.

1.1. x > 0
x2 2x + 1 > 0, . . (x 1)2 > 0.
1.2. ) x2 x x = 1/2; 1/4.
) x2 ax x = a/2; a2 /4.

20

1.

1.3. 1.2 ) a(1 a) 6 1/4, b(1 b) 6 1/4, c(1 c) 6


6 1/4.
a(1 b)b(1 c)c(1 a) = a(1 a)b(1 b)c(1 c) 6 (1/4)3 .
1.4. , f(x) = nx2 2(a1 + . . . + an )x + a21 + . . . + a2n .
x =
=

a1 + . . . + an
.
n

x+y+z

= 1 + + .
1.5. =
x
x
x
x
1/y 1/z. 1.2 y/x + x/y > 2.
, .
1.6. (x, y) ax + by + c = 0.
y=

ax + c
,
b

2
ax + c
+ y0 =
(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 = (x x0 )2 +
b

a 2 + b2 2
ac
ay0
2cy0
c2
=
x + 2 x0 + 2 +
x + x20 + 2 +
+ y20 .
2
b

a2

ay0
ac
b2
x0 + 2 +
b
+ b2
b

+ x20 +

2cy0
c2
(ax0 + by0 + c)2
+
.
+ y20 =
2
b
b
a 2 + b2

1.7. x = a1 + a3 + a5 + . . . a x = a2 + a4 + a6 + . . .
1.2 )
a2 /4 > x(a x) = (a1 + a3 + a5 + . . .)(a2 + a4 + a6 + . . .) >
> a1 a2 + a2 a3 + . . . + an1 an .
1.8. ) a 6 b 6 c. x = b
(b c)(b a) 6 0.
x ,
.
) ,
) .
1.9. (a1 x + b1 )2 + . . . + (an x + bn )2 x, .
, .
1.10. f(x) = x2 + bx + ac.
f(c) < 0. x2 , -

21

2
. ,
D = b 4ac .
51

. 1.11. ) :
2
y z, y < z.
y
z
, =
= x, x . x
z

y+z

y y+z
= 1.

z z
1
5
, x = +
.
2
2

x(x + 1) =

) ABC A = 36 , B = C = 72 .
, , a = BC b = AC. BK. KBC = 36 , BCK
72 . , AK = KB,
ABK = 36 = BAK. , KC = b a, BC
b
a
AB
=
=
, . . b2 ba = a2 .
BC
KC
a
ba
a+b
b
= , .
,
b
a

1.12. , f(x) =
= ax2 + bx + c x. ,
, f(0) = c . f(1) c = a b
. , 2a = (a + b) + (a b) .
, 2a, a + b c .
x(ax + b) x. x = 2k + 1, ax + b =
= 2ka + a + b .
1.13. , x > x0 , x2 + ax + b > 0
x2 + cx + d > 0. x > x0 , 2x2 + (a + c)x + (b + d) > 0.
1.14. x2 + p1 x + q1 =
= 0 x1 , .
, x1 = m/n . m2 +
+ p1 mn + q1 n2 = 0, m2 n.
m n . , x1 .
, , x1 .
x1 =a+
,

+ b, a b , b .



p1 a b
q1 = (a + b)(p1 a 2 b). ,
q1 = (p1 2a) b + r,
r =
ap1 a b .

p1 = 2a q1 = (a + b)(a b) = a2 b.
p2 q2 .
1.15. , a > 0. p D = b2 4ac 4ap ,

22

1.

. , a < 0. p ,

c+p
, .
a

1.16. ) , a > 0 c > 0. x, 1, 2, . . . , n. a b ,


ax2 + bx + c x
n/2 . 0 an2 + |b|n + c.
,
0 an2 + |b|n + c,
p
p
4
4
an2 + |b|n + c + 1. an2 + |b|n + c + 1 > n/2, . . an2 +
+ |b|n + c > (n/2 1)4 . n
, (n/2)4 ,
an2 .

) f(x) = ax2 + bx + c.
f(x + 1) f(x) =

(f(x + 1))2 (f(x))2


a(2x + 1) + b
=
,
f(x + 1) + f(x)
f(x + 1) + f(x)

lim (f(x+ 1) f(x)) = a. x f(x+ 1) f(x)


x

, a = d, d .
, x > x0 f(x + 1) f(x) d. y = x0 + n.
f(y) = f(x0 ) + nd n. ,
ay2 + by + c = (f(x0 ) + nd)2 = (dy dx0 + f(x0 ))2
y = x0 + n, n .

y. , d = a e = f(x0 ) dx0 , x0
.
1.17. x1 + x2 = a x1 x2 = b. n = 1
n = 2 x1 + x2 = a
1
2

1 2
(x + x22 ) =
2 1

= a2 b. . ,

, n 1, n > 3.
1
n1 X
(n m 2)!
sn
= (asn1 bsn2 ) =
an2m bm +
(1)n+m
n
n
n
m! (n 2m 1)!
m

n2 X
(n m 3)!
an2m2 bm+1 .
+
(1)n+m1
n
m! (n 2m 2)!
m

23

m + 1 m,
n2 X
(n m 2)!
an2m bm .
(1)n+m
n

(m 1)! (n 2m)!

(n m 2)! (n 2)
(n m 2)! (n 1)
+
=
m! (n 2m 1)! n
(m 1)! (n 2m)! n
n1
(n m 2)!
(n m 1)!
n2
=
=
+
.
(m 1)! (n 2m 1)! n
m
n 2m
m! (n 2m)!

.
1.18. , .
,
. x1 x2 ,
x1 < x2 , x < x1 x > x2
, x1 < x < x2 .
,
x1 x2 .
1.19. f(x) = x2 2ax 2b. 2 = a b
2 = a + , f( ) = 2 + 2 2 = 3 2 f( ) = 2 2 2 = 2 .
, f( )f( ) 6 0. [ , ]
x2 2ax 2b = 0.
1.20. f(x) x1 x2 = x1 + n + a, a > 0. ,
x2 . x0 = x1 + a/2. x0 > x1 x0 + n 6 x2 . f(x0 ) + f(x0 + 1) + . . . + f(x0 + n) < 0.
f(x) + . . . + f(x + n) x2
, x
.
a
1.21. x = x1 x = x2 x2 + bx + c -

b b
a b

a a

ab

a
a
b b b b

ax21 /2 3ax22 /2. ,


x1 x2 .
1.22. , |f(x)| < 1/2 |x| 6 1.
g(x) = x2 1/2 1 0
1/2 1/2. f(1) < g(1) f(0) > g(0). ,
f g :
[1, 0],
[0, 1].
, f g
. x2 + ax + b = x2 1/2 ,

24

1.

ax + b = 1/2. f(0) > g(0) , ,


b 6= 1/2. ax + b = 1/2
.
1.23. , ax2 + bx + c 6 x2 1/2 ( ax2 bx c ).
f(x)=ax2 +bx+c g(x)=x2 1/2. f(0)> g(0)=1/2
f(1) 6 g(1) = 1/2. f g
[1, 1],
( f g ).
f(1) < g(1), f(x) < g(x) |x| > 1.
, f(1) = g(1) f(1) = g(1).
, , f(1) = g(1) f(x) > g(x) x,
1. f(x) g(x)
x 6= 1. , f(1) > g(1),
.
1.24. 1.23 |ay2 + by + c| 6 2y2 1 |y| > 1.
y = 1/x.
|cx2 + bx + a| =

1
1
|ay2 + by + c| 6 2 (2y2 1) 6 2
y2
y

|y| > 1, . . 0 < |x| 6 1. x = 0


, x,
.
1.25. , (x0 , y0 )
ax2 + bxy + cy2 + dx + ey + f = 0.
, (x0 , y0 ), y y0 = k(x x0 ) ( x = x0 ,
k = ). .
(. . y k(x x0 ) + y0 ) A B x2 x ( C
):
A = a + bk + ck2 ;
B = bkx0 + by0 2ck2 x0 + 2cky0 + d + ke.
,

25

(x0 , y0 ).* : 2x0 = B/A, . .


k(bx0 + 2cy0 + e) = (2ax0 + by0 + d).

(x x0 )(2ax0 + by0 + d) + (y y0 )(bx0 + 2cy0 + e) = 0.

(x0 , y0 ) , . . ax20 + bx0 y0 +


+ cy20 + dx0 + ey0 + f = 0. , :
(2ax0 + by0 + d)x + (bx0 + 2cy0 + e)y + dx0 + ey0 + 2f = 0.
1.26. 1.25.
1.27. x1 .
, (p1 p2 )x1 = q2 q1 .

p1 = p2 , q1 = q2 . p1 6= p2 , x1 =

q2 q1
.
p1 p2

x1 , . p1 = p2 q1 = q2
.
, (q2 q1 )2 +(p1 p2 )(p1 q2 q1 p2 )=0. p1 =p2 ,
q1 = q2 ; ,
. p1 6= p2 , x1 =

q2 q1
. p1 p2

, x21 + p1 x1 + q1 = 0 x21 + p2 x1 + q2 = 0.
1.28. , , , p1 6= p2 .

x1 =

q2 q1
.
p1 p2

x21 + p1 x1 + q1 = x21 + p2 x1 + q2 =

(q2 q1 )2 + (p1 p2 )(p1 q2 q1 p2 )


< 0.
(p1 p2 )2

, f1 (x) = x2 + p1 x + q1 f2 (x) =
= x2 + p2 x + q2 (x1 , y1 ), y1 < 0.
x2 + p1 x + q1 x2 + p2 x + q2

.

* . , x = x0 y = y0
xy = 1 , .
.
.

2.1.
2.1.
(x2 x 1)3 + (x2 3x + 2)3 = (2x2 4x + 1)3 .

2.2. x4 + ax3 + bx2 + ax + 1 = 0.


2.3. x4 + ax3 + bx2 ax + 1 = 0.
2.4. x4 + ax3 + (a + b)x2 + 2bx + b = 0.
2.5.

1
1

= 1.
x2
(x + 1)2

2.2.
2.6.
2.7.
1

(x2 x + 1)3 (a2 a + 1)3


= 2
, a>1.
x2 (x 1)2
a (a 1)2

x x(x 1)
x(x 1) . . . (x n + 1)
+
. . . + (1)n
= 0.
1
2!
n!

2.8. n > 1 . xn nx + n 1 = 0.
2.3.
2.92.15 ,
. .

2.9.

2x 6 +

x + 4 = 5.

27

2.10.
p
p
p
m
m
(1 + x)2 m (1 x)2 = 1 x2 .

2.11.
p
p
p
120
.
3 x2 9 + 4 x2 16 + 5 x2 25 =
x
p

2.12. x
3 + x = 3.
p+
2.13. a a + x = x.
2.14.
p
p

x + 3 4 x 1 + x + 8 6 x 1 = 1.

2.15. 3 1 x + 3 1 + x = p, p .
2.4.
2.16.
|x + 1| |x| + 3|x 1| 2|x 2| = x + 2.

2.17. x3 [x] = 3, [x] , x.

2.1. u = x x 1 v = x2 3x + 2. u3 +v3 =(u+v)3 , . . 3uv(u+v)=0.


x2 x 1 = 0, x2 3x +
+ 2 = 0 2x2 4x + 1 = 0.
2.2. y = x + 1/x.
2.3. y = x 1/x.
2.4. y = 1/x + 1/x2 .
2.5. x4 + 2x3 + x2 2x
1 = 0. 2.4 a = 2 b = 1
.
2.6. R(x) =

(x2 x + 1)3

x2 (x 1)2

x 1/x 1 x.
a, 1/a, 1 a, 1/(1 a), 1 1/a a/(1 a).

28

2.

a > 1 . 6,
.
2.7. : x = 1, 2, . . . , n.
1

k(k 1)
k(k 1) . . . 2 1
k
+
. . . + (1)k
= (1 1)k = 0
1
2!
k!

, k = 1, 2, . . . , n
. n , n.
2.8. : x = 1. ,
xn nx + n 1 = (1 + x + . . . + xn1 n)(x 1).
x > 1, 1 + x + . . . + xn1 n > 0, 0 < x < 1, 1 + x + . . .
. . . + xn1 n < 0.

2
2.9. y = x + 4. x = y2 4,
p 2x 6 = 2y
2
14. , 2y 14 + y = 5. y . y2 + 10y 39 = 0. 3 13.
y> 0, y=3,
x = 5. , x = 5
.
2.10. ,
x 6= 1.

m 1 x2 = m (1 x)(1 + x).

r
r
m 1+x
m 1x

= 1.
r

1x

1+x

1+x
. z z2
1x

1 5
zm 1
z 1 = 0. , z =
. x = m
.
2
z +1

z =

2.11. x ,
.
. p
, x = 5 .

3 + x > 3, x < 1, x +
2.12.

x
>
1,

x
+
p

+ 3 + x < 3. x = 1.
2.13. ,
x4 2ax2 x + a2 a = 0.

29

a . ,
:
a = x2 + x + 1;
a = x2 x.

x, :
r
3

x1,2 = a ;
2
4
r
x3,4 =

1
4

a+ .

2.14. : 5 6 x 6 10. ,

x + 3 4 x 1 = ( x 1 2)2 ,

x + 8 6 x 1 = ( x 1 3)2 .

| x 1 2| + | x 1 3| = 1

( ).

.

1. x 1 2 > 0 x 1 3 > 0, . . x > 10.


x = 10.

2. x 1 2 > 0 x 1 3 6 0, . . 5 6 x 6 10.
, . . 5 6 x 6 10, x

.
3. x 1 2 6 0 x 1 3 6 0, . . x 6 5.

x = 5.

, x 1 2 6 0 x 1 3 > 0, , .
2.15. :
p

3
3
3
2 + 3 1 x2 ( 1 x + 1 + x) = p3 .

p 3 1 x + 3 1 + x.
3
3
2 + 3p 1 x2 = p ,
r
p3 2 3
;
x= 1
3p

p = 1 0 < p 6 2.
:
, .

30

2.

.
u = 3 1 x, v = 3 1 + x. u + v = p
( ).
u3 + v3 + 3uv(u + v) = p3 . p u + v.
u3 + v3 + 3uvp = p3 , . . (u + v)3 p3 3uv(u + v p) = 0.
(u + v)3 p3 : a3 b3 =
= (a b)(a2 + ab + b2 ). (u + v p) ,

(u + v p)(u2 + v2 + p2 + up + vp uv) = 0.


(u2 + v2 + p2 + up + vp uv) = 0, . . (u + p)2 + (v + p)2 + (u v)2 = 0.
,

, u = v = p,
. . 3 1 x = 3 1 + x = p. x = 0, p = 1. x = 0 p = 1
.
2.16. : x = 2 x > 2.
x > 2, .
1 6 x < 2, 4x = 8,
.
0 6 x < 1, 2x = 2,
.
1 6 x < 0, 0 = 2, .
x < 1,
x = 2.

3
2.17. : x = 4.
[x] = n x = n + , 0 6 < 1. x3 x + = 3. 0 6 < 1 ,
2<x3 x6 3. x> 2, x(x2 1)> 23=6,
x3 x6 3 . x< 1, x(x2 1) < 0,
2 < x3 x . ,
, 1 6 x < 2, . . [x] = 1, 0 1.
3

x3 +
1 = 3, x3 = 3, x
1 = 3.

3
3
3
3
2,
x
=
3,
x
=
4.

[
2] 6= 1,

:
x
=

[ 3 3] 6= 0 [ 3
4] = 1, 3
4.

3.1.
3.13.8 .

x(y + z) = 35,
3.1. y(x + z) = 32,

z(x + y) = 27.
(
2y = 4 x2,
3.3.
2x = 4 y2.

x + y + xy = 19,
3.2. y + z + yz = 11,

z + x + zx = 14.

x + y + z = a,
3.4. x2 + y2 + z2 = a2 ,

3
x + y 3 + z 3 = a3 .

1 x1 x2 = 0,

1 x2 x3 = 0,

1 x x = 0,
x3 y3 = 26,
3 4
3.5.
3.6.

. ............ ...
x2 y xy2 = 6.

1 xn1 xn = 0,

1 xn x1 = 0.
2

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3xyz

z
=
b
,

x + y 2z = 2a ,

3.8. x + y + 2z = 4(a2 + 1),


3.7. x + y + z = 2b,

2
2
x + y 2 z 2 = b2 .
z xy = a2 .
3.2.

3.93.14
.

32

3.

3.9.

3.11.

x + y + xy = 2 + 3 2,
x2 + y2 = 6.

x + y = 2,
xy z2 = 1.

3.10.

3.12.

3x y

2 = 3,
x+ 2

x3 + y3 = 1,
x4 + y4 = 1.
x +y

x + 3y

y 2
2 = 0.
x +y

(x3 + x4 + x5 )5 = 3x1 ,

(x4 + x5 + x1 )5 = 3x2 ,

3.13. (x5 + x1 + x2 )5 = 3x3 ,

(x + x2 + x3 )5 = 3x4 ,

(x2 + x3 + x4 )5 = 3x5 .

2x21

= x2 ,

1 + x21

2x22
3.14.
= x3 ,

1 + x22

2x23

2 = x1 .
1 + x3

3.3.
3.15. (x1 > 0, x2 > 0,
x3 > 0, x4 > 0, x5 > 0)

x1 + x2 = x23 ,

x2 + x3 = x24 ,

x3 + x4 = x25 ,

x4 + x5 = x2 ,

x5 + x1 = x22 .
3.4.
3.16.
(
x2 y2 = 0,
(x a)2 + y2 = 1

33

, , . a
?
3.5.
3.17.

x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,

x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + 4x4 + 4x5 = 2,

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 6x4 + 6x5 = 3,

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 7x4 + 8x5 = 4,

x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 + 7x4 + 9x5 = 5.


3.18.

x1 + x2 + x3 = 6,

x2 + x3 + x4 = 9,

x3 + x4 + x5 = 3,

x4 + x5 + x6 = 3,

x5 + x6 + x7 = 9,

x6 + x7 + x8 = 6,

x7 + x8 + x1 = 2,

x8 + x1 + x2 = 2.

3.19. a, b, c .

x + ay + a2 z + a3 = 0,

x + by + b2 z + b3 = 0,

x + cy + c2 z + c3 = 0.

34

3.

3.20. a1 , . . . , an . ,

x1 + . . . + xn = 0,

a1 x1 + . . . + an xn = 0,
7a21 x1 + . . . + a2n xn = 0,

..... ........... .........

n1
a1 x1 + . . . + an1
xn = 0
n
.
3.21.






1
1
1
x 1 n + y 1 n+1 + z 1 n+2 = 0,
2

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
3.22. 100 a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , a100 , :

a1 3a2 + 2a3 > 0,

a2 3a3 + 2a4 > 0,

a 3a + 2a > 0,
3
4
5

.........
...........
..

a99 3a100 + 2a1 > 0,

a100 3a1 + 2a2 > 0.

, ai .
3.23.

10x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + x4 + x5


= 0,

11x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 3x5 + x6


= 0,

15x3 + 4x4 + 5x5 + 4x6 + x7 = 0,

2x1 + x2 3x3 + 12x4 3x5 + x6 + x7 = 0,

6x1 5x2 + 3x3 x4 + 17x5 + x6


= 0,

3x1 + 2x2 3x3 + 4x4 + x5 16x6 + 2x7 = 0,

4x1 8x2 + x3 + x4 3x5


+ 19x7 = 0.

35

3.24. ,

x1 x2 = a,
x3 x4 = b,

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 1

(x1 > 0, x2 > 0,


x3 > 0, x4 > 0) , |a| + |b| < 1.
3.25.

*x + *y + *z = 0,
*x + *y + *z = 0,

*x + *y + *z = 0.

. , , .

3.1. x1 = yz,
y1 = xz, z1 = xy. x1 ,
. x1 = (32+ 27 35)/2= 12. y1 = 15 z1 = 20.
, yz = 12, xz = 15, xy = 20. x2 =

20 15
(xy)(xz)
=
=
yz
12

= 25, . . x = 5. , y = 20/x = 4 z = 15/x = 3.


(5, 4, 3) (5, 4, 3).
3.2. x1 y1 = 20, y1 z1 =
= 12, x1 z1 = 15, x1 = x + 1, y1 = y + 1, z1 = z + 1.
(x1 , y1 , z1 ) = (5, 4, 3) (5, 4, 3), . . (x, y, z) = (4, 3, 2)
(6, 5, 4).
3.3. , 2(y x) =
= y2 x2 = (y x)(y + x). ,
y = x, y + x = 2.
y = x, 2x = 4 x2 , . . x = 1 5. y + x = 2,
2
2(2 x) = 4
x2 , . . x
= 2x.

: (1 + 5, 1 + 5), (1 5, 1 5), (0, 2), (2, 0).


3.4. : (0, 0, a), (0, a, 0) (a, 0, 0).
(x + y + z)2 (x2 + y2 + z2 ) = 2(xy + yz + xz) ,
xy + yz + xz = 0.
(1)

36

3.

(x + y + z)3 (x3 + y3 + z3 ) = 3(x + y)(y + z)(z + x) , (x + y)(y + z)(z + x) = 0. (1),


xyz = (xy + yz + xz)(x + y + z) (x + y((y + z)(z + x) = 0.
x = 0, (1) , yz = 0.
y = 0 z = a, z = 0 y = a. . : (0, 0, a),
(0, a, 0) (a, 0, 0).
3.5. : x1 = x2 = . . . = xn = 1 n, x1 = x3 = . . .
. . . = xn1 = a x2 = x4 = . . . = xn = 1/a (a 6= 0) n.
n . , x2 6= 0, x1 = x3 .
x2 = x4 . . , xn = x2 . x1 = x3 = . . . = xn = x2 =
= x4 = . . . = xn1 . x21 = 1,
. . x1 = 1. , .
n x1 = x3 = . . . = xn1 , x2 =
= x4 = . . . = xn2 x2 = xn . ,
.
3.6. y = kx. , k 6= 1.
x3 k3 x3 = 26,

kx3 y k2 x3 = 6

x3 =

6
26
x3 =
. ,
1 k3
k k2
26
6
=
.
1 k3
k k2

1 k.
6
26
= ,
k
1 + k + k2

k = 3 1/3. x3 = 1 x3 = 27. 1i 3 3

: (1, 3),
, (1 i 3) , (3, 1),
2
2
3 3i3 1

, (1 i 3) .
2

3.7. , b = 0.
z = x y z2 = x2 + y2 .
, xy = 0. , x = 0,
z = y y = 0, z = x.
.

37

, b 6= 0.
3xyz x3 y3 z3 = (x + y + z)(xy + yz + xz x2 y2 z2 ).

, xy + yz + xz x2 y2

z2 =

b2
. x + y + z = 2b,
2

x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2xz = 4b2 . , x2 + y2 + z2 = b2


3

xy + yz + xz = b2 . 2
, z = 0.
3

, x2 + y2 = b2 xy = b2 . ,
2
r
r

1
1
b, y = 1
b.
x = 1
2

3.8. :
8 2
x + y2 = 2z2 + 2a2 ,
>
<
x + y = 4(a2 + 1) 2z,
>
:
xy = a2 z2 .

,
, 2, . :
0 = 16(a2 + 1)2 16(a2 + 1)z,

. . z= a2 + 1. :
(
x + y = 2(a2 + 1),
xy = a4 + a2 + 1.

; ,
x = a2 a + 1,

y = a2 a + 1.

3.9. u = x + y v = xy. u + v =
2 + 3 2 u2 2v = 6,

u
+ 2u = 6 + 2(2
+ 6 2. ,
p
+ 3 2) = 10
u = 1
11 +
6 2 = 1
. u = 2 + 2 4
(3 + 2), .
2.

u = 4 2 v = 6 + 4 2,
v = 2 + 3 2 u = 2 2 6 + 4 2.
(x y)2
= (x + y)2 4xy = (4 + 2)2 4(6 + 4 2) < 0.
x + y = 2 + 2 xy
= 2 2.
: (x, y) = (2, 2) ( 2, 2).
.

38

3.

3.10. , x = 0 1,
y = 1 0. , x 6= 1 y 6= 1.
: x = 0, y = 1 x = 1, y = 0. ,
.
, 0 < |x|, |y| < 1.
|x|3 + |y|3 < x4 + y4 = 1. x y ,
. , . , , x > 0 y < 0. x3 + y3 < x3 < 1.
.
3.11. , xy > 1. x y
, 2.

, x y x + y > 2 xy > 2,
x + y = 2 , x = y = 1.
z = 0.
3.12. y, x . 2xy 1 = 3y.
, y 6= 0, x =

3
1
+ .
2
2y

,
4y4 3y2 1 = 0. , y2 > 0, y2 = 1, . . y1 = 1
y2 = 1. y x1 = 2 x2 = 1.
3.13.
, x1 > xi (i = 2, 3, 4, 5). f(x) = x5
, 3x2 = (x4 + x5 + x1 )5 > (x3 + x4 + x5 )5 = 3x1 .
, x1 = x2 x3 = x1 . , 3x4 = (x1 + x2 + x3 )5 >
> (x5 + x1 + x2 )5 = 3x3 . , x4 = x3 x5 = x3 .
, x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = x5 = x. x
(3x)5 = 3x. : x = 0
1/3.
3.14. x1 = x2 = x3 = 0.
, x1 , x2 , x3 ,
. ,
x1 x2 x3 6= 0. 1 +
1+

2
2
1
1
= , 1 + 2 = . ,
x3
x1
x22
x3

1 2
1 2
1 2
+ 1
+ 1
= 0.
1
x1

x2

2
1
= ,
x2
x21

x3

, x1 = x2 = x3 = 1.
3.15. xmin = xi x1 , . . . , x5 , xmax =
= xj . x2min = xi2 + xi1 > 2xmin ( , x0 = x5 x1 = x4 ) x2max = xj2 + xj1 6 2xmax .

39

xmin xmax , xmin > 2 > xmax . , xmin = xmax = 2.


3.16. :
a = 1,
a = 2.
y = x. ,
(x a)2 + x2 = 1.

(1)

, (1) . (1) x = 0,
a2 = 1, . . a = 1.
, (1) (. .
).

(1), a = 2.
3.17. : x1 = x3 = x5 = 1, x2 = x4 = 1.
, ,
, , , . .:
8
x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,
>
>
>
>
x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,
>
<
x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,
>
>
>
x4 + 2x5 = 1,
>
>
:
x5 = 1.
x5 , x4 , x3 , x2 , x1 .
3.18. : x1 = x8 = 1, x2 = x7 = 2, x3 = x6 = 3, x4 =
= x5 = 4.
, 3(x1 + x2 + . . . + x8 ) = 0. , .
2x1 + x2 + x3 + . . . + x8 = 1, , x1 = 1.
.
3.19. P(t) = t3 + t2 z + ty + x. a, b, c P(t).
P(t) = (t a)(t b)(t c), , x = abc, y = ab + bc + ca,
z = (a + b + c).
3.20. , a1 , . . . , an ,
P(t), 0 t = a2 , . . . , an 1 t = a1 . P(t) = (t a2 ) . . . (t an ),

l(a

a2 ) . . . (a1 an ) = 1, . .

1
=
.
(a1 a2 ) . . . (a1 an )

P(t) P(t) = p0 + p1 t + . . . + pn1 tn1 .


p0 ,

40

3.

p1 , . . . , pn1 . , P(a1 )x1 + P(a2 )x2 + . . . + P(an )xn = 0, . . x1 = 0.


, x2 = 0, . . . , xn = 0.
.
10.35.
3.21. : y = 3x, z = 2x (x ).
, :
x + y + z = 0,
4x + 2y + z = 0.
-, 1

, n+2 , n-
2
. -,

1
1
1
x 1
+y 1
+z 1
= 0,
2
4
8

1
1
1
x 1
+y 1
+z 1
=0
4

16

. , , x/4 + y/8 + z/16 = 0.


, x + y + z = 0.
3.22. . ak 1 3 + 2 = 0. ,
a1 3a2 + 2a3 , . . . , 0.
, 0, . . , .
(a1 a2 ) + 2(a3 a2 ) = 0,
(a2 a3 ) + 2(a4 a3 ) = 0,
...... ...... ..... ...... .....
(a100 a1 ) + 2(a2 a1 ) = 0.

a2 a3 = (a1 a2 )/2,
a3 a4 = (a2 a3 )/2 = (a1 a2 )/22 , . . . , a1 a2 = (a100 a1 )/2 = (a1
a2 )/2100 . a1 = a2 .
a2 = a3 , a3 = a4 , . . . , a100 = a1 .
3.23. : x1 = x2 = . . . = x7 = 0.
7
P

aij xi =
i=1

=P
0. aij : |ajj | >
> |aij | j. x1 , . . . , x7 i6=j

41

. , x1 , . . . , x7
. xk

P
. |akk xk | >
aik xi ,
i6=k
7
P
aik xi = 0 . .
i=1

3.24. a > 0, x1 = x2 + a,
a < 0, x2 = x1 a.
x1 = x2 , x2 = x1 . , ,
x1 = x2 + a a > 0. , x3 = x4 + b b> 0.
,
1 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 2x2 + 2x4 + a + b > a + b (
a, b , 1 > |a| + |b|).
, a + b < 1, a b . x2 =x4 =(1ab)/4, x1 =x2 +a,
x3 = x4 + b.
.
3.25.
z .
. -
x y,
y x .
- z,
z . (1, 1, 0).

4.1.
4.1. 1 * 2 * 3 * . . . * 10 = 0 ,
?
4.2. , n ( 1 )
, .
4.3. a1 , . . . , a2n+1 , b1 , . . . , b2n+1
, . , ak bk , k = 1, 2, . . . , 2n + 1,
.
4.4. a, b, c , a 6= 0. ,
ax2 + bx + c = 0 , a, b, c
.
4.5. ,
a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an1 x + an ,
x=0 x=1 ,
.
4.6. x
. x ,
4. , , .

43

4.7.
, (
, ):

1
1 4

1
1
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
3
6
7
6
3 1
10 16 19 16 10 4 1

, , , .
4.2.
p > 1 ,
, 1. n > 1
, . n
, n = n1 n2 , n1 < n n2 < n. n > 1 .
.
(
). , , .
a b , a 6 b. q r,
b = qa + r r < a ( ). . a0 a1 ,
a0 > a1 . a0 a1 : a0 = q1 a1 + a2 ;
a1 a2 : a1 = q2 a2 + a3 . .
ak1 = qk ak . a0 , a1 , . . . , ak
ma0 + na1 , m n . , , ak
a0 a1 . , ak2 = qk1 ak1 + ak = (qk1 qk + 1)ak . ., a0
a1 ak . , ak a0 a1 . ,
a0 a1 ma0 + na1 , m n

44

4.

.
.
a b (a, b).

4.8. bc a (a, b) = 1. ,
c a.
4.9. .
21n + 4

4.10. ,

14n + 3
n.
4.11. a1 , a2 , . . .
, (am , an ) = (amn , an ) m > n.
, (am , an ) = ad , d = (m, n).
4.12. , a m n (am 1, an 1) = ad 1,
d = (m, n).
4.3.
4.13. p/q , p q p
p 2 q2
. f
=
, q1 , . . . , qn q

q1 . . . qn

q. , f
.
4.4.

4.14. an an1 . . . a1 a0 .
) , 3
, a0 + a1 + . . . + an 3.
) , 9
, a0 + a1 + . . . + an 9.
) , 11
, a0 a1 + a2 a3 + . . . + (1)n an 11.
4.15. 300 ,
. ?

45

4.16. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
, ,
, .
4.17. an an1 . . . a1 a0 . an an1 . . . a1 + 2a0 . . .
, , 19.
, 19
, 19.
4.18. an an1 . . . a1 a0 . an an1 . . . a1 2a0 . , 7 ,
7.
4.5.

4.19. ) , (a, b) =
) ,
(a, b, c) =

ab
.
(a, b)

abc (a, b, c)
.
(a, b) (b, c) (c, a)

( 14.26.)
) ,
(a, b, c) =

abc (a, b, c)
.
(a, b) (b, c) (c, a)

4.20. ,
(a, (b, c)) = ((a, b), c) = (a, b, c).
4.21. ,

(a, a + b)
a+b
=
.
(a, b)
b

4.22. a b . , (a + b, a2 + b2 ) = 1 2.

46

4.

4.23. ,
.
4.24. , n a1 < a2 < . . . < an na1 .
4.25. f(a, b), a b, : (1) f(a, a) = a;
(2) f(a, b) = f(b, a); (3) (a + b)f(a, b) = bf(a, a + b). ,
f(a, b) = (a, b).
4.26. , N > 4. N. ,
2.

4.6.
4.27. , 72n 52n 24.
n5

n3

7n

4.28. ,
+
+
5
3
15
n.
4.29. n 20n + 16n 3n 1
323?
4.30. , k 6= b
a kn b k, a = bn . ( a, b, n .)
n
4.31. , 2n 2 n, 22 1 2
2n 1.
4.32. a, b, m n , a
b a > 1. , am + bm
an + bn , m = kn, k
.
* * *
4.33. ) , 1/2+1/3 +. . .+1/n
.

47
1

+
+ ... +
, k
) ,
k
k+1
k+n
n , .
4.34. , :
(m + n)!
(2m)! (2n)!
;
)
;
m! n!
m! n! (m + n)!
(5m)! (5n)!
;
)
m! n! (3m + n)! (3n + m)!
(3m + 3n)! (3n)! (2m)! (2n)!
)
.
(2m + 3n)! (m + 2n)! m! (n!)2 (m + n)!

4.7.
4.35.
1 100 ?
4.36. p a
, n! pa . ,
hni h n i h n i
a=
+ 2 + 3 +...
p

4.37. , n! 2n .
4.38. ,
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . 2n.
* * *
1

4.39. n,

n
n+1
.
4.40. ) , a
m
k, ak 1
2m .
) , a m,
am 1 2m .
4.41. m, :
) 3m 1 2m ; ) 31m 1 2m .

48

4.

4.8.
4.42.
: ) 3, ) 4, ) 5, ) 8?
4.43. , :
) 5 4, 6
5, 7 6.
) 5 4, 6
5, 8 7.
4.44. , :
) 5 a, 6
b.
) 5 a, 6
b, 7 c.
4.45. ) n 4 3. , n .
) n 8 7. ,
n .
4.46. , 131 112, 132
98.
4.47. 523 . . . , 7, 8 9.
4.48. 7
2

10

1010 + 10(10 ) + 10(10 ) + . . . + 10(10 ) .


4.49. m1 , . . . , mk
m=m1 . . . mk . , a1 , . . .
. . . , ak x ai (mod mi ), i = 1, . . .
. . . , k, , x1 x2 ,
x1 x2 m ( ).
4.50. n,
2n 1 7.

49

4.51. p . ,
r a1 , . . . , ar , p. ,
r < p, r + 1 ,
p ( ,
).
4.52. , 2n 1
n , n.
4.9.
m n ,
(m, n) = 1.

4.53. , n
n(n + 1) .
4.54. ) , n, n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4
,
.
) , n,
n, n + 1, n + 2, . . . , n + 9 ,
.
4.55. n m . n1
m1
, Fn = 22 + 1 Fm = 22
+ 1
.
4.10.
4.56. , p > 3
12 1.
4.57. , ().
4.58. , 4k 1.
4.59. ) , 2n 1 , n .
) , 2n + 1 , n = 2k .

50

4.

4.60. , n
n1
2 + 22 + 1 n .
2n

4.11.
4.61. , n a b
ab n
a b.
4.62. p , a
p. , p a,
2a, 3a, . . . , (p 1)a , . .
1 p 1
.
4.63. , p , a
b p, p a
b ab
p.

4.1. : . 1 2 3 . . . 10
; ,
. 5
, .
4.2. d n n/d.
d d n/d (. . n 6= d2 ), n
, . n = d2 ,
, d, ,
.
4.3. , ak bk .
(a1 b1 ) + . . . + (a2n+1 b2n+1 ) (
). 0, a1 + . . .
. . . + a2n+1 = b1 + . . . + b2n+1 .
4.4. , a, b, c ax2 + bx + c = 0
x = m/n, m n . am2 + bmn + cn2 = 0 ,
m2 + mn + n2 . m n ,

51

, . m2 + mn + n2
.
4.5. P(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an1 x + an .
an = P(0) a0 + a1 + . . . + an = P(1) . x , P(x) an (mod 2). x ,
P(x) a0 + a1 + . . . + an (mod 2). ,
P(x) , .
4.6. , 4, , . , . ,
.
2. an xn +
+ an1 xn1 + . . . + xr bm xm + bm1 xm1 + . . . + xs . 2,
an bm xn+m + . . . + xr+s . , xr+s , .
4.7. , , , 0, 1:

1
.

1
0
.

1
1
1
.

1
0
1
0
.

1
1
0
0

0
0
0

1
1

, . ,
.
4.8. m n , ma + nb =
=(a, b)=1. mac+nbc=c, . . a(mc+n1 )=c, n1
. , c a.
4.9. , a = p1 . . . pr = q1 . . . qs , p1 , . . . , pr ,
q1 , . . . , qs . , (p1 , q1 ) = 1, (p1 , q1 ) = p1 p1 = q1 . (p1 , q1 ) = 1,
4.8 q2 . . . qs p1 . (p1 , q2 )=
= 1, q3 . . . qs p1 . .
p1 = qi . .

52

4.

4.10. 21n + 4
14n + 3, . 21n + 4
14n + 3, 7n + 1. 14n + 3 7n + 1,
1. , 21n + 4 14n + 3
.
4.11. {m, n}, m > n,
{m, n} {m n, n}
{d, d}, d=(m, n). , m n
.
4.12. 4.11 , (am
1, an 1) = (amn 1, an 1) m> n > 1. am 1=
= an (amn 1) + an 1 a an 1 .
a
b
2a
am
4.13. p = p11 . . . pm
, q = q11 . . . qbnn . f(p/q) = p1 1 . . .
2am 2b1 1
2bn 1
. . . p m q1
. . . qn
. , .
4.14. ) 10 3 1. 10k
3 1. , ak 10k
3 ak .
) ).
) 10 11 1. 10k
11 (1)k . , ak 10k
11 (1)k ak .
4.15. 3, 9,
.
4.16. a b , . , a b a 6= b.
ab
6 7. b
ab
, a b 9, b 9.

a b b. ,

9. .
4.17. 10a + b a + 2b.
10a + b, 19, 9a > b, . . 10a + b >
> a + 2b.
. , 10a + b 19 , 20a + 2b 19, . . a + 2b
19.
4.18. 10a + a0 . , 7 , a 2a0
7. , 10a + a0 7
, 20a + 2a0 7. ,
7 20a + 2a0 ,
a + 2a0 .

53

bk
1
4.19. ) a = p1a1 . . . pkak b = pb
1 . . . pk .
a b . . . pmin{ak ,bk } ,
k
max{a1 ,b1 }
ak ,bk } .
(a, b) = p1
. . . pmax{
k
min{ 1 , 1 }

(a, b) = p1


.
ab
a=pa b=pb , 6 , (a, b)=pa
=
=

a b

pa pb

= pa .
pb

(a, b)

) , a = pa , b = pb , c = pg ,
6 6 . (a, b, c) = pa ,

a b g

abc (a, b, c)
pa pb pg pg
= b g g = pa .
(a, b) (b, c) (c, a)
p p p

) ,
pa pb pg pa
pa pb pa

= pg .

4.20. p,
a, b, c, , , . ,

abg

b g)) = min(min(a, b), g)) = min(a, b, g),

min( , min( ,

min(x, y) x y. .
4.21. 4.19 )
(a + b) (a, b) =

(a + b)ab
(a + b)ab
=
= b (a, a + b).
(a, b)
(a, a + b)

4.22. , a + b a2 + b2 d.
2ab = (a + b)2 (a2 + b2 ) d.
2a2 = 2a(a + b) 2ab 2b2 = 2b(a + b) 2ab d.
a b , a2 b2
. , d = 1 2.
4.23. a b
, a b. .
. a = pa . . . b = pb . . . ,
6 . a b pa . . . , pb . . .

a b

54

4.

pa . . .
a b .
4.24. a.
a
a
a
>
>...>
.

a1
a2
an
a
> n, . . a > na1 .
a1

4.25. f(a, b) = (a, b) (1)(3);


(1) (2) , (3) 4.21.
, (2) (3) f(a, b),
f(a1 , b1 ) a1 b1 ,
a1 + b1 < a + b. f(a, b) .
4.26. a1 , . . . , an .

h i

1, 2, 3, . . . , N, ak ,

N
. ak

a1 , . . . , an N,
1, 2, . . . , N ,
a1 , . . . , an .
1, 2, . . . , N,
a1 , . . . , an ,
hNi
hNi hNi
+
+...+
.
a1

a2

an

1, 2, . . . , N N ,
hNi
hNi hNi
+
+...+
6 N.
,

hNi

ak

a1

. .

a1

a2

an

N
>
1,
ak

1 +
1 +...+
1 < N,
a2

an

N
N
N
N
+
+
+...+
< N + n < 2N.
a1
a2
a3
an

N, .
4.27. an bn a b ( 5.1 ),
72n 52n 72 52 = 24.
4.28. , 3n5 + 5n3 + 7n 15, . .
3
5n + 7n 3 3n5 + 7n 5. , 5n3 + 7n
(n3 n) (mod 3) 3n5 + 7n 2(n5 n) (mod 5).
, , n3 n 3,
n5 n 5.

55

4.29. : n. ,
323 = 17 19, 323 , 17 19. 20n 3n
20 3 = 17. , 16n (1)n (mod 17), 16n 1
17 , n .
19, 20n 1 20 1 = 19 n,
n = 2m 16n 3n 162 32 = 13 19,
19.
4.30. xn yn x y ( 5.1 ),
n
b kn b k. , a bn = (a kn ) (bn kn )
b k k 6= b. ,
a = bn .
4.31. 2n 2 = nm.
n

22 2 1
2nm 1
22 1 2
=2 n
=2 n
= 2(2n(m1) + 2n(m2) + . . . + 2n + 1).
n
2 1
2 1
2 1

4.32. m = kn, k , am + bm = (an )k +


+ (bn )k an + bn ( 5.1 ).
m = kn + r, k 0 < r < n. ,
am + bm an + bn . ,
r

kn

akn+r + bkn+r = ar (akn + bkn ) + bkn (br ar ).

a (a + bkn ) an + bn , bkn (br ar )


an +bn , bkn an +bn 0<|br ar |<an +bn .
m = ln + r, l 0 6 r < n. ,
am + bm an + bn . , k = l 1
(k ).
aln+r + bln+r = akn an+r + bkn bn+r =
= an+r (akn + bkn ) + bkn+r (an + bn ) bkn an (ar + br ).

an + bn , , bkn an an +bn 0<ar +br <an +bn .


4.33. ). , . k, k+1, . . . , k+n ,
.
m
, ,
2 p, p .

1
2m

1
r + 2qp
2q
= m
+
, p r . p
r
2 pr


; .
,
, , 2m p 2m q, p < q

56

4.

p, q . p + 1 < q p + 1 .
2m (p + 1) k, k + 1, . . . , k + n
2m+1 ,
Q m.
4.34. ((ak m + bk n)!)dk , ak
k

bk , dk . p, n!,

P
[n/pm ] ( 4.36). x, y > 0
m=1
P

dk [ak x + bk y] > 0,
.
P
)) ak , bk , dk dk ak =
k
P
P
=
dk bk = 0. f(x, y) =
dk (ak x + bk y)
k

: f(x + 1, y) = f(x, y) = f(x, y + 1).


f(x, y) > 0
x, y, 0 6 x, y < 1.
) [x + y] [x] [y] > 0 0 6 x, y <
< 1. [x] = [y] = 0.
) [2x] + [2y] [x] [y] [x + y] > 0
0 6 x, y < 1. , [x] = [y] = 0, f(x, y) = [2x] + [2y] [x + y] > 0. f(x, y)
y
0 6 x, y < 1, . 2x = 1
0
2y = 1 ,
1
x
+ y = 1 (. 4.1).
1
, f(0, 0) = 0; f = 0
,
0

0
.
1
x f 1,
. 4.1.
1 ( )
).
f(x, y)
, . . 4.1
.
) f(x, y) = [5x] + [5y] [3x + y]
[x + 3y] > 0 0 6 x, y < 1. -

57

f(x, y) ,
[ak x + bk y] ak x + bk y = 1, 2, . . . , ak + bk 1;
,
(. 4.2). , ).
y

0
0

1
1

2
1

1
2

1
0

1
0

0
1

1
2

1
2
1

0
1

0
1

1
2

1
0

1
2

2
x

. 4.2. )

) f(x, y) = [3x + 3y] + [3y] + [2x] +


+[2y][2x+3y][x+2y][x+y]> 0. ,

58

4.
y

0
2

1
2
1

2
0
1

2
0

1
0

0
0

0
2

1
1

. 4.3. )

), . . 4.3. , x + y = 1
,
f(x, y) 1 1,
. . .
4.35. : 24. 1 100 20 ,
5, , 5, 4 ,
25 (, 125,
). 524
525 . , 224 .
4.36. 1, 2, . . . , n [n/p] , p,
[n/p2 ] , p2 , . .
4.37. a , n! 2a . 4.36
hni h n i h n i
n
n
n
+ 2 + 3 + . . . 6 + 2 + 3 + . . . = n,
a=
2

[x] 6 x. ,
k. a < n.

hni
2k

=0<

n
2k

59

4.38. (2n1)!!=1357. . .(2n1) (2n)!!=246. . .2n. , (2n)!=(2n1)!! (2n)!! (2n)!!=2n n!. (n+1)(n+2). . .
(2n 1)!! (2n)!!

(2n)!

=
= 2n (2n 1)!!, (2n 1)!!
. . . 2n =
n!
n!
.
4.39. : 1 4. n > 1
2k 5l = n 2s 5t = n + 1. n n + 1 ,
2k + 1 = 5t ,
5l + 1 = 2s . , 5l + 1 = 2s . 2s 6, s = 4m. , 5l = 24m 1 = (22m 1)(22m + 1).
22m 1 22m + 1 5.
2k + 1 = 5t . t = 2m s, s
.
m

5t 1 = (52 1)(52

(s1)

+ 52

(s2)

+ . . . + 1).

, . . . , s = 1. ,
m

52 1 = (5 1)(5 + 1)(52 + 1) . . . (52

m1

+ 1).

5 + 1 = 6 , m = 0.
22 + 1 = 5.
4.40. ) k = 2n .
ak 1 = (a2

n1

1)(a2

n1

+ 1) =

= (a 1)(a + 1)(a2 + 1)(a4 + 1) . . . (a2

n1

+ 1).

(1)

a , n + 1
. , ak 1 2n+1 . ,
k = 2n n > m 1, ak 1 2m .
) : m = 2n s, s n
n
n
, d(m) = n. , am 1 = (a2 1)(a2 (s1) + a2 (s2) + . . .
. . . + 1),
n
. d(am 1) = d(a2 1). , n1
(1) a2 + 1, . . . , a2
+ 1 2
4, 1 4. ,
(
n
d(a 1)
n = 0;
d(a2 1) =
d(a2 1) + n 1 n > 1.

am 1 2m , d(am
1) > m. . d(m) = 0, . . m ,
m 6 d(a 1).

60

4.

. d(m) > 1, . . m , d(a2 1) + n 1 >


> m = 2n s, n = d(m).
d(a2 1) + n 1

( s ). s6
2n
, n/2n n ( 25.18).
4.41. ) : 1, 2 4. 4.40 ). a = 3, d(a 1) = 1 d(a2 1) = 3.
s6

2+n
: (s, n) = (1, 1) (1, 2).
2n

: 1, 2, 4, 6 8. a = 31, d(a 1) = 1

d(a 1) = d(30 32) = 6. s 6

5+n

2n

: (s, n) = (1, 1), (3, 1), (1, 2) (1, 3). (,


s .)
4.42. ) : 0 1. (3k 1)2 =
= 9k2 6k + 1.
) : 0 1. (2k + 1)2 = 4k2 +
+ 4k + 1.
) : 0, 1 4. (5k 1)2 =
= 25k2 10k + 1 (5k 2)2 = 25k2 20k + 4.
) : 0, 1 4. (2k + 1)2 =
= 4k(k + 1) + 1 (4k + 2)2 = 16k2 + 16k + 4 ,
k(k + 1) .
4.43. ) : 209. n . n + 1
5 6 7 = 210. n = 209.
) : 119. n . n + 1
(5, 6, 8) = 120. n = 119.
4.44. ) : 6a+25b. 6n1 (mod 5) 5m1 (mod 6).

6na + 5mb 6na a (mod 5)


6na + 5mb 5mb b (mod 6).

m = 5 n = 1.
) : 126a + 175b + 120c. 42k 1 (mod 5), 35n
1 (mod 6) 30m 1 (mod 7) ( 42 = 6 7, 35 = 5 7, 30 = 5 6).

42ka + 35nb + 30mc 42ka a (mod 5),


42ka + 35nb + 30mc 35nb b (mod 6),
42ka + 35nb + 30mc 30mc c (mod 7).

k = 3, n = 5, m = 4.

61

4.45. ) 4.42 )
4 0, 1 2.
) 4.42 ) 8 0, 1, 2, 4 5,
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6.
4.46. : 1946. N .
N = 131k + 112 = 132l + 98, k l . , N < 10 000, l =

10 000 98
N 98
<
6 75. ,
132
132

131k + 112 = 132l + 98, 131(k l) = l 14. ,


k 6= l, |l 14| > 131. l 6 75, k = l l 14 = 0.
, N = 131 14 + 112 = 132 14 + 98 = 1946.
4.47. : 523 152 523 656.
7 8 9 = 504.
523 000 504 : 523 000 = 1037 504 + 352.
504 352 = 152, 504 523 152 523 152 + 504 =
= 523 656. , 504,
523 000 523 999 .
4.48. : 5. , 106 1 (mod 7),
3
10 + 1 7, 10k 4 (mod 6) k > 1, k
99 . . . 96 3. , 1010 104 (mod 7)
k > 1.
10 104 = 105 7. 5.
4.49. ni = m/mi . ni
, mi , (ni , mi ) = 1.
ri si , ri mi + si ni = 1
( . 43). ei = si ni x = a1 e1 + . . . + ak ek .
, ei 1 (mod mi ) ei 0 (mod mj ) j 6= i,
x ai (mod mi ), i = 1, . . . , k.
x1 x2 ,
x1 x2 0 (mod mi ), i = 1, . . . , k. m1 , . . . , mk
, x1 x2 m.
4.50. , 23 = 8 1 (mod 7). 23k 1 (mod 7),
3k+1
2
2 (mod 7) 23k+2 4 (mod 7). , 2n 1
7 , n 3.
4.51. r. r = 1 :
0 a1 . , r < p 1
r + 1 . 0, s1 , . . . , sr ,
a1 , . . . , ar , p,
0 + ar+1 , s1 + ar+1 , . . . , sr + ar+1 p 0, s1 , . . . , sr . , ar+1 si (mod p)

62

4.

i. , si + ar+1 sj (mod p) j,
. . 2ar+1 sj (mod p). , p ar+1 , 2ar+1 , 3ar+1 , . . . , (p 1)ar+1
p 0, s1 , . . . , sr . p ,
ar+1 p. p
ar+1 , 2ar+1 , . . . , (p 1)ar+1 . ,
p 1 > r, .
4.52. ,
n = a n = b, n = ab.
2ab 1 . n = b, ,
2ab 1 > 2b 1. 2ab 1
b , b. ,
2b 1, b ,
b. 2ab 1 = (2a 1)b + b 1 ,
2a 1 2a 1 b , b, . .
. . n = a,
2a 1 a ,
a. a b .
ab ab, .
:
n = p.

p. b1 6 b2 6 . . . 6 b2p1
p. p 1 a1 = bp+1 b2 ,
a2 = bp+2 b3 , . . . , ap1 = b2p1 bp . ai = 0, bi = bp+i , ,
bi = bi+1 = . . . = bi+p . p bi , bi+1 , bi+p p. , a1 , . . . , ap1
.
x p b1 + b2 + . . . + bp .
x = 0, p . , x 6= 0. 4.51 a1 , . . . , ap1
,
p. , ai1 + . . . + aik ,
p x. b1 + b2 + . . . + bp + ai1 + . . . + aik = b1 + . . .
. . .+bp +(bp+i1 bi1 )+. . .+(bp+ik bik ) p.
p .
4.53. , n(n + 1) = mk , m k
, k > 2. n n + 1 , n = ak
n + 1 = bk , a b . , b > a.
(a + 1)k > (a + 1)ak1 = ak + ak1 > n + 1. bk > (a + 1)k > n + 1.

63

4.54. ) |k l| 6 4 k 6= l, k l 4.
4.

.
3.
.
) 5 .
3, 5 7.
3 ,
5 7 .
, 3,
, 5 7.
.
4.55. , n > m. x = 2
(x 1)(x + 1)(x2 + 1)(x4 + 1) . . . (x2

n2

+ 1) = x2

n1

+ 1.

F1 F2 . . . Fn1 + 2 = Fn .
, Fn Fm d. 2 =
= Fn F1 F2 . . . Fn1 d. Fn Fm ,
d 6= 2.
4.56. ,
p > 3 6. 2 4, . 3,
3. , p > 3
6 1 5, . . 6n 1;
36n2 12n + 1.
4.57. , , , p1 , . . . , pr .
p1 . . . pr + 1. p1 , . . . , pr ,
, p1 , . . . , pr .
4.58. , p1 , . . . , pr
4k 1. 4p1 . . . pr 1. ,
4k 1. ,
4k + 1,
.
, p1 , . . . , pr .
4.59. ) xq 1 x 1, 2pq 1 =
= (2p )q 1 2q 1.
) q , xq + 1 x+ 1.
n q > 1, 2n + 1
2q + 1.

64

4.

4.60. x4 + x2 + 1 = (x2 + 1 x)
n2
(x2 + 1 + x). x = 22
,
n1
n2
n1
n2
22
+ 22
+ 1 22
22
+ 1.
, ,
n2
22 +1 . n, n1
n2
22
+ 22
+ 1 .
4.61. a = a1 + a2 n b = b1 + b2 n. a b = a1 b1 +
+ (a2 b2 )n ab = a1 b1 + (a2 b1 + a1 b2 + a2 b2 n)n.
4.62. xa ya (mod p), (x y)a p. a
p , x y p. ,
1 6 x, y 6 p 1, x = y.
4.63. 4.62
p b, 2b, . . . , (p 1)b 1. , b, 1 6 b 6 p 1, bb 1 (mod p).
a b(ab) (mod p).

5.1.
5.15.9
, .

5.1. ) xn yn ; ) x2n+1 + y2n+1 .


5.2. x4 + 4.
5.3. (x + y + z)3 x3 y3 z3 .
5.4. x3 + y3 + z3 3xyz.
5.5. (x y)3 + (y z)3 + (z x)3 .
5.6. a10 + a5 + 1.
5.7. a4 (b c) + b4 (c a) + c4 (a b).
5.8. x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 12.
5.9. ) x8 + x4 + 1 .
) x8 + x4 + 1 ,
.
5.2.
5.10. , n
(2n)!
= 2n (2n 1)!!
n!

5.3.
5.11. , m n ,

66

5.

mn
.
5.12. )
(a21 + a22 + a23 )(b21 + b22 + b23 ) (a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 )2 .
)
(a21 + . . . + a2n )(b21 + . . . + b2n ) (a1 b1 + . . . + an bn )2
( ).
5.4.
5.13. , a + 1/a . ) ,
a2 + 1/a2 . ) , an + 1/an
n.
5.14. ,
.
5.15. ,
.
5.16. ,
+

1 1 1
1
1
1
+ + =
n + n +
a
b
c
a+b+c
a
b

1
1
= n
n.
cn
a + bn + cn

5.17. x, y, z .
, (x y)5 + (y z)5 + (z x)5
5(y z)(z x)(x y).
5.18. ,

b
c
a
= 0.
2 +
2 +
(b c)
(c a)
(a b)2

b
c
a
+
+
= 0,
bc
ca
ab

5.19. , n2 + 3n + 5 n
121.
5.20. ,
x5 + 3x4 y 5x3 y2 15x2 y3 + 4xy4 + 12y5
33 x y.

67

5.21. , n > 2
2
+ 1 .
5.22. ,
.
4n+2

5.5.
5.23.

2x
2
2
x2 1
x 1

b
a
+
, a b .
x1
x+1

5.24. a1 , . . . , an . , A1 , . . . , An ,
1
A1
An
=
+...+
.
(x + a1 ) . . . (x + an )
x + a1
x + an

5.25. a1 < a2 < a3 < . . . < an


A1
A2
An
1
=
+
+...+
,
(x + a1 )(x + a2 ) . . . (x + an )
x + a1
x + a2
x + an

A1 , . . . , An . ,
A1 > 0, A2 < 0, A3 > 0, . . .
5.6.
5.26. , x, y, z

a11 x2 + a22 y2 + a33 z2 + 2a12 xy + 2a13 xz + 2a23 yz =


= (b1 x + b2 y + b3 z)(c1 x + c2 y + c3 z),
a11 a22 a33 + 2a13 a12 a23 = a223 a11 + a213 a22 + a212 a33 .
5.7.
5.27. ,
h
i h
i
h
i
1
2
n1
[x] + x +
+ x+
+...+ x+
= [nx].
n

68

5.

5.28. p q .
,
h q i h 2q i
h (p 1)q i (p 1)(q 1)
+
+...+
=
.
p

5.29. p q . ,
"
#
p1
hpi
h q i h 2q i
q
2
+
+...+
+
+
p
p
p
q
"
#
q1
h 2p i
p
(p 1)(q 1)
2
+
+...+
=
q

().

5.30. , [ n + n + 1] = [ 4n + 2]
n.

5.31. , [ n + n + 1 + n + 2] = [ 9n + 8]

n.

5.32. , [ 3 n + 3 n + 1] = [ 3 8n + 3]
n.

5.1. ) (x y)(xn1 + xn2 y + . . . + yn1 ).


) (x + y)(x2n x2n1 y + x2n2 y2 . . . + y2n ).
5.2. (x2 2x + 2)(x2 + 2x + 2).
5.3. 3(x + y)(y + z)(z + x).
5.4. (x + y + z)(x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx).
5.5. 3(x y)(y z)(z x).
5.6. (a2 + a + 1)(a8 a7 + a5 a4 + a3 a + 1).
5.7. (a2 + b2 + c2 + ab + bc + ca)(a b)(b c)(a c).
5.8. (x2 2x + 3)(x2 + 3x + 4).
5.9. ) (x4 + x2 + 1)(x4 x2 + 1).
)
,
(x2 + ax + 1)(x2 ax + 1) = x4 + (2 a2 )x2 + 1;

a = 1 a = 3.

69

5.10. , n! 2n = 2 4 6 . . . 2n. n! 2n (2n 1)!! =


= (2 4 6 . . . 2n) 1 3 5 . . . (2n 1) = (2n)!.
5.11. (a2 + b2 )(c2 + d2 ) = (ac + bd)2 +
+ (ad bc)2 .
2
2
2
5.12.
P ) (a1 b2 a2 2 b1 ) + (a2 b3 a3 b2 ) + (a1 b3 a3 b1 ) .
) (ai bj aj bi ) , i < j.
5.13. ) a2 + 1/a2 = (a + 1/a)2 2.
)

1 n1
1
1
1
a
+ n1 .
an+1 + n+1 = an + n a +
a

5.14. 2n + 1 = (n + 1)2 n2 .
5.15. ,
n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) + 1 = (n(n + 3) + 1)2 .

5.16.

1
1
1
1
+ + =

a
b
c
a+b+c

(bc + ca + ab)(a + b + c) = abc, . . (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 0 (, abc 6= 0 a + b + c 6= 0). , a,


b, c x, x, y, y 6= x. an ,
bn , cn n .
5.17. , x2 + y2 + z2 xy
yz xz. , x y = u y z = v. (x y)5 +
+(yz)5 +(zx)5 =u5 +v5 (u+v)5 =5(u4 v+2u3 v2 +2u2 v3 +vu4 )=
= 5uv(u + v)(u2 + uv + v2 ) 5(y z)(z x)(x y) = 5uv(u + v).
, u2 + uv + v2 = x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz xz.
5.18. ,
a
b
c
+
+
=
(b c)2
(c a)2
(a b)2
a
b
c 1
1
1
=
+
+
+
+
.
bc
ca
ab
bc
ca
ab

,
a 1
1
=
+
bc ca

ab

ac ab
,
(a b)(b c)(c a)

ab bc
1
b 1
=
+
,
ca bc
ab
(a b)(b c)(c a)

c 1
1
bc ac
+
=
ab bc
ca
(a b)(b c)(c a)

70

5.

5.19. , n2 + 3n + 5 = (n + 7)(n 4) + 33. n2 + 3n + 5 121, (n + 7)(n 4)


11. (n + 7) (n 4) = 11,
11 . ,
(n + 7)(n 4) 11, 121.
(n + 7)(n 4) + 33 121.
5.20.
(x + 2y)(x y)(x + y)(x 2y)(x + 3y).

y 6= 0 , 33
( , 1). y = 0
x5 . x x5
33.
5.21. 24n+2 + 1 (22 + 1)(24n 24n2 + . . . 22 + 1),
(22n+1 + 2n+1 + 1)(22n+1 2n+1 + 1). n > 2 .
5.22.
(a b)3 + (b c)3 + c3 = 3b2 (a c) + (a3 3b(a2 c2 )).

t a = 12t(t + 1), b = (t + 1)3


c = 12t(t 1).
72t(t + 1)6 = (a b)3 + (b c)3 + c3 .

t 6= 1, w = 72t :
a b 3 b c 3 c
3
w=
+
+
.
2
2
2
(t + 1)

(t + 1)
3

(t + 1)

, 72 = (4) + (2) + 03 .

b
(a + b)x + (a b)
2
a
+
=
. 2
=
x1
x+1
x2 1
x 1
1
1
2x
1
1
=

2
+
.
=
x1
x+1
x1
x+1
x 1

5.23. ,

5.24. n.
1

A2 =
.
n = 2 A1 =
a2 a1
a1 a2
,
Bn1
1
B1
=
+
.
(x + a1 ) . . . (x + an1 )
x + a1
x + an1

71

cni
dni
Bi

+
(x + ai )(x + an )
x + ai
x + an

i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1.
.
5.25. n. n = 1 . , n 1
.
Bn1
1
B1
=
+...+
,
(x + a1 ) . . . (x + an1 )
x + a1
x + an1
C2
Cn
1
=
+...+
,
(x + a2 ) . . . (x + an )
x + a2
x + an

B1 , C2 > 0, B2 , C3 < 0, B3 , C4 > 0, . . .


1
an a1
1

=
,
(x + a1 ) . . . (x + an1 )
(x + a2 ) . . . (x + an )
(x + a1 ) . . . (x + an )

an a1 > 0. ,
(an a1 )A1 =B1 , (an a1 )A2 =B2 C2 , . . . , (an a1 )An1 =Bn1 Cn1 ,
(an a1 )An = Cn .
5.26. x, y, z,
a11 = b1 c1 ,
a22 = b2 c2 ,
a33 = b3 c3 ,

2a12 = b1 c2 + b2 c1 ,
2a13 = b1 c3 + b3 c1 ,
2a23 = b2 c3 + b3 c2 .

, ,
A11 x2 + A22 y2 + A33 z2 + 2A12 xy + 2A13 xz + 2A23 yz = 0
x, y, z, Aij . x = 1,
y = z = 0 A11 = 0. A22 = A33 = 0.
x = y = 1, z = 0 A12 = 0. A13 = A23 = 0.
a11 a22 a33 + 2a13 a12 a23 a223 a11 + a213 a22 +
+ a212 a33 aij bp cq . .
5.27.
h
h
1i
n1i
f(x) = [nx] [x] x +
... x+
.
n

h
h
1
1i h
2i
n1i
f x+
= [nx + 1] x +
x+
... x+
[x + 1] =
n
n
n
n
h
i
h
1
n1i
= [nx] [x] x +
... x+
= f(x).
n

72

5.

f(x) = f(y) y,
0 6 y 6 1/n. f(y) = 0.
5.28. 0 6 x 6 p, 0 6 y 6 q
y = qx/p.
, (
) .
, ,
. p q , ;
. ,
(p 1)(q 1) .
q1
p1
, 16y6
5.29. 1 6 x 6
2
2
y = qx/p.
.
, , .
,
.
, . .

p1 q1

.
2
2

5.30. n+ n + 1 4n + 2.

,

:
n
+
n+1

4n + 2 n + 2 n(n + 1) + n + 1
4n +
2 2 n(n
+ 1) 2n + 1

4n2 + 4n 4n2 + 4n + 1. , n + n + 1 < 4n + 2.


,

m, n + n + 1 6 m 6 4n + 2. 2n + 1 + 2 n(n + 1) 6 m2 6
6 4n + 2, , 4n(n + 1) 6 (m 2n 1)2 6 4n(n + 1) + 1.
4n(n + 1) , . , m2 2n 1 = 2n + 1, . . m2 = 2(2n + 1),
.

2
5.31.

x = n + n + 1 + n + 2. x = 3n + 3 +
+ 2( n(n + 1) + n(n + 2) + (n + 1)(n + 2)). n > 1

1 2
2 2
< n(n + 1) < n +
,
n+
5
2

2
2
7
< n(n + 2) < n + 1 ,
n+
10

2
7
3 2
n+
< (n + 1)(n + 2) < n +
.
5

73

, n + 2/5 + n + 7/10 + n + 7/5 = 3n + 5/2 n + 1/2 + n +


+ 1+ n + 3/2 = 3n + 3, 9n + 8 < x2 < 9n + 9, , [x] =
= [ 9n + 8].
5.32. r
8.41 a > b > 0 a 3 + b3
.
2r

1
n + 3 n + 1 p
> 3 n 3 n+1=
a = 3 n + 1 b = 3 n, 3 n + >
2
2

a+b
<
2

3
8n + 4 > 3n + 3n + 1 > 6 64n2 + 64n > 3 8n + 3.
= 6 n2 + n. ,

3 8n + 3 > m, 3 n + 3 n +1 > m.
,
m, 3 n + 3 n + 1 > m > 3 8n + 3,
8n + 4 > m3 > 8n + 3,
8n + 3 8n + 4 .

6.1.

:
) 2+ 3
6.1. ,

11; ) 6 + 2 7 10 + 21; ) 11
3 5.
q 5p

6.2. , : 2 + 2 + 2 + . . .
( - )
2?
6.2.

.
1
1
1
; )
; )

.
3
2+ 3
2+ 3+ 5
1
1

.
)
; )
3
3
3
3
x y
x+ y
1
1

.
)
; ) 2n+1
n
n
2n+1
x y
x+
y
1

.
3
x y
1

3
3
3 .
x+ y+ z

6.3. )
6.4.
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.

2+

6.8. , ,
.

75

6.3.

6.9. , a > b,
r
r
p
p

a + a2 b
a a2 b p

= a b.
2

6.10. a b, a
b p
:
p
p

) p
9 + 4 5; p ) 7 2 10.
) 3 + 2 2;

6.11. , 4 + p
7 4 7 =p 2.

3
3
6.12. , 20 + 14 2 + 20 14 2 .
6.13. , :
s
s
r
r
)

s
3

242
+
27

3+

847
+
27

242
;
27

847

6
.
27
p
p

6.14. , 3 4 1 + 3 16 3 4 = 3.
6.15. :
r
r
r
p
4
3
3
3 1
3 2
)
21=

+3 ;
9
9
9
p

1
3
3
3
3
5 4 = ( 2 + 20 3 25);
)
3r
r
p

2
6
3
3 5
) 7 20 19 =
3 ;
3
3
s

6+

3+2 5
5+1

=
;
4
4
32 5
51
p

1
) 3 28 3 27 = ( 3 98 3 28 1);
3
s

3 5

32

r
5

27 5 1
=
+
5
25

r
5

25

r
5

9
.
25

76

6.

6.4.

6.16.
, :
) p, p ;

) p1 . . . pk , p1 , . . . , pk ;
r
p1 . . . pk
)
, p1 , . . . , pn .
pk+1 . . . pn

6.17. , 2 + 3 3 .
6.18. ,
p
p

3
3
= 4 + 15 + 4 15.

6.19. ) ,

a, b, a + b , a b .

) ,

a, b, c, a + b + c
, a, b c .

) , a1 , . . . , an , a1 + . . . + an

, a1 , . . . , an .
6.20. p1 , . . . , pk .
, pk
pi1 . . . pis , 1 6 i1 < . . . < is 6 k 1,
.

6.5.
6.21. ) p . ,

m + n p, m n .
)

m + n p, p .

, z m + n p, m
n , p
,

z = m n p.

77

6.22. , (a + b p)n = An + Bn p, p
,
a, b, An , Bn
, (a b p)n = An Bn p.
6.23.

(2 + 3)1000 .
6.24. , x, y, z t

(x + y 2)2 + (z + t 2)2 = 5 + 4 2.
6.25. ,
m n
m
2)
=
(3
+
5
2)n .

(5
+
3

6.26. ) , ( 2 1)n = k k 1, k
.
m n . ,
)

( m m 1)n = k k 1, k
.
6.27.
n
,
2n+1
[(1 + 3)
] 2n+1 2n+2 .
6.6.
6.28. , n. a/b
c/d . , |bc ad| = 1.
6.28 Fn .

6.29. a/b < x/y < c/d


a+c
x
. , =
.
y

b+d

6.30. a/b < c/d Fn . , b + d > n.


6.31. Fn ,
1/2.

78

6.

6.32. ) , 2 .
) , 2 .
6.33. , n
P
Fn
(q), .
q=2

6.7.

. ,
6.34.
:
(1)
[ ], [ ], [2 ], [2 ], [3 ], [3 ], . . . ;
(2)

a b

a + b = 1, a b .
1

6.35. 1 , . . . , k , :
[ ], [ ], [2 ], [2 ],
[3 ], [3 ], . . . , k 6 2.

a b

6.1. , .

) 2 + 3 11 2 + 2 6 + 3 11 2 6 6 6 9. ,
2 + 3 <
11.

) 6+ 2 7
6 + 4 42 + 28 10 + 2 210 + 21
10 + 21
3 + 4 42 2 210 9 +24 42
24 42 159
+ 672
840
24 192
,
6 + 2 7 < 10 + 21.
25 281.

) 11 5
+ 3 5 3 5 5 11 5 125 75
11 + 165

11 > 5 + 3 5.
11 11 86 11 285 81 356 81 225. ,
q p

6.2. a<2, 2+a< 2+2=2. 2+ 2+ 2+. . .<

< 2.

1
2 3
=

= 2 3.
6.3. )
2+

(2 +

3)(2

3)

79

3 2
= 3 2.

=

2+ 3
( 2 + 3)( 3 2)
1

) ,

( 2 + 3 + 5)( 2 + 3 5)( 2 3 + 5)( 2 3 5) =

= (( 2 3)2 5)(( 2 + 3)2 5) =

= (2 2 6 + 3 5)(2 + 2 6 + 3 5) = 24.

3
6.4. ) x2 + 3 xy + 3 y2 .
p

3
) x2 3 xy + 3 y2 .

p
p
n n1
6.5. ) x
+ n xn2 y + . . . + n yn1 .
)

p
p
p
2n+1 2n
x 2n+1 x2n1 y + 2n+1 x2n2 y2 . . . + n y2n .
p
p

6.6. ( x + 3 y)(x2 + x 3 y2 + 3 y4 ).
6.7. 5.4,

x + y + z 3 3 xyz =

3
3
3
3
3
= ( x + y + z)( x2 + 3 y2 + z2 3 xy 3 yz 3 zx).

1
. 6.4:

x + y + z 3 3 xyz

(x + y + z)2 + 3(x + y + z) 3 xyz + 9 3 x2 y2 z2 .

6.8. ,
p1 , . . . , pk .

k. a + b pk ,
a b p1 , . . .
. . . , pk1 .

a b pk
1
= 2
a + b pk
a b2 p k

, a2 b2 pk 6= 0. ,
, b 6= 0.
,
2
2

pk = a /b , .. pk = a/b. a + b pk 6= 0,
pk = a/b a + b pk = 2a. .

80

6.

6.9. , ,

. , (a + a2 b)
(a a2 b) = b.
6.10.

6.9, :p
) 1 + 2; p
) 2 + 5; ) 5 2.

6.11.

4 + 7 4 7 ,
4 + 7 2 16 7 + 4
7
=
8

2
9
=
2.

6.12. (2 2)3 = 20 14 2 ,
p

3
20 14 2 = 2 p
2. p 4.

3
3
6.13. x = a + b + a b. x3 = 2a + 3x 3 a2 b.
) x3 = 6 + x, ) x3 = 12 + 5x.
x = 2,
x = 3. , () . ,
x3 x 6
x3 5x 12
= x2 + 2x+ 3
= x2 + 3x+ 4.
x2
x3

.
6.14.
q ,
p
p

3
3
3
3
3
3
16 4 =
4( 4 1) = 2
4 1. ,
:

3
3
3
3
3
( 4 1)( 2 + 1)2 = ( 4 1)( 4 + 1 + 2 2) =

3
3
3
3
3
= 16 1 + 2 8 2 2 = 2 2 1 + 4 2 2 = 3.

3
3
3
6.15. ) ,
(1
2 + 4)3 = 9( 2 1).

3
3
3
2
) ,

( 2+ 20 25) = 9( 3 5 3 4).

3
, 2+ 3 20 > 3 25
.

3
)
,

(
5 3 2)6 = 9(7 3 20 19); ,

3 50, .

) ,
3 2 4 5 > 0.


(3 + 2 4 5) = 10 4 25 22 = ( 4 5 + 1)4 (3 2 4 5);
, ( 4 5 1)4
,
4 5, ; ,
4
125, .

)
, ( 3 98 3 28 1)2 = 9( 3 28 3) =

3
= 9( 3 28 3 27); ,

14,
.

3
3
3
3
, 98 > 28 + 1, . . 14( 3 7 2)> 1. 3
3
3 49 + 14 + 4,

81

3
14 > 3 49 +
4.
5 3 14 > 3 49 + 3 14 + 3 4, . . 4 3
3
3

4
14
>
8,

49
<6

3
4 < 2.

)
, (1 + 5 3 5 9)3 = 10 5 5 27 =

= 5( 5 32 5 27).

6.16. ) , p = r/s . 2
2
r = ps , r p ( 4.8).
, ps2 p2 . s p, r/s.
) r2 = p1 . . . pk s2 , r p1 . p2 . . . pk s2 p1 . p2 . . . pk p1 ,
s p1 .
) pk+1 . . . pn r2 = p1 . . . pk s2 , r
p1 , pk+1
. . . pn
p1 .
3
6.17. ,

2
+
3 = r, r

3
. ( 3)3 = (r 2)3 , . . 3 = r3 3r2 2 + 6r 2 2.

r3 + 6r 3
, .
2=
3r2 + 2
p

3
6.18. : . 1 = 4 + 15 2 =
p

3
= 4 15. 31 + 32 = 8 31 32 = 1, 1 2 = 1. , ( 1 + 2 )3 = 31 + 32 + 3 1 2 ( 1 + 2 ) = 8 + 3( 1 + 2 ).
, 3 = 8 + 3 . ,
x3 3x 8 . 10.3
, 8. ,
1, 2,
4, 8
.
6.19. ) a + b = r . r = 0,
a = b = 0. ,
r 6= 0.

a = r b.

r2 + b a
a = r2 2r b + b, , b =
.
2r

) a + b + c = r .

r 6= 0.
a + b = r c.

(1)
a + 2 ab + b = r2 2r c + c.

2 ab = r + c a b
2r c.

(2)
4ab = (r2 + c a b)2 + 4r2 c 4r(r2 + c a b) c.

a a
a

a a
a a
a

aa
aa a a

aa
a a

82

6.

r2 + c a b 6= 0, (2) , c
.

r2 + c = a + b,
(1) ,

2 ab = 2r c,
r
>
0.
,
ab
=
0 c =0.

, c . a
b .
) , a1 , . . . , an .
,

a1 .
x1 = a1 , . . . , xn = an y = a1 + . . . + an .
Y
f(y, x1 , . . . , xn ) = (y x1 x2 . . . xn ),
(1)

.
y, x1 , x22 , . . . , x2n . x1
,
f(y, x1 , . . . , xn ) = g(y, x21 , . . . , x2n ) x1 h(y, x21 , . . . , x2n ).

(2)

(1) y x1 x2 . . . xn = 0.
f(y, x1 , . . . , xn ) = 0. y, x21 , . . . , x2n . h(y, x21 , . . . , x2n ) 6= 0,
x1 = g(y, x21 , . . . , x2n )/h(y, x21 , . . . , x2n )

.
, h(y, x21 , . . . , x2n ) = 0. (2),
f(y, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) f(y, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = 2x1 h(y, x21 , . . . , x2n ).
,
1

f(y, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )=
h(y, x21 , . . . , x2n )=
2x1
Y
1
1 Y
=
(y+x1 x2 . . .xn )=
(2x1 +(x2 x2 )+. . .+(xn xn ));
2x1

2x1

,
y = x1 + . . . + xn . , 2x1 + (x2 x2 ) + . . .
. . . + (xn xn ) . x1 > 0, xk xk > 0. ,
h(y, x21 , . . . , x2n ) 6= 0.
6.20.
k.

k = 2. , p2 = a + b p1 , a b . 6.16 ) ,
ab 6= 0.

p2 = a2 + 2ab p1 + b2 p1 , , p1
, .

83

, pk+1 = a + b pk , a b

p1 , . .
. , pk1 . b = 0, , pk+1

p1 , . . . , pk1
,

pk1 )
pk .
. a = 0, pk+1 = (a + b

a = 0 . ., pk+1 = r p1 . . . pk ,
r . ( 6.16 ).

p1 , . . . , pk )
(,

pk+1 = a + b pk , ab6= 0. , pk+1 = a2 + 2ab pk + b2 pk ,
pk+1 a2 pk b2

. . pk =
. 2ab

( 6.8), pk p1 , . . .

. . . , pk1 , .

6.21. m + n p = m1 + n1 p, m, n, m1 n1

m m1
. . m1 6= m n1 6= n, p =
n1 n

, p
.
6.22.

n. ,
z
1 z2 =

= z1 z2 , . .
(a + b p)(c + d p) = A + B p,

(a

p)
(a + b p)(An+ Bn p) =
(c d p) = A
B p. ,

= An+1 + Bn+1 p, (a b p)(A


n Bn p) = A
n+1 Bn+1 p.
6.23. : 9. (2+ 3)n = An + Bn 3,
An Bn

n
3)
.

6.22
(2

=
A

B
n
n

3.

(2 + 3)n + (2 3)n . 2 3
0,2679 < 0,3, (2 3)1000 0,0 . . . (
).
6.24. x, y, z t
, 6.22

(x y 2)2 + (z t 2)2 = 5 4 2.

t 2)2 > 0.
5 4 2 < 0, (x y 2)2 + (z
6.25. , (5 + 3 2)m = (3 + 5 2)n . 6.22 (5 3 2)m = (3 5 2)n .

.
-, ,

|5 3 2| < 1 |3 5 2| >
1.
-,

(5 + 3 2)m = (3 + 5 2)n (5 3 2)m = (3 5 2)n ; m


7
= (41)n .
n
= x 2 + y, p
6.22
6.26. n) n ( 2+ 1)
n
( 2 1) = (1) (1 2) = (1)n (y + x 2) = (1)n ( y2 2x2 ).

84

6.

n
n

2) = (1 + 2)p
(1
2) = (1)n .
y2 2x2 = (y + x 2)(y x
= p
y2 2x2 y2
, n , ( 2 1)6n

2x2 =1, n , ( 21)6n= 2x2 y2 2x2 y2 =1.


)

(a m b m 1)(c m d m 1) =
p
= acm + bd(m 1) (ad + bc) m(m 1),
p

(a b m(m 1))(c m d m 1) =

= (ac + bd(m 1)) m (ad + bcm) m 1

,
( m m 1)n = a m b m 1 n

n (a b ( m m 1)n = a b m(m 1)

). ( m m 1)n = x y,
2
2
x y (x = a m y = b (m 1)
2

x = a2 y
= b m(m

n).
n,
1)
+ y) = (( m m 1)( m + m 1))n = 1.
x y = ( x y)( x
6.27.
(1 + 3)2n+1 +(1 3)2n+1 ,
<
1

2n+1
2n+1
2n+1
2n+1
<0.

[(1+
3)
]=(1+
3)
+(1
3)
.
<(1 3)

(1 3)2 = 2(2 3) ,

(1 + 3)2n+1 + (1 3)2n+1 =

= 2n ((1 + 3)(2 + 3)n + (1 3)(2 3)n ).

, (1 3)(2 3)n = a b 3, a b
. , a .
a2 3b2 = 2 , a b . ,
a2 3b2 4.
a
a+1
a
6
,
6.28. , a/b<c/d. <
b

b1

a + 1 6 b, , b 6= d, . . .
n. n = 3
1/3, 1/2, 2/3; . , n 1.
n 1 n k/n.
, a/b < k/n < c/d,
a/b c/d . ,
A = kb an B = cn kd 1 (,

85

). , 1.
b + d < bB + dA = (bc ad)n = n, bc ad = 1 -

a a+c
c
<
< ,
b b+d d

a/b c/d . .
6.29. 6.28 bx ay = 1 cy dx = 1.
x y,
b+d
a+c
y=
.
bc ad
bc ad
a
a+c
c
6.30. , <
< . b + d 6 n,
b
b+d
d
a+c
Fn , b+d

x=

a/b c/d.

1
1
1
1

n;
n.
2 2n
2 2n 2
n1

n
2n
n11
2; n
.
2n 2

6.31. :


. a/b < c/d a

bc ad

= . b = 2 d 6 n,
> .
, =
d
b
bd
bd
bd
2n
n . n a

, =
, d 6= n. a = 1, b = 2
b
2n
d = n, 1 = bc ad = 2c n, n .
6.32. ) p/q ,
(qp)/q
P
P ,
P
P (qp, q)=(p, q).

p = (q p), . . 2 p = q, .
Pp
P qp
Pp
P
) )
=
, . . 2
=
1.
q


.
6.33. p/q , 16 p <
< q 6 n (p, q) = 1. q > 1 p/q (q). ,
n
P
(q).

q=2

6.34. , (1) (2). x, [x ] 6 n, n/ + , 0 6 < 1/ .


y, [y ] 6 n, n/ + ,
0 6 < 1/ . n/ + + n/ + = n. n

a
a l

b
b m

a l

l a
b m

86

6.

a ,
a = p/q b = p p q ,
p > q . [qa] = p = [(p q)b].
, a .
, (2) (1). [ka] n
k = 1, 2, . . . , [n/a]. [kb] n k = 1, 2, . . . , [n/b].
[n/a] + [n/b] , n. 1/a + 1/b = 1 a b ,
[n/a] + [n/b] = n 1.

1/ + 1/ = 1.

0 , 1; 1 , 2; 2 ,
3, . . , n,
, n + 1,
, n. 1.
6.35. , 1 < 2 < . . . < k ( ,
). 1
, [ 1 ] = 1, . . 1 = 1 + , 0 < < 1.
[p 1 ] = n. p 1 < n + 1. (p + 1) 1 = p 1 + 1 <
< n + 1 + 1 + < n + 3, , [(p + 1) 1 ] 6 n + 2. ,
[ 1 ], [2 1 ], . . .
.
m ,
[ 1 ], [2 1 ], . . . [ 1 ] = 1, [2 1 ] = 2, . . .
. . . , [(m 1) 1 ] = m 1 [m 1 ] = m + 1. (m 1) 1 < 1
m 1 > 1. , m = [ 2 ], 2 < 3 < . . . < k .
, 2 = m + , 0 6 < 1.
x , [ 1 ], [2 1 ], [3 1 ], . . . x = [p 1 ] + 1
[(p + 1) 1 ] > [p 1 ] + 1. ,
[p + 1 + (p + 1) ] > [p + p ] + 1, . . [(p + 1) ] > [p ].
, p < q 6 (p + 1) q.
, (p + m 1) = p + (m 1) < q + 1 (p + m + 1) =
= (p + 1) + m > q + 1. .
(1) (p + m) > q + 1. (p + m 1) < q + 1 6 (p + m) .
(2) (p + m) < q + 1. (p + m) < q + 1 6 (p + m + 1) .
x , [ 1 ], [2 1 ], . . . , [p 1 ] + 1, p < q 6
6 (p + 1) , q , q. , q q + 1.
(1) p = p + m 1, (2) p = p + m. , (1) [p 1 ] + 1 = p + m 1 + [(p + m 1) ] + 1 = p + m + q,

a a

a
a

a
d

a
a

d
d
d

d
d

a a

d
d

a a

d
a

d
d

87

(2) [p 1 ] + 1 = p + m + [(p + m) ] + 1 = p + m + q + 1.
, x = [p 1 ] + 1 = p + [p ] + 1 = p + q.
x , [ 1 ], [2 1 ], . . . ,
x + m x + m + 1.
[n 2 ]=y, n 2 1<y6 n 2 . (n+1) 2 =n 2 + 2 <
< y + 1 + m + 1 = y + m + 2 (n + 1) 2 = n 2 + 2 > y + m.
, (n + 1) 2 = y + m y + m + 1.
xk k- ,
[ 1 ], [2 1 ], . . . , yk = [k 2 ]. k, xk = yk .
k = 1 : x1 = m = y1 . , xk = yk
k. , xk+1 =xk +m xk +m+1,
yk+1 = yk + m yk + m + 1.
xk + m xk + m + 1 [ 1 ], [2 1 ], . . . xk+1 ,
yk+1 .

a a

a a
a a a

7.1.
7.1. 5 , 5 . ,

. :
?
7.2. A B,
5 , . B ,
2 . ,
B. B,
. .
,
B?
7.2.
7.3. . ,
. .
?
7.4.
A B 70 A.
,
A B .
90 B. A B.

89

7.5. 5 ,
7 .
?
7.6. A B M
N, 15 M.
6 /. ,
,
15 /. A , B
C, N M.
B , C
A , N.
) N C, A B
N (
, A B)?
) N C, ,
A B N, (C
, A B; ,
, A B M
N)?
7.3.
7.7. A B
10 .
: A B 20
?
7.8. A 100 , B 50 . , ,
, ,
150 , ?
7.9. 10 10 100 .

A.

90

7.

B. , A > B?
7.10. 100 ,
.
, ,
50 .
7.11. .
2/5 . ,
4/7 , ,
.
7.4.
7.12. . ,
4; 3,25;
3,6.
, , 30
50 ?
7.13. , 96%
. , 0,5%. ?
7.14. 120 7
80 9 .
40 . , ?
7.15. 13,5 ,
350 . ,
11 . (
.)
7.16. 50 . ;
10 .
5 . -

91

20 .
, ? ( .)
7.5.
7.17. 20 20 . ,
.
, ,

.
7.18. .
, ,
,
, .
. ,
(, ).
7.19. n , . , ,
. ,
.
7.20. , 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10k 1, 2, 3, . . . , 10k+1 .

7.1. , . ,
.
7.2. : 10 . , ( ).

92

7.

2 ,
, 5 ,
10 .
7.3. : 127. -
, , , . ,
. ,
27 , 27 1 = 127 .
7.4. : 120 . x A B.
x , 3x . , , A,
3 70 = 210 . , x + 90 . x = 210 90 = 120 .
7.5. : 35. v , u , l .

l
l
=5
= 7; l/v.
u+v
uv

l = 5u + 5v, l = 7u 7v l/v = 35.


7.6. ) A B N ,
x
15 x. C B x. C
A 15 2x, A
15 x. A C
30 3x x
= ,
15
6
15 x
1 105
7
60
. B C
=

=
,
. . x =
11
15
15 11
11
x
1 60
10
C B =
=
, C
6
6 11
11
3
, A B M.
M
11

30 3x. B x,

) A B ,
N , . .
. , A x 15 x, B
y 15 y. , A, x

15 x

+
=1+
, , B, 1 +
.

6
15
10
10
; . , A
x, B C
(15 y) + (15 y x).

30 x 2y
x
= , . . 7x + 4y = 60.
15
6

93

x = y 7x + 4y = 60

60 60
.
,
11

11

7x + 4y = 60 x
y .
, C, A B
, ).
7.7. v,
w. v 6 w,
. v > w, A B

10
10
20v
20
+
= 2
> ,
v+w
vw
v
v w2

, 20 , 20/v.
7.8. a. , x A (0 6 x 6 a).
200x + 100(a x) = 100x + 100a.
, x = 0. ,
A.
7.9. : , . ,
A, , B,
x. A 6 x 6 B.
7.10. a1 > a2 > . . . > a7 , . a3 > 16, a2 > 17 a1 > 18,
a1 + a2 + a3 > 51. a3 6 15, a4 6 14, a5 6 13, a6 6 12 a7 6 11,
a4 + a5 + a6 + a7 6 50, , a1 + a2 + a3 > 50.
7.11. .
2/3 , .
, 2/3
, . , 4/3 ,
. . 4/7 .
. x
y ; x1 y1 , x2 y2 . 5x1 < 2(x1 + y1 ), 3x1 < 2y1 6 2y.
3x2 < 2y. , 3(x1 + x2 ) < 4y. ,
x1 + x2 > x. 3x < 4y, . . 7x < 4(x + y).
7.12. x y .

4x + 3,25y
=
x+y

= 3,6, . . 8x = 7y. , x = 7a y = 8a a.
x + y = 15a 15. ,
15, 30 50, 45.
, x = 21 y = 24.

94

7.

7.13. n , k
. 3,5 6 100k/n 6 4,5. , k > 1
n>

100k
> 22,2k > 22,2. n > 23. 4,5

23 , ,
.
7.14. 6
7 . 200/5 = 40 . :
3 7 2 9 .
7.15. 8 ,
, ,
.
, , 8 1,5= 12 ,
1,5 ;
. 4 350 = 1400 < 1500, 4 . , 8 ,
,
.
7.16. : 3 6 ( , . . 4 6 3 7 ). , 3 6 195 . ,
15 3
3 20 .
6 ,
, . 15 + 20 + 140 = 175
3 + 7 6 = 45 .
5 , 20 ( 5 ).
,
250 , ,
200 .
7.17. ,
. a1 a2 , a1 .
, a2 ( a3 ).
a2 . ,
a3 a4 , a3 . . n-
, an ak , 16 k 6 n 1.
, , n < 20. , k = 1. ,

95

ak , 2 6 k 6 n 1,
k 1 k. n- an .
:
.
. .
7.18. ,
. , , ,
; .
.
7.19. a1 , a2 , . . . , an . ai k + 1 , k ,
ai + ai+1 + ai+2 + . . . + ai+k > 0 ( a1 ). , ai k + 1
, ai+1 , ai+2 , . . . , ai+k
k, k 1, . . . , 2, 1 . . ,
( K), K 1 . ,
K 1 , K 2
, . . .
7.20.
. .
.
. ,
. ,
, .
. .
, .

8.1. x + 1/x > 2


, 1.1 x > 0
x + 1/x > 2.

8.1. n
x1 , . . . , xn ,
x1 + x2 + . . . + xn = 3,

1
1
1
+
+...+
= 3?
x1
x2
xn

8.2. , a1 , . . . , an
a1 . . . an = 1,
(1 + a1 )(1 + a2 ) . . . (1 + an ) > 2n .
8.3. , x5 x3 + x = 2, 3 < x6 < 4.
8.4. ) , x1 , x2 , x3
,
x1
x2
x3
3
+
+
> .
x2 + x3
x3 + x1
x3 + x2
2

) , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
, n > 4,
x1
x2
xn1
xn
+
+...+
+
> 2.
x2 + xn
x3 + x1
xn + xn2
x1 + xn1

8.2.
, a, b, c
, a + b > c, b + c > a c + a > b.

97

, a,
b, c .

8.5. , a, b, c ,
(a2 + b2 + c2 )2 > 2(a4 + b4 + c4 ).
8.6. , a1 ,
a2 , . . . , an (n > 3)
(a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n )2 > (n 1)(a41 + a42 + . . . + a4n ),

.
8.7.
Aa(Bb + Cc) + Bb(Cc + Aa) + Cc(Aa + Bb) >
1
2

> (ABc2 + BCa2 + CAb2 ),


a>0, b>0, c>0 ,
A > 0, B > 0, C > 0. a, b, c
?
8.3.
8.8. xy 6 (x2 + y2 )/2.
8.9.
2 X
X
X

k
k
k
2
2
ai
ai b i 6
bi .
i=1

i=1

i=1

8.9 . 1.9 5.12.

8.10.
a21 + . . . + a2n >

(a1 + . . . + an )2
.
n

8.11. x1 , . . . , xn .

1

1
(x1 + . . . + xn )
+...+
> n2 .
x1

xn

98

8.

8.12. S = a1 + . . . + an , a1 , . . . , an n > 2. ,
an
n
a1
+...+
>
.
S a1
S an
n1

8.4.

a1 , . . . , an . a1 + . . . + an

, A =
n
n
G = a1 . . . an . 1821 .
A > G. , : , n = 2m ,
n = 2m+1 , ,
n, n 1 (. 13.10).

8.13. a1 , . . . , an .

a1 + . . . + an
> n a1 . . . an .
n

( ,
.)

8.14. a, b > 0. , 2 a + 3 3 b > 5 5 ab.


8.15. , n > 2



1 1
1
1
n( n n + 1 1) < 1 + + + . . . + < n 1
+ 1.
n
2

8.16. a1 , . . . , an , w1 , . . . , wn . ,
1
wn 1/W
1
(w a + . . . + wn an ) > (aw
,
1 . . . an )
W 1 1

W = w1 + . . . + wn .
. w1 = . . . = wn = 1
, 8.16 .

99

8.17. a1 , . . . , an , 1 , . . .
. . . , n .
n
P
ai xai . a
,
x > 0 f(x) =

i=1

y = f(x) y = axa x = x0 .
, f(x) > axa ,
x = x0 .
. 13.10, 25.21.
8.5. ,

8.18. a, b, c . ,

p
p
p
a2 ab + b2 + b2 bc + c2 > a2 + ac + c2 ,

,
1/a + 1/c = 1/b.
8.6.
8.19. a1 , . . . , an . ,
a1
a2
an
+ +...+
> n.
a2

a3

a1

8.20. , a,
b, c
a3 b + b3 c + c3 a > a2 bc + b2 ca + c2 ab.
8.21. 0 6 x1 , . . . , xn 6 1. , n > 3
x1 + . . . + xn x1 x2 x2 x3 . . . xn1 xn xn x1 6 [n/2].

8.22. a, b, c . ,

 1 1 1   a b c  3(a + 1)(b + 1)(c + 1)


3 + (a + b + c) +
+ +
+
+ +
>
.
a

abc + 1

100

8.

8.7.
8.23. , a, b, c, d a+c
c
a
< .
, a/b < c/d, <
b
b+d
d
8.24.
x2n + x2n1 y + x2n2 y2 + . . . + y2n > 0.
8.25. a > b > 0. , aa bb > ab ba .
8.26. , x1 , . . . , xn
P
,P P, 1 = xi , 2 =
= xi xj , 3 =
xi xj xk , . . . , n = x1 . . . xn .
i<j

i<j<k

, x1 , . . . , xn ?
8.27. , x12 x9 + x4 x + 1 > 0 x.
8.28. ,


xy

< 1,
1 xy

|x| < 1 |y| < 1.


8.29. n > 1 . ,
xn nx + n 1 > 0 x > 0.
8.30. , n > 2

1
1
1
1
+
+...+
> .
n+1 n+2
2n
2

8.31. x y .
,
x6 + y6
x + y x2 + y2 x3 + y3

6
.
2
2
2
2

8.32. , n
1 3 5
2n 1
1
.
...
<
2 4 6
2n
2n + 1

101

8.33. , n > 1

2
3
1
2n 1
1
1 3 5
< ...
<
.
2
2 4 6
2n
2
2n
2n

8.34. , (2n 1)n + (2n)n < (2n + 1)n n > 2.


8.35. 1, 2, . . . , n. , 2n 2.
8.36. 0 < a 6 xi 6 b. ,
1
 (a + b)2
1
(x1 + . . . + xn )
6
+...+
n2 .
x1

xn

4ab

8.37. , 16x1 , . . . , xn 61 x31 +. . .+x3n =


= 0, x1 + . . . + xn 6 n/3.
8.38. , xy = 4 z2 + 4w2 = 4, (x z)2 +
+ (y w)2 > 1,6.
8.39. A(x)
Q= A1 (x) + . . . + A5 (x), x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ,
x4 , x5 ) Ai (x) = (xi xj ). , A(x) > 0
j6=i
x.
8.40. x1 , x2 , . . . , x100
x21 + x22 + . . . + x2100 > 10000,
x1 + x2 + . . . + x100 < 300.
, ,
100.
. 18.4.
8.8.

8.41.
a+n
6= 1 a > b > 0. b n an + bn
<
,
.
2
2

8.42. 3 60 2 + 3 7.

102

8.

8.9.
8.43. ) a , a > 1
a < 0. , x > 0, x 6= 1,
xa ax + a 1 > 0.
) a , 0 < a < 1. , x > 0, x 6= 1,
xa ax + a 1 < 0.
8.44. , m n ,
1,
1
1

+ m
> 1.
n
m+1
n+1

8.45. A B , p q , 1/p + 1/q = 1.


, p > 1, A1/p B1/q 6 A/p + B/q,
p < 1, A1/p B1/q > A/p + B/q. ( A 6= B,
.)
8.46. xi yi , p q , 1/p + 1/q = 1.
, p > 1,
x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn 6 (xp1 + . . . + xpn )1/p (yq1 + . . . + yqn )1/q ,
p < 1,
x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn > (xp1 + . . . + xpn )1/p (yq1 + . . . + yqn )1/q
( ).
8.47. xi yi , p > 1
. ,
1/p
1/p X
1/p X
X
n
n
n
p
p
p
.
+
yi
6
xi
(xi + yi )
i=1

i=1

i=1

p < 1,
( ).

103

8.1. xi + 1/xi > 2,


3 + 3 = (x1 + 1/x1 ) + . . . + (xn + 1/xn ) > 2n, . . n 6 3. n = 3

x1 = x2 = x3 = 1. n = 2
x1 =

3+ 5
3 5
, x2 =
. n = 1 .
2
2

8.2. a1 . . . an = 1 ,
(1 + a1 )(1 + a2 ) . . . (1 + an ) =

(1 + a1 )(1 + a2 ) . . . (1 + an )
=
a1 . . . an

1
1
... 1+
.
= 1+
a1
an

1
1
, (1 + ai ) 1 +
= 2 + ai + > 4.
ai

ai

((1 + a1 )(1 + a2 ) . . . (1 + an ))2 =

1
1
. . . (1 + an ) 1 +
> 4n .
= (1 + a1 ) 1 +
a1

8.3. 2 + x3 = x5 + x ,

an

x3

+ 1 = x2 +

x2

> 2.

2
3 > 1, . . x3 6 2. x 6= 1, .
x

x5 x3 + x = 2 x7 x5 + x3 = 2x2 ,
x + x = 2 + 2x2 , . . x6 + 1 = 2(x + 1/x) > 4. , x6 > 3.
, x 6= 1.
7

8.4. ) x2 +x3 =a, x3 +x1 =b, x1 +x2 =c, . . x1 =


a+cb

x2 =
2

, x3 =

b+ca
,
2

a+bc
.
2

b+ca
a+cb
a+bc
3
+
+
> ,
2a
2b
2c
2

. . b/a + c/a + a/b + c/b + a/c + b/c > 3 + 3 = 6. ,


b/a + a/b > 2 . .
) n = 4
x1
x2
x3
x4
x1 + x3
x2 + x4
+
+
+
=
+
> 2.
x2 + x4
x3 + x1
x4 + x2
x3 + x1
x2 + x4
x1 + x3

n > 4 . , x1 , . . . , xn

104

8.

. x1 , . . . , xn+1 . x1
x1
>
,
, xn+1 .
xn+1
xn
xn
>

> 0.
xn+1 + xn1
x1 + xn1
x1 + xn

x2 + xn+1

x2 + xn

xn+1
xn
x1
xn
x1
+...+
+
>
+...+
> 2;
x2 + xn+1
xn+1 + xn1
x1 + xn
x2 + xn
x1 + xn1

.
8.5. a, b, c
,
(a + b c)(b + c a)(c + a b)(a + b + c) > 0.

(1)

, . , a + b < c
b + c < a .
(1) 2(a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 )
(a4 + b4 + c4 ) > 0, .
8.6. ,

(a22 + . . . + a2n )2 > (n 2)(a42 + . . . + a4n ).

a41 + 2a21 S2 + S22 > (n 1)a41 + (n 1)S4 ,

S2 = a22 + . . . + a2n S4 = a42 + . . . + a4n . :


2

S2
S2
+ 2 S22 + (n 1)S4 < 0.
(n 2) a21
n2

n2

1
, S22 1
> (n 1)S4 , . . S22 > (n 2)S4 ,
n2
.

(a2k + . . . + a2n )2 > (n k)(a4k + . . . + a4n ).

k = n 2 8.5 ,
an2 , an1 , an .

.
: . a = b = 1, c = 2.

1
2

1
2

2AB + 4AC + 4BC > 2AB + BC + AC,

105

. . AC + BC > 0. 2
2
A, B, C.
. a, b, c . , A = B = 1,
C = .

1
2

a(b + c) + b( c + a) + c(a + b) > (c2 + a2 + b2 ).

(1)

1
2ab > c2 ,
2

(1) . ,
c2 6 4ab 6 (a + b)2 . a, b, c , c 6 a + b.
a 6 b + c b 6 a + c .
2
8.8.
s (x y) 6 0.
s,
k
k
P
P
a2i B =
b2i . 8.9. A =
i=1

i=1

xy 6 (x + y )/2,
k
X
a i bi
i=1

AB

P
k

i=1

k
X
1 a2i
i=1

ai bi

2 A2

6 A 2 B2 =

b2i

B2

P
k

i=1

a2i

k
k
1 X 2
1 X 2
+
a
bi = 1.
i
2A2
2B2
i=1

P
k

i=1

i=1

b2i .

8.10.
; b1 = . . . = bn = 1.
8.11.


: ai = xi bi = 1/ xi .
8.12. bi = S ai .
1
S b1
S bn
n
1
n2
n
+...+
>
, . . S
+...+
+n=
.
>
b1

bn

n1

b1

bn

n1

n1

b1 + . . . + bn = (S a1 ) + . . . + (S an ) = nS S = (n 1)S.
,

(b1 + . . . + bn )

1
1
+...+
b1
bn

> n2

( 8.11).
8.13. . n.
n = 1 . , n
.
b1 = n+1 a1 , . . . , bn+1 = n+1 an+1 .
, (bni bnj )(bi bj ) > 0.

106

8.

i, j, i > j.
n

n+1
X

bn+1
>
i

n+1
X

bi

i=1

i=1

bnj .

j6=i

( , .)
n ,
n+1
X
i=1

bi

bnj > n

j6=i

n+1
X
i=1

n+1
X
i=1

bi

bj = n(n + 1)

j6=i

bn+1
> (n + 1)
i

n+1
Y

bj .

j=1

n+1
Y

bj ,

j=1

.
.
: a1 6 a2 6 . . . 6 an . a1 = an , a1 = a2 = . . . = an .
A = G. , a1 < an .
a1 < A < an , ,
A(a1 + an A) a1 an = (a1 A)(A an ) > 0,

. . A(a1 + an A) > a1 an . , a1 + an A > 0.


n. ,

n 1 .
a2 , a3 , . . . , an1 , a1 + an A.
n1
a +a +. .. +a
2
3
n1 + a1 + an A
> a2 a3 . . . an1 (a1 + an A).
n1

a2 + a3 + . . . + an1 + a1 + an A
nA A
=
= A.
n1
n1

A:
An > a2 a3 . . . an1 A(a1 + an A) > a1 a2 . . . an ;

A(a1 +an A)>


> a1 an .
.

. 26.22.

107

8.14. a = x10 b = y15 .



x5 + x5 + y5 + y5 + y5 p
> 5 x10 y15 ,
5

. . 2 a + 3 3 b > 5 5 ab.
8.15.
3

2, , , . . . ,
2 3

4
n+1
1
3
n
2+ + +...+
> n + 1,
2

n+1
. n

. .

1
1
1
n
+ 1+
+...+ 1+
> n n + 1.
(1 + 1) + 1 +
2

n1

1, , , . . . ,
.
2 3
n

r
1
1
2
n1 n 1
1+ + +...+
>
,
2

. .

1
1
n
1
+ 1
+...+ 1
>
1+ 1
n .
2

8.16. . n 8.45.
Wn = W Wn1 = w1 + . . . + wn1 . ,
Wn1 w1
wn1 1/Wn1
+
)
(a1 . . . an1
Wn
w1 a1 +. . .+wn1 an1
wn
w1 a1 +. . .+wn an
+
an =
.
Wn1
Wn
Wn
w

n1 1/Wn wn /Wn
)
an
6
(a1 1 . . . awn n )1/Wn =(a1 1 . . . an1

Wn1
wn
an 6
Wn
Wn

ab 6
=

bq
ap
+
p =
p
q

Wn
Wn
q=
(, 1/p + 1/q = 1), Wn1
wn

.
. 1 +
+ x < ex x 6= 0 ( 28.48). b1 , . . . , bn ,

108

8.
w1 a1 + . . . + wn an
.
W
ai (w1 + . . . + wn ) w1 a1 . . . wn an
wi bi = wi
,
w1 a1 + . . . + wn an

ai = (1 + bi )

w1 b1 + . . . + wn bn = 0. ,
a1 , . . . , an , b1 , . . . , bn
.
(a1 1 . . . awn n )1/W =
w

w1 a1 + . . . + wn an
((1 + b1 )w1 . . . (1 + bn )wn )1/W <
W
w1 a1 + . . . + wn an (b1 w1 +...+bn wn )/W
w1 a1 + . . . + wn an
<
e
=
.
W
W

, , a1 , . . . , an .
8.17. g(x)=axa . f(x0 )=g(x0 ) f (x0 )=g (x0 ),
n
a1 = P
ai i x0ai 1 . , a=f(x0 )/xa
. . axa
0 =f(x0 ) a x0
0

ai

ax
af(x ) = aaxa = P a a xa , a = P af(x
)
i=1

i=1

f(x) = X

i 0

ai xai X

ai x0ai

i=1

ai x0ai =

8.16
X

i 0
0

x ai
ai x0ai
x0
X
f(x0 ).
ai x0ai

x ai
i
Y
a 1/ P ai x0ai Y
a
n
n
a i xa
0
x ai ai x0 i/f(x0 ) x a
x ai ai x0 i
x0
X
=
.
>
=
i
x0
x0
x0
a i xa
0
i=1
i=1

x a
f(x0 ) = axa . , , f(x) >
x0
x ai
x 6= x0 ,
, i = 1, . . . , n, ,
x0

.
8.18. AOC, AO = a, CO = c
O 120 . O


OB = b.
AB = a2 ab + b2 , BC = b2 bc + c2
AC= a2 + ac + c2 .
AC 6 AB + BC. , B AC. ,

109

AOB BOC AOB, . . ac sin 120 =


= (ab + bc) sin 60 . , sin 120 = sin 60 , ac =
= ab + bc, . . 1/a + 1/c = 1/b.
8.19.

a2
an a1 a2
an 1/n
1 a1
+
+...+

...
= 1.
>
n a2

a3

a1

a2

a3

a1

8.20. :

a3 b + b3 c + c3 a a2 bc b2 ca c2 ab =

= (a3 b 2a2 bc + c2 ab) + (b3 c 2b2 ca + a2 bc) + (c3 a 2c2 ab + b2 ca) =

= ab(a c)2 + bc(b a)2 + ca(c b)2 > 0.

8.21. x1 , . . . , xn , xi = x.
ax + b, a
b . x = 0 x = 1
( ). ,
, x1 , . . . , xn
0 1.
, xi = xi+1 = 1 ( xn = x1 = 1). , x1 = x2 = 1.
, x1 x2 , . . x1 + x2 x1 x2
x2 x3 xn x1 . x1 = 1 x2 = 1 1 x3 xn ,
x1 = 1 x2 = 0 1 xn > 1 x3 xn .
,
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , x1 1.
[n/2], .
x1 = x3 = x5 = . . . = 0 x2 = x4 = . . . = 1 [n/2].
8.22. a2 b2 c2
(a + b + c) 2abc(ab + bc + ac) 2abc(a + b + c) + (a2 c + b2 a + c2 b) +
+ abc(a2 c + b2 a + c2 b) + (ab + bc + ac) > 0. ab(b+1)(ac1)2 +bc(c+1)(ab1)2 +ac(a+1)(bc1)2 .
a+c
a
<
ab + ad <
b
b+d
a+c
c
< ab + bc, . . ad < bc.
< b+d
d

8.23.

ad + cd < bc + cd, . . ad < bc.


8.24. x = y, .
x 6= y,

x2n+1 y2n+1
.
xy

110

8.

x > y , x < y .
8.25. a b > 0 a/b > 1. (a/b)ab > 1,
. . aab > bab . .
8.26. : , . ,
f(x) = xn 1 xn1 + 2 xn2 . . . + (1)n n .

x1 , . . . , xn . , x < 0, f(x) 6= 0. x > 0,

s (x) + s (x) + . . . + s > 0.


. s >0 s >0 ,
x x . ,
x = 2 + i x = 2 i, s = 4 s = 3.
(1)n f(x) = (x)n +

n1

n2

8.27. x 6 0, x12 , x9 , x4 , x > 0. 0 < x < 1,


12
x +x4 (1x5 )+(1x)>0. x>1, x9 (x3 1)+x(x3 1)+1>0.
8.28. 1 x > 0, 1 + x > 0, 1 y > 0 1 + y > 0.
(1 x)(1 + y) > 0 (1 + x)(1 y) > 0, . . 1 x + y xy > 0
1 + x y xy > 0. , 1 xy > x y 1 xy > y x.
, 1 xy = |1 xy|.
8.29. ,
xn nx + n 1 = (1 + x + . . . + xn1 n)(x 1).

x > 1, ,
0 < x < 1, .
8.30. n1
>

1
1
1
1
1
> ,
> , . . .,
>
n + 1 2n n + 2 2n
2n 1

1
1
1

=
. .
2n
2n
2n

8.31. , m n
,
xm+n + ym+n
xm + ym xn + yn

6
.
2
2
2

(xm ym )(xn yn ) > 0.


m n , x > y
xm > ym xn > yn , x 6 y
xm 6 ym xn 6 yn . m n ,
x2 > y2 xm > ym xn > yn .
x + y x3 + y3

x4 + y4

6
2
2
2
.

x2 + y2 x4 + y4
x6 + y6

6
.
2
2
2


8.32. ,

1
1
<
.
2n + 1
2n + 1

1 3
2n 1 2 1 3 3 5
(2n 1)(2n + 1)
= 2 2 . . .
. . .

8.33. Pn =
P2n =

111

2 4

2n

(2n)

1 3 . . . (2n 1)
.
2 4 . . . 2n

(2n 1)2
1 32
52
(2n 1)2
1
12 32 52
2 2 ...
=

...

.
2
2
2 24 46
(2n 2)2n 2n
2 4 6
(2n)

1 1
(2k 1)2
(2k 1)2
> 1. P2n >
=
,
2 1
(2k

2)2k
2 2n
(2k

1)

2
1
.
. . Pn >
2
2n
(2k 1)(2k + 1)
(2k2 1)
,
=
< 1.
2
(2k)
(2k)2

k > 1,

P2n =
. . Pn <

(2n 3)(2n 1) 2n 1
3 1
3 35 57

2 ...

<
,
4 2n
22 42
6
(2n 2)2
(2n)2

3
1
.
2
2n

8.34. 2n <
< (2 + 1/n)n (2 1/n)n .
1
n(n 1) 1
n(n 1)(n 2) 1
+ 2n2
2 + 2n3
3 +...
n
2
3
n
n
1
1
1
n3 n(n 1)(n 2)
n2 n(n 1)
n
n1
2 2
3 +...=
...2 +2 n 2
n
2
3
n
n
1
n
n2 n(n 1)(n 2)
3 + . . . > 2n .
=2 +2
3
n

2n + 2n1 n

8.35. , 1 n, .
n 1 ( n 1),
.
ab
+ xi 6
8.36. (xi a)(xi b) 6 0 xi > 0,
xi
P 1 P
+ xi 6
6 a + b. , ab
xi
P
P
1
1
1
xi y* =
6 n(a + b). x* =
.
n

xi

aby* +x* 6a+b, . . y* 6

a+bx*
.
ab

x* ,

112

8.

x(a + b x) 6

a + b 2

x* y* 6

x ( 1.2 ).

x* (a + b x* )
ab

a + b 2
2
ab

(a + b)2
.
4ab

.
8.37. P(x) = 4(x + 1)(x 1/2)2 = (x + 1)
(4x2 4x + 1) = 4x3 3x + 1. , P(xi ) > 0. P(x1 ) > 0, . . . , P(xn ) > 0, 3(x1 + . . . + xn ) + n > 0,
. . x1 + . . . + xn 6 n/3.
8.38. ,
2
2

x + 4y = 4 xy = 4
1,6.
.
:
1
2,
2 x2 + 4y2 = 4
2
xy = 4 (2 2, 2),
1,6.
. 8.1, , .
y

2 2


(2 2, 2)

( 2, 21 2)

2 2
2

. 8.1

4 2

113

1.26 x2 + 4y2 = 4
1

2,
2 2x + 2 2y = 4, . .
2

x + 2y = 2 2,
(1)


xy = 4 (2 2, 2)
2x + 2 2y = 8, . .

x + 2y = 4 2.
(2)
, (1) (2), .

h
2 2
2,
. ,

h = ab/c, a = 2, b = 2 2 c = a2 + b2 . , h2 = 1,6,
.
8.39. A(x)
, , x1 > x2 > x3 > x4 > x5 .

A1 (x) + A2 (x) = (x1 x2 )[(x1 x3 )(x1 x4 )(x1 x5 )

(x2 x3 )(x2 x4 )(x2 x5 )] > 0,

x1 x2 > 0, x1 x3 > x2 x3 > 0 . . , A4 (x) + A5 (x) > 0. , A3 (x)


, A3 (x) > 0.
8.40. , x1 > x2 > . . . > x100 > 0. x1 > 100,
x1 + x2 + x3 > 100. , x1 < 100.
100 x1 > 0, 100 x2 > 0, x1 x3 > 0 x2 x3 > 0,
100(x1 + x2 + x3 ) > 100(x1 + x2 + x3 ) (100 x1 )(x1 x3 )

(100 x2 )(x2 x3 ) = x21 + x22 + x3 (300 x1 x2 ) >


> x21 + x22 + x3 (x3 + x4 + . . . + x100 ) >

> x21 + x22 + x23 + . . . + x2100 > 10000.


, x1 + x2 + x3 > 100.
8.41. n. n = 2
a2 + 2ab + b2 < 2a2 + 2b2 ,

a+b

a n + bn

<
0 < (a b)2 . ,
.
2
2
a+b n+1 an +bn a+b an+1 +bn+1 +an b+ab
n
<

=
.
2

114

8.

, an b + abn < an+1 + bn+1 .


(an bn )(a b) > 0.

8.42.

8.41 n = 3, a = 3 8
r

3
3

8+ 7 3 7+8
<
, . . 2+ 3 7< 3 60.
b= 3 7.
2

8.43. n .

yn+1 1
yn 1
y1

=
(nyn yn1 . . . y 1)
n+1
n
n(n + 1)

yn+1 1
yn 1

> 0 y > 0, y 6= 1. n+1


n

, y > 1, y 1 > 0 nyn > yn1 + . . . + y + 1, 0 < y < 1,


y 1 < 0 nyn < yn1 + . . . + y + 1.
m , m> n. (ym 1)/m>
> (yn 1)/n y > 0, y 6= 1. y = x1/n , x > 0, x 6= 1.
m
(xm/n 1)/m > (x 1)/n, . . xm/n 1 (x 1) > 0.
n
a = m/n > 1.
,
. a > 1 xa = x1b = yb1 , b = 1 a < 0
y = x1 . xa ax + a 1 > 0
yb1 (1 b)y1 + 1 b 1 > 0, . . y1 (yb by + b 1) > 0, b < 0.
b = 1/a y = xa ( a > 1 x > 0).
1

xa ax+a1>0 y yb + 1>0,
b
b
. . yb by + b 1 < 0, 0 < b < 1.
8.44. 8.43 ),
x = m + 1 a = 1/n. (m + 1)1/n < 1 + m/n.
(n + 1)1/m < 1 + n/m. ,

1
m+1

+ m

1
n+1

>

m
n
+
= 1.
n+m
n+m

8.45. x = A/B, a = 1/p 1 a = 1/q.


B(xa ax + a 1) = A1/p B1/q

A
B
.
p
q

8.43.
. .
26.23 ( p > 1) 28.43.
8.46. X = xp1 + . . . + xpn , Y = yq1 + . . . + yqn , A = xpi /X
p

B = yqi /Y. p > 1, 8.45

y
x
xi
yi
6 i + i .
1/p
1/q
pX
qY
X
Y

115

i = 1, . . . , n,
X
x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn
Y
1
1
6
+
= + = 1.
pX
qY
p
q
X1/p Y1/q

, p < 1, .
8.47. p > 1. ,
n
X

(xi + yi )p =

i=1

n
X

xi (xi + yi )p1 +

n
X

yi (xi + yi )p1 .

i=1

i=1

( 8.46)
1/q
1/p X
X
n
n
n
X
(xi + yi )p
,
xpi
xi (xi + yi )p1 6
i=1

i=1

i=1

q = p/(p 1), . . 1/p + 1/q = 1.


.

X
1/q
1/p X
1/q X
n
n
n
n
X
xpi
yqi
(xi + yi )p 6
(xi + yi )p
.
+
i=1

i=1

i=1

i=1

.
, p < 1, .

9.1.
9.1. a1 , . . . , an . ,
1
1
n1
1
+
+...+
=
.
a1 a2
a2 a3
an1 an
a1 an

9.2. a1 , . . . , an . ,
1
1
n1
1
+
.

=
+...+
a1 + a2
a2 + a3
an1 + an
a1 + an

= 0,a1 a2 a3 . . . ,
ak+n = ak k > N; n .
N = 1, .
.
0,a1 a2 . . . aN1 (aN aN+1 . . . aN+n1 ).

9.3. , .
. 17.1.

9.4. 0,1234567891011 . . . (
)?
9.5. , nk , n k , 1,
n .

117

9.6. 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . . . + (n + 1)xn.


9.7. a, a + d, a + 2d, . . . , a, d > 0. ,
, , ,
a/d .
9.8. 4n , ,
. ,
n .
9.9. , ( 0 1). ,

.
9.2.
9.10. , n = p + q 1,
(a1 +a2 +. . .+ap )+(a2 +. . .+ap+1 )+. . .+(anp+1 +. . .+an )=
=(a1 +a2 +. . .+aq )+(a2 +. . .+aq+1 )+. . .+(anq+1 +. . .+an ).
9.11. a1 , a2 , . . . , an , ,
.
n ?
9.3. Sk (n) = 1k + 2k + . . . + nk
1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + n .
(k + 1)2 = k2 + 2k + 1 k = 1, 2, . . . , n. (n + 1)2 = 1 + 2S1 (n) + n,
S1 (n) . , S1 (n) =

n(n + 1)
.
2

9.12. S2 (n) = 12 +
+ 22 + . . . + n2 S3 (n) = 13 + 23 + . . . + n3 .

118

9.

9.13. ) ,
1
Ckk+1 Sk (n) + Ck1
k+1 Sk1 (n) + . . . + Ck+1 S1 (n) + S0 (n) =

= (n + 1)k+1 1.

) , k Sk (n) k + 1 n

nk+1
.
k+1

9.14. ) S=C1k S2k1 (n)+C3k S2k3 (n)+C5k S2k5 (n)+. . . ,


Ckk Sk (n)
k Ck1
Sk+1 (n) k. ,
k
nk (n + 1)k

.
S=
2
) , S2k1 (n) k
n(n + 1)
( k).
2

9.15. S = C1k+1 Sk (n) + C3k+1 Sk2 (n) + . . . , k+1


Ck+1
S0 (n) k
k Ck+1 S1 (n) k. , S =
=

(n + 1)k+1 + nk+1 1
.
2

9.16.
13 + 33 + 53 + . . . + (2n 1)3 .
9.4.

9.17. ) , p > 2

m
1 1
1
=1+ + +...+
n
2 3
p1

p.
) , p > 3

p2 .

1 1
1
m
=1+ + +...+
n
2 3
p1

9.18.

119

1 1 1
1
p
=1 + +...+

q
2 3 4
4k 1

, 6k 1 . , p 6k 1.
9.19. p > 2 , ak kp p2 . , a1 + a2 + . . . + ap1 =

p3 p2
.
2

9.5.
9.20. a b . p
, q .
, a b = p q.

9.1. ,

ak+1 ak
1
1
d

=
=
, d ak
ak+1
ak ak+1
ak ak+1

.
1 1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
1

+...+

=
=
d a1

a2

a2

a3

an1

an

d a1
an
1 (n 1)d
n1
1 an a1
=
=
.
=
d
a1 an
d
a1 an
a1 an

9.2. ,

ak+1 ak
1
1

=
=

ak + ak+1
ak+1 ak
ak + ak+1

ak+1 ak
ak+1 ak
=
,
ak+1 ak
d

d .

1
1
an a1
n1
( an a1 ) =
=
.
d

an +

a1

an +

a1

9.3. ,
0,a1 a2 . . . aN1 (aN aN+1 . . . aN+n1 ) = a1 a2 . . . aN1 10N+1 +
+ 10N aN q + 10N1 aN+1 q + . . . + 10Nn+1 aN+n1 q,

120

9.
1


q = 1 + 10n + 102n + 103n + . . . =
1 10n
.
9.4. , .
17.1
0,a1 a2 a3 . . . , ak+n = ak k > N (n ). m , 10m+2n
aN . , , ,
, , .
, .
9.5. a + (a + 2) + . . . + (a + 2n 2) = n(a + n 1)
nk , a + n 1 = nk1 , . . a = nk1 n + 1.
, a .
9.6. , 1 + x +
+ x2 + . . . + xn =

xn+1 1
xn+1 x
xn+1 xn
, x + x2 + . . . + xn =
, . . . , xn =
.
x1
x1
x1

(n + 1)xn+1 (1 + x + . . . + xn )
=
x1

(n + 1)xn+1

xn+1 1
x1

x1
(n + 1)xn+2 (n + 2)xn+1 + 1
=
.
(x 1)2

9.7. a/d = m/n, m n .


k (1 + n)k 1 n,
bk =

m
a(1 + n)k a
= ((1 + n)k 1) . ,
d
n

a(1 + n)k = a + bk d .
a + kd, a + ld, a + md , k < l < m. (a + ld)2 = (a + kd)
(a + md), . . a(2l k m) = d(km l2 ). ,
2l k m 6= 0. 2l k m = 0. km l2 = 0.
(k m)2 = (k + m)2 4km = 4l2 4l2 = 0,
k < m.
9.8. , .
, : a > b > c > d > e > . . .
a, b, c, d .
ab > cd ac > bd, ad = bc, . . d = bc/a.
, e = bc/a.

121

9.9.
aqn , n > 0. , q = 1, ,
, q 6= 1. , k1 , k2 , . . . , km+1 (m > 2),
aqk1 + aqk2 + . . . + aqkm = aqkm+1 .

(1)

l1 < l2 < . . . < lm+1 k1 , k2 , . . . , km+1 ,


. (1)
aql1 = aql2 . . . aqlm+1 .

aql1

1 = ql2 l1 (1 ql3 l2 . . . qlm+1 l2 ).

1,
ql2 l1 , 1. .
np+1
P
(ai +. . .+ai+p1 )=
9.10.
=

np+1
P p1
P
i=1

j=0

ai+j =

np
P p1
P

ai+j+1 =

i=0 j=0

p1
P np
P

ai+j+1 =

j=0 i=0

i=1
nq
P q1
P

ai+j+1 . -

j=0 i=0

.
9.11. 9.10 (a1 + a2 + . . . + a7 ) + (a2 + . . . + a8 ) + . . .
. . . + (a11 + . . . + a17 ) = (a1 + a2 + . . . + a11 ) + (a2 + . . . + a12 ) + . . . +
+ (a7 + . . . + a17 ). n < 17.
n = 16 : 5, 5, 13, 5,
5, 5, 13, 5, 5, 13, 5, 5, 5, 13, 5, 5.
9.12. (k + 1)3 = k3 + 3k2 + 3k + 1 k = 1, 2, . . .
. . . , n, (n + 1)3 = 1 + 3S2 (n) + 3S1 (n) + n. ,
3
2

3S2 (n) = (n + 1)3 n(n + 1) (n + 1) =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
.
2

(k + 1)4 = k4 + 4k3 + 6k2 + 4k + 1 k = 1, 2, . . .


. . . , n, (n + 1)4 = 1 + 4S3 (n) + 6S2 (n) + 4S1 (n) + n. ,
4S3 (n) = (n + 1)4 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 2n(n + 1) (n + 1) = n2 (n + 1)2 .
9.13. ) ,

n
P

j=1

n
P

j=1

((j + 1)k+1 jk+1 ) = (n + 1)k+1 1.

((j + 1)k+1 jk+1 ) =

n
P

j=1

k1
(Ckk+1 jk + Ck1
+ ...
k+1 j

k1
. . . + C1k+1 j + 1) = Ckk+1 Sk (n) + Ck+1
Sk1 (n) + . . . + C1k+1 S1 (n) + S0 (n).

122

9.

) ) k. , Ckk+1 = k + 1.
n
P
9.14. ) ,
(jk (j + 1)k jk (j 1)k ) = nk (n + 1)k .
j=1

,
jk + C1k j2k1 + C2k j2k2 + . . . + Ck1
jk1 + Ckk jk ,
k
jk1 Ckk jk .
jk + C1k j2k1 C2k j2k2 + . . . Ck1
k

2S.
n2 (n + 1)2
n(n + 1)
, C12 S3 (n) =
,
) ) S1 (n) =
C13 S5 (n) =

n3 (n + 1)3
C33 S3 (n) . .
2

9.15. ,

n
P

j=1

((j + 1)k+1 (j 1)k+1 ) = (n + 1)k+1 +

+ nk+1 1. , 2S.
m(m + 1) 2
.
9.16. 9.12 13 + 23 + 33 + . . . + m3 =
2n(2n + 1) 22
13 + 23 + 33 + . . . + (2n 1)3 + (2n)3 =
, . .
22n(2n + 1) 2
13 + 33 + 53 + . . . + (2n 1)3 + 23 (13 + 23 + . . . + n3 ) =
.
2

, , 13 +
n(n + 1) 2
. 13 + 33 + 53 + . . .
+ 23 + . . . + n3 =
2

. . . + (2n 1)3 = n2 (2n2 1).


9.17. )
1
p1
1
1
p
1
+
, k = 1, 2, . . . ,
.
+
=
. k
pk
2
k
pk
k(p k)


m
pq
=
. , p
n

1 2 3 . . . (p 1)

2, 3, . . . , p 1.
)

1+

1
1 1
+
+
+...+
p1
2
p2

=p

1
p1 p+1
+
2
2

1
1
1
+
+...+
p 1 p + 1
p1
2(p 2)
2
2

=p

M
,
(p 1)!

123

M=

(p 1)!
(p 1)!
(p 1)!
+
+ . . . + p 1 p + 1 .
p1
2(p 2)
2
2

, M p.
x

(p 1)!
(mod p). xk(p k) (p 1)! (mod p).
k(p k)

( 31.15 ) (p 1)! 1 (mod p),


xk2 1 (mod p). , ,
p1

k 1, 2, . . . ,
, x 12 , 22 , . . .
2
p 1 2
. , k2 . . .,
2

. k k , kk 1 (mod p). ,
k2 k x (mod p).
p 1 2
, M 12 + 22 + . . . +
(mod p).
p 1 2 p2 1 p + 1 p
9.12 12 + 22 + . . . +
=
.
2
2
2
6
p.
9.18. ,
1

1
1
1
1
+ +...+
=
2
3
4
4k 1
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
=
=1+ + + +...+
2
+ + +...+
2
3
4
4k 1
2
4
6
4k 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
=1+ + + +...+
1 ...
=
2
3
4
4k 1
2
3
2k 1
1
1
1
=
+
+...+
.
2k
2k + 1
4k 1

,

1
6k + 1
1
+
=
.
2k + s
4k 1 s
(2k s)(4k 1 s)

6k 1 . 6k 1 ,
6k 1.
9.19. , kp + (p k)p p2 . ,
(xy)p =yp +pxyp1 +. . . , , x2 . (p k)p kp + pkp1 p kp (mod p2 ),
kp + (p k)p p2 .

124

9.

p , 1 6 k 6 p 1,
kp (p k)p p . , ak + apk = p2 . (p 1)/2 ak + apk ,
p2 (p 1)/2.
9.20. +2,
2,
0. ,
2(a b). , 2(p q).

10

10.1.
10.1. (x+1)(x+2)(x+3)(x+4)+1
.
10.2.
10.2. ) ,
f(x) x a f(a) ().
) x0 f(x). ,
f(x) x x0 .
10.3. P(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 . ,
x0 = p/q, p/q . , an q, a0
p.
10.4.

,
2 + 3.
10.5.

,
3 2 + 3 3.
10.6. xn xn1 xn2 . . .
. . . x 1, .
10.3.
10.7. ,
x17 x18 -

126

10. I


(1 + x5 + x7 )20 .
10.8. P(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0
, an > 1. , m |an1 | + 1, . . .
. . . , |a0 | + 1, Q(x) = P(x + m) .
10.9. x1951 1 x4 + x3 + 2x2 +
+ x + 1 .
x14 .
10.4.
10.10. x1 , . . . , xn
xn + an1 xn1 + an2 xn2 + . . . + a0 .
, x1 + x2 + . . . + xn = an1 ,
X
X
xi xj = an2 ,
xi xj xk = an3 ,
16i<j6n

...,

16i<j<k6n

x1 . . . xn = (1)n a0 ( ).
10.11. x3 + ax2 + bx + c,
?
10.12. ) , x3 9x + 9.
, 2 + 6 = .
) ,

x3 21x + 35.
2
+ 2 14 = .
,

a b g
a a
b g
a b g
a a
b g

10.5.
10.13. P(x) , a b , a > b. ,
P(a) P(b) a b.

127

10.14. P(x) , P(7) = 11 P(11) = 13?


10.15. P(x) , n P(n),
P(n + 1) P(n + 2) 3. , P(m)
3 m.
10.16. , , , ,
.
10.17. P(x), x2 + 1, P(x) 1 x3 + 1.
10.18. a0 = 0, an = P(an1 ) n = 1, 2, . . . ,
P(x) , P(x)>
>0 x > 0. , m, n > 0, (am , an ) =
= ad , d = (m, n).
10.19. , x15 1
1 14, . .
k 6 14 k , x15 1.
10.20. , x2n + xn + 1
x2 + x + 1 , n 3.
10.21. ) , ax3 +bx2 +cx+d, a, b, c, d , x 5.
, a, b, c, d 5.
) , ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e, a, b, c,
d, e , x
7. , a, b, c, d, e 7.
10.22. , p/q ,
f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an
, p kq f(k)
k.
10.23. , A
3x2n + Axn + 2 2x2m + Axm + 3.

128

10. I

10.6.
10.24. ,
x(x + 1) . . . (x + n) = 1 , 1/n!.
10.7.

10.25. , P(x) n
n .
a k (k > 1) P(x),
P(x) (x a)k (x a)k+1 .

10.26. , P(x) n
n , . .
a1 , . . . , am k1 , . . . , km ,
k1 + . . . + km 6 n.
10.27. ,
xn a1 xn1 a2 xn2 . . . an1 x an = 0,
a1 > 0, a2 > 0, an > 0, .
10.28. f1 (x) = x2 2, fn (x) = f1 (fn1 (x)). ,
n fn (x) = x
2n .
10.8.
10.29. ,
(1 x + x2 x3 + . . . x99 + x100 )(1 + x + x2 + x3 + . . . + x99 + x100 )

, x .
10.30. x + x3 + x9 + x27 + x81 + x243
(x 1)?

129

10.31. :
(1 x2 + x3 )1000 ,

(1 + x2 x3 )1000


x20 ?
10.32. ) a, (x a)
(x 10) + 1 (x + b)(x + c)
b c.
)
a, b, c, x(x a)(x b)
(x c) + 1
.
10.9.
10.33. x1 , . . . , xn+1 .
, P(x) n, xi ai ( ).
n
P
(1)k km Ckn = 0 m < n (m
10.34. ,
)

n
P

k=0

(1)k kn Ckn = (1)n n!.

k=0

10.35. a1 , . . . , an . , b0 , b1 , . . . , bn1

x 1 + . . . + x n = b0 ,

a 1 x 1 + . . . + an x n = b 1 ,
a21 x1 + . . . + a2n xn = b2 ,

... ............ ........... ..

n1
xn = bn1
a1 x1 + . . . + an1
n

, .
10.36. x0 , x1 , . . . , xn . , f(x) n,

130

10. I

f(x0 ), . . . , f(xn ),
f(x) = f(x0 ) + (x x0 )f(x0 ; x1 ) +
+ (x x0 )(x x1 )f(x0 ; x1 ; x2 ) + . . .
. . . + (x x0 ) . . . (x xn1 )f(x0 ; . . . ; xn ),

f(x0 ; . . . ; xk ) x0 , . . . , xk ( ).

. , x0 , x1 , . . . , xn xn+1
f(x0 ; . . . ; xn+1 ); , , .

10.10.
10.37. R(x) = P(x)/Q(x), P Q . , R(x)

X
cik
R(x) = A(x) +
k,
i,k

(x ai )

cik , A(x) .
10.38. , , 10.37, .
10.11.
p(x) , x.

10.39. ,
Ckx =

x(x 1) . . . (x k + 1)
k!

.
10.40. pk (x) k, x = n, n + 1, . . . , n + k -

131

n.
+ . . . + ck ,
+ c2 Ck2
pk (x) = c0 Ckx + c1 Ck1
x
x
c0 , c1 , . . . , ck .
10.12.
n x1 , . . . , xn
k
ak1 ...kn x11 . . . xknn . k1 + . . . + kn .
() .

10.41. , x200 y200 + 1


x y.
10.42. ) P = P(x, y, z), Q =
= Q(x, y, z) R = R(x, y, z) x, y, z,
(x y + 1)3P + (y z 1)3Q + (z 2x + 1)3R = 1?

(x y + 1)3P + (y z 1)3Q + (z x + 1)3R = 1.

. 16.10.

10.1. (x+ 1)(x+ 2)(x+ 3)(x+ 4) + 1= x4 + 10x3 + . . . + 25


(x2 + ax + b)2 = x4 + 2ax3 + . . . + b2 , x2 + 5x 5.
, (x2 + 5x + 5)2 1 = (x2 + 5x + 4)(x2 + 5x + 6)
x2 + 5x + 4 = (x + 1)(x + 4), x2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 2)(x + 3).
10.2. ) f(x) x a .
f(x) = (x a)g(x) + r, r . x = a.
f(a) = r.
) ), f(x0 ) = 0.
10.3. an xn0 + an1 x0n1 + . . . + a1 x0 + a0 = 0 qn an pn +an1 pn1 q+. . .+a1 pqn1 +a0 qn =0.
an pn = (an1 pn1 q + . . . + a1 pqn1 + a0 qn ) q, p q . ,

132

10. I

an q. a0 qn = (an pn + an1 pn1 q + . . . + a1 pqn1 )


p, p q . , a0
p.

10.4. x = 2 + 3. x2 = 5 + 2 6 (x2 5)2 = 24,


4
2
. . x 10x + 1 = 0.
10.5. ,

3
3
( 2 + 3)3 = 5 + 3 ,

3
3
( 2 + 3)6 = 133 + 30 + 9 ,

3
3
( 2 + 3)9 = 2555 + 711 + 135 ,

3
3
= 3 6( 2+ 3
3) = 3 36( 4+ 3 9). x9 15x6 87x3
3
125 = 0 x = 2 + 3 3.
10.6. x1 , . . . , xn xn + an1 xn1 +
+ an2 xn2 + .P
. . , ai = 1. x1 + . . . + xn =
xi xj = an2 , x21 + . . . + x2n = a2n1 2an2 .
= an1

a
a b
a
b

16i<j6n

, . x21 + . . . + x2n =
= a2n1 2an2 = 1 2 = 3, . , an2 = 1. , x21 . . . x2n = a20 = 1.

p
(x21 + . . . + x2n )/n > n x21 . . . x2n , . . 3/n > 1. , n 6 3, n = 3
x21 = x22 = x23 = 1. (x 1)3 ,
n = 3 (x2 1)(x 1). n = 1 2
.
10.7. 18
5 7, x18 .
17 5 7
: 17 = 7 + 5 + 5;
. 20 1 + x5 + x7 x7 , 19
x5 .
19 18

= 3420.
x17 20
2
10.8. P(x) P(x) = (an 1)xn +
+(x+an1 1)xn1 +(x+an2 1)xn2 +. . .+(x+a0 1)+1.
, Q(x)=(an 1)(x+m)n +(x+(m+an1 1))xn1 +. . .
. . . + (x + (m + a0 1)) + 1. an 1 > 0, m + an1 1, . . .
. . . , m + a0 1 .
.

133

10.9. : 1. x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1 = (x2 + 1)


(x2 + x + 1) x12 1 = (x 1)(x2 + x + 1)(x3 + 1)(x2 + 1)(x4 x2 + 1)
,
x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1 =

(x 1)(x3

x12 1
=
+ 1)(x4 x2 + 1)

x8

x7

x6

x12 1
.
+ 2x5 2x3 + x2 + x 1

x1951 1 x4 + x3 + 2x2 + x + 1
, x12 1,
x8 x7 x6 + 2x5 2x3 + x2 + x 1.
x1951 1
x7 1
1939
1927
1915
19
7
=
x
+
x
+
x
+
.
.
.
+
x
+
x
+
,
x12 1
x12 1

x14

x7 1 8
x1939 + . . . + x19 + x7 + 12
(x x7 x6 + 2x5 2x3 + x2 + x 1).
x

10.10.

X
X
(x x1 ) . . . (x xn ) = xn
xi xj xn2
xi xn1 +

16i6n

16i<j6n

xi xj xk xn3 + . . . + (1)n x1 . . . xn .

16i<j<k6n

10.11. x1 , x2 , x3 , x1 + x3 = 2x2 (,
), . . x1 + x2 + x3 = 3x2 . x1 + x2 + x3 = a. , x2 = a/3
. :
ab
2 3
a
+ c = 0.
27
3

a a
b
g
b g
b g bg
9
9
= y + ay . y + ay , y = a + a 6 a
a
9
, a = 9a 9, a = 9a 9a = a 9.
a

10.12. ) y = 2 + 6. , (y )
(y ) = 0. (y )(y ) = y2 ( + )y +
=
2

) ,
).

134

10. I

10.13. P(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 . P(a)


P(b) = an (an bn ) + an1 (an1 + bn1 ) + . . . + a1 (a b).
, k ak bk
a b.
ak bk = (a b)(ak1 + ak1 b + . . . + bk1 ).
10.14. : , . 10.13 P(11) P(7) = 2 11 7 = 4.
10.15. a b , a > b,
P(a) P(b) a b ( 10.13).
m m n, m (n + 1), m (n + 2) 3.
P(m)P(n), P(m)P(n+1), P(m)P(n+2)
3.
10.16. P(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an , a0 , a1 , . . .
. . . , an . , P(k) = p (
k ). P(x) n , a , P(k + pa) 6= p.
, P(k + pa) p. ,
10.13 P(k + pa) P(k) k + pa k =
= pa.
1
10.17. : P(x) = (x2 + 1)(x2 + x 1).
2

P(x) = U(x)(x2 + 1) P(x) = V(x)(x3 + 1) + 1.


U(x)(x2 + 1) V(x)(x3 + 1) = 1. U
V, a = x3 + 1 b = x2 + 1:
a = xb + r1
b = xr1 + r2

(r1 = 1 x),

(r2 = x + 1),

r1 = r2 + 2.

r1 r2 a b, :
b = x(a bx) + r2 ,

a bx = b xa + x2 b + 2.
, (x + 1)a + (x2 x + 1)b = 2. 1

U(x) = (x2 + x 1) V(x) = (x + 1).


2
2
10.18. P1 (x) = P(x), Pn (x) = P(Pn1 (x)) n > 2.
an = Pn (a0 ) an = Pnk (ak ) 0 6 k < n. an = Pn (0) , an Pn , . . Pn (x) = an + xQn (x), Qn -

135

. , m > n > 1, (am , an ) =


=(Pmn (an ), an )=(amn +an Qmn (an ), an )=(amn , an ).
4.11, .
10.19. x15 1 , 1, 2, 4 8. , x15 1=(x5 1)(x10 +
+ x5 + 1), x5 1 = (x 1)(x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1), x10 + x5 + 1
2 8 ( 5.6).
, k 6 14 a0 + a1 2 + a2 4 + a3 8, ai = 0 1.
10.20. n = 0 1 . n = 2
x4 + x2 + 1 x2 + x + 1;
x2 x + 1. x2(n+3) + xn+3 + 1 x2n + xn + 1 x2 + x + 1, x2n+6 x2n = x2n (x6 1)
xn+3 xn = xn (x3 1) x3 1 = (x 1)(x2 + x + 1).
x2(n+3) + xn+3 + 1 x2 + x + 1
, x2n + xn + 1 x2 + x + 1.
10.21. ) x = 0, , d 5. x = 1, , a + b + c a + b c
5. , 2b 2a + 2c 5, , b a + c 5. x = 2, ,
a + 5a + 2(a + c) + 4b + d 5. , a 5.
c 5.
) x = 0, , e 7.
x = 1, , a b + c d 7.
2(a + c) 2(b + d) 7, , a + c b + d
7. x = 2 , e 7,
, 2(8a 4b+ 2c d) 7. 4a + c
4b + d 7. , 3a = (4a + c) (a + c)
7. a 7, , c 7.
, b d 7.
p
10.22. f(x) x , f(x) = g(x)
q
p
. g(x) = b0 xn1 + b2 xn2 + . . . + bn1 . a0 = b0 ,
q
p
p
p
p
a1 = b1 b0 , a2 = b2 b1 , . . . , an1 = bn1 bn2 , an = bn1 .
q
q
q
q

b0 . qa1 = qb1 pb0 , qb1 . q2 a2 = q2 b2 qb1 p ,


q2 b2 . . , qn1 g(x)
.
qn f(k) = qn1 g(k)(qk p) , qn f(k)
qk p. qn qk p ,
f(k) qk p.

136

10. I

10.23. , 3x2n + Axn + 2


2x2m + Axm + 3. 2x2m +
n
+ Axm + 3 3x2n +
pAx + 2.

, xm
1 =

xm
2 =

A2 24
= 1,2 .
4 p
A A2 24

1,2 =
6

xi 2x2m +Axm +3, xm


i =

a . b
2

3x + Ax + 2.
1. A2 24 > 0.
| 1 | 6= | 2 |, xn1 xn2
,
, xn1 = 1 xn2 = 2 . p

n
, |x1 x2 | = | 1 2 | = n 2/3 < 1, ,
p

|x1 x2 | = m | 1 2 | = m 3/2 > 1. .


2. A2 24 6 0.

3/2 | 1 | = | 2 | = 2/3. ,
| 1 | = | p
2| =

, |x1 | = m | 1 | = 2m 3/2 > 1, ,


p

|x1 | = n | 1 | = 2n 2/3 < 1. .


10.24. x > 0 x(x + 1) . . . (x + n) = 1,

a
bb

aa

x=

1
1
1
<
= .
(x + 1) . . . (x + n)
12...n
n!

10.25. a P(x). P(x)


x a . P(x) = (x a)R(x) + b.
b = P(a) = 0. , P(x) x a.
a1 , . . . , am P(x),
(x a1 ) . . . (x am ), n > m.
10.26. P(x) (x a1 )k1 . . . (x am )km , k1 + . . . + km 6 n.
10.27.
an
a2
a1
+ 2 +...+ n.
x
x
x
a1
a2
an
x > 0 f(x) =
+ 2 + . . . + n ,
x
x
x

1=

1
x.
10.28. f1 (x) 2 2 [2, 0] 2 2 [0, 2].
f1 (x) = x x1 (2, 0)
x2 = 2. , f1 (x) = 0 x1 .
f2 (x) 2
2 : [2, x1 ], [x1 , 0], [0, x1 ],

137

[x1 , 2].
f2 (x) = x
f2 (x) = 0. , f3 (x) 23 . . ,
fn (x) 2n . 2n
, fn (x) 2n .
10.29.
P(x), : P(x) = P(x).
10.30. : 6. x + x3 + x9 + x27 + x81 + x243 = P(x)
(x 1) + r. x = 1, r = 6.
10.31. : (1 + x2 x3 )1000 . P(x) =
= (1 x2 + x3 )1000 Q(x) = (1 + x2 x3 )1000 . x20
P(x) , P(x)=(1x2 x3 )1000 , Q(x) , Q(x) = (1 + x2 + x3 )1000 . ,
(1 + x2 + x3 )1000 x20 ,
(1 x2 x3 )1000 . , p20 x20 (x2 )n (x3 )m ,
2n + 3m = 20, q20 x20
, (1)n+m . , , m = 2
n = 7.
10.32. ) (x a)(x 10) + 1 = (x + b)(x + c).
x = b, (b + a)(b + 10) = 1. a b , b + a b + 10 . 1
.
: 1) b + 10 = 1 b + a = 1;
2) b + 10 = 1 b + a = 1. a = 8 a = 12. (x 8)(x 10) + 1 = (x 9)2 ,
(x 12)(x 10) + 1 = (x 11)2 .
) x(x a)(x b)(x c) + 1 = P(x)Q(x), P(x) Q(x)
. , P(x) Q(x)
1. x = 0, x = a,
x = b x = c P(x)Q(x) = 1, . .
P(x) = 1 Q(x) = 1, P(x) = 1 Q(x) = 1.
P(x) Q(x) = 0. P(x) Q(x) , P(x) = Q(x) x. ,
x(x a)(x b)(x c) = P2 (x) 1 = (P(x) + 1)(P(x) 1).
P(x) 1 = x(x a) P(x) 1 = (x b)(x c), . . x(x a)
(x b)(x c) = 2 ( , a, b, c). , a = b + c
bc = 2.
(a, b, c): (1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 3), (1, 2, 1), (2, 1, 1). -

138

10. I

x(x a)(x b)
(x c) + 1: (x2 3x + 1)2 , (x2 + 3x + 1)2 , (x2 + x 1)2 , (x2 x 1)2 .
10.33. P , x1 , . . .
. . . , xn+1 n. ,
:
P(x) =

n+1
X
k=1

ak

(x x1 ) . . . (x xk1 )(x xk+1 ) . . . (x xn+1 )


=
(xk x1 ) . . . (xk xk1 )(xk xk+1 ) . . . (xk xn+1 )

n+1
X
k=1

w(x) = (x x ) . . . (x x

ak

w(x)
,
(x xk )w (xk )

1
n+1 ).
10.34. P(x)
6 n, xm x = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n.

n
X
x(x 1) . . . (x k + 1)(x k 1) . . . (x n)
km
P(x) =
.
k=0

k(k 1) . . . 1 (1) (2) . . . (k n)

xn
n
n
X
(1)n X
km
(1)k km Ckn .
=
(1)kn
k! (n k)!

k=0

n!

k=0

, m 6 n, P(x) = xm .
n
n
X
(1)n X
(1)k km Ckn = 0 m < n
(1)k km Ckn = 1.
n!

k=0

k=0

10.35. Pi (t) = p0i + p1i t + p2i t + . . . + pn1,i tn1 , 1


t = ai 0 t = aj , j 6= i. p0i , p1i , . . . , pn1,i .
Pi (a1 )x1 + . . . + Pi (an )xn = p0i b0 + . . . + pn1,i bn1 , . . xi = p0i b0 + . . .
. . . + pn1,i bn1 . . , , . .
n
n
X
X
aki pn1,i bn1 = bk
aki p0i b0 + . . . +
i=1

i=1

k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1. ,
n
P
aki Pi (t) = tk k. : k 6 n 1
i=1

n
P

i=1

139

aki Pi (t) tk

n 1, t = a1 , . . . , an .
10.36. :

f(x1 ) = f(x0 ) + (x1 x0 )f(x0 ; x1 ),


f(x2 ) = f(x0 ) + (x2 x0 )f(x0 ; x1 ) + (x2 x0 )(x2 x1 )f(x0 ; x1 ; x2 )

. .
f(x0 ; x1 ), f(x0 ; x1 ; x2 ) . .
10.37. P Q , S/Q,
S Q. Q= Q1 Q2 , Q1 Q2 . a(x)
b(x) , a(x)Q1 (x) + b(x)Q2 (x) = 1.
S
aSQ1 + bSQ2
aS
bS
=
=
+
.
Q1 Q2
Q1 Q2
Q2
Q1


. .
A(x) p(x)/(x a)n ,
p(x) n. p(x)
p(x) = b1 (x a)n1 + b2 (x a)n2 + . . . + bn .

10.38. ai k,
cik
, cik 6= 0. , cik
k
(x ai )

. , (x ai )k

R(x)(x ai )k = cik + (x ai )f(x),

(1)

f(x) ,
x ai , . . f(ai ) . (1) x = ai , , cik
R(x)(x ai )k x = ai .
cik
, R(x)
, ci,k1 . .
k
(x ai )

10.39. k = 1 . , Ckx . ,
k+1
Ck+1
= Ckx .
x+1 Cx

, m, n
Ck+1
Ck+1
m
n

. , Ck+1
= 0.
0

140

10. I

10.40. k ,
pk (x) k
+ c2 Ck2
+ . . . + ck ,
pk (x) = c0 Ckx + c1 Ck1
x
x
c0 , c1 , . . . , ck . ,
C0x = 1,

C1x = x, C2x =

x
x2
,
2
2

...,

Ckx =

xk
+...
k!

pk (x) = axk + . . . , pk (x) ak!Ckx


k 1 . , ,
c0 , c1 , . . . , ck . k. :
k = 0. p0 (x) = c0
x = n, c0 . , k.

pk+1 (x) = c0 Ck+1
+ . . . + ck+1
x
x = n, n + 1, . . . , n + k + 1.
pk+1 (x) = pk+1 (x + 1) pk+1 (x) = c0 Ckx + c1 Ck1
+ . . . + ck .
x

x = n, n + 1, . . . , n + k.
c0 , c1 , . . . , ck , ,
ck+1 = pk+1 (n) c0 Ck+1
c1 Ckn . . . ck C1n
n

.
10.41. , f(x) = a0 xn +
+ a1 xn1 + . . . + an g(y) = b0 ym + b1 ym1 + . . . + bm , f(x)g(y) = x200 y200 + 1. x = 0, an g(y) = 1,
. . g(y) = 1/an y. y = 0, ,
f(x) = 1/bm x. , f(x)g(y) =

1
a n bm

, x200 y200 + 1, , .
10.42. ) x y + 1= 0, y z 1= 0, z 2x+ 1=
= 0 (x, y, z) = (1, 2, 1).
. P, Q, R .
) f = x y + 1, g = y z 1, h = z x + 1. f + g + h = 1,
(f + g + h)7 = 1.
fa gb hc , a + b + c = 7;
, a, b, c 3.

141

, a > 3. f3 P. ,
b > 3. g3 Q.
c > 3, . . h3 R.
f3 P + g3 Q + h3 R = 1.

11

11.1.

a a

a
a a

a p
a

11.1. , sin < < tg 0 < < /2.


11.2. , 0 < 1 < 2 < . . . < n <
n > 2,
tg

sin a
a1 < cos
a

+ . . . + sin
1 + . . . + cos
1

a
a

< tg

p/2

an.

11.3. tg 55 1,4.
11.4. , 0 < , 6 /4,

ab p

tg

a tg b 6 tg a +2 b 6 tg a +2 tg b .

11.5. ,
cos 32x + a31 cos 31x + a30 cos 30x + . . . + a1 cos x
, .
11.6. ,

a1 cos

f + a2 cos 2f + . . . + an cos nf > 1,

a1 + a2 + . . . + an 6 n.
11.7. ,

a b a < b,

a tg b
a < b .

tg

143

11.8. A , B C . X,
sin X =

sin B sin C
?
1 cos A cos B cos C

11.2.
11.9.

tg 20 + tg 40 + 3 tg 20 tg 40.
11.10. ,
arctg

1
1
1
1
+ arctg + arctg + arctg = .
3
5
7
8
4

11.11. ,
4 arctg

1
1
arctg
= .
5
239
4

11.12.
arcsin cos arcsin x

arccos sin arccos x.

11.3.
11.13.
3 7 cos2 x sin x 3 sin3 x = 0.
11.14.
1 + tg x
= 1 + sin 2x.
1 tg x

11.15.
x2 + 2x sin (xy) + 1 = 0.
11.16.
3 sin

f cos f + 4 sin f + 3 cos2 f = 4 + cos f.

11.17. sin x =

x
?
100

144

11.

11.4. ,

.

11.18. , ,
, .
11.19. :

p
p

p
p

p
p

2
4
2(n 1)
+ sin
+ . . . + sin
= 0;
n
n
n
4
2(n 1)
2
+ cos
+ . . . + cos
= 1;
) cos
n
n
 2 
 4 n
 2(n1) 
) sin +sin +
+sin +
+. . .+sin +
=0.
n
n
n

) sin

a p

a p

11.20. :
) cos 36 cos 72 = 1/2;

+ cos
= .
) cos cos
7
7
7
2
11.21. ,
cos

2
4
6
2m
1
+ cos
+ cos
+ . . . + cos
= .
2m + 1
2m + 1
2m + 1
2m + 1
2

11.5.
11.22. ,

a + b + g = 0,

a + sin b + sin g = 4 sin a2 sin b2 sin g2 .


11.23. , sin a 6= 0,
sin 2 a
.
cos a cos 2a cos 4a . . . cos 2n a =
2
sin a
sin

n+1

n+1

11.24. , :

p
p

p
p

p
p

2
4
8
1
cos
cos
= ;
7
7
7
8
2
4
8
1
) cos
cos
cos
= .
9
9
9
8

) cos

11.25. ) , ctg
) ,
tg

145

a tg a = 2 ctg 2a.

a + 2 tg 2a + 4 tg 4a + . . . + 2n tg 2na = ctg a 2n+1 ctg 2n+1a.


11.26. ,
1

cos

a cos 2a + cos 2a cos 3a + . . . + cos(n 1)a cos na =

tg n tg
.
sin

11.27. ,
cos

2n + 1

cos

2
n
1
. . . cos
= .
2n + 1
2n + 1 2n

11.28. ,

) sin

a
a
11.29. ) , cos a + cos(a + x) + cos(a + 2x) + . . .

) cos

n
(n + 1)
sin
2
2
+ sin 2 + sin 3 + . . . + sin n =
;
sin
2
(2n + 1)
sin
1
2
.
+ cos 2 + cos 3 + . . . + cos n =
2
2 sin
2
sin

a+

1
1
x sin x
2
2 .
. . . + cos( + nx) =
1
2 sin x
2
2k
=
) ,
, k
n+1
sin

n+

1 6 k 6 n,

1 + cos

f + cos 2f + . . . + cos nf = 0.

11.6. cos nf . .

f
f

11.30. ) , cos n = Tn (cos ) sin(n + 1) =


= Un (cos ) sin , Tn Un n.
) , sin(2k + 1) = sin Pk (sin2 ), Pk
k.

146

11.

11.31. ,

sin(2k + 1)f
p 
= (4)k sin2 sin2
sin f
2k + 1
 

2
p
. . . sin2
sin2 sin2

2k + 1

f sin2 2kk+p 1


.

11.7.
11.32.

2x + x2 y = y,

2y + y2 z = z,

2z + z2 x = x.

11.33.






3 x+ 1 =4 y+ 1 =5 z+ 1 ,
x
y
z

xy + yz + zx = 1.

11.34. ) x1 , . . . , xn , n > 3. ,
xi xj ,
0<

xi xj
< tg
.
1 + xi xj
2(n 1)

) x1 , . . . , xn , n > 3.
, xi xj ,

0<

xi xj
6 tg .
1 + xi xj
n

11.35. , x n

x
x
x
< .
2 + 2
2 +...+ 2
2
1+x
2 +x
n + x2

147

11.8.
n- f( ) = a0 + a1 cos + a2 cos 2 + a3 cos 3 + . . . + an cos n ,
a0 , a1 , . . . , an , an 6= 0.

11.36. ,
f( ) = a0 + a1 cos + . . . + an cos n P(x) n
2n1 an , P(cos ) = f( ). ,
.
11.37. f n an .
 mp 
P
1 2n1
) ,
(1)m f
= an .
2n m=0
n


mp
) , f
> |an |
n
m.
11.38. , P(x) = xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 ,

|P(x0 )| > n1 x0 , 1 6 x0 6 1.
2
11.39. 0 < a0 < a1 < . . . < an . , f( ) = a0 + a1 cos + . . . + an cos n
[0, ] n .

11.1. O 1, A B
, AOB = . C, B
OA. SAOB AOB, S
, AO OB, SBOC -

BOC. SAOB < S < SBOC . SAOB =

1
SBOC = tg .
2

11.2. , tg
8.23
tg

<

1 < tg

sin a1 + sin a2
< tg
cos a1 + cos a2

1
1
sin , S =
2
2

a .
2

< tg

a.
3

148

11.

8.23,
tg

sin a1 + sin a2 + sin a3


< tg
cos a1 + cos a2 + cos a3

<

. .
11.3. ,
tg 55 = tg(45 + 10 ) =
, tg 10 = tg
7

p
18

>

>

18

1 + tg 10
tg 45 + tg 10
=
.

1 tg 45 tg 10
1 tg 10

3
1
1 + tg 10
2
= .
=

18
6
1 tg 10
1 tg 10

1 > = 1,4.
5
11.4. ,

a+b
ab
a+b
= tg
1 + tg tg
,
tg tg
2
2
2

a+b
ab
a+b
tg tg
1 + tg tg
.
= tg

a
b

a
a b p

tg + tg 2 tg
0 < , < /2.
,
2

tg

a+b
2

tg

a tg b =

a
b

a+b

sin2

= tg

a+b
2

a+b
cos2

ab
2

tg

a+b
2

(tg tg ) > 0

sin a sin b
=
cos a cos b

sin a sin b
1 cos(a + b)

.
1 + cos(a + b)
cos a cos b


, cos( + )(1 + cos( )) > 0
0 < , 6 /4. , .
11.5. ,

a b p

a b

a b

a b

cos 32x + a31 cos 31x + a30 cos 30x + . . . + a1 cos x


x. x
x + , ,

cos 32x a31 cos 31x + a30 cos 30x . . . + a2 cos 2x a1 cos x

149

x. , ,
cos 32x + a30 cos 30x + . . . + a4 cos 4x + a2 cos 2x
x.
p
, x x + ,

x + , x + , x + . , cos 32x
4
8
16
x. x = /32
cos 32x 1. .
11.6. 11.29 ) cos k + cos 2 k + . . . + cos n k = 1

2kp
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n. , n
k=
n+1

a1 cos

+ a2 cos 2

+ . . . + an cos n

> 1,

a1 a2 . . . an > n.
11.7. 1 O K, A
B , AOK = BOK = (. 11.1). A
AH OK.
C C
OB.
B
OAB
A
OAC ,
( ) < OH (tg tg ).
b
OAK a
OAH , > OH tg .
H K
O
,

b a

b a tg b tg a
a < tg a ,

. .

b tg b
a < tg a .

11.8.
: , .
. 11.1
cos B cos C > 0. , sin B sin C + cos B cos C = cos(B C) 6 1 cos A 6 1.
sin B sin C 6 1 cos B cos C 6 1 cos A cos B cos C
0<

sin B sin C
6 1.
1 cos A cos B cos C

3 tg 20 tg 40 = 3, . .

tg 20 + tg 40
tg 20 + tg 40

3=
3.

. ,

= tg 60 =
11.9. , tg 20 + tg 40 +
1 tg 20 tg 40

1 tg 20 tg 40

150

11.
tg x + tg y
,
1 tg x tg y

11.10. tg(x + y) =

4
1
1
= 3 5 = ,
tg arctg + arctg

1
7
15
4 1
+

1
1
7
1
= 7 7 = ,
tg arctg + arctg + arctg
4
3
5
7
9
1
49
7 1

+
1
1
1
1
tg arctg + arctg + arctg + arctg
= 9 8 = 1.
7
3
5
7
8
1
72
3

/4, . 0

1, /4.
11.11. tg = 1/5.

2 tg f

tg 2 =

120

.
, tg 2 = , tg 4 =
12
119

120
1
, ,
=
tg 4 arctg
1 tg2 f

119

120

1
28561
1
tg 4 arctg arctg
= 119 239 =
= 1.
5

239

1+

120 1

119 239

28561

11.12. : arcsin cos arcsin x + arccos sin arccos x = .


2
arcsin cos arcsin x = arccos sin arccos x = . 0 6
p
6 , 6 /2. , 0 6 cos arcsin x 6 1, 6

a b p

6arcsin x6 , 06sin arccos x61, 06arccos x6 . ,


2
p

sin
=
sin = cos arcsin x, arcsin x =

= cos ; cos = sin arccos x, arccos x =

x=
2
p

= cos

= sin . , cos = sin (= x), ,


2

a+b= 2.

11.13. : x =

p
2

+ 2k

p x = (1)

p
6

+k .

151

t = sin x. , cos2 x = 1 t2 , 4t3 7t + 3 = 0. t1 = 1, t2 = 1/2


t3 = 3/2. .
p
11.14. : x = + k x = k .

2t

t = tg x. , sin 2x =
, 1 + t2

2t
1+t
,
=1+
2
1t

1+t

. . 2(1 + t)t = 0 ( t 6= 1).


t1 = 1 t2 = 0.
p
11.15. : x = 1, y = + 2k .
2
x, 4(sin2 (xy)1).
, sin2 (xy) >
> 1, . . sin(xy) = 1. x2 2x + 1 = 0
x = 1. , sin(y) = 1, sin y = 1.
11.16. x = sin y = cos .

3xy + 4x + 3y2 y 4 = 0,

x2 + y2 = 1.

x2 + y2 = 1

3xy + 4x + 3y2 y 4 + (x2 + y2 1) = 0.

,
. 5.26
,
3 4 1
1
9
= 4( + 3) +
( + 3)(4 ) + 2
+ (4 ).

ll

2 2

, = 3.
3xy 3x2 + 4x y 1,
, 3xy 3x2 = 3x(y x). ,
(3x + a)(y x + b) = 3xy 3x2 + (3b a)x + ay + ab.

a = 1 b = 1. ,

(3 sin

f 1)(cos f sin f + 1) = 0.

11.17. : 63. , ,

152

11.

0. , 31. sin x = x/100, |x| = 100|sin x| 6 100.


y = x/100 y = sin x. Ox
0 100 15 2
2 . , ,
2 , 14 2
. ,
, . 31
.
11.18. , n- , 2 /n.
,
2 /n, .
11.19. n-, 1 . ,
(1, 0). , n-
, x y, ) );
, sin 0 = 0 cos 0 = 1. n-
, ).

2p
4p
6p
8p
+cos
+cos
+cos
=
5
5
5
5
p
p
8p
2p
4
6
= 1. cos
= cos
= cos 72 cos
= cos
= cos 36 .
5
5
5
5

11.20. 11.19 ) cos

) 7- , (1, 0).
x ,
7-, .
11.21. n = 2m + 1 11.19 )
.
cos

2(n k)p
2kp
= cos
.
n
n

11.22. ,

a + sin b sin(a + b) = 4 sin a2 sin b2 sin a +2 b .


sin(a + b) sin a cos b + sin b cos a. ,
sin

4 sin

a
2

sin

= 2 sin2

b
2

a
2

sin
sin

a+b
2

= 4 sin

b + 2 sin

b
2

a
2

sin

sin

b
2

sin

a
2

cos

b
2

+ sin

b
2

cos

a
2

a = (1 cos a) sin b + (1 cos b) sin a.

153

11.23. , cos =

sin 2a cos 2a
sin 4a
=
. .
cos 2 =
2 sin a
4 sin a

sin 2a
. cos
2 sin a

11.24. ) 11.23 n = 2 =
= 2 /7. ,

sin(16p/7)
. sin(16 /7) = sin(2 /7).
8 sin(2p/7)

) ). ,
sin(16 /9) = sin(2 /9).

11.25. ) ,

= 2 ctg 2 .
) )

a
a

cos a
sin a
cos2 a sin2 a
cos 2a

=
=
=
1
sin a
cos a
cos a sin a
sin 2a
2

tg = ctg 2 ctg 2 ,
2 tg 2 = 2 ctg 2 4 ctg 4 ,
. ...... ..... ...... ...... ..... ...... .....
2n tg 2n = 2n ctg 2n 2n+1 ctg 2n+1 .

, .
11.26. ,

tg(k + 1) tg k =

sin(k + 1)a
sin ka

=
cos(k + 1)a
cos ka
sin((k + 1)a ka)
sin a
=
=
.
cos ka cos(k + 1)a
cos ka cos(k + 1)a

sin a
sin a
sin a
+
+...+
= tg n tg .
cos a cos 2a
cos 2a cos 3a
cos(n 1)a cos na

11.27. ,

sin

2p
4p
2np
sin
. . . sin
=
2n + 1
2n + 1
2n + 1

= sin

p
2n + 1

sin

2p
np
. . . sin
.
2n + 1
2n + 1

(1)

n. n = 2k,
, sin
sin

(2k 1)p
(2k + 2)p
= sin
,
2n + 1
2n + 1

(2k 3)p
4kp
(2k + 4)p
p
= sin
, . . . , sin
= sin
. 2n + 1
2n + 1
2n + 1
2n + 1

154

11.

(1) . n = 2k + 1,

(2k + 2)p
(2k + 1)p
(2k + 4)p
= sin
, sin
=
2n + 1
2n + 1
2n + 1
p
(4k + 2)p
(2k 1)p
, . . . , sin
= sin
.
= sin
2n + 1
2n + 1
2n + 1

, sin

(1) sin 2
2 cos sin .

sin

p
2n + 1

sin

2p
np
. . . sin
6= 0
2n + 1
2n + 1

.
11.28. ) S .
2 sin x sin y = cos(x y) cos(x + y),
2S sin

a
2

= 2 sin sin + 2 sin 2 sin + . . . + 2 sin n sin =


2
2
2

3a
3a
5a
a
+ cos
+...
cos
= cos cos
2
2
2
2

(2n 1)a
(2n + 1)a
(2n + 1)a
a
. . . + cos
= cos cos
cos
.
2

2
y+x
yx
sin
.
cos x cos y = 2 sin
2
2
a
na
(n + 1)a
2S sin = 2 sin
sin
.
2
2
2

) S . 2 cos x sin y = sin(x + y) sin(x y),

2S sin

a
2

= 2 cos sin + 2 cos 2 sin + . . . + 2 cos n sin =


2
2
2

3a
3a
a 5a
sin
+ sin
sin
+...
= sin
2
2
2
2

(2n + 1)a
(2n + 1)a
(2n 1)a
. . . + sin
= sin
sin
sin
2

11.29. )

1
1
1
x sin + k
x = 2 sin x cos( + kx)
sin + k +

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n. .
) = 0 x = )

1 + cos

f + cos 2f + . . . + cos nf

1
sin n +
f + sin f
2
2 .
=
f
2 sin
2

a
2

f f

f
p

155

(n + 1/2) + /2 = (n + 1) = 2k . ,
2k ,
f
f
; , sin 6= 0, 0 < < .
2
2
11.30. ) , U0 (x) = 1, U1 (x) = 2x T1 (x) = x. ,

f
f

f
f

sin(n + 1) = sin n cos


cos(n + 1) = cos n cos

f + cos nf sin f,
f sin nf sin f

, Un (x) = xUn1 (x) + Tn (x) Tn+1 (x) = xTn (x)


Un1 (x)(1 x2 ).
) ,
, T2k+1 (x) = xak (x2 ) T2k (x) = bk (x2 ) U2k+1 (x) = xck (x2 ),
U2k (x) = dk (x2 ), ak , bk , ck , dk k.
U2k (cos x) = dk (cos2 x) = dk (1 sin2 x) = Pk (sin2 x).
sin(2k + 1)f
= Pk (sin2 ),
sin f
lp
Pk k. , =
, sin(2k + 1) =
2k + 1

11.31. 11.30 )

= 0.

Pk (x) = x sin2

p
2k + 1

2p
kp
. . . x sin2
,
2k + 1
2k + 1

, P(0) = lim
f0
23.7 )
sin2

x sin2

p
2k + 1

l,

x = 0.

sin(2k + 1)f
= 2k + 1. ,
sin f

sin2

2p
kp
2k + 1
.
. . . sin2
=
2k + 1
2k + 1
4k

, = (4)k .
11.32. y =

f
f
f
f f
tg 8f tg f
tg f tg f
=
= 0,
tg 7f =
1 + tg 8f tg f
1 + tg f

2x
1 x2

(, x 6= 1). x = tg . y = tg 2 .
z = tg 4 x = tg 8 . , tg 8 = tg .

p
f

. . 7 = k , k . , 7 = k ,
tg 8 = tg .
7 ,

f = 0, p7 , . . . , 67p .

156

11.

11.33. : (1/3, 1/2, 1) (1/3, 1/2, 1).


y
z
x
=
=
,
2
2
2
3(1 + x )

4(1 + y )

5(1 + z )

x, y, z , (x, y, z) , (x, y, z) . .

f + tg1f = sin22f . a,
b, g, 0 p, , tg(a/2) = x, tg( b/2) = y,
tg(g/2) = z.
, tg

sin b
sin g
sin a
=
=
3
4
5

g
a+b
1
x+y
=
, . . ctg = tg
. 0 < , ,
< , z
1 xy
2
2
p

g
a+b
tg

= tg
,
2
2
2
p g a+b

=
, . .
+ + = . , ,

2
2
2

a b g p

a b g p

3 : 4 : 5. , sin

a = 35 ,

sin

b = 54 , g = p2 .

tg

a
2

1
,
3

g
1
tg = 1 ( , ,
2
2
r
1
a
1
tg =

1.
2
sin a
sin2 a
xi xj
=
11.34. ) xi = tg i , 0 < i < /2.
1 + xi xj
tg

f f
f
f

f p

f f
p

= tg( i j ). , x1 < . . . < xn . 2 1 ,


/2.
3
2, . . . ,
n
n1
p
, ,
.

2(n 1)

xi xj .
xi xj
=
) xi = tg i , /2 < i < /2.

f f
f f
f
p
p

f p

1 + xi xj

f f

= tg( i j ). , x1 < . . . < xn . 2 1 ,


+ 1 n
3
2, . . . ,
n
n1 ,
. , , /n. xi xj
.
11.35. Ox A = (x, 0), Oy
Bk = (0, k), k = 0, 1, . . . Bk1 ABk .
= Bk1 ABk , k = 1, 2, . . . -

p f

157
1

Bk1 ABk , x = Bk1 A ABk sin


2
2
p

. . x = (k 1)2 + x2 k2 + x2 (sin k ).
sin

(k 1)2

+ x2

k2

+ x2

>

x
.
k 2 + x2

f , k +x x < f . , f + . . . + f < p/2.


11.36. cos nf =
= T (cos f), T (x) = 2
x + . . . ( 32.30).
f(f) = a + a T (x) + a T (x) + . . . + a T (x), x = cos f.
, P(x) = b + b x + . . . + b x .
cos f = cos f, cos 2f = 2 cos f 1, cos 3f = 4 cos f
3 cos f, . . . cos f = cos f, cos f =
1
1
= (cos 2f + 1), cos f = (cos 3f + 3 cos f), . . .
2
4
cos f cos f, k < m,
cos f ,
,

=p

f,

> sin

n1

.
cosm

f= 2 1

m1

cos m + c1 cos(m 1) + . . . + cm1 cos

f+c

m.

P(x) x

f+c

1
cos m
2m1

cos(m 1) + . . . + cm1 cos

f+c

m,

.
11.37. ) n- cos k , 0 6 k 6 n. ,
(
2n1
1 X
kmp
0 0 6 k 6 n 1;
m
(1) cos
=
2n
n
1 k = n.
m=0

k = 0 k = n . , 1 6 k 6 n 1,
n1
X

(1)m cos

m=0

2kmp
= 0,
n

n1
X

(1)m cos

m=0

k(2m + 1)p
= 0.
n

, 11.29
2n1

kmp sin
1 X
(1)m cos +
=
2n
n

m=0

a + (2n 1)kp

2 sin

a
2

sin

a kp

= 0.

158

11.

) ) f(0),
(2n 1)p
p
, . . ., f
an ,
f
n

|an |.
|an |, |an |.
11.38. 11.36 P(x)
f( ) 1/2n1 , f( ) = P(cos ). 11.37
|f(

f )| > 2
0

n1

|P(x0 )| = |f(

f )| > 2
0

n1

f.
0

x = cos

f.
0

11.39. g( ) = 2 sin f(x). 2


f
1
1
sin k
,
2 sin cos k = sin k +

f
f
2
g(f) = a sin(n + 1/2)f h(f),
f

1
f
.
) sin n
f
+ . . . + (a a ) sin + a sin
h(f) = (a a
2
2
2
|h(f)| 6 (a a
) + . . . + (a a ) + a = a . ,

sin

f
2

n1

sin

f
2

n1

+1,

f
p

|h( )| < an . , sin(n + 1/2) = 1,


g( ) > 0, sin(n + 1/2) = 1, g( ) < 0.
, sin(n + 1/2) = 1 (n + 1/2) = /2 + l , . .

f p

1 + 2l
1 + 2l
=
.
,
1 + 2n
1 + 2n

f
f p

l = 0, 1, . . . , n, g( ) = 0.
n , = 0 . ,
f
f
sin ( 0 6 6 , sin
2
2

= 0), . .
f( ).

12

12.1.
a, b, c ,
a2 + b2 = c2 . ,
a, b, c .

12.1. , a, b, c ,
3, ( )
4, 5.
12.2. a, b, c .
, a b ,
.
12.3. a, b, c ,
a . ,
m n, a = 2mn, b = m2 n2 ,
c = m2 + n 2 .
12.4. a, b, c .
, ab 12.
12.5. a, b, c .
, ab/2 ( a b) .
12.2.
12.6. 2xy + 3x + y = 0.
12.7.
xy + 3x 5y = 3.

160

12.

12.8.
x + y = x2 xy + y2 .

12.9. 2x +7=y2 .
12.10. p > 2 . , 2/p
1/x + 1/y, x y .
12.11. n . , 1/x + 1/y = 1/n
n2 .
12.12. ) x, y, z,
1
1
1
+ + = 1.
x
y
z

) x, y, z > 1,
1
1
1
+ + > 1.
x
y
z

12.13. ) x2 + y2 + z2 =
= 2xyz .
) x2 +y2 +z2 +u2 =2xyzu
.
12.14.
x3 2y3 4z3 = 0.

12.15. 2n +
+ 1 = 3m .
12.16. xy = yx :
) ;
) .
12.3.
12.17. ) , n an + bn = cn+1
.

161

) , m n , an + bn = cm
.
12.4.
12.18. , n
x3 + y3 = n
.
12.5.
2

x dy = 1, d ,
(. . ,
, 1), .

12.19. , x2 2y2 = 1 .
12.20. d , . , C,
|x2 dy2 | < C .
y1 .

12.21. , d ( )
. ,
(x1 , y1 ) ,
(xn , yn )

xn + yn d = (x1 + y1 d)n .
12.22. , d 3 (mod 4),
x2 dy2 = 1 .
12.23. , d ,
d 1 (mod 4), x2 dy2 = 1
.

162

12.

12.24. , x2 dy2 = 4
x y, X2 dY2 = 1
.
. 31.37 35.1135.13.
12.6.

m2 + n2 + p2 = 3mnp,

(12.1)

m, n p .

12.25. , .
12.26. , m2 + n2 +
+ p2 = mnp 3m1 , 3n1 , 3p1 ,
m1 , n1 , p1 .
12.27. , k 6= 1 3,
x2 + y2 + z2 = kxyz .
12.28. , m, n, p
, m, n p .

12.1. 4.42
3 4 0 1, 5
0, 1 4. 1 4, a2 + b2 = c2 . 3 5
. 4 , a, b, c , a
b , . ,

. , ,
a1 , b1 , c1
(2a1 )2 + (2b1 + 1)2 = (2c1 + 1)2 ,

(1)

a1 . (1)
a21 = c1 (c1 + 1) b1 (b1 + 1).

c1 (c1 + 1) b1 (b1 + 1) , a1 .

163

12.2. a b ,
c . a b
, a2 + b2 2,
4.
cb

c+b

12.3.

, a 2 c b 2c + b 2
cb
c+b

,
= n2
= m2 , m
=
2

n . c = m2 + n2 b = m2 n2 .
12.4. , m n mn(m + n)(m n) 6. m
n , m + n . m n 3,
m n 3 (
m n 3), 3
1, 2 ( m + n 3).
12.5. , m n, mn(m + n)(m n) = s2 , s
. , s
, .
m, n, m + n, m n , m = x2 ,
n = y2 , m + n = z2 m n = t2 , x, y, z t
. m n , z t zt
z2 + t2
z+t
B=
. A2 + B2 =
= m = x2
2
2
2
z2 t2
n
y2
AB
=
= = . , y/2
2
8
4
4

. A =

. y2 > 4s2 , . . y2 >


> 4x2 y2 (x2 y2 )(x2 + y2 ). .
12.6. : (0, 0), (1, 1), (1, 3), (2, 2). : (2x + 1)(2y + 3) = 3.
4 : 2x + 1 = 1, 2y + 3 = 3;
2x+ 1= 3, 2y + 3= 1; 2x+ 1= 1, 2y + 3= 3; 2x+ 1= 3, 2y + 3= 1.
12.7.
(x 5)(y + 3) = 18. 18
.
12.8. : (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2). x:
x2 (y + 1)x + y2 y = 0.
3y2 + 6y + 1. y > 3 y 6 1. y

164

12.

: 0, 1, 2. , .
12.9. : x = 1, y = 3. , .
, 22 + 7 = 11 , ,
x > 3. 2x 8, , y2 7 (mod 8). ,
, 8
0, 1 4.
12.10. 1/x + 1/y = 2/p
p(x + y) = 2xy. , x y p. ,
x = px . px + y = 2x y, . . (2x 1)y = px . x = 1,
y = p x = p, y x . x > 1,
2x 1 > x , y < p. , 2x 1 x
. , 2x 1 = p y = x . y = x =
x=p

p+1
.
2

p+1
2

12.11. n2 = (x n)
(y n). d n2
n2

x = n + d, y = n + .
d
12.12. ) , x > y > z. 1 = 1/x + 1/y + 1/z 6
6 3/z, z 6 3. , z 6= 1.
z = 3, 1/x + 1/y = 2/3 1/x + 1/y 6 2/y, ,
y 6 3. y > z = 3, y = 3 x = 3.
z = 2, 1/x + 1/y = 1/2 1/x + 1/y 6 2/y, ,
2 6 y 6 4. , y 6= 2. y = 3 x = 6, y = 4
x = 4.
) , x > y > z. z < 3, . . z = 2.
2/y > 1/x + 1/y > 1/2, , y < 4. y = 2, x
. y = 3, 1/x > 1/6, . . x = 3, 4
5.
12.13. ) x = 2m x1 , y = 2n y1 , z = 2k z1 , x1 , y1 , z1
. , m 6 n 6 k.
(2m )2 .
x21 + 2(nm) y21 + 2(km) z21 = 2n+km+1 x1 y1 z1 ,
n + k m + 1 > 1.
n = m = k, 4.42 ) 4 3,
0 2. k > m,
1 2, 0. ,
.

165

) x2 + y2 + z2 + u2 , x, y, z, u
.
x, y, z, u , x2 + y2 + z2 + u2 0 (mod 4),
2xyzu 4.
x, y, z, u , x2 + y2 + z2 + u2
4, 2xyzu 4.
x, y, z, u , . . x = 2x1 , y = 2y1 , z = 2z1 ,
u = 2u1 . x21 + y21 + z21 + u21 = 8x1 y1 z1 u1 .
, (2k + 1)2 = 4k(k + 1) + 1 1 (mod 8).
x1 , y1 , z1 , u1 , x21 + y21 + z21 + u21 8.
, x21 + y21 + z21 + u21
4. , x1 =2x2 , y1 =2y2 , z1 =2z2 , u1 =2u2 ,
x22 + y22 + z22 + u22 = 32x2 y2 z2 u2 .
, , x, y, z, u 2n
n, .
12.14. : x = y = z = 0.
x3 2y3 4z3 = 0, x, y, z . x
. x= 2x1 8x31 2y3 4z3 = 0.
2: 4x31 y3 2z3 = 0. , y .
y = 2y1 4x31 8y31 2z3 = 0. 2: 2x31 4y31 z3 =0. , z .
z = 2z1 x31 2y31 4z31 = 0,
, . ,
x1 , y1 , z1 . .
, x = y = z = 0.
12.15. : n = 1, m = 1 n = 3, m = 2.
n = 1, m = 1. , n > 1.
3m 1 (mod 4). , 32k+1 = 3 9k 3 (mod 4).
m = 2k, , (3k 1)(3k + 1) = 2n . ,
3k 1 3k + 1 ,
2. , k = 1, . . m = 2
n = 3.
12.16. x = y, , x > y ( x < y ). x = ky, k > 1 .
1

(ky)y = (yk )y , ky = yk , , y = k k1 .
p+qp
p + q p+q
1
p
q
q
= . y =
x=
.
k1

p p + q , y
, p = aq p + q = bq
a b. , q > 2.

166

12.

aq < p + q 6 aq + qaq1 < (a + 1)q . ,


aq (a + 1)q bq = p + q.
q = 1. p x = (1 + 1/p)p+1
y = (1 + 1/p)p
xy = yx . p = 1.
x = 4 y = 2.
12.17. ) c = (a/c)n + (a/c)n .
a = a1 c b = b1 c, a1 b1
. c = an1 + bn1 , a = a1 (an1 + bn1 ) b = b1 (an1 + bn1 ).
, .
) p q , pm qn = 1
( ).
c = (an1 + bn1 )p , a = a1 (an1 + bn1 )q b = b1 (an1 + bn1 )q , a1 b1 . an + bn = (an1 + bn1 )(an1 + bn1 )qn =
= (an1 + bn1 )pm = cm .
12.18. x + y = a x2 xy + y2 = b. ab = n. n a b, x + y = a, x2 xy + y2 = b. y .
x2 x(a x) + (a x)2 = b, .
x ,
(x, a x).
12.19. , , x1 = 3 y1 = 2. x21 2y21 = 1

(x1 y1 2)(x1 + y1 2) = 1.
,

(x1 y1 2)n (x1 + y1 2)n = 1.

, 6.22 (x1 y1 2)n = xn yn 2.


x2n 2y2n = 1,

. . (xn , yn ) , xn+1 >


xn , yn+1 > yn .
12.20. 17.11 = d. ,

x, y, |x y d| < 1/y.

1
|x + y d| < |x y d| + 2 d|y| < + 2 d y,
y

167

11
+ 2 d y 6 2 d + 1.
|x2 dy2 | = |x + y d| |x y d| <
y

, C 2 d +
+ 1.
12.21. 12.20 k x2 dy2 = k .
x21 dy21 = k x22 dy22 = k,
y1 y2 (mod k). x1 x2 (mod k),
, x1 x2 (mod k).
(x1 x2 dy1 y2 )2 d(x1 y2 x2 y1 )2 = (x21 dy21 )(x22 dy22 ) = k2

x1 x2 dy1 y2 x21 dy21 0 (mod k), x1 y2 x2 y1 0 (mod k).


x1 y2 x2 y1 6= 0,
y21

y22

x21

x22

k + dy21

k + dy22

= y21 = y22 .

X = k1 (x1 x2 dy1 y2 ) Y = k1 (x1 y2 x2 y1 ) 6= 0.


X2 dY2 = 1, . . (X, Y) .
(x1 , y
.
1 )


(x1 + y1 d)n(x1 y1 d)n = 1, (xn , yn ),
xn + yn d = (x1 + y1 d)n ,

n ,
n yn d = (x1 y1 d) .
6.22
xn
, xn yn d = (x1 + y1 d) . ,

(x, y) x + y d =

= (x1 + y1 d)n , n . ,
(x, y) .
n ,

(x1 + y1 d)n < x + y d < (x1 + y1 d)n+1 .

(x1 + y1 d)n = xn yn d

1 < (x + y d)(xn yn d) < x1 + y1 d.

(x + y d)(xn yn d) = X + Y d. ,
,
X2 dY2= 1 X > 0,

Y > 0.
(x +
y
d)(x

y
d)
=
1 (xn yn d)(xn + yn d) = 1,

1, . . X2 dY2 = 1. ,
(X + Y d)(X Y d) =
X + Y d > 1, , 0 < X Y d < 1. ,

2X = (X + Y d) + (X Y d) > 1 + 0 > 0,

2Y d = (X + Y d) (X Y d) > 1 1 = 0.

168

12.

12.22. , d p = 4k + 3. , x2 dy2 = 1. x2 1 (mod p), 1


p. ,
p = 4k + 3 , 31.36 1
p.
12.23. (x1 , y1 )
x2 dy2 = 1. d 1 (mod 4) , x21 y21
1 (mod 4). , x1 1 (mod 2) y1 0 (mod 2). x21 dy21 = 1
y 2
x1 + 1 x1 1
1
.

=d
2

d ,

x1 + 1
= da2 ,
2

x1 1
= b2 ,
2

x1 + 1
= a2 ,
2

x1 1
= db2 .
2

b2 da2 = 1. a2 db2 = 1, (x1 , y1 ).


12.24.
x + ypd 3

x(x2 + 3dy2 )
y(3x2 + dy2 )
, . . X =
, Y=
.
X+Y d=
2

4.42 ) x 1 (mod 8) y 1 (mod 8). , d2 5 (mod 8), , x2 + 3dy2 1 + 15 0 (mod 8)


3x2 + dy2 3 + 5 0 (mod 8), X Y .
,
x + ypd 3 x ypd 3

= 1.
X+Y d=
2

12.25. , m, n p , , n = p. m2 + 2n2 = 3mn2 , . . 3m = (m/n)2 + 2.


, m = dn, d . d2 + 2 = 3nd,
. . d(3n d) = 2. d = 1 2. n = 1.
(1, 1, 1) (2, 1, 1).
.
(m, n, p),
m, n, p ,
f(x) = x2 3xnp + n2 + p2 .

, f(m) = 0, . . f
m. m :

169

m = 3np m. , (m , n, p) (12.1). , n p
m m . n > p.
(n m)(n m ) = f(n) = 2n2 + p2 3n2 p < 0.

, n m m .
(m, n, p)
(m, n , p) (m, n, p ).
, m m, n, p.
m > max(n, p) > m ,

n < m = max(m, p) < n .

, (m, n, p)
(m , n, p) ,
(m, n , p) (m, n, p ) .
(1, 1, 1), :
(1, 1, 1)

(2, 1, 1)

(5, 2, 1)

(13, 1, 5)

(34, 1, 13)

(194, 13, 5)

(29, 5, 2)

(433, 5, 29)

(169, 29, 2)

............................................................

,

. (m, n, p), m > max(n, p),
(m , n, p).
12.26. , m2 + n2 + p2 = mnp,
m, n p 3. 3,
3 1.
m2 + n2 + p2 3, m, n p 3, 3. m2 + n2 + p2 = mnp

170

12.

3, . , m2 + n2 + p2
3, m, n p 3,
3. ,
mnp = m2 + n2 + p2 3.
12.27. k = 2 12.13 ). , k > 3. , x2 + y2 + z2 = kxyz, x,
y, z . ,
. y = z. x2 = kxy2 2y2 = (kx 2)y2 ,
x = y, . 2 = k y 2,
. . 2 = (ky ). , = 1 2. ky = 3,
k > 3.
x > y > z.
f(t) = t2 kyzt + y2 + z2 . x,
x kyz x. ,
(y x)(y x ) = f(y) = 2y2 + z2 ky2 z < 0, . . x > y > x .
, x, y, z x , y, z,
x , y, z < x. x , . (
, ,
.)
12.28. , m = dm1 , n = dn1 p = dp1 , d > 1.
m21 + n21 + p21 = 3dm1 n1 p1 . 12.27
x2 + y2 + z2 = kxyz
k > 3.

13

13.1.
13.1.
1
2
3
n1
+ + +...+
.
2!
3!
4!
n!

13.2.
1 1! + 2 2! + 3 3! + . . . + n n!.
13.3. , 13 + 23 + 33 + . . . + m3 =
13.4. ,
1

 m(m + 1) 2
2

1 1
1
1
1
1
1
+ +...
=
+
+...+ .
2 3
4
2n
n+1 n+2
2n

13.2.
13.5.
1 1! + 2 2! + 3 3! + . . . + k k! < (k + 1)!.
13.6. , 0 < x1 , . . . , xn < 1 n > 2,
(1 x1 ) . . . (1 xn ) > 1 (x1 + . . . + xn ).
13.7. , n > 2 |x| < 1
2n > (1 x)n + (1 + x)n .

13.8. ,



 

1
1
1
1
1+
1+
1+
. . . 1 + n < 3.
2

172

13.

13.9. ) , > 0 n > 1 (1 + )n > 1 + n .


) , 0 < 6 1/n n , (1 + )n < 1 + n + n2 2 .
13.10. n : (a1 a2 . . . an )1/n 6 (a1 + . . . + an )/n, , a1 = . . . = an .
13.11. , 3n > n3
n 6= 3.
13.12.

zr

}|
{
q

2 2+ 2+...+ 2
1
r
> .
q
4

2 2+ 2+...+ 2
|
{z
}
n1

13.3.
13.13. a1 , a2 , . . . , an +1,
1. ,


a1 a2
a1 a2 a3
a1 a2 . . . an p
2 sin a1 +
+
+...+
=
n1
2
4
4
s2
r
q

= a1 2 + a2 2 + a3 2 + . . . + an 2.
13.4.
13.14. . , , , ,

. ,

173


,
.
13.15. , m/n, 0 < m/n < 1,

m
1
1
1
1
= + + +...+ ,
n
q1
q2
q3
qr

0 < q1 < q2 < . . . < qr , qk qk1


k = 2, 3, . . . , r.
. 20.11.

13.1. n,
1

1 . n = 2
=1 .
n!
2!
2!
, n.
2
n1
n
1
n
1
+ +...+
+
=1 +
=
2!
3!
n!
(n + 1)!
n!
(n + 1)!
n+1
n
1
=1
+
=1
.
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)!

13.2. n, (n + 1)! 1. n = 1
1 1! = 2! 1. ,
n.
1 1! + 2 2! + . . . + n n! + (n + 1) (n + 1)! =
= (n + 1)! 1 + (n + 1) (n + 1)! = (n + 2)! 1.
13.3. ,

m2 (m + 1)2
(m + 1)2 (m + 2)2
+ (m + 1)3 =
.
4
4

m + 1 4
m2 + 4(m + 1) = (m + 2)2 .

174

13.

1
1
1
1
1
1
+ +...
Bn =
+
+...
2
3
4
2n
n+1
n+2
1
1
1
1
... +
. An+1 = An +

Bn+1 = Bn
+
2n
2n + 1
2n + 2
n+1
1
1
2
1
+
. , An+1 Bn+1 = An Bn +

=
+
2n + 1
2n + 2
n+1
2n + 2

13.4. An = 1

= An Bn . A1 = B1 , An = Bn n.
13.5. k. k = 1 : 1 1!< 2!. , k . 1 1! + 2 2! + 3 3! + . . . + k k! +
+ (k + 1) (k + 1)! < (k + 1)! + (k + 1) (k + 1)! = (k + 2)!.
13.6. n. , (1x1 )
(1 x2 ) = 1 (x1 + x2 ) + x1 x2 > 1 (x1 + x2 ). ,
(1 x1 ) . . . (1 xn1 ) > 1 (x1 + . . . + xn1 ). (1 x1 ) . . . (1 xn ) >
> 1 xn (x1 + . . . + xn1 ) + xn (x1 + . . . + xn1 ) > 1 (x1 + . . . + xn ).
13.7. n. n = 2 (1 x)2 +
+ (1 + x)2 = 2(1 + x2 ) < 4. , (1 x)n +
+ (1 + x)n < 2n .
(1 x)n+1 + (1 + x)n+1 < ((1 x)n + (1 + x)n )((1 x) + (1 + x)) <

< 2n 2 = 2n+1 .

13.8.

1
1
1
1+
. . . 1 + n < 2.
1+
4

. ,
0 < x < 1, 0 < 1 x < 1, 1 + x <
1x

1
1
1
. 1+ k < 1 k
2
2
13.6,

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
... 1 n >1 ... n > .
4

a
a

a
a

a
a

> 0 (1 + )n > 1 + n ,
13.9. ) ,
n+1
(1+ )
>1+(n+1) . , (1+ )n+1 =(1+ )(1+ )n >
> (1 + )(1 + n ) = 1 + (n + 1) + n 2 > 1 + (n + 1) .
) n = 1 . , 0 < 6 1/n, (1 + )n <
< 1 + n + n2 2 . , 0 < 6 1/(n + 1).
6 1/n, (1 + )n+1 < (1 + n + n2 2 )(1 + ) = 1 + (n + 1) +
+ (n2 + n + n2 ) 2 . , n2 + n + n2 6 (n + 1)2 ,
. . n2 6 n + 1. , 6 1/(n + 1)
n2 < (n + 1)2 .

a
bb

b
b

175

13.10. m
n = 2

m. m = 1 ,

a 2 ab + b = ( a b)2 > 0; , a=b. , m,


m + 1. , ak ak+2m 6 ((ak + ak+2m )/2)2 .

(a1 a2 . . . a2m+1 )1/2

m+1

6 (b1 b2 . . . b2m )1/2 ,

bk = (ak + ak+2m )/2,


m

(b1 . . . b2m )1/2 6

1
1
(b1 + . . . + b2m ) = m+1 (a1 + . . . + a2m+1 ).
2m
2

n . n < 2m m. an+1 = . . . = a2m = (a1 + . . . + an )/n = A. , (a1 + . . . + an ) +


m
+ (an+1 + . . . + a2m ) = nA + (2m n)A = 2m A a1 . . . a2m = a1 . . . an A2 n .
2m n
m
m 2m
2m
n
a1 . . . an A
6 (2 A/2 ) = A , . . a1 . . . an 6 A ; , a1 = . . . = an .
13.11. n = 2, 4 5 . , n > 5 3n > n3 3n+1 > (n + 1)3 . 3n+1 > 3n3 ,
2n3 > 3n2 + 3n + 1.
n > 5 1 < 3n < 3n2 < 2n3 /3,
3
3n2 + 3n + 1 < 3(2n3 /3)
.
r = 2n
r
q
q

13.12. a = 2 + 2 + . . . + 2. 2 + 2 + . . . + 2 =
|
|
{z
}
{z
}

n
n1
= 2 + a.
, ,

2 2+a
1
> .
2a
4

n , a < 2.
:

8 4 2 + a > 2 a,

6 + a > 4 2 + a.
36 + 12a + a2 >
> 32 + 16a, . . (a 2)2 > 0.

176

13.

13.13. n. n=1
.

a1 a2 . . . an an+1 p
a1 a2
a1 a2 a3
2 a1 +
+
+...+
=
2
4
2n
4

a2 a3 . . . an+1 p
a2 a3
p
+...+
= a1 + a1 a2 +
n1
2

a1 a2 a3
a1 a2 . . . an an+1 p
a1 a2
+
+...+
=
cos 2 a1 +
2
4
2n
4

a2 a3
a2 a3 . . . an+1 p
= sin a2 +
+...+
.
n1
2 sin

a
2

= 2 2 cos

a ,

a1 a2 . . . an an+1 p
a1 a2
a1 a2 a3
2 sin a1 +
+
+...+
=
2
4
2n
4
r

a2 a3 . . . an an+1 p
a2 a3
= a1 2 + 2 sin a2 +
+...+
.
n1
2

, a1 a2 a3
a1 a2
+
+ ...
, a1 +
a1 a2 . . . an an+1

a1 . , ...+
2n
, .
13.14. n. n = 1
. ,
n . n + 1 . ,
A,
B,
, . B A
B. n
,
, .
,
B A. , A B ,
,
n .

177

13.15. , m/n .
m. m = 1 . m > 1. n m , d0 1,
mk, . . n=m(d
0 1)+(mk)=md0 k,

d0 > 1 0 < k < m.

m
1
k
=
.
1+
n
d0
n

k/n :
1
1
1
k
=
+
+...+
.
n
d1
d1 d2
d1 d2 . . . dr


1
1
1
1
m
=
+
+
+...+
n
d0
d0 d1
d0 d1 d2
d0 d1 d2 . . . dr

14

14.1.
14.1. k
n , , : ) ; ) .
n
P
Ckn xk ynk ,
14.2. , (x + y)n =
k=0

Ckn =

Ckn =

n!
.
k! (n k)!

n!
.
k! (n k)!

, Ckn = 0, n < 0 k > n.

14.3. , Ckn + Ck1


= Ckn+1 .
n
14.4.
?
14.5. ) . ?
) ?
14.6. , (0, n) (m, m),
1 ( y 1),
1 ( x 1)?
14.7. ) n m -

179

, n = x1 + . . . + xm n = y1 + . . . + ym , x1 = y1 , . . .
. . . , xm = ym ?
) .
14.8. ,
X
n!
(x1 + . . . + xk )n =
xl11 . . . xlkk .
l1 +...+lk =n

l1 ! . . . l k !

14.2.
14.9. , :
) C0n + C1n + . . . + Cnn = 2n .
) C0n + C2n + C4n + C6n + . . . = C1n + C3n + C5n + . . . = 2n1 .
+ . . . + Ckm C0n
14.10. , Ckn+m = C0m Ckn + C1m Ck1
n
().
0 2
1 2
n 2
14.11. , Cn2n = (C
n ) + (Cn ) + . . . + (Cn ) .
P
n+k
nk2i k i+k
14.12. , C2n = 2
Cn Cni .
i

k+1 k
k+1 k1
k
14.13. , Ck1
n1 Cn Cn+1 = Cn1 Cn+1 Cn .
14.14. , p + q = 1,

(1)r Crnr pr qr =

06r6n/2

pn+1 qn+1
.
pq

14.15. P(x) n, P(x) =


= 2x x = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1. P(n + 2).
14.16. ,
n
X

n1
mCm
n = n2

m=1

n
X

n2
m 2 Cm
.
n = n(n + 1)2

m=1

14.17. ,
n
X

m=1

1
2n+1 1
Cm
n =
m+1
n+1

n
X
(1)m

m=1

m+1

Cm
n =

1
.
n+1

180

14.

14.18. , |x| < 1,


 1 n
1x

=1+

k
Cn1
n+k1 x .

k=1

. 29.53, 29.54.
14.3.
n

14.19. , (a + 1)a 1 (a 1)a + 1


an+1 an+2 .
14.20. p1 = 2, p2 = 3, . . . . , p1 . . . pk 6 4pk .
14.4.
14.21.
( 0001 9999),
?
14.22. x, y,
1 1000, x2 + y2 7?
14.23. ,
, 5, 7?
14.24. |x| + |y| < 100?
14.25. x, 10 000, 2x x2 7?
14.26. , (a1 , . . . , an ) = P /P ,
P ,
a1 , . . . , an , P ,
a1 , . . . , an . (,
a1 , . . . , an .)
14.27. 6 : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
,
( ).

181

14.28. 1 000 000


? , , .
14.5.
14.29. , 2n 6 Cn2n 6 22n .
14.6.
14.30. p 1 6 k 6 p 1. ,
Ckp p.
14.31. p . ,
m 6 p 1 (1)m Cm
p1 1 p.
14.32. , p , Cnnp
n (mod p2 ).
14.33. p , n = pa2 ,
am .
> 2. , m > 2, Cm
n p
14.34. p . ,
pa Ckn , pa 6 n.

. 21.31, 21.32.
14.7.
14.35. N
P1 , . . . , Pn . Ni , Pi , Nij ,
Pi Pj , . . , , ,
X
X
X
Ni1 i2
Ni1 i2 i3 + . . . + (1)n N123...n
N
Ni +
i1 <i2

i1 <i2 <i3

( ).
14.36. n = pa11 . . . pkak , (n) 1 n,

182

14.

n. ,


 

1
1
1
(n) = n 1
1
... 1
.

p1

p2

pk

14.37. ) , a1 , . . .
. . . , an 1, . . . , n, ai 6= i i,


1
(1)k
(1)n
1
.
+...+
n! 1 1 + + . . . +
2!

3!

k!

n!

) ,
1/e n .
14.8.
14.38. m n . -

m! (2n + 2m)!
.
(2m)! n! (n + m)!

14.9.
c0 = 1, c1 = c0 c0 = 1, c2 = c0 c1 + c1 c0 = 2, c3 = c0 c2 +
+c1 c1 +c2 c0 =5 ck =c0 ck1 +c1 ck2 +. . . +ck1 c0 . ck ,
, .

14.39. ,
n- cn2 ().
14.40. n + 1 . n ,
, ,
*. , cn ().
14.41. 14.40
( ). ,
* : ((a((bc)d))(ef)).

183

, . ,
n cn .
2n ,
(0, 0) (0, 2n),
(1, 1) x > 0. (
.) . 14.1.

. 14.1

14.42. ) ,
2n cn .
) , 2n

1
Cn .
n + 1 2n

14.43. ) , a1 , a2 , . . . , a2n , ai = 1, a1 > 0,


a1 + a2 > 0, . . . , a1 + a2 + . . . + a2n1 > 0 a1 + a2 + . . . + a2n = 0,
cn .
) ,
, 50 . 2n ,
100 , 50 . ,
,
, cn .

184

14.

14.44. n n .
. , ,
,
, cn2 .
14.45.
,
, .
, ,
. ,
, . ,

n cn1 ().
14.46. (2n + 1)- . n + 1 n .
,
.
) ,

1
1
Cn
=
Cn .
2n + 1 2n+1 n + 1 2n

) ,
cn .

P
1
14.47.
ap,q xp yq . ,
=

1 x y + 2xy p,q=0
1
(1)n a2n,2n+2 =
Cn cn .
n + 1 2n

14.10.
14.48.
: 9 10?
14.49.
. , . ,

185

. : ?
14.50. , . .
. ,
, 6 . ,
5 , 3.
?
14.51. .
, ,
, 1/2.
) ?
) ,
, ?
14.52.
1 6,
. , X
Y, X , Y, 1/2.
A, B, C : B A, C B, A C?

14.1. ) n ,
n 1 , . . . , k- n k + 1 .
n(n 1) . . . (n k + 1) =

n!
.
(n k)!

) k , , k! ,
( k
k ).

n!
1

= Ckn .
k! (n k)!

14.2. xk ynk (x + y)n k n x + y. ,


x, y.
14.1 ).

186

14.

14.3. (1 + x)n (1 + x) = (1 + x)n+1 .


xk Ckn + Ck1
,
n
Ckn+1 .
14.4. : 3.
( 0 ).
. 0, 1 2.
14.5. ) : 720.
7! = 5040 .
, ,
. 7 .
7!/7 = 6! = 720 .
) : 360. , ,
, .
720/2 = 360 .
14.6. : Cm
n . m
n m . n m
.
14.7. ) : Cnn+m1 .
n = x1 + . . . + xm ,
x1 , , x2 ,
. .; xm . n + m 1 , n .
n n + m 1
(. . ) .
nm
) : Cn1
. n = x1 + . . . + xm ,
x1 , . . . , xm ,
n m = y1 + . . . + ym , y1 = x1 1, . . . , ym = xm 1.
14.8. n x1 + . . . + xk l
l
x11 . . . xkk , l1 n
x1 , l2 n l1
x2 , l3 n l1 l2 x3 . .
l
x11 . . . xlkk
l

n
2
. . . Clnl
=
C3
Cn1 Cnl
1 ...ln1
1 nl1 l2

(n l1 . . . ln1 )!
(n l1 )!
n!

...
.
l1 ! (n l1 )! l2 ! (n l1 l2 )!
ln ! (n l1 . . . ln )!

, n l1 . . . ln = 0, .

187

14.9. ) 2n = (1 + 1)n = C0n + C1n + . . . + Cnn .


) 0 = (1 1)n = C0n C1n + C2n C3n + . . .
14.10. xk
(x + 1)m+n = (x + 1)m (x + 1)n .
14.11. 14.10 n = m = k
, Cin = Cnni .
14.12. xnk (1 + x)2n
nk
C2n
= Cn+k
2n . ,
(1+x)2n =(x2 +(1+2x))n =

Cin x2i (1+2x)ni =

Cin x2i

Cjni 2j xj .

xnk
X
X
2nk2i Ckn Ci+k
2nk2i Ckn Cnk2i
=
ni .
ni
i

14.13. ,
n!
(n + 1)!
(n 1)!

=
(k 1)! (n k)! (k + 1)! (n k 1)! k! (n k + 1)!
(n 1)!
(n + 1)!
n!
=

.
k! (n k 1)! (k + 1)! (n k)! (k 1)! (n k + 1)!

.
P
14.14. Sn =

06r6n/2

(1)r Crnr pr qr . -

r, r > n/2, n r < r,


Crnr = 0.
Sn+1 Sn =

X
X
r r
(1)r Cr1
(1)r (Crn+1r Crnr )pr qr =
nr p q =pqSn1 .

, S0 = S1 = 1. ,

pq
p2 q2
=1
=
pq
pq

= p + q = 1. n = 0 n = 1
pk+1 qk+1
k 6 n,
pq
n+1
n+1
n
n
p
q
pq(p q ) pn+1 (1 q) qn+1 (1 p)
Sn+1 = Sn pqSn1 =
=
=
pq
pq
n+2
n+2
p
q
.
=
pq

. Sk =

188

14.

14.15. : P(n + 2) = 2n+2 2.

(x 1)(x 2) . . . (x m)

x1

Cm
=
m!
n x.

f(x) = 2(C0x1 + C1x1 + . . . + Cnx1 ).


, C0x1 + C1x1 + . . . + Cnx1 = (1 + 1)x1 = 2x1 x = 1, 2, . . .
. . . , n + 1. P(x) = f(x), n n + 1 x. ,
P(n + 2) = 2(C0n+1 + C1n+1 + . . . + Cnn+1 ) =
n+1
= 2(C0n+1 + C1n+1 + . . . + Cnn+1 + Cn+1
n+1 Cn+1 ) =

= 2(2n+1 1) = 2n+2 2.

14.16. (1 + x)n =

n
P

xm Cm
n -

m=0

x.
n
P
nx(1 + x)n1 =
mxm Cm
n ; x = 1
m=1

. x x,
nx(nx + 1)(1 + x)n2 =

n
X

m2 xm Cm
n;

m=1

x = 1 .
n
P
14.17. (1 + t)n =
tm Cm
n

m=0

x
]
0

. .

(1 + t)n dt =

n x
X
]

tm Cm
n dt,

m=0 0
n

X xm+1
(1 + x)n+1 1
=
Cm
n.
n+1
m+1
m=0

x = 1 , x = 1
.
14.18. n. n = 1 .

189

n n + 1,

X
X
n1
n
k
Cn+k1
xk .
Cn+k x (1 x) = 1 +
1+
k=1

k=1

xk Cnn+k Cnn+k1
n1
Cn+k1
. .
14.19.
( ). n = 0 . n = 1 (1 + a)a 1 a a + C2a a2 (mod a3 ).
a2 + a + 1
a2 + C2a a2 = a2
a2 a3 .
2

, (a + 1)a 1 an+1
an+2 n > 1.
(a + 1)a

n+1

1 = ((a + 1)a 1)n = (1 + ban+1 )a 1 =

= a ban+1 + C2a b2 a2n+2 + C3a b3 a3n+3 + . . .


( b , a). n > 1,
n+1
2n + 2> n + 2, (a + 1)a 1 ban+2 (mod an+3 ); ban+2
n+2
a
an+3 .
14.20. n, pk 6 n, n > 2,
p1 . . . pk 6 4n . n = 2 . , , n 1.
, .
n = 2m. , m, 4m .
, pi , m + 1 6 pi 6 2m,
(2m)!

, 22m = 4m .
Cm
2m =
m! m!
, , n = 2m, 4m 4m = 42m = 4n .
n = 2m + 1. , m + 1, 4m+1 . , pi ,
m + 2 6 pi 6 2m + 1, Cm
2m+1 =

(2m + 1)!
. ,
m! (m + 1)!

m+1
m+1
m
2m+1
2m
Cm
, Cm
.
2m+1 = C2m+1 C2m+1 + C2m+1 6 2
2m+1 6 2
, , n = 2m + 1, 4m+1 22m = 42m+1 = 4n .
14.21. : 669. n,
n. n 1 18. ,

190

14.

n, an ,
a21 + a22 + . . . + a218 . , n, a n a, 0 6 a 6 9 0 6 n a 6 9.
, 0 6 a 6 9 n 9 6 a 6 n. n 6 9,
0 6 a 6 n, n > 9, n 9 6 a 6 9.
a1 = 2, a2 = 3, . . . , a8 = 9, a9 = 10, a10 = 9, . . . , a17 = 2, a18 = 1.
14.22. : 1422 = 20164. x2 + y2 7
, x y 7. ,
7 0, 1, 2 4. , 1 1000
7, 142. 1422 = 20164.
14.23. : 686 .
i
h
999

= 199.
1, 2, . . . , 999 , 5;
5
1,h 2, . i. . , 999 ,
999

7;
= 142. ,
7

35,

.

i
h
999
35

= 28. , 199 + 142 28 = 313


, 999 313 = 686 .
14.24. : 338 350. |x| + |y| = 0, |x| + |y| = 1,
|x| + |y| = 2, . . . , |x| + |y| = 99 , , 1, 22 , 32 , . . .
. . . , 1002 .
12 + 22 + 32 + . . . + 1002 =

100 101 201


(. 9.12).
6

14.25. : 2857. 7 2x x2
3 7, 7
2x x2 21. x 1
21 7 2x x2 6 . 1 9996 = 21 476
476 6 = 2856 . , 9997, 9998 9999 9998
.
14.26. 4.19, , , a1 =pa1 , . . .
. . . , a n = p an 1 6 2 6 . . . 6 n .
pa1 P ,
( , a1 ). ,
, P P ,
. pak+1 ,
ak+1 , a1 , . . . , ak . -

a a

191

P pak+1 C0k + C2k + C4k + . . . , P


C1k +C3k +C5k +. . . . 14.9 )
2k1 .
14.27. : 1 769 580.
, , .
1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

6 6 3 = 108,
,
0, 2, 4 ( ). (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) 108 1000 = 1 620 000. 5 6 3 = 90
( ).
(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) 90 100 = 135 000.
(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) 90 10 = 13 500,
(2 + 4) 5 6 6 = 1 080.
14.28. : 139. 2a1 5b1 , 2a2 5b2
2a3 5b3 . a1 + a2 + a3 = 6 b1 + b2 + b3 = 6.
ai bi . a1 = k,
a2 + a3 = 6 k 7 k .
a1 + a2 + a3 = 6 7 + 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 28 .
282 = 784 .
, . ,
,
100. , ,
. 2
0, 1, 2 3, . .
; 5. 16 , .
15 , .
784 1 45= 738. 6 , 738/6 = 123 .
1 + 15 + 123 = 139 .
n
14.29. , 22n = (1 + 1)2n = C02n + C12n + . . . + C2n
2n > C2n .
,
Cn2n =

(2n)!
2n 2n 1
n+1
=

...
> 2n ,
n! n!
n
n1
1

2n k
> 2 k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.
nk

192

14.
p(p 1) . . . (p k + 1)

. 14.30. Ckp =
12...k
p, p. ,
, p.
k
14.31. Ckp = Ck1
p1 + Cp1 ,
m
X
(1)k Ckp = (1)m Cm
p1 ,
k=0

. .

m
P

k=1

(1)k Ckp = (1)m Cm


p1 1. 1 6 m 6 p 1,

14.30 (1)k Ckp p.


14.32. (1 + x)np = ((1 + x)n )p ,
X
k
Cp1 . . . Ckpn .
Cnnp =
k1 +...+kn =p

14.30 Ckp p, 0 < k < p.


p2 , , ki = p i.
1, n.
n(n 1)

n;
14.33. m=2 , Cm
n =
2
.
n(n 1) . . . (n m + 1)
m > 3. Cm

n =
12...m

n = pa2 ,h i
p,
hmi
m
m
m
m
,
+ 2 +...6 + 2 +...=
.
p

p1

m = 3, Cm
n p
h3i h 3 i
h3i
+ 2 +...= 2
>
2
p

a 3 = a m.

m > 4, Cm
n p
hmi h m i
m
m
+ 2 +...> 2
> 2 >
2

p1

n(n 1) . . . (n k + 1)

a m.

. 14.34. , Ckn =
k!
p . pr
p, n k + 1 n
; m ( -

193

, ).
m
(m + a)(m + a 1) . . . (m + 1)m(m 1) . . . (m b);
m + a = n m b = n k + 1, k = a + b + 1.
:
k! = a(a 1) . . . 1 (a + 1)(a + 2) . . . (a + b + 1).

(a + 1)(a + 2) . . . (a + b + 1)
= Cba+b+1 ; l.
b!

Ckn =

m+1 m1 m2
mb m
m+a m+a1

...

...
;
a
a1
1
1
2
b
l
m

.
l
x , b6 x6 a, pr1 p, x. r1 < r, m+x

, pr1 . p
p,
x
. ,
r1 > r. x , n k + 1 6 m + x 6 n.
m p,
m+x


, pr .
x
p .
, p, Ckn , p, m. , pa 6 pr 6 m 6 n.
14.35. . ,
, N.
, ,
; 1 1 = 0. ,

k + 1 .
P k > 2 ,
Ni1 ...il Clk ,
i1 <...<il

1 C1k + C2k + . . . + (1)l Clk + . . . + (1)k Ckk = (1 1)k = 0.

.
(
1, K- Pi ;
C(K, i) =
0, .

194

14.


N
X

K=1

(1 C(K, 1))(1 C(K, 2)) . . . (1 C(K, n)) =


=N

N
n X
X

C(K, i) +

i1 <i2 K=1

i=1 K=1

N
XX

n P
N
P

C(K, i1 )C(K, i2 ) . . .

C(K, i)=Ni ,

i=1 K=1

N
P P

C(K, i1 )C(K, i2 )=

i1 <i2 K=1

= Ni1 i2 . .
14.36. 1 n, Pi
, pi .
1 n, pi , n/pi , pi
n
pj ,
. . pi pj

1
1
n
(n) = n n
+...+
+ . . . + . . . + (1)k
=
+n
p1
pk
p1 p2
p1 . . . pk

1
1
=n 1
.
... 1

p1

pk

14.37. ) .
, 1, . . . , n;
n!. Pi , ai = i.
Ni1 ...ik = (n k)! ,

P
k i1 , . . . , ik .
Ni1 ...ik
i1 <...<ik

Ckn k i1 , . . . , ik
n!

n . , (n k)! Ckn = .
k!
)
11+

1
(1)k
(1)n
1
+...+
+...+
.
2!
3!
k!
n!

n e1 ( 29.47).
14.38. A(m, n) =

A(0, n) = Cn2n . ,
4A(m, n1)+A(m1, n)=

m! (2n + 2m)!
. A(m, 0) = 1
(2m)! n! (n + m)!

4m
(m1)! (2n+2m2)!
1
+ .
(2m2)! (n1)! (n+m1)! 2m(2m1) n

195

(2n + 2m 1)(2n + 2m)m


2n + 2m 1
=
,
n(2m 1)
n(2m 1)2m(n + m)

4A(m, n 1) + A(m 1, n) = A(m, n).

14.39. dn . , d3 = 1 d4 = 2.
d2 = 1. , d5 = d2 d4 + d3 d3 + d4 d2 .
. .
. :
, , .
,
.
d4 + d3 d3 + d4 = d2 d4 + d3 d3 + d4 d2 .
n dn = d2 dn1 + d3 dn2 + . . .
. . . + dn1 d2 . , dn = cn2 .
14.40. n + 1 (n + 2)- .
. 14.2 , .
c

d
(ab)

((ab)c)

(de)

(((ab)c)(de))
. 14.2


(n + 2)- . . (n + 2)-,

196

14.

,
.

, . ,
, ,
, ,
.
14.41. n , n , n ,

. , n = 1 2
1 2 . . ,
,
, .
k k (, k = 0). , .

n k 1 . , .
14.42. )
14.41
, (1, 1) ,
(1, 1) .
) ( ) (1, 1). n + 1 (1, 1)
(1, 1) (2n + 1, 1) . ,

, .

.
(1, 1), (1, 1) (2n + 1, 1).
. , .
. ,
(2n + 1, 1), ,
(0, 0).

197

: . -
,
, .
(1, 1) (2n + 1, 1)
Cn2n . , 2n n (1, 1). n + 1
,

1
Cn .
n + 1 2n

14.43. )
,
ai (1, ai ).
) ai = 1, i- 50 , ai = 1, 100. , 50- 100-,
. . a1 > 0, a1 + a2 > 0, . . . , a1 + a2 + . . . + a2n1 > 0 (
a1 + a2 + . . . + a2n = 0). , ).
14.44. . .
2(n 2) .
14.45. . 14.3 , n (n + 1)-
c
(((ab)c)(de))

((ab)c)

(de)

(ab)

e
a
. 14.3

198

14.

n . , . .
14.46. ) n (2n + 1)- ( )
Cn2n+1 . 2n + 1 n, (2n + 1)-.
(2n + 1)-, , 2n + 1.

1
Cn .
2n + 1 2n+1

) ,
n n + 1
.
, ,
; .
, , .
(2n + 1)-
. . , ,
,
100. :
. , .
100 0,
(2n 1)-, . .
14.47. 14.18,
1
1
=

1 x y + 2xy
(1 x)(1 y) 1 +

X
k=0

=
xy
(1 x)(1 y)

X
(1)k xk yk
(1)k Ckk+i Ckk+j xk+i yk+j =
=
(1 x)k+1 (1 y)k+1
i,j,k=0

xp yq

p,q=0

, ap,q =
p

k>0
q

(1)

Ckp Ckq

(1)k Ckp Ckq .

k>0

(1 + x) (1 x) . , p = 2n q = 2n + 2.
(1 + x)p (1 x)q = (1 x2 )2n (1 x)2 ;


n1
x2n (1)n Cn2n + (1)n1 C2n
= (1)n

= (1)n

1
Cn .
n + 1 2n

199
(2n)!
n
1
=
n! n!
n+1

14.48. : 9. 9 10 : 9=3+6=4+5 10=4+6=5+5.


, . 9 , 10
: 9 = 3 + 6 = 6 + 3 = 4 + 5 = 5 + 4, 10 = 4 + 6 = 6 + 4 = 5 + 5.
14.49. : . ( ,
.
,
.)
p, q. p < q.
: , , ( ,
).
pq(1 p), pqp, (1 p)qp.
2pq pqp. 2pq qpq.
, pqp < qpq, 2pq pqp > 2pq qpq.
14.50. : 7 : 1. ,
. . ,
.
, . 23 = 8
,
1/8. ,
7/8.
14.51. ) : 4. m n . ,
m
. , ,
n+m

, ,
m1
. ,
n+m1
m
m1
,

. , ,
n+m n+m1

m1
1
m

= .
n+m n+m1
2

n = 1 m = 3. .

(1)

200

14.

) : 21. , n > 0. , ,

m
m1
>
.
n+m
n+m1
m 2 1 m 1 2
> >
,
n+m
2
n+m1

. . ( 2 + 1)n < m < ( 2 + 1)n + 1. n .


n = 2, 4, 6 m = 5, 10, 15.
(1) , .
n + m = 6 + 15 = 21.
. x = m n y = n. (1)
(2x 1)2 2(2y)2 = 1.
.
14.52. : , . , ,
:
A
B
C

1, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4;
2, 2, 2, 5, 5, 5;
3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 6.

B A, B 5 B 2,
A 1. 1/2 + 1/2 1/6 = 7/12 >
> 1/2.
C B, C 6 C 3,
B 2. 1/6 + 5/6 1/2 = 7/12 >
> 1/2.
A C, A 4, C 3.
5/6 5/6 = 25/36 > 1/2.

15

k u1 , u2 , . . . , u1 , u2 , . . . , uk
, n > 1
un+k = a1 un+k1 + . . . + ak un , a1 , a2 , . . . , ak .

15.1.
15.1. a1 , a2 , . . . , ak un+k =
= a1 un+k1 + . . . + ak un . ,
u1 + u2 x + u3 x2 + u4 x3 + . . . =

Pk1 (x)
,
1 a1 x a2 x2 . . . ak xk

Pk1 (x) k 1.
15.2. a1 , a2 , . . . , ak un+k =
= a1 un+k1 + . . . + ak un . , x1 , . . . , xk xk = a1 xk1 + a2 xk2 + . . . + ak .
, un = c1 xn1
+ . . . + ck xn1

k
1
c1 , . . . , ck .
15.2.
F1 = 1,
F2 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 n > 3. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

15.3. , Fn+k = Fn1 Fk + Fn Fk+1 .


15.4. ) , Fn Fn+1 .
) , (Fm , Fn ) = Fd , d = (m, n).
15.5. , m>2, Fn Fm
, n m.

202

15.

15.6. ,
 1 + 5 n  1 5 n 
1

Fn =
5

().
15.7. , n
C1n + 5 C3n + 25 C5n + 125 C7n + . . .
2n1 .
15.8. ) f1 (x)=1, f2 (x)=x fn (x)=xfn1 (x)+fn2 (x)
n > 3. ,
fn+1 (x) = xn + C1n1 xn2 + C2n2 xn4 + C3n3 xn6 + . . .
) ,
Fn+1 = 1 + C1n1 + C2n2 + C3n3 + . . .
15.9. ,
1
= F1 + F2 x + F3 x2 + F4 x3 + . . .
1 x x2

15.10. , n
, n.
15.11. ,
.
15.12. , a2 ab b2 = 1, a b , a = Fn+1 b = Fn n.
15.13. n!

m
= Cm
Cm1
n
n1 , Cn = m! (n m)! .
15.14. ) , F2n+1 F2n1 = F22n + 1.
) , F22n+1 + F22n1 + 1 = 3F2n+1 F2n1 .
15.15. a b a2 + b2 + 1
ab?
15.16. a b,
a2 + 1 b, b2 + 1 a.

203

15.17. , n n=Fk1 +Fk2 +. . .


. . . + Fkm , k1 > k2 + 1, k2 > k3 + 1, . . . , km1 > km + 1, km > 1.
15.18. , 4k + 3.
15.3.
15.19. a b , a > b
(a, b) = d. , ,
a b, n ,
a > dFn+2 b > dFn+1 .
15.20. ) , Fn+5 > 10Fn n > 2.
) , Fn+1 < 10k , n 6 5k.
15.21. , , a > b,
b,
5.
15.4.
15.22.
{1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, ?
15.23. n
, 1 2?
(, , .)
15.24. n
ai > 2? (, , .)
15.25. n
? (, , .)

204

15.

15.5.

15.26. a1 = 1, a2 = 0, a3 = 1
an+3 =

n+1
(n2 + n + 1)(n + 1)
an+2 + (n2 + n + 1)an+1
an
n
n

n > 1. , an
n > 1.
15.27. u1 = 1, u2 = 0, u3 = 1 un = un2 + un3
n > 4. , u2n u2n1 u2n+1 u2n+1 un .

15.1.
(u1 + u2 x + u3 x2 + u4 x3 + . . .)(1 a1 x a2 x2 . . . ak xk )

xn+k1 , n > 1, un+k a1 un+k1 . . . ak un = 0.


, Pk1 (x)
k 1.
15.2. 10.35 c1 , . . . , ck ,

u1 = c1 + . . . + ck ,
u2 = c1 x1 + . . . + ck xk ,
.... ...... ..... ...... .....
uk = c1 xk1
+ . . . + ck xkk1 .
1

+ . . . + ak ) + . . . + ck (a1 xk1
+ . . . + ak ) =
c1 xk1 + . . . + ck xkk = c1 (a1 xk1
k
1
= a1 uk + . . . + ak u1 = uk+1 .
c1 xk+1
+ . . . + ck xk+1
= uk+2 . .
k
1
15.3. k. k = 1 Fn+1 =
= Fn1 + Fn , k = 2 Fn+2 = Fn1 + 2Fn = Fn1 + Fn + Fn =
= Fn+1 + Fn . . ,
Fn+k2 = Fn1 Fk2 + Fn Fk1 Fn+k1 = Fn1 Fk1 + Fn Fk . Fn+k =
= Fn1 (Fk2 + Fk1 ) + Fn (Fk1 + Fk ) = Fn1 Fk + Fn Fk+1 .
15.4. ) , Fn Fn+1
d > 1. Fn1 = Fn+1 Fn d . .
, F2 = 1 d.

205

) Fn+k =Fn1 Fk +Fn Fk+1 ( 15.3).


m = n + k. m > k
(Fm , Fk ) = (Fmk1 Fk + Fmk Fk+1 , Fk ) =
= (Fmk Fk+1 , Fk ) = (Fmk , Fk ),
Fk Fk+1 . 4.11.
15.5. Fn Fm , (Fn , Fm ) = Fm . , 15.4
(Fn , Fm ) = F(n,m) . ,
: (n, m) = m ( , m > 2).
, , ,
n m.
15.6. 15.2 Fn = c1 xn1 + c2 xn2 , x1 x2
x2 = x + 1, c1 c2
.
1

, x1,2 =
. c1 c2
2
, , F1 = 1 F2 = 1.
15.7. ( 15.6) ,
2n1 Fn = C1n + 5 C3n + 25 C5n + 125 C7n + . . .

15.8. ) f1 (x) f2 (x) . ,


.
x ,

: Cknk = Cknk1 + Ck1
nk1 .
) ), Fn = fn (1).
15.9. , (1 x x2 )(F1 + F2 x + F3 x2 + F4 x3 + . . .) = F1 +
+ (F2 F1 )x + (F3 F2 F1 )x2 + (F4 F3 F2 )x3 + . . . F1 = 1,
F2 F1 = 0, F3 F2 F1 = 0, F4 F3 F2 = 0, . . .
15.10. n
Fk Fk+1 k = 1, 2, . . . , n2 + 1.
n2 ,
, . . Fk Fl
Fk+1 Fl+1 n 1 6 k < l 6 n2 + 1.
Fk1 Fl1 = Fk+1 Fl+1 (Fk Fl )
n . . , F2 Flk+2
F1 Flk+1 n. Flk = Flk+2 Flk+1 F2 F1
0 (mod n).
15.11. S = Fk+1 + Fk+2 + . . . + Fk+8
. ,

206

15.

Fk+9 < S < Fk+10 . : S > Fk+7 + Fk+8 =


= Fk+9 . . ,
Fk+10 = Fk+8 + Fk+9 =
= Fk+8 + Fk+7 + Fk+8 =
= Fk+6 + Fk+7 + Fk+7 + Fk+8 =
= Fk+5 + Fk+6 + Fk+6 + Fk+7 + Fk+8 =
..... ..... ...... ..... ...... ...... ..... .
= Fk+1 + 2Fk+2 + Fk+3 + . . . + Fk+8 .
, , S.
15.12. a2 = b2 + ab 1 , a > b,
a = b , 1.
, a > b. b, a b , b2 (a b)b (a b)2 = (a2 ab b2 ).
(1, 1).
(x, y) 7 (x + y, x),
(1, 1) (Fn+1 , Fn )
n = 2, 3, . . .
15.13.
mn=(nm)(nm+1). d=(m, n), n=da m=db.
d abd = (a b)((a b)d + 1).
d (a b)d + 1, ab
a b, ab = (a b)d + 1 d = a b.
a = b + d a b d.
b2 + bd = d2 + 1, . . b2 + bd d2 = 1. 15.12 ,
1. , 1,
d = F2k , b = F2k1 a = b + d = F2k+1 . ,
n = F2k F2k+1 m = F2k F2k1 .
. Cnm1 = Cm
n1
m1
m2
Cn1 + Cn1
= Cm
n1 .
15.14. ) n. n = 1 . , F2n+1 F2n1 = F22n + 1
n.
F22n+2 + 1 = (F2n+1 + F2n )2 + 1 = F22n+1 + 2F2n+1 F2n + F22n + 1 =
= F22n+1 + 2F2n+1 F2n + F2n+1 F2n1 = F2n+1 (F2n+1 + 2F2n + F2n1 ).
, F2n+1 + 2F2n + F2n1 = F2n+2 + F2n+1 = F2n+3 .

207

) ),
F22n+1 + F22n1 2F2n+1 F2n1 = (F2n+1 F2n1 )2 = F22n = F2n+1 F2n1 1,
, F22n+1 + F22n1 + 1 = 3F2n+1 F2n1 .
15.15. , a > b. 15.14 )
(a, b) = (F2n+1 , F2n1 ), n > 1, ; (a, b) = (1, 1) . ,
(a, b), a > b,
. a. , a = b, 2a2 + 1 a2 ,
a = 1. , a2 + b2 + 1 = kab, k a > 1. a1 = b b1 = kb a =

b2 + 1
.
a

a21 + b21 + 1 = b2 + k2 b2 2kab + a2 + 1 = k2 b2 kab = kb(kb a) = ka1 b1 ,


(a1 , b1 ) . ,
16 b1 6 a1 <a. , b1 =

b2 + 1 b2 + 1
<
<b+1. b1
a
b

, b1 6 b = a1 . , a1 = b < a . , b = a1 = F2n+1 kb a = b1 = F2n1


n > 0 ( , F1 = 1). a2 + b2 + 1 = kab , k = 3,
a = kb b1 = 3F2n+1 F2n1 = 2F2n+1 + F2n+1 F2n1 = F2n+1 + F2n+1 +
+ F2n = F2n+1 + F2n+2 = F2n+3 .
15.16. F22n+1 +F22n1 +1=3F2n+1 F2n1 15.14 )
, (F2n1 , F2n+1 ) . ,
(a, b), a 6 b, .
b. , a = b, a2 + 1 a,
a = b = 1. b > 1, a 6 b, a2 + 1 = b b2 + 1 = a,

. (a2 + 1)2 = 2 b2 = 2 ( a 1),


1 2 (mod a), . . 2 + 1 a. ,
ab > a(a + 1) > a2 + 1, 6 a < b. , = F2n1 a = F2n1 . ,

b=

F22n+1 + 1
F2n1

l
l

3F2n+1 F2n1 F22n1


F2n1

l
l

l m

= 3F2n+1 F2n1 = F2n+1 .

15.17. Fk1 ,
n, . . Fk1 6 n<Fk1 +1 . 06 nFk1 <Fk1 +1 Fk1 =
= Fk1 1 . Fk2 , nFk1 , Fk2 <Fk1 1 , . . k2 +1<
< k1 . , n Fk1 Fk2 , . .

208

15.

, Fk1 6 n <
< Fk1 +1 . , Fk1 + Fk2 + . . . + Fkm 6 Fk1 + Fk1 2 + Fk2 4 + . . .;
F3 k1 F2
k1 . F3 F4 1, F2 F3 1.
Fk1 +1 1.
15.18. 15.3 k = n 1. F2n1 = F2n1 + F2n . F2n1
p 4k + 3, Fn1 Fn p ( 31.2). Fn2 = Fn Fn1
p . . , F1 = 1
p.
15.19. n. n = 1, b = d = dF2
a > 2d = dF3 . , n > 1. a > b,
n + 1 .
(a, b) (b, c), c = a qb 6 a b.
(b, c) n , (b, c) = (a, b) = d.
b > dFn+2 c > dFn+1 . , a > b + c > d
(Fn+2 + Fn+1 ) = dFn+3 .
15.20. ) n = 2 3 , , n > 3.
15.3: Fn+5 = F(n2)+7 = Fn3 F7 + Fn2 F8 = 13Fn3 + 21Fn2 >
> 10Fn3 + 20Fn2 = 10Fn .
) k. k = 1 ,
F7 = 13 > 10. , k > 1
, Fn+1 < 10k n 6 5k.
Fm+1 < 10k+1 . ) 10Fm4 < Fm+1 < 10k+1 ,
F(m5)+1 < 10k . ,
m 5 6 5k, . . m 6 5(k + 1), .
15.21. , (a, b),
n . 15.19 b >
> Fn+1 .
b k,
b < 10k , Fn+1 < 10k .
15.20.
15.22. : Fn+2 . xn .
n = 1 {1}, x1 = 2. n = 2
, {1} {2}, x2 = 3. ,
xn = xn1 + xn2 n > 3. ,
n, n 1,
.

209

xn2 . , , n, xn1 .
15.23. : Fn+1 . xn . ,
x1 = 1 x2 = 2. , xn = xn1 + xn2 n > 3. , n 1
xn1 , 2 xn2 .
15.24. : Fn1 . xn . ,
x1 = 0, x2 = 1 x3 = 1. , xn = xn1 + xn2 n > 3.
2; xn2 . 2.
1 n 1.
xn1 .
15.25. : Fn . xn . ,
x1 = 1 x2 = 1. , xn = xn1 + xn2 n > 3. , 1
xn1 . 3,
2 n 2.
15.26. bn , b1 = 1,
b2 = 0 bn+2 = nbn+1 + bn n > 1.
bn = bn+2 nbn+1 bn+3 = (n + 1)bn+2 + bn+1 . , bn+2 bn+1 ,
n + 1, n .
b2n+3 =

n+1 2
(n2 + n + 1)(n + 1) 2
bn+2 + (n2 + n + 1)b2n+1
bn .
n
n

, b3 = 1. , an = b2n .
15.27. , 0 < k < m 2
um = uk+1 umk + uk+2 umk1 + uk umk2 .

(1)

k = 1 . ,
uk+1 umk + uk+2 umk1 + uk umk2 = uk+2 umk1 + uk+3 umk2 +
+ uk+1 umk3 . uk+2 umk1 , uk+1 umk = uk+1 umk2 +
+ uk+1 umk3 . uk+1 umk3 ,
(uk+1 + uk )umk2 = uk+3 umk2 .
(1) m = 2n k = n 1, u2n u2n1 =
= 2un un+1 . (1) m = 2n + 1 k = n 1,
u2n+1 u2n+1 = un (un1 + un+2 ).

16

16.1.
16.1. 10 , ,
?
16.2. ) ,
k, l > 2, k! l! = n! n.
) , m

a1 , . . . , am > 2, a1 ! a2 ! . . . am ! = n! n.
16.3. , n n ,
.
16.4. ) a, b, :
a b a + 1 b + 1 ( a 6= b)?
)
a, b, : a b+1
a + 1 b ?
16.5.
p, q, r, p1 , q1 , r1 , p2 + q2 + r2 = p21 + q21 + r12
p4 + q4 + r4 = p41 + q41 + r14 ().

211

16.2.
16.6. n 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, . . .
n?
16.7. a1 , a2 , . . . ,
?
16.3.
16.8. 1, 2, 3, . . . , 32 . , , .
) , 5
.
) , 4
.
16.4.
16.9. R(x)
(. . ),
R(x) = R(1/x) R(x) = R(1 x).
16.10. f(x, y) , ,
, ?
16.11. f(x) , x , x
?

212

16.

16.5.

16.12. 2n 2n 1 ,
?
16.13. ) 60 ,
1 .
,
1 , 2 , 3 , . . . , 60 (
1 )?
) 150 .
16.14. 10 ,
8 , , , 9
.
16.15. n a1 = 1, a2 , a3 , . . . , an ,
ai 6 ai+1 6 2ai (i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1) . ,
?
16.16. , ,
. ,
(. .
)?
16.17. ) 555 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , . . .
. . . , 555 . .
) 81 12 , 22 , 32 , . . . , 812 .
.
16.18.
, 2 1.
,
, .

213

16.19. 1.
, , , ?
. 20.9.

16.1. : , . p1 , . . . , p10 , N = p1 . . . p10 . N1 = p1 N, . . . , N10 = p10 N


. , Ni p2i , Nj , j 6= i, pi , p2i
. , N2i N2 , N2
Nj .
16.2. ) k = l! 1. k! l! = n!, n = l!.
) a1 = a2 ! . . . am ! 1. a1 ! a2 ! . . . am ! = n!, n =
= a2 ! . . . am !.
16.3. n = 2 1 2. a1 , . . .
. . . , an . ,
A, A + a1 , . . . , A + an , A = a1 . . . an ,
. , A+ak +A A+ak A=ak ,
A ak . , A + ai + A + aj
A + ai (A + aj ) = ai aj . ai + aj ai aj .
, 2ai = (ai + aj ) + (ai aj ) ai aj , , 2A
ai aj .
16.4. ) : . , , a = 2n 2
b = 2n (2n 2). a + 1 = 2n 1 b + 1 = 22n 2 2n + 1 = (2n 1)2 .
) : . , , a = 2k + 1 b= a2 1=
= 2k+1 (2k1 + 1). a b + 1 = a2
. a + 1 = 2(2k1 + 1) b = 2k+1 (2k1 + 1)
.
16.5. f2 = f4 = 0 32.23. a = 1, b = 2, c = 3 d = 6,
11, 6, 5 10, 9, 1.
16.6. : . 1/n!, 2/n!, . . . , n/n!
n 1/n!.

1
, n!/k .
n!/k

16.7. : . a1 = 2, a2 = 22 3, a3 =
= 22 32 5, . . . , an = 22 32 . . . p2n1 pn , pn n- .

214

16.

ak + ak+l + . . . + ak+r pk p2k ,


.
16.8. ) ,
,
. i i + 1, ai > ai+1 .
, ( ). ,

.
32.
16 i
i + 16. 16 . 8
i i + 8. ()
8 ,
4 , 2 ,
.
) , 31.
,
30 ,
15 . , , , ,
. ,
,
.
15 , 7,
3,
.
16.9. x 1 x 1/x
: x, 1/x, 1 x,

x
1
,
,
1x x1

x1
.
x
1
x2
(x 1)2
1
+
+
R(x) = x2 + 2 + (1 x)2 +
2
2
x
(1 x)
(1 x)
x2

.
16.10. , . , , f(x, y) = x2 + (xy 1)2 .
f(x, y) = 0, x = 0 xy 1 = 0,
.

, > 0 x =
xy 1 =
,

1
. . y = 1 + . f(x, y) = 2 .

215

3
16.11. : . , ,
f(x) = x 2x.
x = 0, 2. ,
x = m/n y = p/q (n > 0 q > 0),
f(x) = f(y).

q3 m(m2 2n2 ) = n3 p(p2 2q2 ).

(1)
2

p q , p 2q q
. , n3 q3 .
q3 n3 , n = q. (1) m3 2mq2 = p3 2pq2 , . . m3 p3 = 2q2 (m p).
m 6= p m2 + pm + p2 = 2q2 .
m p , , q .
p q.
16.12. : , .
,
. . , ,
.
, .
, ,
.
16.13. ) : 3 . , n
k n- , 1
n. k , 1 k
. k + 1 ,
k + 1 (
).
k + 1 .
1 2k + 1. ( 1 l1 + k, l1 6 k.)
2(k + 1) , 4(k + 1) . .
, k , , k + 1 k + 1,
2(k + 1), 4(k + 1), 8(k + 1), . . . , 2k (k + 1) (
). 1 n = 2k+1 (k + 1) 1. ,
2k k 6 n 6 2k+1 (k + 1) 1, k k 1 . , 24 6 n 6 63,
3.
4, 8, 16,
29 .

216

16.

) : 4 . ) ,
n , 64 6 n 6 159,
4 .
16.14. : , . 10 . ,
. 9 , , , 9 , . 8
,
.
16.15. : , . an ,
an1 .
an2 , an3 , . . . , a1 ,
( ,
). k > 0 ,
ak . , k 6 ak . , n1 = an an1 6 2an1 an1 = an1 . ,
k 6 ak , k1 = |k ak1 | ak1 6 k ak1 6 ak ak1 6
6 2ak1 ak1 = ak1 .
,
S1 S2 , |S1 S2 | 6 a1 = 1.
S1 + S2 , S1 = S2 .
16.16. : , .
, .
k a k,
a . ( ,
, 7,
, .) k , k a k
7, . . 2k , a.
, k
7, 2k .
16.17. ) n, n + 1, . . . , n + 8
: 1) n, n + 4, n + 8; 2) n + 1, n + 5, n + 6;
3) n + 2, n + 3, n + 7.
1, 2, . . . , 549 = 61 9.
550, 551, . . . , 555
: 1) 550 555; 2) 551 554; 3) 552 553.
) n2 , (n + 1)2 , . . . , (n + 8)2
: 1) n2 , (n + 5)2 , (n + 7)2 ; 2) (n + 1)2 ,
(n + 3)2 , (n + 8)2 ; 3) (n + 2)2 , (n + 4)2 , (n + 6)2 .

217

, 18 .
27 n2 , (n + 1)2 , . . . , (n + 26)2 9
, 6 , 3
18 , 6.
3 . , 27k 12 , 22 ,
32 , . . . , (27k)2 3 .
k = 3 .
16.18. ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, - 1,
2;
, .
, ,

.
16.19. : , . A 2n ,
1,
.
A + 2n

A + 2n

2n+1 . 1, 1,
. , 2n 1,
, 1 2n .

17

:
n m , m > n,
.
, .
, ,
, . ;
, . ,
(, , , ,
, ),
, . .
,

17.1.
17.1. ,
.
. . 9.3.

17.2. , a b , an 1 b n.
17.3. p < q , q 2 5. 17.2 n

219

, 10n 1 q. , p/q ,
n.
* * *
17.4. ,
,
.
n+1
17.5. 1, 2, . . . , n

2
. ,
.
17.6. a1 , a2 , . . . , ap a1 > p. ,
p ,
p.
17.7. n > 1
, e

, n. ,
a, n,
x y, e 1, ,
ay x (mod n).
. 15.10.

17.2.
17.8. , n > 2
,
n .
17.9. , mn + 1

m + 1 , n + 1 .
17.10. [a], [2a], . . . , [Na] ,
[1/a], [2/a], . . . , [M/a] .
a.

220

17. .

17.3.

17.11. . ,

x, y, |x/y | < 1/y2.
17.12. . ,
C > 1 x
y , x < C |x y| 6 1/C.
17.13. )
. ,
a < b
m n, a < m n < b.
) , m n .

17.4.
,
,
() . .

17.14. , ,
, . , .
17.15.
- . ,
, , ,
.
17.16. , ,
, ,
. . , (. .
).

221

17.17. 13 , . , 12
2 , 6 ,
. , .
17.18. ) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, . . . , 199, 200 101 . ,
, .
) : 1, 2, 3, . . . , 199, 200
, 16, 99 . ,
,
.
17.19. n . ,
,

. . ,
a 6 n/2 ,
n
a 2a 1.
17.20. x, y, z x1 = |x y|, y1 = |y z|,
z1 = |z x|. x1 , y1 , z1 x2 , y2 , z2 . . , n
xn = x, yn = y, zn = z. , x = 1,
y z.
17.21. a1 , a2 , . . . , an
a1 + a2
a2 + a3
an1 + an
an + a1
b1 =
, b2 =
, . . . , bn1 =
, bn =
.
2
2
2
2
. . ,
, b1 = b2 = . . . = bn .
. 19.6.

17.1. p/q,
16 p < q. p/q = 0,a1 a2 a3 . . .

222

17. .

: ak =

h 10k p i
q

h 10k1 p i
10
.
q

10k1 p = Mq + rk , rk 10k1 p q.
h 10r i
h 10r i
k
k
ak = 10M +
10M =
. r1 , . . . , rq+1
q

: ri = ri+n . rk+1 10rk q.


ri+1 = ri+n+1 . . , ak
( i).
17.2. a, a2 , . . . , ab+1
b. ak al , k > l.
ak al = al (akl 1) b. al b ,
akl 1 b.
rp
rp
p
=
= n
= rp 10n +
17.3. 10n 1 = rq.
q

rq

10 1

+ rp 102n + rp 103n + . . . rp < rq = 10n1 .


17.4. a1 , . . . , a100 . ,
S1 = a1 , S2 = a1 + a2 , . . . , S100 = a1 + a2 + . . . + a100
100. 100
99 : 1, 2, . . . , 99. Sn Sm ,
n > m, 100. ,
Sn Sm = am+1 + . . . + an 100.
17.5.
. , n, n/2 n (n + 1)/2 n.
. .
17.6. a1 , . . . , ap p. a1 , . . . , ap p,
p. , p ,
p. , ai aj , p.
p. ai aj = (i j)d, d . |i j|
p, p d.
17.7. e2 ay + x, x, y = 0, 1, 2, . . . , e 1.
e2 > n, ay1 + x1 ay2 + x2 ,
n. ,
a(y1 y2 ) x2 x1 (mod n). |y1 y2 | |x1 x2 | e 1, n ,
0. a n. x1 = x2 , y1 = y2 . ,
|y1 y2 | 6= 0 |x1 x2 | 6= 0. x = |x1 x2 | y = |y1 y2 |
.

223

17.8. n ,
n .
n : 0, 1, . . . , n 1. -
, .
, - , ,
. , n 1 . -
.
17.9. ak xk yk , xk , ak , yk , ak . ,
xk 6 m yk 6 n k.
(xk , yk ) mn. xk = xl yk = yl
k 6= l. . ,
k < l. ak < al , xk > xl , ak > al ,
yk > yl .
M
N1
6 |a| 6
.
17.10. :
M1

[x] [y] , [x]


[y] . ,
N1

a > 0. a <
, [a], [2a], . . . , [Na] N
, N N 1
N1
.
N
1
M1
M
1/a , >
, . . a 6
.
a
M
M1
M
N1
6a6
, [a], [2a], . . .
,
N
M1

0, 1, . . . , N 2. a >

. . . , [Na] . , a > 1,
[a], [2a], [3a], . . . , a < 1, 1 1/N 6 a < 1,
2 2/N 6 a < 2, . . . , N 1 6 a < N, [ka] = k 1 k = 1, 2, . . .
. . . , N. [1/a], [2/a], . . . , M/a] .
17.11. n.
0, , 2 , . . . , n [0, 1),
[k/n, (k + 1)/n), 0 6 k 6 n 1. ,

a a

|p1 [p1 ] (p2 [p2 ])| < 1/n

p1 p2 , 0 6 p2 < p1 6 n. y = p1 p2 x = [p2 ] [p1 ].


|y x| < 1/n. x y ,

224

17. .

(x, y)

. , 0 < y 6 n, |x/y | <

1
1
6 2.
ny
y

n1 , |x/y | > 1/n1 .


x1 , y1 ,

< |x/y |. |x1 /y1 | <


n1 y1
x, y.
17.12. , C .
1 k [k ] k = 0, 1, . . . , C 1. C + 1 [0, 1], -
1/C. k1 [k1 ]
k2 [k2 ], k1 < k2 , x = k2 k1 y = [k2 ] [k1 ].
0 < x < C

a
a

a
a
ka [ka]

|x y| = |k1 [k1 ] (k2 [k2 ])| 6



y = [k ] + 1.

a
a

1
.
C

1, x = k

|x y| = |k [k ] 1| 6

1
.
C

, , , x 6= 0.
C . C =
= [C] + 1. , x y , x < C |x y| 6 1/C < 1/C.
C , , C , C. , x < C.
17.13. ) = b a. m1 n1 , 0 6 m1 n1 6 1.
[0, 1] ,
. k.
m1 n1 , . . . , mk+1 nk+1 ,
. :
mp np (mq nq ) = t. , 0 6 t < . , t 6= 0,

a = mn

nq
.
mq

Nt, N .
m n. , 0 < t < , ,
a b.
) , t
M N, M + N, M N .
t = M N. 0 t

225

m n, m n . ,
m > 0. m > M,
t = M N (m n) . t = M + N, .
17.14. .
, n. , ,
. . ,
n .
m , a, b, c, d . a, b, c, d > m a + b + c + d = 4m.
a = b = c = d = m.
, , . m.
17.15. , 16 , 4 . 12
, (
, ). .
17.16. , a .
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4
a = (a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 )/4. a > a1 , a > a2 , a > a3 , a > a4 .
a > (a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 )/4. .
17.17. , , . 12
6 , . , a , ,
, b , a b .
a b , -

1
|a b|,
2

|a b| .
, .
. , (
).
, .
( ),
, . ,
. .

226

17. .

,
() , .
, .
17.18. ) . 1 200 100 ( 1, 3, . . . , 199). ,
. ,
, 2 .
.
) , 1, 2, 3, . . . , 199, 200
100 , . , , 16.
. ,
. 1, 3,
5, . . . , 199. , 1, 3, 9, 27 81.
,
27 2,
9 22 ,
3 23 , 1
24 . ,
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 12. ,
5, 15 45, ,
5, 10 15; 7,
21 63, , 7 14; 11 33,
, 11;
13 39, ,
13.
17.19. ,
m , .
m m , m + m = m.
, m m m/2. , , .
n = a1 > a2 > . . . > ak = 1, ai > ai1 /2 ( ai ). i ,
ai > 2a > ai+1 . ai+1 > ai /2 > a, , a 6 ai+1 6 2a 1.

227

17.20. : y = z = 0. xn , yn , zn ,
x, y, z . x,
y, z , x1 , y1 , z1
x, y, z, xn , yn , zn
x, y, z. x, y, z 0.
, x1 , y1 , z1 0 ( n = 1 , x1 = x, y1 = y, z1 = z).
, x, y, z . ,
x, y, z
0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1. ,
.
17.21. , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
N, k .
, N, N
k 1 . . ,
.
.
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
x1 = x3 , x2 = x4 , . . . , xn1 = x1 , xn = x2 . n ,
x1 , . . . , xn . n , x1 = x3 = . . . = xn1 = a
x2 = x4 = . . . = xn = b. , a 6= b,
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
y1 , y2 , . . . , yn . ,

yn1 +yn
y1 +y2 y3 +y4
=
=. . .=
=a
2
2
2

y4 + y5
yn + y1
y2 + y3
=
= ... =
= b. y1 + y2 + . . . + yn = 2na
2
2
2

y2 + y3 + . . . + yn + y1 = 2nb. a = b.

18

, ,
.
. ,
,
, .
, :
, .
,
. . , , :
, ( ).

18.1.
18.1. 44 , , 44 ( ). -
( , ). - ?
18.2. (a, b, c)
: 2,
1.
(13, 15, 17)
?

229

18.3. 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, . . .
. ,
0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1.
18.2.

18.4. a1 6 a2 6 . . . 6 an , b1 6 b2 6 . . . 6 bn (1), . . .
. . . , (n) 1, . . . , n. ,
X
X
X
ai b i .
ai bni 6
ai bs(i) 6

18.5. N ( ).
90 , , . ,
, 180 . ,
,
180 . .
) ,
N 1 .
) , N 1 .
18.6. x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , , . xi < 0,
xi1 , xi , xi+1 xi1 + xi , xi ,
xi+1 + xi (, xi+5 = xi ). ,

.
18.3.

, ( 18.7).
15 ( 18.8). , ( 18.9),

230

18.


( 18.10 18.11).
-
a1 , . . . , an , . . a1 , . . . , ai , . . . , aj , . . . , an a1 , . . . , aj , . . . ,
ai , . . . , an .

18.7. (1), (2), . . . , (n) 1, 2, . . . , n. ,


: m1 ,
m2 . , m1 m2
, . . m1 m2 2.
18.8. 15 .
4 15 1. 1 15:
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

, ( ) , ( ). 14 15, ,
?
18.9. , 1, . . . , n
1, . . . , n, .
1, . . . , n , , ;
. 18.7 ,
.

231

18.10. 1, . . . , n.
i < j,
(i) > (j). ,
.

1, . . . , n . (a1 ) = a2 ,
(a2 ) = a3 , . . . , (ak ) = a1 a1 , a2 , . . . , ak . a1 , a2 , . . . , ak , (a1 , a2 , . . . , ak ). ,
(a2 , a3 , . . . , ak , a1 ) . (a1 ) = a1 ,
(a1 ). 1 n, , , .
,
. , (1) = 2,
(2) = 1, (3) = 4, (4) = 3
(12)(34).

18.11. )
1, . . . , n m .
- . , ,
m 1 .
) , , n m .

18.1. : .
. - k-
nk . n1 + 2n2 + . . . + 44n44 .
,
1, 43,
, 1,
43.
44 .
1 + 2 + . . . + 44 =

44 45
= 990; 44
2

22. ,
44.
.

232

18.

. .
, ,
.
18.2. : .
(a, b) (a 1, b 1), (a + 2, b 1),
(a 1, b + 2).
a b 3 . 13 15
3. (13, 15, 17)
, 45 = 13 + 15 + 17.
18.3. (x1 , . . . , x6 ) (x2 , x3 , . . . , x6 , x7 ), x7
x1 + . . . + x6 . , S(x1 , . . . , x6 ) = 2(x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 + 5x5 + 6x6 )
. , S(x2 , . . . , x7 ) S(x1 , . . . , x6 ) = 12x7
2(x1 + . . . + x6 ) 2(x7 (x1 + . . . + x6 )) 0 (mod 10).
S(1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0) = 18 S(0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1) = 24 , 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1.


18.4. ,
1, . . . , n, (k) = (k + 1), (k + 1) = (k)
(i) = P
(i) i 6= k, k + 1. (k + 1) > (k),
P
ai bs(i) ai bt(i) = (ak+1 ak )(bs(k+1) bs(k) ) > 0.
. (k + 1) > (k),
(k + 1) (k). . . .
P
n,
n

1,
.
.
.
,
1.

ai bni 6
P
6 ai bs(i) . (k+1) (k)
, (k + 1) < (k),

1, 2, . . . , n.
P
P
ai bs(i) 6 ai bi .
18.5. ) m , .
m . , , , m , ,
, m 1. ,
m 6 N 1.
) N. N=1
. N > 2. .
, ,

s t
t

s
s

233

.
, N 1
. ,
, . .
N 1
. ,
.
, , ,
, ( ); .
, ( ).
(. . ,
) . ,
2 (. . ). ,
N 1 . ,
.
: ,
.
18.6. , . X=(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 )
5
P
F(x) = (xi xi+2 )2 . xi < 0 Y = (xi2 , xi1 + xi ,
i=1

xi , xi+1 + xi , xi+2 ). ,
F(X) F(Y) = 2xi (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 ) > 0,

. . F(Y) < F(X). ,


F(X) .
.
18.7. x1 , . . .
Q
xi xj
. . . , xn
= 1. ,
i>j

xs(i) xs(j)

1, m1 m2 , 1,
m1 m2 .
, . . (i) = j,
,
(j) = i (k) = k k 6= i, j. i < j.

xi xj
= 1.
xj xi

234

18.

, k 6= i, j
(k, i) (k, j) 1. , k < i < j,
i < k < j,

xi xk xj xk

;
xj xk xi xk

xk xi xj xk

; i < j < k,
xk xj xi xk

xk xi xk xj

. , 1.
xk xj xk xi

, 1.

,

1,

(xs(i) xs(j) )
xi xj
xi xj
,
=

xt(s(i)) xt(s(j))
xs(i) xs(j) (xt(s(i)) xt(s(j)) )

. . .
, .
18.8. : , . 16. 1, . . . , 16.
. 14 15.
,
, . . . 18.7 ,
.
,
, , ,
. .
18.9. , (1), . . .
. . . , (n) 1, . . . , n, ( ). (1) 6= 1, 1 (1).
2 (2), (2) 6= 2, . .
18.10. ,
. (i) (j).
(i, k) (j, k).
, , k i j, (k)
(i) (j). , .

235

18.11. ) a b.
.
1. a b (a, a1 , . . . , ap , b, b1 , . . . , bq ).
(a, a1 , . . . , ap ) (b, b1 , . . . , bq ), a a1 , a2 a3 , . . .
. . . , ap b a b b1 , . . . , bq a b.
.
2. a b (a, a1 , . . . , ap ) (b, b1 , . . .
. . . , bq ). (a, a1 , . . . , ap , b, b1 , . . . , bq ), a a1 , . . .
. . . , ap a b, b b1 , . . . , bq b a.
) : ,
n m , , n m . 1, 2, . . . , n (
n m = 0). (
n m = 1). ) . , , ,
,
, .

19

19.1.
19.1. , ( ).
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
19.2. ,
, .

, ,
?
19.3. , . ,
?
19.4. .
, ?
19.5. 8 , . 3 ,
, , .
19.6. ,
, , .
.
1) ,
.

237

2)
, .
, , . ?
19.7.
, , .
, 3 2 .
, .
, , , .
, , . ,
?
19.8. . , .
: . , . , .
n- ,
. ? (
, ,
.)
19.2.
. : , , .
?
, ,
, , , .
. ,
. ?

238

19.

, ,
, , ,
.
.
, , . , .
,
.
, . , , .
19.3.
p q , (), ().
:
p : p ;
p & q : p q;
p q : p q;
p q : p q, . . q , p ;
p q : p q.
:
p q

p&q

pq

pq

pq

,
.

19.9. : ) p & (p); ) p (p); ) (p & q);


) (p q) (p).

239

, .

19.10. : ) p (p); ) ((p)) p; ) ((p q) p) p;


) (p & (p))?
19.11. , , . . : p & q
((p) (q); p q ((p) & (q); p q (q) (p);
p q (p q) & (q p).
19.12. , &, , , :
) ; ) ; ) n .
19.13. ,
. ,
A,
.
?

19.1. . .
.
19.2. :
, : ?? ,
, : , ,
, : .
19.3. ?
19.4. - ?
19.5. 0 7. , {0, 2, 4, 6}, {0, 1, 4, 5}
{0, 1, 2, 3}. i = 0, i- ,
i = 1 .
1 + 2 2 + 4 3 .
,
: a0 + a1 2 + a2 4, ai = 0 1. k-
: ak1 ?

240

19.

19.6. : 110.
, 10 ,
10 . , 100 ,
100 . ,
10 100 .
19.7. : , .
, , . ,
.
,
, . , ,
, .
19.8. , n ,
n- . n = 1 : , , , - . ,
, n .
, n + 1 .
. : (1) , (2) .
n ; n- .
n- ,
. n-
, , , .
19.9. : ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .
19.10. : , . ) ,
(p q) p
.
19.11. .
19.12. ) , p, p, p & p p p
.
) p & q, p & (q), p & q p & (q)
p q. , , , . , (p & q) (p & q)
, (p, q) = (,) (p, q) = (,).
p &p .

241

. , ,
, , , p p.
) n , . p1 & p1
. p1 & p2 & . . . & pn , p1 & p2 & . . .
. . . & pn . .
( 2n , ). ,
, .
19.13. p , A, q
, . , ,
(, , , ,
):
p

,
19.12. (p&q)(p&q).
, : ,
A, A?
, A.
. , (p & q) (p & q)
p q. :
, ,
A?

20

. .

20.1.
20.1. ,
.
. ,
, . ?
20.2. . , .
, , .
?
20.3. . 1 , 2, 5, 10.
. .
17 ? (
, .
. ,
.)
20.4. . 9
1, 2, . . . , 9.
. ,
, 15. ,
-
3 3.

243

20.2.
20.5. 8
5 3 .
?
20.6. 12
8 5 .
?
20.7. . 24 ,
13, 11, 5. , .
?
20.3.
:
) ;
) 1 , 1/2 , 0 .

20.8.
. ,
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , ai
aj i < j.
20.9. ,
, . ,
, ,
?
20.10. )
7 8 . 8 ,
. ? .
) 9 10
. 10 ,

244

20. . .

, 4,5
, .
?
20.11. 2n .
2n1 ( ). ,
. ,
n(n + 1)/2 .
( .)
20.4.
20.12. , . ,
. , 1
.
?
20.13. 26
, . ,
( )
.
20.14. 2n + 1 2k (k 6 n),
1 .
, ?
20.15. n ,
. .
, .
. ,

. -

245

,
?
20.16. 20 , , ,
* ( ).
11 ?
1

20.17. ) (3n 3) (n > 2),


2
, . n
, , .
) ,
1 n
(3 3), .
2

20.5.
20.18. ) , ,
, . ,
.
)
,
. ,
,
.
20.19. n2 1 n ,
. , n
,
* , ,
( ,
, ).

246

20. . .

, 1, 2, 3, . . . , n.
20.20. 8 8 , 1956.
) , , 112. ,
, . ,
1035.
) , , 112.
,
, . ,
518.
20.21. 1, 2, . . . , k2
:
1,

2,

...,

k,

k + 1,

k + 2,

...,

2k,

...

...

...

...

(k 1)k + 1,

...,

...,

k2 .

,
, .
(k 1)2 . . k . .

20.1. .
, . (), , , ()
.
20.2. , . : (),
(), (), (), (), (), (),
(), ().

247

20.3. ,
. ,
, , , , . 2 + 1 + 10 + 2 + 2 = 17
.
20.4. , 8 , 15: (1, 5, 9), (1, 6, 8), (2, 4, 9), (2, 5, 8), (2, 6, 7),
(3, 4, 8), (3, 5, 7) (4, 5, 6). 8 ,
2

, ,
, .
20.5. . 8-, 5-
3- , , a, b, c , (a, b, c).
: (8, 0, 0) (3, 5, 0) (3, 2, 3)
(6, 2, 0) (6, 0, 2) (1, 5, 2) (1, 4, 3) (4, 4, 0).
. a,
b, c , n n.
n
x, y, z, n. ,
n , ,
x, y, z; , x + y + z = n.
x, y, z . ,
, . . , a,
b, c , , x, y, z .
, x 6 a, y 6 b, z 6 c.


, .

248

20. . .


. 20.1.
(8, 0, 0)

(8, 0, 0)
(7, 1, 0)

(6, 2, 0)

(7, 0, 1)

(6, 0, 2)
(5, 3, 0)

(4, 4, 0)
(3, 5, 0)

(4, 4, 0)

(4,
(4, 1,
1, 3)
3)

(3, 2, 3)
(2,
(2, 5,
5, 1)
1)

(1, 5, 2)

(5, 0, 3)

(2, 3, 3)

(1, 4, 3)

. 20.1.

20.6. :
(12, 0, 0) (4, 8, 0) (0, 8, 4) (8, 0, 4)
(8, 4, 0) (3, 4, 5) (3, 8, 1) (11, 0, 1)
(11, 1, 0) (6, 1, 5) (6, 6, 0).
20.7. :
(24, 0, 0, 0) (19, 0, 0, 5) (8, 0, 11, 5)
(8, 11, 0, 5) (0, 11, 8, 5) (0, 13, 8, 3) (8, 13, 0, 3)
(8, 13, 3, 0) (8, 8, 3, 5) (8, 8, 8, 0).
20.8.
. 7 .
3,5. , a1 , .

1,5. a2 ,
a3 a4 (a3 ,
).
20.9. : , .
, -

249

1/2

1/2

a , b ,
c . b + c ,
a + b + c a . a + b ,
b a + 2c . 2(a + b + c) ,
2a + 2b + c/2 .
a > b + c, b > 2c c > 0. , c = 1, b = 3 a = 5.
20.10. ) : 7 14. x , y , .
,
,
xy + 8 =
. .
2y =

(x + 2)(x + 1)
,
2

(x + 2)(x + 1) 16
14
=x+3 .
x
x

x 1, 2, 7, 14. 1 2
, y .
: x = 7 x = 14.
) : 10. x . 11x

11x(11x 1)
2

250

20. . .

. , , , , 1 : 4,5. x(11x 1) ,
, 11x 1 , .
,
, . ; 10 .
20.11. n. n = 1 . , 2n1
n(n 1)/2 . , 2n n(n + 1)/2 . X Y
2n1 .
. n(n 1)/2
: X1 < . . . < XN Y1 < . . . < YN , N = 2n1 .
n(n + 1)/2 n(n 1)/2 = n
. . n = 1 . . X1 , X3 , . . . , Y1 , Y3 , . . . X2 , X4 , . . . ,
Y2 , Y4 , . . . n 1
( ).
Yj1 < Xi < Yj+1 . Xi Yj .
, Xi1 < Yj < Xi+1 .
{Xi , Yj },
, ,
.
20.12.
, . .
, .
20.13. 18
, .
,
. ,
.
8 9 . 6
, .
. -

251

, ,
.
20.14. ,
. n k1 ,
n k2 .
na k1 , a ,
na k2 .
k1 k2 k1 + k2 (mod 2). ,
, ,
, .
20.15. a ,
a + d 1 . 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1 i
di . i
a + mi ,
m0 +m1 d+m2 d2 +. . .+mn1 dn1 .
.
, 0 6 mi 6 d 1. , d-
, m0 , m1 , . . . , mn1 .
20.16. .
.
1. .
,
. . ,
18 9
. , . , ,
;
, ;
,
. , 10 .
2. .
, .
.
k , (k + 1)-

252

20. . .

. ( k = 9,
, .)
(k + 1)- .
k .
(k + 1)- .
, . ,
, .
, , .
, .
11.
20.17. ) n-
, 00 . . . 0, 11 . . . 1 22 . . . 2. ,
22 . . . 2. .
,
01, 12 20. .
21, 10 02.
k- ,
k- 0, , k- 2.
, ak = 0;
, ak = 2; ,
ak = 1. , a1 a2 . . . an , ,
, , .
, ; , , k-
0, 1, 2, .
,
0120; ,
.
, k- 1. k-
, ak = 1.
(k- 1).
, k- 0. k-
.
, ak = 0 (k- 0).

253

, ak = 2 (k-
2). , k-
2, .
) , ,

1 n
(3 3), ,
2

,
, . , ,
0 1 2 0. ,
00 . . . 01, 11 . . . 12 22 . . . 20.
, .
, .
( );
. ,
11 . . . 12, ,
00 . . . 01 22 . . . 20.
n 1 . , 3,
.
, 11 . . . 12.
n 1 ,
11 . . . 1, , 11 . . . 12
. . 11 . . . 1,
11 . . . 10
11 . . . 12. (
). , . ,
.
, 00 . . . 01 22 . . . 20; 22 . . . 21
00 . . . 02. n1 ,
00 . . . 0 22 . . . 2,
. . n 1
00 . . . 0 22 . . . 2, ,
, ,
. , ,
, , .

254

20. . .

20.18. ) . x1 , . . . , xn
, y1 , . . . , ym . i- j- xi yj .
i- xi y1 + xi y2 + . . . + xi ym . ,
xi . , xi = xi (y1 + y2 + . . . + ym ). xi ; , ,
y1 + y2 + . . . + ym = 1. y1 + y2 + . . . + ym
.
. aij ,
m

n
P
P
aip
aqj .
i- j- . aij =
P

m
P P

n
P

p=1

q=1

,
aij =
aip
aqj =
aij .
i,j
i,j p=1
i,j
q=1
P
S = aij S2 = S. S > 0, S = 1.
i,j

) x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , ym . i- j- xi yj . i-
xi y1 + xi y2 + . . . + +xi ym . , xi .
, xi =xi (y1 +y2 +. . .+ym ). y1 +y2 +. . .+ym
. 1, xi = 0.
, x1 , . . . , xn ,
y1 , . . . , ym 0. xi yj 0.
20.19. , , ,
. ,
, . .
1 n.
1 n ,
n . n ,
1 n ; , 1 n
.
n , 1 n
.
20.20. ) ,
S > 1035. ,
. S, ,
, 2S s, s , . s , s 6 112.

255

, 2S s > 2 1035 112 = 1958 > 1956.


.
) ,
S > 518. , , ,
.
,
. 4 , s 6 112. ,
4S s > 4 518 112 = 1960 > 1956.
.
20.21. :

k(k2 + 1)
.
2


k 0 + 1,

k 0 + 2,

...,

k 0 + k,

k 1 + 1,

k 1 + 2,

...,

k 1 + k,

...

...

...

...

(k 1)k + 1,

(k 1)k + 2,

...,

(k 1)k + k.

ka + b, 0 6 a 6 k 1
1 6 b 6 k. ka b. ,
ka a = 0, 1, . . . , k 1.
, b b = 1, 2, . . . , k.
,
k(0+1+2+. . .+(k1))+(1+2+. . .+k)=k

k(k1) k(k+1) k(k2 +1)


+
=
.
2
2
2

21

21.1.
21.1. , , ( ).
21.2. ) , n n-* an bn
( 00 . . . 0 0 . . . 01), a2n
an , b2n bn .
) , an + bn = 10n + 1.
) an an+1
. , an+1 an , bn+1
bn .
) , an+1 an 5,
an+1 n + 1 a2n , bn+1 bn
6, bn+1 n + 1 b5n .
21.2.
21.3. 2n 5n a. a?
21.4. ) , 2n .
* , . . ,
an , bn 6 10n 1.

257

) , 0,12481632 . . . ( ) .
21.5. , .
. 25.35.
21.3.
21.6. , 3n
n > 2 .
21.7. a b
2n . , n > 3, ab 6.
21.8. a1 , a2 , . . . ,
1. , an /n
.
21.4.
21.9. a > 2 , 2, 5. , am
m .
21.10. , 2n
.
21.11. P(x) , an P(n). ,
a1 , a2 ,
a3 , . . . .
21.5.
21.12. ,
.
21.13. 2n 5n ( ) . ?

258

21.

21.14. , a ,
0 k, k , .
21.15. ,
.
21.16. , . 206 788- ?
21.6.
p , 2 5.
p
1/p.

21.17. n ,
p 1. ,
n/p p.
21.18. , p
p 1.
21.19. 7
:
1/7 = 0,(142857),
6/7 = 0,(857142),

3/7 = 0,(428571),
4/7 = 0,(571428),

2/7 = 0,(285714),
5/7 = 0,(714285).

,
p, p 1.
21.20. 1/7 = 0,(142857) : 142 + 857 = 999. , 1/p p, p 1.
* * *
111 . . . 111,
. . , .

259

21.21. , p 6= 3
,
p.
21.22. p > 7 . ,
111
. . . 11} p.
| {z
p1

21.7. d-

21.23. d > 1 . ,
n n = a0 + a1 d + a2 d2 + . . . + ak dk , 0 6 ai 6
6 d 1 , ak 6= 0.

n=a0 +a1 d+a2 d2 +. . .+ak dk d-


n.

21.8.
21.24. n , a0 n 2. n1 = (n a0 )/2, a1
n1 2 . . , nm = 1
am = 1. , am 2m + am1 2n1 + . . . + a1 2 + a0
n.
n
21.25. , (1 + x)(1 + x2 )(1 + x4 ) . . . (1 + x2 ) =
n+1
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . . . + x2 1 .
21.26. , (1 + x)n 2d , d
n (. . n).
21.27. ( .) .
, . , .
:
a0 +a1 2+a2 22 +. . . , b0 +b1 2+b2 22 +. . . , c0 +c1 2+c2 22 +. . .
di = ai + bi + ci .

260

21.

) , di
, , ,
.
) , di ,
.
21.28. , n
hni h n i h n i
n
2 3 ...
2

n.
. 19.5, 33.5.

21.9.
21.29. a1 , a2 , . . . ,
100 . , an /n
.
21.30. n p-
: n = a0 + a1 p + a2 p2 + . . . + am pm . ,
hni h n i h n i
n (a0 + a1 + . . . + am )

+ 2 + 3 + . . .
.
p

p1

21.31. p . , pk
p, Cm
n+m , k m n p-
.
21.32. p .
a b p- : a = a0 + a1 p + . . . + am pm ,
b = b0 + b1 p + . . . + bm pm . ,
Cab Cab00 Cab11 . . . Cabmm (mod p).

21.33. , ,
, d- nd dn ( 0 dn 1). , . .

? (

261

d1 d2 , m ,
m d1 d2 .)
. 20.15, 20.17.
21.10.
21.34. , n n = a1 1!+ a2 2!+ . . .
. . . + ak k!, ai , 0 6 ai 6 i, ak 6= 0.
21.35. , p/q 6= 0

p
x2
x3
xn
= x1 +
+
+...+ ,
q
2!
3!
n!

x1 , . . . , xn , 0 6 xk < k k > 2
xn 6= 0.
. 15.17.

21.1. : 376 625. N .


N2 N = N(N 1) 1000. N N 1
, 8, 125.
N = 125k. k 6 8. 125k 1, k = 1, . . . , 8,
624 8. N 1 = 125k.
N = 125k + 1, k 6 7. 125k + 1, k = 1, . . . , 7,
376 8.
N2 N = N(N 1) 1000, Nk N = N(Nk1 1)
1000, Nk1 1 N 1.
21.2. ) a2n an = an (an 1) 10n = 2n 5n .
an an 1 an 6= 0 1,
an 2n an 1 5n , an 5n
an 1 2n . an = 2n a, 1 6 a 6 5n 1.
2n a, 1 6 a 6 5n 1, 5n
, 5n . ,
(aa )2n 5n , aa 5n .
, an = 2n a, 1 6 a 6 5n 1, 5n
1 5n 1,
. an = 2n a , -

262

21.

5n 1.
, bn = 5n b bn 1 2n .
) ) , an = 2n a 1 (mod 5n )
bn = 5n b 1 (mod 2n ). , an + bn 1 (mod 5n ) an + bn
1 (mod 2n ), . . an + bn 1 10n .
) n a2n+1 n
an+1 . , an ,
an+1 , a2n an .
) a2n = x 10n+1 + an+1 . , a2n+1 an+1
10n+1 . ,
a2n+1 an+1 = (a2n x 10n+1 )2 (a2n x 10n+1 ) =

= a4n 2xa2n 10n+1 + x2 102n+2 a2n + x 10n+1 .

, a4n a2n = (a2n an )(a2n + an ). a2n an 10n ,


a2n + an 10, a2n
an 5.
b5n = y 10n+1 + bn+1 . , b2n+1 bn+1 5
n+1
). ,
10n+1 . , b2n+1 bn+1 b10
n bn (mod 10
n
5
4
2
6
2
8
7
5
b10
n bn = (bn bn )(bn + bn + bn + bn + bn ). bn bn 10 ,
b8n + . . . + b4n 10,
, 6.
21.3. : 3. a 10p < 2n < (a + 1)10p a10q <5n <
<(a+1)10q . a2 10p+q <10n <(a+1)2 10p+q , . . a2 <10npq <
< (a + 1)2 . (a + 1)2 6 100. , a2 < 10 < (a + 1)2 ,
. . a = 3. 3 25 55 .
21.4. ) A . , n , 10m A < 2n < 10m (A + 1),
. . m + lg A < n lg 2 < m + lg(A + 1). : m n, lg A <
<n lg 2m<lg(A+1). lg 2 (
, 27.25 ).
17.13 ).
) ).
21.5. , 4n
. , 21.4.
21.6. N = a0 + a1 10 + a2 100 + . . . 3N = 3a0 + 30a1 +
+ 300a2 + . . . a1 ,
3N ,
3a0 . 34 = 81 ,
3n 3, 9, 7 1. 3 3 = 9,

263

3 9 = 27, 3 7 = 21 3 1 = 3;
.
21.7. 24 = 16, 24k 6. , 24k+1 , 24k+2 , 24k+3 2, 4, 8.
24k , b = 6.
, b .
, 24k+1 2, 24k+2 4, 24k+3 8 3,
, , 24k 1 3.
24 = 16 3 1, 24k
1 3.
21.8. , 10k 1,
9k 1. , k
9 ,
. , an > 10k n 6 9k .
an /n > (10/9)k . (10/9)k .
21.9. , am .
am aN
N. aN < 10k . 17.2 n, an 1
10k . an+N = aN (an 1) + aN
aN . .
21.10. 21.4.
21.11. P(x) = bm xm + bm1 xm1 + . . . + b0 . k , 10k
b0 , b1 , . . . , bm . P(10k )
bm , , bm1 ,
. . l
P(10k+l ) .
.
21.12. a , b . 11(b+ 100a), b+ 100a = 11x2
x. , 100 6 b + 100a 6
6 908, , 4 6 x 6 9. 44, . . . , 99,
, : 882 = 7744.
21.13. : n+1. , 2n p ,
5n q . 10p1 < 2n < 10p 10q1 < 5n < 10q .
, 10p+q2 < 10n < 10p+q . , p + q = n + 1.
21.14. a/k , 0 1. , a = k(a/k), .

264

21.

21.15. : 145. N = 100x + 10y + z ,


N = x! + y! + z!. 7! = 5040 , N 6. N
700. N 5,
6! = 720. 3 4! = 72 < 100 ,
N 5. x 6= 5,
3 5! = 360 < 500. 3 5! = 360 , x 6 3.
, x 6 2, 3! + 2 5! = 246 < 300. 255
,
5, x 6 1, 2! + 5! + 4! = 146 < 200.
1! + 5! + 4! = 145 < 150, y 6 4. , z = 5.
, x = 1 0 6 y 6 4,
N = 145.
21.16. : 7. 9, 99 9 = 90, 999 99 9 = 900, 9000 . .
9 , 90 2 = 180 ,
900 3 = 2700 , 9000 4 = 36 000 , 90000 5 = 450 000 .
.
, , 1 9 + 180 + 2700 + 36 000 = 38 889. 206 788 38 889 = 167 899 5 :
167 899 = 5 33 579 + 4.
33 580- , . . 43 579 ( 10 000).
4- .
21.17. n/p d, n(10d 1)
p. n p , n(10d 1) p
, 10d 1 p.
21.18. p d, 10d 1 p. ( 31.1) 10p1 1 p.
p 1 = ad + r, 0 6 r < d. , r = 0. , r > 0. 10p1 = (10d )a 10r 10r (mod p),
10r 1 (mod p). d.
21.19. 1 p . . ,
1 7 1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5.
, p 1, 1, 2, . . . , p 1.

265

7. , 1/7= 0,(142857). 1 3. , 3/7 1/7


. 2/7
, 6/7 . .
21.20. p 1 ; p 1 = 2k.
1/p, , a10k +b.
, a + b = 10k 1.
102k 1 = (10k 1)(10k + 1) p. 10k 1
p, p
2k. , 10k + 1 p.
, 102k 1 = (a 10k + b) p. a 10k + b =
= (10k 1)

10k + 1
10k 1. ,
p

a + b a 10k + b (mod 10k 1),


a + b 10k 1. , a + b < 2(10k 1),
a + b = 10k 1.
21.21. p d.
, d ,
10d 1 p. , 10d 1 = 9Rd , Rd , d . p ,
3, 9Rd p , Rd
p.
21.22. p , 2 5,
10p1 1 p ( 31.1). 99
. . . 9}.
| {z

p 6= 3, 11
. . . 1} p.
| {z

p1

p1

21.23. k , dk 6 n < dk+1 . ak = [n/dk ].


1 6 ak 6 d 1 n = ak dk + n , 0 6 n < dk . n 6= 0,
l < k , dl 6 n < dl+1 , al = [n /dl ]
al+1 = . . . = ak1 = 0 ( l < k 1). n = ak dk + al dl + n .
n . .
ak . ,
n = a0 + a1 d + a2 d2 + . . . + ak dk , dk 6 n 6 (d 1) + d(d 1) + . . .
. . . + dk (d 1) = dk+1 1 < dk+1 . al .
21.24. n = bk 2k + bk1 2k1 + . . . + b1 2 + b0 . a0 = b0
n1 = bk 2k1 + bk1 2k2 + . . . + b1 . a1 = b1 n2 = bk 2k2 +
+ bk1 2k3 + . . . + b2 . .

266

21.

21.25. 0 2n+1 1 0, 1, 2, 22 , . . . , 2n .
xm , 0 6 m 6 2n+1 1,
.
21.26. , (1 + x)2 1 + x2 (mod 2).
m
m
m , (1 + x)2 1 + x2 (mod 2). n = 2m1 +
md
m2
+ 2 + . . . + 2 , 0 6 m1 < m2 < . . . < md .
m1

(1 + x)n = (1 + x)2 (1 + x)2

m2

. . . (1 + x)2
m1

md

m2

md

(1 + x )(1 + x2 ) . . . (1 + x2 ) (mod 2).


, , . 2d , 1.
21.27. ) dk k.
ak , bk , ck 1, ak = 1. , ak+1 , ak+2 , . . .
, dk , dk1 , dk2 , . . . , d0 . , ak : 0;
,
.

di , .
.
-
. .
) di
,
, )
.
21.28. n = a0 + 2a1 + 22 a2 + . . . + 2k ak
n.
hni
= a1 + 2a2 + 22 a3 + . . . + 2k1 ak ,
2
hni
= a2 + 2a3 + . . . + 2k2 ak ,
22
hni
= a3 + . . . + 2k3 ak ,
3
2

...... ...... ..... ..


hni
k = ak .
2

267

hni
hni h n i
+ 2 +...+ k =
2

= (2 1)a1 + (22 1)a2 + (23 1)a3 + . . . + (2k 1)ak =


= n (a0 + a1 + . . . + ak ).

21.29. d- , d = 10100 ,
, c = |11{z
. . . 1}. 21.8, an > dk
100

1 k
.
n 6 (d 1)k . an /n > 1 +
d1
hni
21.30. , k = 0 k > m
p
h n i
= am ,
pm
h n i
= am p + am1 ,
m1

..... ..... ...... ...... ..... ...


hni
= am pm1 + am1 pm2 + . . . + a1 .
p

h n i
hni h n i
+ 2 +...+ m =
p

= am (1 + p + . . . + pm1 ) + am1 (1 + p + . . . + pm2 ) + . . . + a1 =


= am
=

pm1 1
p1
pm 1
+ am1
+ . . . + a1
=
p1
p1
p1

am pm + am1 pm1 + . . . + a1 p + a0 (am + am1 + . . . + a0 )


.
p1

21.31.
p, h n i h
h n i
ni
+ 2 + 3 + . . . n!,
p

21.30 p, Cm
n+m =
=

(m + n)!
,
m! n!
m s(m)
n s(n)
s(m) + s(n) s(m + n)
m + n s(m + n)

=
,
p1
p1
p1
p1

s(m) m p- .

268

21.

, s(m + n) = s(m) + s(n) (p 1)k,


k m n.
p1: p+a
1 + a.
21.32. 14.30 (1 + x)p 1 + xp (mod p). k
k
k (1 + x)p 1 + xp (mod p). ,
m

(1 + x)b = (1 + x)b0 +b1 p+...+bm p = (1 + x)b0 (1 + x)b1 p . . . (1 + x)bm p


m

(1 + x)b0 (1 + xp )b1 . . . (1 + xp )bm


a

bi
m X
Y

Ckbi xkp (mod p).

i=0 k=0

a0 +a1 p+...+am pm

x = x

a
a
(1 + x)b p Cb00 Cb11 . . . Cabmm . ,
Cab .
21.33. : 3. m = dn
dm/d . ,
3m/3 > dm/d , . . 3d > d3 d.
13.11.
21.34. 13.5 1 1! +
+ 2 2! + 3 3! + . . . + k k! < (k + 1)!, n k
. , k!6 n < (k + 1)!. ak ,
ak k! 6 n < (ak + 1)k!. ak k! 6 n < (k + 1)!,
ak 6 k. , n ak k! < (ak + 1)k! ak k! = k!.
n ak k! .
21.35. , .
n!,
n! p
n! p
= nX + xn , X . ,

q
q

xn n. ,

n! p
m! p
m>n,
m,
q
q

xm = 0. , n , n! q. , n xn .
, xn1

1 n! p
xn n 1 . . x1 .
n

22

( ),
. , .
.
, v v
v1 = v, v2 , v3 , . . . , vn = v ,
vi vi+1 .
v1 v2 , v2 v3 , . . . ,
vn1 vn , vn v1 (n > 3).

22.1. , , . ( ,
, , , .)
22.2. , ,
, .
22.3. OA. A 5 AB1 , AB2 , AB3 , AB4 , AB5 . Bi
,
. . 1001?
22.4. ) , , ,
.
) , , ,
, 2n,

270

22.


n , .
22.1.
, .

22.5. , ,
,
, ().
22.6. , , , , ().
22.2.
,
, . .
.

22.7. , , .
22.3.
,
. ,
(. .
,
).

22.8. ,
, , : 1)
, ; 2)
; 3) ().

271

22.9. X Y,
. , , X,
,
X ,
, ().
22.10. , k
k ,
k > 1. ,
, ,
.

22.1. v . ,
v, , v. v1 , v2 , v3 , v.
v1 , v2 , v3 , . -
v1 , v2 , v3 , v
. v1 , v2 , v3 ,
v, .
22.2. ,
. ,
; , .
, , . , .
, .
22.3. : , .
5
.
4. k ,
4k + 1. k = 250
.

272

22.

22.4. ) .
. ,
.
,
, , ( ,
). .
, ,
,
.
.
) , ), ,
. , , ,
.

.
22.5. ,
, .
22.6. 22.4
, , .
, .
, ,
, .
, () - . ,
,
( ).
, ,
. .
, , . ,
. .
22.7. .
, .
. , , , , . ,

273

v1 ,
, v2 .
, .
, (
).
,
. v1 v2
,
, . ,
.
22.8. , , . , , v1 v2 , v2 v3 , . . . , v2n1 v2n .
, v2 v3 , v4 v5 , . . . v1 v2 , v3 v4 , . . . ( ,
v1 v2n .)
, ,
.
, M M , M , M. M , .
,
M M . , , 1), -
, M, M M. ,
, .
, M , M;
, M , M.
, , 3). ,
2). , v
. v M .
, v , M M . ,
M M ,
v, v M .
22.9. : , Y, -

274

22.

, .
, ,
. , M. X x, M. , x,
M, . X
Y , X Y.
22.8 M , Y M;
, X , x,
M. X X
x.
X Y
M. , X Y . , X
Y . ,
y X , y x ,
M, . y
Y . , ,
X , 1 X . .
22.10. , , . a, b,
n. ka = n = kb,
a = b.
a1 . , , b1 . , , n1 , a1 , n2 ,
b1 . , n2 > n1 ,
n1 = ka1 n2 = kb1 . b1 > a1 .
22.9.

23

a + bi,
a b , i ,
i2 = 1. z = a + bi, a b
z (: a = Re z, b = Im z), a bi
, z (: z). , i2
1, . .
(a + bi)(c + di) = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i.
a a + 0i.
,
, a + bi
(a, b). z . r z,
, , ,
Oz. z r ( ) .
r

z (: r = |z|, = arg z). -
: , .
,
:
.

276

23.

. z = a + bi

zz = (a + bi)(a bi) = a2 b2 i2 = a2 + b2 = |z|2 .

w/z = wz/|z|2 .

23.1.
23.1. a b . ,
Re(ab) = Re(ab).
23.2. a b . ,
|a + b|2 |a b|2 = 4 Re(ab).
23.3. z w . ,
|z + w|2 + |z w|2 = 2|z|2 + 2|w|2 .
23.4. a, b c . ,
:
1) Re[(a c)(c
b)] > 0;
a+ b 1

2) c
6 |a b|.
2

23.2.

23.5. , (cos + i sin )n = cos n


n ( ).
23.6. ) , sin2
. . . , sin2

2n + 1

f + i sin nf

, sin2

n

2n + 1

2
, ...
2n + 1

C12n+1 (1 x)n C32n+1 (1 x)n1x + C52n+1 (1 x)n2 x2 . . .

. . . + (1)n xn .

, ctg2
, . . . , ctg2
) , ctg2
2n+1
2n+1
2n+1

C12n+1 xn C32n+1 xn1 + C52n+1 xn2 . . . + (1)n .

277

23.7. 23.6, :

2
n
+ . . . + ctg2
;
2n + 1
2n + 1
1
1
)
+
;
+...+
n
2
2
2
2
sin
sin
sin
2n + 1
2n + 1
2n + 1
2
n
) sin
sin
. . . sin
.
2n + 1
2n + 1
2n + 1

) ctg2

2n + 1
1

+ ctg2

23.3.

n- ,
n = 1. n- , n =1 k 6= 1
k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1.

23.8. ) ,


p 
2p
x2n 1 = (x2 1) x2 2x cos + 1 x2 2x cos
+1 ...
n
n


(n
1)p
+1 .
. . . x2 2x cos
n

) ,

p=

p=

2
(n 1)
sin
sin
. . . sin
2n
2n
2n

) ,

2
(n 1)
cos
cos
. . . cos
2n
2n
2n

n
n1 .
2

n1

23.9. ) ,


2p
x2n+1 1 = (x 1) x2 2x cos
+1
2n + 1
 


2np
p
4
+ 1 . . . x2 2x cos
+1 .
x2 2x cos
2n + 1

) ,
sin

2n + 1

sin

2n + 1

2
n
. . . sin
=
2n + 1
2n + 1

2n + 1
.
2n

278

23.

23.10. , n-

2m

2m

+ i sin
, m
cos
n
n
n.
23.11. n-
. ,
(
0 1 6 k 6 n 1;
1 + k + 2k + . . . + (n1)k =
n k = n.

e e

23.12. z1 , . . . , zn n- , z0 . , P(z) n 1,
P(z1 ) + . . . + P(zn ) = nP(z0).
23.13. n . , (1 )(1 2)(1 3 ) . . . (1 n1) = n.
23.14. ,
,
n-, 1, n.
23.15. ) , P(x) = x4n + x3n + x2n +
+ xn + 1 Q(x) = x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1
, n 5.
) , m n ,
x(m1)n + . . . + x2n + xn + 1 xm1 + . . . + x2 + x + 1.
23.16. ,

1cosn

p +cosn 2p cosn 3p +. . .+(1)n1 cosn (n1)p =


n

n
n1

23.17. 2n + 2 an , an+1 , . . . , an+1 .


2n + 2
1

bq =

2n

n+1
X

ap

epq,

q = n, n + 1, . . . , n + 1,

p=n

e = cos pn + i sin pn . ,
1

ap =

n+1
X

2n q=n

bq

epq.

279

23.4.
23.18. , z0 , z0
.
23.19. , a,
b, c x3a + x3b+1 + x3c+2 x2 + x + 1.
23.20. xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an . , : )
; ) .
23.21. n an (b c) +
+ bn (c a) + cn (a b) a2 + b2 + c2 + ab + bc + ca?
23.22. ) , Pn (x)=(x+1)n xn 1
x2 + x + 1 , n = 6k 1.
) , Pn (x) (x2 + x + 1)2
, n = 6k + 1.
) , Pn (x) (x2 + x + 1)3 .

23.1. , Re(ab) = Re(ab) = Re(ab).


23.2. , |a b|2 = (a b)(a b) = |a|2 + |b|2 (ab + ab).
, ab + ab = ab + ab ,
Re(ab + ab) = 2 Re(ab).
23.3. z = a + ib w = c + id, a, b, c, d
.
|z w|2 = (a c)2 + (b d)2 = a2 2ac + c2 + b2 2bd + d2 .

|z + w|2 + |z w|2 = 2(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) = 2|z|2 + 2|w|2 .


23.4. ,

Re[(a c)(c b)] = Re(ab) |c|2 + Re(ac + bc)

a + b 2 1
1

|a b|2 c
= (|a b|2 |a + b|2 ) |c|2 + Re[c(a + b)] =
4
2
4

Re[(a c)(c b)] =

= Re(ab) |c|2 + Re(ac + bc).

1
a + b 2

|a b|2 c
.
4
2

280

23.

23.5. z = cos + i sin 1,


. zn 1,
n .
23.6. ) cos(2n + 1) + i sin(2n + 1) =
= (cos + i sin )2n+1 .

sin(2n + 1) = C12n+1 cos2n


C32n+1

a sin a
a sin a + . . . + (1)
cos
3

2n2

sin2n+1 .

(1)

np
, 0, sin
, . . . , sin

2n + 1
2n + 1

C12n+1 (1 y2 )n y C32n+1 (1 y2 )n1 y3 + . . . + (1)n y2n+1 .

y x = y2
.
) (1) ,

sin(2n + 1) = sin2n+1 (C12n+1 ctg2n

aC

3
2n+1

ctg2n2

np

a + . . . + (1) ).
n

ctg
, . . . , ctg

2n + 1
2n + 1

C12n+1 y2n C32n+1 y2n2 + . . . + (1)n .


23.7. )
C32n+1
C12n+1

= 1 + ctg2

n(2n 1)
.
3

a , -

sin2 a
n(2n 1)
2n(n + 1)

+n=
.
3
3

2n + 1
.
) :
2n

23.6 ) xn .
C12n+1 ; xn 2n+1
C12n+1 + C32n+1 + . . . + C2n+1
.
0
2
2n
C2n+1 + C2n+1 + . . . + C2n+1 , 22n+1 .
2n2k
, C2k+1
2n+1 = C2n+1 . , 2n + 1


. , 22n
.

281

23.8. ) 2n- , 1, kp

kp

cos
i sin
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1. ,
n
n

kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
i sin
+ i sin
+ 1.
x cos
= x2 2x cos
x cos
n

) ), ,
x2n 1
= x2n2 + x2n4 + . . . + x2 + 1.
x2 1

p
2p
(n 1)p
2n1 1 cos
1 cos
. . . 1 cos
= n.
n

, 1 cos = 2 sin
. , 2
.
kp
(n k)p
= cos
.
2n
2n

) ), sin

23.9. 23.8.
, 1 2n + 1
.

2mp
2mp
+ i sin
n
n
2kmp
k
n- . z = cos
+
n
2kmp
. z + i sin
n

23.10. m z = cos

, , m, 2m, . . . , (n 1)m n.
, m n.
23.11. 1 6 k 6 n 1, k 6= 1, 1 + k + 2k + . . .
...+

(n1)k

enk 1 1 1
= k
=
= 0. k = n n e 1 ek 1

, 1.
23.12. n- .
zm = z0 + a m m = 1, . . . , n.
zkm = (z0 + a

n1
P

m=0

km

e
e

) = zk0 + C1m zk1


a
0

m k

+ C2m zk2
a2
0

2m

+ . . . + ak

km

= 0 1 6 k 6 n 1 ( 23.11).

Q(z) = zk , 1 6 k 6 n 1.
, P(z)
n 1.

282

23.

xn 1
= (x )(x
x1

23.13. , 1 + x + x2 + . . . + xn1 =

e )...
2

. . . (x n1 ). (x )(x 2 ) . . . (x n1 ) = 1 + x + x2 + . . .
. . . + xn1 x, x = 1.
23.14. , n- 1, , 2 , . . . , n1 , n-
. ,
1, |1 |, |1 2 |, . . . , |1 n1 |. 23.13
n.
23.15. ) P(x) 5-
. Q(x) P(x)
, 5- Q(x).
5- . n 5, Q( ) = 5.

e e

e
e

e5n 1
n 5, Q(e) = n
e 1 = 0.
) ,

(xmn 1)(x 1)
x(m1)n + . . . + x2n + xn + 1
= m
.
m1
2
(x 1)(xn 1)
x
+...+x +x+1

(xm 1)(xn 1) 1, m n , 1;
, m n . (xmn 1)(x 1) 1,
, m n
xmn 1, .
p
p
23.16. = cos + i sin . n = 1, n
n

n1
X

nj

j=0

ej + ej n
2

n1
1 X
2n

nj

j=0

n
X

Ckn

j(n2k)

n1
n
1 X kX
(
C
n
2n

2 j(nk)

j=0

k=0

k=0

e)

n ,
n1
P 2 j(nk)
23.11
( )
= n k = 0 n,
j=0

1 6 k < n . ,
n
1
n nC0n + nCnn = n1 .
2
2
23.17.
sp =

n+1
X

2n
bq
q=n

pq

n+1
X

r=n

ar

n+1
X

q=n

(rp)q


r = p,

n+1
P

q=n

(rp)q

283

= 2n. r 6= p,

. , (2n)-
, 23.11 (
, 2n = 1; ). sp = 2nap .
2n .
23.18. P(z) = a0 zn + a1 zn1 + . . . + an , a0 , a1 , . . . , an . P(z) = a0 zn + a1 zn1 + . . . + an = P(z). P(z0 ) = 0, P(z0 ) = P(z0 ) = 0.
23.19. x2 + x + 1, 3 = 1.
3a
+ 3b+1 + 3c+2 = 1 + + 2 = 0.
23.20. )

e e

xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an = (x x1 ) . . . (x xn )
xn a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 a3 xn3 + . . . an = (x + x1 ) . . . (x + xn ).

(xn + a2 xn2 + . . .)2 (a1 xn1 + a3 xn3 + . . .)2 = (x2 x21 ) . . . (x2 x2n ).

y = x2 ,

yn + (2a2 a21 )yn1 + (a22 2a1 a3 + 2a4 )yn2 + . . . = (y x21) . . . (y x2n ).

) P(x) + xQ(x) + x2 R(x),


P(x) = an + an3 x3 + . . . , Q(x) = an1 + an4 x3 + . . . , R(x) = an2 +
+ an5 x3 + . . . 3 = 1 6= 1.

P(x) + xQ(x) + x R(x) = (x x1 ) . . . (x xn ),

wxQ(x) + w x R(x) = (wx x ) . . . (wx x ),


P(x) + w xQ(x) + wx R(x) = (w x x ) . . . (w x x ).
2 2

P(x) +

P3 (x) + x3 Q3 (x) + x6 R6 (x) 3x3 P(x)Q(x)R(x) = (x3 x31 ) . . . (x3 x3n ).

P3 (x) + x3 Q3 (x) + x6 R6 (x) 3x3 P(x)Q(x)R(x)


x3k yk , .
23.21. : n=4. , n=4
(a b)(b c)(a c). ,
n an (b c) + bn (c a) +
+ cn (a b) a2 + b2 + c2 + ab+ bc+ ca. , b = 2 c = 1,

284

23.

. . an (2n 1)a + (2n 2) a2 + 3a + 7. n = 2 3


.
n > 5.
3 i 19

a2 + 3a + 7 = 0
; 2

7.
,
z |z| = 7, zn (2n 1)z + (2n 2) 6= 0.
,
|zn (2n 1)z+(2n 2)|> |zn
|(2n 1)|z|(2n 2)=7n/2
n/2
n
n
n/2
n
n

(2 1) 7 2 + 2 > 7 2n/2(1 + n7) > 7 4 2 ,


7<
3. , 7 4 2 > 0 n > 5. , 7 > 2, n = 5.
, 75 > (4 25 )2 .
23.22. ) Pn (x) x2 + x + 1
, Pn ( ) = 0, 3-
. 2 = 1 ,
Pn ( ) = ( 2 )n n 1 n 6.
P0 ( ) = 1, P1 ( ) = 2 1 = 0, P2 ( ) = 2 1 6= 0,
P3 ( ) = 3, P4 ( ) = 2 1 6= 0, P5 ( ) = 2 1 = 0.
) Pn (x) (x2 + x + 1)2
, Pn ( ) = 0 Pn ( ) = 0, Pn (x) = n((x + 1)n1 xn1 )
Pn (x). Pn ( ) = 0
, ( 2 )n1 n1 = 0, . . ( )n1 = 1. n = 6k 1, n = 6k + 1.
) Pn (x) (x2 + x + 1)3 , n=6k+1 Pn ( )=0, Pn (x)=n(n1)((x+1)n2 xn2 ).
, ( + 1)n2 = n2 ,
. . ( 2 )6k1 = 6k1 . ( 2 )6k1 = , 6k1 = 2 .
.

e
e
e e
e e
e
e e e
e e e
e
e
e
e
e
e

e
e

e e
e

e e e

e e

24

3- 4-
. 3-
(1465 1526),
. 1536 .
(15001557), .
(15011576)
. 1545 ., Ars
magna ( ). ,
. ,
Ars magna, .
Ars magna 4-
, (1522 1565),
.
5-
. 1799 .
(1765 1822) 5- , . 5- 1824 .
(18021829). (18111832) ,
, .

24.1. , xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an = 0
yn + b2 yn2 + . . . + bn = 0
y = x + c, c .

286

24. ,

24.1 , x3 + ax + b = 0 4-
x4 + ax2 + bx + c = 0.

24.1.
24.2.

x3 + px + q= 0,
p

3
3
x =
+
.
24.3. x3 + px + q = 0,

a b

x3 + y3 + z3 3xyz = (x + y + z)(x +

wy + w2z)(x + w2y + wz),

2 + + 1 = 0. ( y z , 3yz = p
y3 + z3 = q.)
24.4. , x3 + ax +
+ b = 0 ,
24.2
.
24.5. x0 = 2 x3 x 6 = 0
24.2.
24.6. x1 , x2 , x3 x3 + px + q = 0.
= x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = x1 + 2 x2 + x3 ,
2
+ + 1 = 0 (
).
) , 3x1 = + , 3x2 = 2 +
3x3 =
+
+ 2 .
3 + 3 p q.
)
) x3 + px + q = 0.

a b
ab a b

wb

w a wb

wa

24.2.
24.7. , x3 + px + q
,

p3
q2
+
= 0.
4
27

p3
q2
+

4
27

x3 + px + q.

287

24.3. 4-
24.8. x4 + ax2 + bx + c = 0,
x4 + ax2 + bx + c
.
24.9. x4 + ax2 + bx + c = 0, ,
().
24.10. x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 x4 + ax2 +
+ bx + c = 0. = (x1 + x2 )(x3 + x4 ), = (x1 + x3 )
(x2 + x4 ) = (x1 + x4 )(x2 + x3 ). p

) x1 , x2 , x3 x4
,

.
) (y )(y )(y )
a, b, c.
) x4 + ax2 + bx + c = 0 .

a b

24.4. ,
24.11.
x5 10x3 (1 x2 ) + 5x(1 x2)2 = a,

x7 21x5 (1 x2 ) + 35x3 (1 x2 )2 7x(1 x2)3 = a.

24.12. x5 5ax3 + 5a2 x b = 0.


24.13.
, 24.12?

a1

24.1. y = x + .
n
24.2.
p
p
p

x3 = + + 3 3
(3 + 3 ) = + + 33

a b
ab a b a b
ab x.

p a b ,
3 ab = p a + b = q. p
a + b = q. , a b
ab =
27
3

288

24. ,

.
r

p
3

a, b = 2q

q2
p3
+ .
4
27

(1)

9 .
x = 3 +
,
3 , p
3 3 = p/3.

p
x= 3
,
3

a b
a

(1). x
(1). ,
x,
x3 + px + q = 0.
24.3. 3yz = p, y3 z3 = p3 /27. y3 z3
p3

t2 qt
= 0.
27
r

p3
q2
+ . y
4
27s

q
+
2

q2
p3
p
+ , z ;
4
27
3y

-
z s :
r

p3
q2
+ , 3yz = p.
4
27

x3 + px + q = 0 : x1 = (y + z),
x2 = ( y + 2 z) x3 = ( 2 y + z).

w w

24.4. , =

b2
a3
+
< 0.
4
27

, y(x) = x3 + ax + b. a > 0,
,
. ,
a < 0. , y = 3x2 + a.
y(x) x < x > , = a/3,
< x < y(x) . ,
y( )y( ) = 4. y(x) = 0
, < 0.
24.5.
r
r
11
11
3
3
6+ 3
6.
x0 = 3 +

a
a a

289

24.6. ) x1 , x2 , x3
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0, x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = , x1 + 2 x2 + x3 = .
x1 ,
, 2 + + 1 = 0. x2 , x2 1.
) 2 + = 1, ,

w w

w w

ab = x

2
1

+ x22 + x23 x1 x2 x2 x3 x1 x3 =

= (x1 + x2 + x3 )2 3(x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x1 x3 ) = 3p.

a +b
3

w + w = 1,
2

= 2(x31 + x32 + x33 ) +


+ 12x1 x2 x3 3(x21 x2 + x1 x22 + x21 x2 + x1 x32 + x22 x3 + x2 x23 ).

0=(x1 +x2 +x3 )3 =x31 +x32 +x33 +6x1 x2 x3 +3(x21 x2 +x1 x22 +. . .)
0 = (x1 + x2 + x3 )(x1 x2 + x1 x3 + x2 x3 ) = (x21 x2 + x1 x22 + . . .) + 3x1 x2 x3 .
, 3 + 3 = 9(x21 x2 + x1 x22 + . . .) = 27x1 x2 x3 = 27q.
) , 3 + 3 = 27q 3 3 = 27p3 . 3 3
, .
.
,
,
= 3p. x3 + px + q = 0
).
24.7. . x1 , x2 x3 , x1 = x2 . x2
, x1 + x2 + x3 = 0. , x3 = 2x1 .

(x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 ) = x3 3x21 x + 2x31 ,

a b

a b

a b

ab

a b

ab

. . p = 3x21 q = 2x31 .

q2
p3
= x61 = .
4
27

p3
q2
+
= 0, x1 =
,
4
27

: x31 =

p3
27

r
p
.

q2
4

; -

q/2.
. f(x) = x3 + px + q ,
r
f (x) = 3x2 + p ( 28.16).
r

p
3

, x0 =

p

3

290

24. ,

p p
x(x + p) = q, . . + p = q. 2

3
3
q2
p3

+
= 0.
4
27

24.8. ,

a2
a
.
x4 + ax2 + bx + c = x2 + + t 2tx2 bx + t2 + at c +
2

t ,

a2
D = b2 8t t2 + at c +
4

2
a
b 2
x4 + ax2 + bx + c = x2 + + t 2t x
.
2

4t

x4 + ax2 + bx + c = 0

(1)

.
t

a2
= 0.
b2 8t t2 + at c +
4

t0 . (1)

p
a
b
x2 + + t = 2t0 x
.
2

4t


.
24.9. x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 x4 + ax2 + bx+ c= 0.
u = x1 + x2 = (x3 + x4 ).

. .

x4 + ax2 + bx + c = (x2 ux + )(x2 + ux + ),

a+bu

a b

= a,

u( ) = b,

ab = c.

1
1
b
b
=
=
a + u2 +
,
a + u2
.

,
u6 + 2au4 + (a2 4c)u2 b2 = 0.

(1)

291

(1) u2 .
, 6 (1).
u1 , u2 , u3 . ,
x1 + x2 = u1 ,
x1 + x3 = u2 ,
x1 + x4 = u3 ,

x3 + x4 = u1 ,
x2 + x4 = u2 ,
x2 + x3 = u3 .

u1 + u2 + u3 = 2x1 .

.
24.10. )
p x1 + x2 = (x3 + x4 ), x1 + x2 =
x1 + x3 =
x1 + x4 =
. ,

2x1 =
+
+
,

,
2x2 =

,
2x3 =

2x4 =

+
.

a
a

a
a

b
b

b
b

g
g

g
g

) , a + b + g = 2(x x + x x + . . .) = 2a. ,
ab + ga + bg = (x x + . . .) + 3(x x x + . . .) + 6x x x x . ,
1 2
2
2
3
1

2 2
1 2
2

2 3

1 2 3 4

a2 = (x1 x2 + . . .) = (x21 x22 + . . .) + 2(x21 x2 x3 + . . .) + 6x1 x2 x3 x4


0 = (x1 + . . .)(x1 x2 x3 + . . .) = (x21 x2 x3 + . . .) + 4x1 x2 x3 x4 ,

ab ga bg

abg

+
+
= a2 4c. ,
= (x31 x22 x3 + . . .) +
3
2 2 2
2 2
+ 2(x1 x2 x3 x4 + . . .) + 2(x1 x2 x3 + . . .) + 4(x1 x2 x3 x4 + . . .). ,

0 = (x1 + . . .)(x1 x2 + . . .)(x1 x2 x3 + . . .) =


= (x31 x22 x3 + . . .) + 3(x31 x2 x3 x4 + . . .) + 3(x21 x22 x23 + . . .) + 8(x21 x22 x3 x4 + . . .),
0 = (x1 + . . .)2 x1 x2 x3 x4 = (x31 x2 x3 x4 + . . .) + 2(x21 x22 x3 x4 + . . .)
b2 = (x1 x2 x3 + . . .)2 = (x21 x22 x23 + . . .) + 2(x21 x22 x3 x4 + . . .),

abg = b .
2

a b g

) ) , . ) ,
y3 + 2ay2 + (a2 4c)y b2 = 0.
24.11. x = cos . , cos 5 =a cos 7 =a. ,

p

1 `p
n
n
a + i 1 a2 + a i 1 a2 ,
x=

a b g

n = 5 7.

292

24. ,

24.12. ,
24.2 . , x = + . ,
( + )3 = 3 + 3 + 3 ( + ) ( + )5 = 5 + 5 + 5 ( 3 + 3 ) +
+ 10 2 2 ( + ), 5 + 5 +
5a B = 10 2 2
+ A( 3 + 3 ) + B( + ) b = 0, A = 5
2
+ 5a .
= a, A = 0 B = 0. 15a

r

a b
a b

a b a b ab a b
ab a b
a b
a b
ab
ab

a +b
5

= b,

a b
ab

ab a b
a b
ab

ab = a. a , b
5

x=

s
5

b
+
2

b2
a5 +
4

s
5

b2
a5 .
4

b2
a5 .
4

,
a.
24.13. : x7 7ax5 + 14a2 x3 7a3 x b = 0.

= a.

ab

a b a +b
( a + b) =
( a + b) =

a + b ) + 21a (a + b ) + 35a (a + b),


a + b + 5a(a + b ) + 10a (a + b),
a + b + 3a(a + b).
a + b ,
(a + b) 7a(a + b) + 14a (a + b) 7a (a + b).
7

( + ) =

+ 7a(

, x7 7ax5 + 14a2 x3 7a3 x = b



= a, 7 + 7 = b.

ab

a b

25

a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . {an }. a {an }, > 0 N


, |an a| < n > N. {an }
lim an . -

. , an = (1)n .
lim an = a n

an a n an a.

25.1.
25.1. , , .
25.2. {an } {bn } ,
lim an = a lim bn = b. , :

) lim (an + c) = a + c lim (can ) = ca c;


n

) lim (an + bn ) = a + b;

) lim (an bn ) = ab;


n

) a 6= 0 an 6= 0 n, lim

1
1
= .
an
a

25.3. , an <bn <cn n lim an =


n
= a = lim cn , lim bn = a.
n

25.4. , lim an = a lim bn = b,


n
n
an 6 bn n, a 6 b.
25.5. a
xn a
xn . , lim
=0,
n xn +a
lim xn = a.
n

294

25.
x1 + . . . + xn

25.6. , lim xn =a, lim


=a
n
n
n
().
25.7. {an }

, lim an = a. , lim n a1 . . . an = a.
n

xn

25.8. , lim (xn+1 xn )=a, lim


=a.
n
n n

an+1
25.9. , lim
= a, lim n an = a.
n

an

25.10. P(x) . , lim {P(n) } = 0, { }


n
, .

25.2.
{an } ,
c1 c2 , c1 6 an 6 c2 n.
c
{an }, > 0 |c an | <
.

25.11. ,
().
25.12. , {an } {ank }, . . n1 , n2 , n3 , . . . ,
{bk }, bk = ank , .
{an } (), an+1 > an (an+1 > an ) n.
{an } ,
c , an 6 c n.

25.13. , (
)
{an } ().
25.14. , {xn }
, > 0

295

N , |xn xm | < m, n > N (


).
25.3.

25.15. lim ( n + 1 n).


n
25.16. lim ( n2 + n n).
n

25.17. ) , lim

n
= 0.
10n

lg n
) , lim
= 0.
n n
nk
25.18. ) , lim n = 0 n a

k a > 1.

(log n)k

a
= 0 ) , lim
n
n
k a > 1.
xn
= 0.
25.19. , lim
n n!

n
25.20. , lim x = 1 n
x.

25.21. , lim n n = 1.
n
25.22. , lim n n! = .

25.23. a0 = a, b0 = b, 0 < a < b. an+1 =

an + bn
2an bn
bn+1 =
n > 0. , lim an =
an + bn
2
n

= lim bn =
n

ab.

25.24. 21 , 22 , . . . , 2n an
an
. lim
.
n
n

25.25. x1 = a, a
, xn+1 = a + xn n > 1. ,
lim xn .
n

25.26. x1 a , xn+1 =
1 + xn
n > 1. , lim xn , n
.

296

25.



a
n > 1.
25.27. x1 > 0 a > 0, xn+1 = xn +
xn
lim xn .
n

25.28. x1 = a, x2 = b xn+1 = (xn + xn1 ) n > 1.


2
lim xn .
n

25.29. p1 , . . . , pk , an
, n an
= 0.
. , lim
n

25.30. x0 y0 ,
x0 > y0 , xn+1 =

xn + yn
2xn yn
yn+1 =
n > 0. 2
x
n + yn

, lim xn = lim yn =
n

x0 y0 .

25.31. x0 y0 xn + yn

, x0 > y0 , xn+1 =
yn+1 = xn yn n > 0.
2
, {xn } {yn }
, - x0 y0 ().

2an bn
25.32. a0 =2 3, b0 =3 an+1 =
, bn+1 = an+1 bn
an +bn
n > 0. , lim an = lim bn = .
n

25.33. x0 y0 xn + yn

, xn+1 =
yn+1 = xn+1 yn n > 0.
2
) , 0 6 x0 < y0 ,
p
y20 x20
lim xn = lim yn =
.
arccos(x0 /y0 )
n
n

) , 0 < y0 < x0 ,

p
x20 y20
lim xn = lim yn =
.
Arch(x0 /y0 )
n
n

. 28.50.
25.4. e
25.34. ) , n 2 6 (1 + 1/n)n < 3.

297

) ,  n n
(n/3 < n!.

25.35. 2400 .
25.36. , m n ,
m > n,








1 n
1 m+1
1 n+1
1 m
> 1+

1+
< 1+
.
1+
m

25.37. , e= lim (1+1/n)n.


25.38. ) ,


1
1
1
1 n
<2+ + +...+ .
1+
2!

3!

n!

) ,

e>2+

1
1
1
+ +...+
2!
3!
k!

k.


1
1
1
.
) , e = lim 2 + + + . . . +
2!

3!

n!

25.39. ,


1
1
1
1
0<e 1+1+ + +...+
<
.
2!

3!

n!

n! n

25.40. an = sin(2 n! e)?


25.41. , e .
n

25.42. , lim

n!
1
= .
n
e

25.5.

25.43. (1 + 2 + 3)n = qn + rn 2 + sn 3 + tn 6,
qn , rn , sn , tn .
rn
sn
tn
lim
, lim
lim
.

qn

qn

qn

25.6.
X () . x0 , x 6 x0 x X,

298

25.

> 0 x X,
x + > x0 . x0 X X, x0 X.
.

25.44. . ?
, c , c. , .

25.45. , ()
, .

25.1. , a b

{an }, a 6= b. = |a b|. 3
N1 N2 , |an a| <
n > N1 |an b| < n > N2 . N

N1 N2 . |a b| 6 |a aN | + |aN b| < 2 = |a b|.


3
.
25.2. ) , lim (an + c) = a + c :
n

N {an + c}
, {an }.
c = 0 , lim (can ) = 0 . n

c 6= 0, N,
{can }, N, /|c|
{an }. , |an a| < /|c|,
|can ca| < .
) > 0 N1 N2 , |an a| < /2
n > N1 |bn b| < /2 n > N2 . N
e e
N1 N2 . |(an + bn ) (a + b)| 6 |an a| + |bn b| < + =
2
2
n > N.
)

e
e

an bn ab = (an a)(bn b) + a(bn b) + b(an a).

e
e

(1)

299

e
e

> 0 N1 N2 , |an a| <


n > N1 |bn b| <
n > N2 . |(an a)(bn b)| <
n > max(N1 , N2 ), lim (an a)(bn b) = 0. ) ) ,

lim a(bn b) = 0 lim b(an a) = 0. (1)


n

, lim (an bn ab) = 0.


n

) N1 , |an a| <

1
|a| n > N1 .
2

1
|a|.
2
1
, |an a| < |a|2 n > N2 .
2

, |an | >

> 0 N2
n > max(N1 , N2 ),
1


an

1 an a 1
2
=
< |a|2 2 = .
a
an a
2
|a|

25.3.
> 0 N1 N2 ,
|a an | <
n > N1 |a cn | <
n > N2 .
n > max(N1 , N2 ), an > a cn < a + . a < an 6 bn 6
6 cn < a + , , |bn a| < .
25.4. N , n > N, |a an | < |b bn | < .
a < an 6 bn < b + . , > 0

b > a 2 . b > a.
x a
n

25.5.
< < 1.

e
e
e

xn + a

e
e

2ea
2ea
< xn a <
.
1+e
1e

25.6. {xn } {xn a}, , a = 0.


> 0 N , n > N, |xn | < .
n > N
1
C nN

,
(x1 + . . . + xn ) 6 +
n
n
n
C nN
+
C= x1 + . . . + xN . , lim
= .
n n
1n

M > N , n > M, (x1 + . . . + xn ) < 2 .


n
25.7. ln x , lim ln an = ln a. -

e e

ln a1 + . . . + ln an

, 25.6 lim
= ln a. n
n

n
, lim ln a1 . . . an = ln a. , n

ex , .

300

25.

25.8. y1 =x1 yn =xn xn1 n> 2. xn =y1 +y2 +. . .


. . . + yn . lim yn = a. 25.6
n

lim

y1 + y2 + . . . + yn
xn
= lim
= a.
n
n
n

25.9. b1 = a1 , bn =

an+1

an

n > 1. lim bn = a. 25.7


n

lim n b1 . . . bn = a. b1 . . . bn = an .

25.10. :
{P(n) } = an + n , lim n = 0 an

( n ),
.
m P(x).
m= 1 {An + B }= an + n . An + B = an + n + kn
A(n + 1) + B = an+1 + n+1 + kn+1 , kn kn+1 .
,

A = (an+1 an ) + (

n+1

e ) + (k
n

n+1

kn ).

kn+1 kn , an+1 an
. , lim n = 0, ,

n+1

n = 0 n > n0 .

an = an0 + ln + (n n0 )A ,

ln . an
. , ln + nA , {nA } .
A ( 17.13), ,

.
. Q(x) =
= P(x + 1) P(x) m 1. , an , an+1 an
. , Q(x)
, , .
25.11. , c1 c2 . [c1 , c2 ] 1.
.
10 1/10. ,
.
10 . .

301


c = m0 + m1 101 + m2 102 + . . . ,
m0 , m1 . . c
.
25.12. c {an }.
|an c| < 1/k an . ank ,
|ank c|<1/k. , , n1 <n2 <n3 <. . .
c = lim ank .
k

25.13.
, an > a1 n. ( 25.11)
{an } c. , . , : c1 < c2 . c2 c1 = . N , |xN c2 | <
e
e
< /2. xN > c2 . , xn > c2 n > N.

xn c1 > , c1 .
2
c . xn 6 c n (
xm , m > n, c).
> 0 N , c < xN 6 c.
c < xn 6 c n > N.
25.14. {xn } a, > 0 N , |xn a| < /2 n > N.
m, n > N, |xn xm | 6 |xn a| + |a xm | < .
, > 0 N , |xn xm | < m, n > N. = 1
N. |xn xN | < 1 n > N.
{xn } . ( 25.11)
a. /2 N , |xn xm | < /2 m, n > N. a ,
|xn a| < /2 n; ,
n0 > N.
m > N |xm a| 6 |xm xn0 | + |xn0 a| < . , lim xm = a.

25.15. : 0. ,
0<

( n + 1 n)( n + 1 + n)

=
n+1 n=
n+1+

lim ( n + 1 n) = 0.
n

1
< .
n+1+ n
n

302

25.

25.16. : 1/2.
n2 + n + n,
p
n2 + n n = p

n2 + n + n

=r

1
1
1+ +1
n

n2 + n n

1
2

25.17. ) ,
n
n1
2
1
1
1 1
n
=

. . . n < 2n1 n = n 0.
10n
n1 n2
1 10
10
2 5
lg n k + 1
6
0 ).
n
10k

1
n+1
= 1 + . 25.18. ) n , k a >
n
nn k
a
q > 1 N , q <
n+1
N k
N + 1 k
N + m 1 k
n > N. q <
a, q <
a, q <
a,
N+1
N+2
N+m
N k
k
Nk
(N + m)
< Cqm , C = N .
qm <
am , ,
N+m
N+m
a
a

) 10k 6 n 6 10k+1 .

, q > 1, lim qm = 0.
m

) a
).

m1

(loga n)k
mk
6 n 6 a .
6 m1 0 n
a
m

|x|

6 .
25.19. N ,
N+1
2
|x|n
C
|x|N 1 nN
2N |x|N
n > N,
= n , C =
6
n!
N! 2
2
N!
.
25.20. x > 1. an = x1/n 1. , an > 0, 13.9 ) 1 + nan 6 (1 + an )n = x. , 0 < an <
lim an = 0.

x1
.
n

x = 1, , 0 < x < 1, y = 1/x > 1. lim y1/n = 1, lim x1/n = 1.


n
n
25.21. . an = n n 1. an > 0,
n = (1 + an )n > 1 + nan +
r

, 0 6 an 6

2
.
n1

n(n 1) 2
n(n 1) 2
an >
an . 2
2

303

.
, :

n1
n1
n1
n
6 p
n1=
= (3n1)/2n .
n
1/n
(n1)/n
1+n

n > 3,

+...+n

n1

n(3n1)/2n

n1/n+2/n+...+(n1)/n

6 n(n+1)/2n 6 n1/3 .

25.22.
(2n)! > n(n + 1) . . .
(2n) > nn+1

2n n+1
2n+1 n+1
2n+1
(2n)! > n
> n
(2n + 1)! >
n
> n.
25.23. 0 < an < bn , an+1 > an bn+1 < bn . ,
4an bn < (an + bn )2 , . . an+1 < bn+1 . a0 < a1 < a2 < . . . < b2 <
< b1 < b0 . , {an } {bn } .

2n

lim an =

lim bn = . , bn+1 =

b = a +2 b , . . a = b.

an+1 =

a n + bn
, ,
2

a n + bn
2an bn
bn+1 =
,
a n + bn
2

ab

an+1 bn+1 = an bn . , an bn = ab n.
= ab,
. . 2 = ab.
25.24. a,
10k1 6 a < 10k . ,
, 2m < 10k1 , 2m+1 > 10k . , , ,
a = 2m 2 . ,
, 2 3.
, . , 10k1 6 2n < 10k , an = k 1.

, an 6 n lg 2 < an + 1, . . lg 2
lim

an
= lg 2.
n

1
an
<
6 lg 2.
n
n

25.25. , lim xn = c,
n

c . ,
c = a + c,

c2 c a = 0. ,
c = 1/2 a + 1/4. ,

c > 0, c = 1/2 + a + 1/4.


, .
, {xn }
. , , xn 2
, : xn+1 > xn x2n+1 > x2n a + xn> x
n
a+xn >a+xn1 xn >xn1 . , x2 = a+ a>
> a=x1 .

304

25.

, {xn } ,
,
xn < c. , x1 < c. , xn < c xn+1 <

< a + c = c.
25.26. , lim xn = c,
n

. , c =

a
,
1+c

c2 + c a = 0. , c > 0. c
x2 + x a = 0. .
. c x2 +xa=0. xn > c,
a
a
a
x2n + xn > a, . . xn >
= xn+1 . xn+1 =
6
,
1 + xn

1 + xn

1 + xn+1

. . xn+1 6 c. , xn 6 c, xn+1 > c.


, xn+2 xn =

a xn x2n
a
xn =
.
1 + a/(1 + xn )
1 + a + xn

xn 6 c, xn+2 xn > 0, xn > c, xn+2 xn 6 0.


, x1 , x3 , x5 , . . . x2 , x4 , x6 , . . .
, . a
x =
,
1
+
a/(1
+ x)
x2 + x a = 0.

25.27. : lim xn = a. ,
n

x2n 2 axn + a xn a 2
xn+1 a
= 2

=
.
xn+1 + a
xn + a
xn + 2 axn + a

x a 2n
xn+1 a
x1 a
1
=

. ,
,
. q =
xn+1 + a
x1 + a
x1 + a
n
xn a
= 0.
|q| < 1. lim q2 = 0. , lim
n
n xn + a

25.5.
a + 2b

a + 2b

25.28. : lim xn =
. , xn =
+
n
3
3
1 n2 b a
. n = 1 2 +
2

1
2

. xn+1 = (xn + xn1 ) .

25.29. p1 1 . . . pk k 6 n. piai 6 n, i 6
.
lg pi
lg n

lg n
+ 1 ...
+ 1 . n > p1 , . . . , pk ,
, an 6
lg n

lg p1
lg pk
2k
k
an 6
(lg n) . lg p1 . . . lg pk

25.18 ).


25.30. , x0 >

305

2x0 y0
x0 + y0
>
> y0 , . . x0 >
2
x0 + y0

> x1 > y1 > y0 . xn > xn+1 > yn+1 > yn n.


, {xn } {yn } , x y.
xn + yn

x+y

xn + yn

x+y

xn+1 =
, x =
,
2
2
. . x=y. , xn+1 yn+1 =xn yn . xy=x0 y0 .
x = y, .
x0 + y0

> x0 y0 > y0 , . . x0 >


25.31. , x0 >
2
> x1 > y1 > y0 . xn > xn+1 > yn+1 > yn n.
, {xn } {yn } , x y.
xn+1 =
, x =
,
2
2
. . x = y.
p
p
n
25.32. An = 6 2n tg
n Bn = 6 2 sin
n , . . An
62

62

6 2n -, 1, Bn 6 2n -, 1. , an = An
p
. bn = Bn . n = 0 .
=
n+1

62
Bn+1
An+1
2 tg a
2 sin a
1
2
=
=
= 1 tg

=
.
An
tg 2a
Bn
sin 2a
cos a
An
1
1
1
An+1
Bn+1
An+1
,
=
=
=
,

. ,
=
Bn
cos 2a
Bn+1
cos a
Bn
cos a
Bn+1

. . Bn+1 =

2An cos 2a
2An Bn
=
. ,
An + Bn
1 + cos 2a
2An Bn
= An+1 .
.
An + Bn

An+1 Bn . ,

2 cos 2a
= 1 tg2
1 + cos 2a

25.33. ) x0 = y0 cosr, . .

a
1 + cos a
= y0 cos2
y1 =
x1 = y0
2
2
x1 = y1 cos

y2 = y0 cos

y0 sin a

a
2

a
2

y0

a = arccos(x /y ).

cos2

a
2

y0 = y0 cos

a
2

. ,
cos

22

, . . . , yn = y0 cos

xn = yn cos

a
2n

a
2

cos

22

. . . cos

2n

. , cos

y0 sin a

2n sin

2n

2n

n .
) , x0 = y0 ch ,
. . = Arch(x0 /y0 ).

306

25.

25.34. ) . 13.9,
0< 6 1/n, 1+n 6(1+1/n)n <1+n +
+ n2 2 . = 1/n .
. ,

a
a

1
n(n 1) 1
1 n
n(n 1)(n 2) 1
=1+n +
2+
3 +...<
1+
n

23

<1+1+

1
1
1
+ + +...,
2
4
8

1 n2
1 n3
1
n1
< ,
< ,
< . .
2n
2 3n
2
4n
2
1 n
) 1 +
< 3 ,
n

n + 1 n+1 n n n + 1 n n + 1
:
=

< n + 1.
3

n .
25.35. : 2. 2400 = (210 )40 = 102440
1,02440 . ,
1 40
25.34 1,02440 < 1,02540 = 1 +
< 3. 40

40
40 39
2
0,024 = 2,40928 > 2.
> 1 + 40 0,024 +
2

, 1,024
25.36. ,
m = n + 1.
. 0 < a < b.
(n + 1)an <

bn+1 an+1
< (n + 1)bn ,
ba

(1)

bn+1 an+1
= bn + bn1 a + . . . + an . (1)
ba

an ((n + 1)b na) < bn+1 ,

bn ((n + 1)a nb) < an+1 .


1

b = 1 + .
a = 1 +
n+1
n

1 n (n + 1)2
n(n + 2)
1 n+1
1+
,

< 1+
n+1
n
n+1
n

1 n
1 n+1
1+
< 1+
.
n

n+1


,
n + 1 2 (n + 1)2
n+2

307

n(n + 2) n3 + 4n2 + 4n + 1
> 1.
=
n+1
n(n + 2)2

1 n
1 n+1
> 1+
. 1 +
n+1
n

1 (n + 1)2 n
1 +
. >
n+1

13.9 )

(n + 1)2 n
n(n + 2)

= 1+

n(n + 2)

n
1
1
1
+
.
<1+
n+2
n2 + 2n
(n + 2)2

1
1
1
+
.
<
n+2
n+1
(n + 2)2

n+2
1
1 n+1
1 +
< 1+
n+1
n

n+1
1
1
< 1+ 2
1 +
. 13.9 )
n+1
n + 2n

1+

n2

1
+ 2n

n+1

>1+

n+1
.
n2 + 2n

n+1
1
>
.
n+1
n2 + 2n

25.37. 25.36 an = (1 + 1/n)n


, 25.34 .
25.38. )

1
1
1
1
1 n
= 1 + n + C2n 2 + . . . + Ckn k + . . . + Cnn n .
1+
n

nk

n(n 1) . . . (n k 1)
< .
k!
k!

, Ckn =
) k 6 n,

1 n
1
1
1
1
k1
1+
=1+1+
1
+...+
1
... 1
+...
n
2!
n
k!
n
n

1
1
n1
...+
1
... 1
>
n!
n
n

1
1
1
1
k1
>1+1+
1
+...+
1
... 1
= bn .
2!

k!

308

25.

, lim bn = 1 + 1 +
n

1
1
1
+ + . . . + .
2!
3!
k!

1 n
1
1
1
e = lim 1 +
> lim bn = 1 + 1 + + + . . . + .
n

2!

3!

k!

) ) ).
25.39. 25.38

1
1
1
1
1
1
e 1+1+ + +...+
=
+
+
+...=
2!
3!
n!
(n + 1)!
(n + 2)!
(n + 3)!

1
1
1
1+
+
+... <
=
(n + 1)!
n+2
(n + 2)(n + 3)

1
1
1
1
1
<
1+
+
+... =
=
2
(n + 1)!

n+2

(n + 2)

1
n+2
n+2
1 n+2
1
.
=
=
(n + 1)! n + 1
n! (n + 1)2
(n + 1)!

n+2
1
< , n2 + 2n < n2 + 2n + 1.
n
(n + 1)2

25.40. : , 0. 25.39
n! e 0 1/n. 0<sin(2 n! e)<
< sin(2 /n) n > 4.
25.41. , e = m/n, m n
. 25.39
1
1
1
m
<
.
0< 2+ +...+

2!

n!

n! n

n! , 0 < a < 1/n, a


. .
an+1
n!
25.42. . an = n .
=
n
an
nn
1
1
(n + 1)!

25.9
n
(n + 1)n
n!
(1 + 1/n)
e

1
1
n!
lim n an = , . . lim
= .
e
n n
e
n

. ,
ln

n
n
n
k1
X
1X
1
1X
n!
ln
ln k
ln n =
= ln n! ln n =
.
n
n
n
n
n n
k=1

k=1

k=1
1
]
0

ln(x) dx = 1.

25.43.

1 =1+
2 3.
4 =1

l
l
l
l

2 + 3,

2 =1

309

2 + 3,

3 =1+

2 3,

= qn + rn 2 + sn 3 + tn 6,

n
2 = qn rn 2 + sn 3 tn 6,

n
3 = qn + rn 2 sn 3 tn 6,

n
4 = qn rn 2 sn 3 + tn 6.
n
1

l
l
l
l

n
1
n
1
n
1
n
1

l
+l
l
l
+

n
2
n
2
n
2
n
2

l
l
+l
l
+

n
3
n
3
n
3
n
3

l
l
l
+l
+

n
4

= 4qn ,

n
4 = 4sn 3,

n
4 = 4rn 2,

n
4 = 4tn 6.

ln
ln2
ln
ln
= lim 3n = lim 4n = 0. lim 1 = 4,
n
n l1
n l1
n l1
n qn

, lim

1
1
1
1
tn
rn
sn
, lim n = , lim n = , , lim
= ,
n qn
4 6
2 n l1 4 3 n l1
2
1
1
sn
tn
= lim
= .
lim
n qn
n qn
3
6

lim

rn

ln1 = 4

25.44. 0. , 0 .
25.45. . x0 x1 , x1 > x0 .

e= x

x0
x ( 2
x1 x0
x1 + x0
), x +
> x1 , . . x >
> x0 .
2
2

, x0 .
. {an } {bn } , n x> an
x > bn . , a1
, b1 c
. c2 [a1 , b1 ]. a2 c2 ,
; a1 . b2 c2 ,
; b1 .
. x0 . , x0 .

26

:
[a, b] ; x, a 6 x 6 b;
(a, b) ; x, a < x < b.

26.1.
26.1. x y x3 3x2 + 5x = 1, y3 3y2 + 5y = 5. x + y.
26.2.

26.2. , , a , f(x) = cos x + a cos x .

26.3.
a f(x) x0 ,
> 0 > 0 , x 6= x0
|x x0 | < |f(x) a| < .
f(x) x0 ,
lim f(x).

xx0

* lim f(x) = f(x0 +) lim f(x) =


xx0 +

xx0

= f(x0 ). , , x > x0 , x < x0 . , f(x)


*

lim

xx0 +0

f(x) = f(x0 + 0)

= f(x0 0), .

lim

xx0 0

f(x) =

311

[p, q],
lim f(x) = f(p+) lim f(x) = f(q).
xp+

xq

26.3. , f(x) x0
, .
26.4. , lim f(x) = a ,
xx0

lim f(an ) = a {an },


n

lim an = x0 an 6= x0 n (
n
, an
f).
26.5. f(x) g(x) , lim f(x)=
= a lim g(x) = b. ,

xx0

xx0

) lim (f(x) + g(x)) = a + b;


xx0

) lim (f(x)g(x)) = ab;


xx0

) lim (f(x)/g(x)) = a/b, b 6= 0.


xx0

26.6. , lim

a0

sin

a = 1.

26.4.
f(x) x0 , lim f(x) =
xx0

= f(x0 ). f(x) (
), .
f(x), [a, b], ,
,
, f(a+) = f(a) f(b) = f(b).

26.7. ) P(x) . ,
P(x) .
) P(x) Q(x) , Q(x0 ) 6= 0.
, P(x)/Q(x) x0 .
26.8. f(x) x0 ,
g(y) y0 = f(x0 ). ,
g(f(x)) x0 .
26.9. , f(x) = sin x .

312

26.
1

26.10. f(x) = x sin x 6= 0 f(0) = 0. ,


x
f(x) ( x).
26.5.
26.11. f(x) [a, b] . ,
f(x0 ) = 0 x0 (
).
26.12. ) f ,
f(x) = x . , f(f(x)) = x .
) f g , f(g(x))=g(f(x)). , f(x) = g(x) , f(f(x)) = g(g(x)) .
26.13. f(x) [0, 1] . , f(x) = x
x .
26.14. ,
[0, 1], , ,
[0, 1]?
26.6. ,
26.15. , f(x), [a, b], , . .
f(x) x [a, b]
.
26.16. (a, b).
, ?
26.17. , f(x), [a, b],
().

313

26.7.
f(x), [a, b], ,

x1 + x2
2

f(x1 ) + f(x2 )
2

(1)

x1 x2 , [a, b].
(1) ,
y = f(x)
( ).
f(x) , f(x) .

26.18. , f(x)
[a, b] , n
x1 , . . . , xn
 x + x + . . . + x  f(x ) + f(x ) + . . . + f(x )
1
2
n
1
2
n
f
6
.
(2)
n

26.19. f(x) , p q , 1.
) , p q ,
f(px1 + qx2 ) 6 pf(x1 ) + qf(x2 ).
) , f(x) ,
f(px1 + qx2 ) 6 pf(x1 ) + qf(x2 ).
26.20. f(x) , 1 , . . . , n , 1.
) , 1 , . . . , n ,

f(

a1 x1 + . . . + anxn) 6 a1f(x1 ) + . . . + anf(xn).

) , f(x) ,
f(

a1 x1 + . . . + anxn) 6 a1f(x1) + . . . + anf(xn )

( ).
26.21. , f(x) = ln x (0, +).
26.22.

314

26.

x1 , . . . , xn :
x1 + . . . + xn
> n x1 . . . xn .
n

26.23. , A, B, p q
, 1/p + 1/q = 1, A1/p B1/q 6 A/p + B/q.
26.8.
D
f(x). f(x) D, > 0 > 0 ,
x1 x2 D |x1 x2 | < |f(x1 ) f(x2 )| < .
,

D. ,
. , , .

d
d

26.24. )
,
.
) (0, 1), .
26.25. , f(x),
[a, b],
.
26.9.
f [a, b].
Varba (f) f [a, b]
m
P
|f(xk+1 ) f(xk )|

k=0

x0 = a < x1 < . . . < xm < b = xm+1 . Varba (f) < ,


, f
[a, b].

26.26. f(x) = x sin(1/x) x 6= 0, f(0) = 0. , [0, 1] f ,


.

315

26.27. , f, [a, b],


,
.
26.28. f
[a, b]. x [a, b] V(x) =
= Varxa (f) (, V(a) = 0). ,
f x0 [a, b]
, V.

26.1. : x + y = 2. f(x) = x3 3x2 + 5x = (x 1)3 +


+ 2(x 1) + 3 , c f(x) = c .
f(x) 3 : x 1 =
= 1 y, f(x) 3 = (f(y) 3). f
, , . . f(x) 3 = (f(y) 3),
x 1 = 1 y, . . x + y = 2. f(x) = 1
f(y) = 5, .
26.2. , T f(x). f(T) =
=f(0)=1+a. , cos T=1 cos T=1, . . T=2 m T=2 n,
m n .
= n/m,
.
26.3. , f(x) x0 -

d d

: a b, a 6= b. = |a b| 1 2 ,
2
|f(x) a| < |x x0 | < 1 |f(x) b| < |x x0 | < 2 .
x 6= x0 |x x0 | < min( 1 , 2 ), |a b| 6 |f(x) a| + |f(x) b| <
< 2 = |a b|. .
26.4. , lim f(x) = a.

d
d d

e > 0 d > 0 , |x x | < d


|f(x) a| < e.
{a }, x , N , |a x | < d n > N.
|f(a ) a| < e, lim f(a ) = a.
xx0

, lim f(x) = a -

xx0

. > 0, :
> 0 x 6= x0 , |x x0 | < ,

316

26.

|f(x) a| > . = 1/n x an . {an }, lim an =x0 ,


n

lim f(an ) = a .
n

26.5. 26.4
( 25.2).
sin a
< 1 0 < < /2.
26.6. 11.1 cos <

/2 <

a < 0,

a p

sin(a) sin a

=
cos
a
a . , alim
0

cos( ) = cos
=
= cos 0 = 1.
26.7. 26.5. , lim x = x0 , xx0

, n, lim xn = xn0 . ,
xx0

lim (an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 ) = an xn0 + an1 x0n1 + . . . + a0 .

xx0

Q(x0 ) 6= 0, lim P(x)/Q(x) = P(x0 )/Q(x0 ).

xx0

26.8. > 0 > 0 , |y y0 | < ,


|g(y) g(y0 )| < . 1 = 1 ,
|x x0 | < 1 , |f(x) f(x1 )| < 1 . > 0
1 > 0 , |x x0 | < 1 , |g(f(x)) g(f(x0 ))| < .
26.9. ,
e e
sin(x + ) sin x = 2 sin cos x +
.

d
e

, lim sin t = 0. |t| < /2,


t0

|sin t| < |t| 11.1.


26.10. , f(x) x 6= 0.
, f(x) x = 0, . .
> 0 > 0 , |x| < , |f(x)| < .

|f(x)| = x sin 6 |x|. = .

d
d e

26.11. f(a) > 0 f(b) < 0. {an } {bn } .


a1 = a b1 = b. c [a, b]. f(c) < 0,
a2 = a1 b2 = c; f(c) > 0, a2 = c b2 = b1
( , f(c) 6= 0,
). [a2 , b2 ]

317

. . {an } {bn }. lim (bn an ) = 0.


n

lim an = x0 = lim bn . n

f(an ) > 0 n. f(x) ,


f(x0 ) > 0. , f(bn ) 6 0, f(x0 ) 6 0. ,
f(x0 ) = 0. , a 6 x0 6 b.
26.12. ) f f(x) = x
, f(x) > x x,
f(x) < x x. f(f(x)) < f(x) < x,
f(f(x)) > f(x) > x.
) f g f(x) = g(x)
, f(x) > g(x) x,
f(x) < g(x) x. f(f(x)) > g(f(x)) =
= f(g(x)) > g(g(x)). f(f(x)) < g(g(x)).
26.13. (x) = f(x) x.
, (0) = f(0) > 0 (1) = f(1) 1 6 0. (x) = 0
x [0, 1]. f(x) = x.
26.14. : , . , f
, f(x) 6= x x [0, 1].
26.13 .
26.15. , f(x) ( ). ,
n [a, b] xn ,
f(xn ) > n. 25.12 {xn } {xnk }.
lim xnk = x0 (, a 6 x0 6 b). lim f(xnk ) = f(x0 ).

, f(xnk ) > nk .
26.16. : , . f(x) = 1/x
(0, 1), .
26.17. , [a, b] x0 ,
f(x0 ) = M, M f(x) x [a, b]. (
.) ,
f(x) ( 26.15),
M ( 25.45). , xn
[a, b] , M 1/n 6 f(xn ) 6 M. {xn } {xnk }.
lim xnk = x0 , a 6 x0 6 b f(x0 ) = M.
k

318

26.

26.18. , (1)
(2) n. (1),

4f

x +x +x +x
1
2
3
4
4

6 2f

x +x
1
2
2

+ 2f

x +x
3
4
2

6 f(x1 ) + f(x2 ) + f(x3 ) + f(x4 ).

, n = 2m .
, n,
n 1. x1 , . . . , xn1 .

xn =
f(xn ) = f

1
(x1 + . . . + xn1 ).
n1

(n 1)x + x
n
n
n

=f

x +...+x

1
n1 + xn
n

f(x1 ) + . . . + f(xn1 ) + f(xn )


.
n

f(x1 ) + . . . + f(xn1 )
, .
n1
nm
m
q=
,
26.19. ) p q , p =
n
n

, f(xn ) 6

m, n n m .
26.18 x1 , . . . , x1 , x2 , . . . , x2 (m x1 n m
x2 ). .
) ), .
26.20. 26.19.
x1 + x2
26.21. , x1 , x2 > 0, ln
>
2
x1 + x2
ln x1 + ln x2
.
>
>
2
2
ln x + ln x
1
2
> exp
= x1 x2 .
2

26.22. f(x) = ln x ( 26.21).


x + . . . + x ln x + . . . + ln x
n
n
1
1
ln
>
.
n

319

.
. 8.13 13.10.
26.23. f(x) = ln x ( 26.21).
A B 1
1
> ln A + ln B.
+
ln
p

.
.
8.45 28.43 ).
26.24. ) f(x) = x2
. ,
, > 0 > 0 , x

d 2 2
d2

x < , . . x + < .
x +
2
4
x , .
) f(x) = 1/x (0, 1) . , ,
1
1

> 0
> 0 ,

<
x
x
+
(
d
/2)

d
x 0, 1
.
2

d
d

< x x +

. x 0 6 0.
2
2
.
26.25. , f(x) [a, b] , .
0 , > 0 x ( ) x ( ) [a, b], : |x ( ) x ( )| < |f(x ( )) f(x ( ))| > 0 .
xn = x (1/n) xn = x (1/n). {xn } {xnk },
x0 [a, b] ( 25.12).
|xn xn | < 1/n , {xnk }
x0 . f(x) ,
f(xnk ) f(x0 ) f(xnk ) f(x0 ).
|f(x ( )) f(x ( ))| > 0 .
26.26. f(x) -

26.10. x1 =

d
d

p , x2 = p , x3 = 3p , x4 = 2p , x5 = 5p , x6 = 3p ,

320
x7 =

26.
1
2
, x8 =
, . . . f(x2k ) = 0,
7p
4p

X
k=0

|f(xk+1 ) f(xk )| =

p + 3p + 5p + 7p + . . .

( 30.7).
26.27. , g , Varba (g) = |g(a) g(b)|; , g
. , g1 g2
, f = g1 + g2
.
m
P
v =
|f(xk+1 ) f(xk )|. p
k=0

, f(xk+1 ) f(xk ) > 0, (n)


, f(xk+1 ) f(xk ) < 0. v = p + n
f(b) f(a) = p n,
v = 2p + f(a) f(b) = 2n + f(b) f(a).

V, P N v, p n
x0 = a < x1 < . . .< xm < b= xm+1 .
V(x), P(x) N(x), [a, b] [a, x].
, P(x) N(x) [a, b].
,
V(x) = 2P(x) + f(a) f(x) = 2N(x) + f(x) f(a),

f(x) = f(a) + P(x) N(x). f(a) + P(x) N(x)


.
26.28. , V x0 . f ,
f(x0 +) f(x0 ).
V , x0 < x 6 b,
|f(x) f(x0 )| 6 V(x) V(x0 ),

|f(x0 +) f(x0 )| 6 V(x0 +) V(x0 ) = 0, . . f(x0 +) = f(x0 ).


, f(x0 ) = f(x0 ).
, f x0
(a, b). > 0 > 0,
|x x0 | < , |f(x) f(x0 )| < /2.
[x0 , b],

e
e

V(b) V(x0 ) <

m
X
k=0

d
e

|f(xk+1 )| f(xk ) + /2.

(1)

321

, , , ,
x0 < x1 < x0 + .

m
X
k=0

|f(xk+1 ) f(xk )| = |f(x1 ) f(x0 )| +

m
X
k=1

|f(xk+1 ) f(xk )| 6

6 /2 + (V(b) V(x1 )).

(2)

(1) (2), V(x1 ) V(x0 ) < .


, V(x1 ) > V(x0 ). , V(x0 +) = V(x0 ). V(x0 ) = V(x0 ). x0 = a x0 = b, .

27

27.1.
ax x. (
a.) a > 0 x =
p/q, p q
q
. ax ap ,
() . ,

q
nq
anp = ap . , (anp )q = (ap )nq . x < 0 ax = 1/ax .

27.1. ) a > 1. , x1 > x2 ,


ax1 > ax2 .
) a < 1. , x1 > x2 , ax1 < ax2 .
27.2. a > 1. , ax
, x .
27.3. , ax1 +x2 = ax1 ax2 .
27.4. , alx = (ax )l .
27.5. a , {xn } , lim xn =0. n
, lim axn = 1.

27.6. , lim xn = x,
n

{xn } , lim axn , n


x.
a . ax x . {xn }
, x. ax = lim axn .
n

323

27.7. ) a > 1. , x > y, ax > ay .


) a < 1. , x > y, ax < ay .
27.8. , lim xn = x, {xn } n
( )
, lim axn = ax .
n

27.9. , ax1 +x2 = ax1 ax2 (


) x1 x2 .
27.10. a , a 6= 1.
, x y, ay = x.
a x , a 6= 1. x
a y = loga x, ay = x.
10 lg,
e ln.

27.11. , f(x) = loga x .


27.12. , loga (x1 x2 ) = loga x1 + loga x2 .
27.2.
27.13. 52x1 + 5x+1 = 250.
27.14. 6x 2x = 32.
27.15. 2100 ?

27.3.
27.16. ) , loga x =
) , loga b =

1
.
logb a

logb x
.
logb a

27.17. , a2 + b2 = 7ab ab 6= 0. ,



a +b 1
lg
= (lg |a| + lg |b|).
3

324

27.

27.4.
27.18. ,
2<
27.19.
27.20.
27.21.
27.22.
27.23.
27.24.

1
log2

p + log p .
5

, 3/10 < lg 2 < 1/3.


loga1 a loga (a + 1), a > 1.
log2 3 log3 5.
log20 80 log80 640.
log5 7 log13 17.
log3 7 log7 27.
27.5.

27.25. , :
) log2 3; ) log2 3; ) log5+32 (3 + 5 2).
27.26. a b, ab .
27.6.
27.27. , lim (1 + 1/x)x = e.
x

ln(1 + x)
= 1.
x
a
(1 + x) 1
27.29. , lim
= a x
x0

27.28. , lim

x0

a.
ax 1
= ln a 27.30. , lim
x
x0
a.
27.7.
, , x2 y2 = 1
:
ex ex
( );
2
ex + ex
ch x =
( );
2

sh x =

325

ex ex
( );
ex + ex
x
x
e +e
( ).
cth x = x
e ex

th x =

, sh(x) = sh x ch(x) = ch x.

27.31. , x = ch t, y =
= sh t x2 y2 = 1.
27.32. ,
sh(x y) = sh x ch y ch x sh y,
ch(x y) = ch x ch y sh x sh y.


:
x = sh y, y = Arsh x (* );
x = ch y, y = Arch x ( );
x = th y, y = Arth x ( );
x = cth y, y = Arcth x ( ).

27.33. ,
p
Arsh x = ln(x + x2 + 1);
p
p
Arch x = ln(x x2 1) = ln(x + x2 1);
Arth x =

1+x
1
ln
.
2
1x

x
< < /2), sh x = tg .

a p

a (p/2 <

27.34.
:
) ch x = 1/ cos ;
) th(x/2) = tg( /2).

a
a

27.1. ) , x1 = p1 /q x2 = p2 /q. ap1 > ap2 ,


a>1. >
q > q . ap1 /q > ap2 /q .

a b

* area .

a b

a b

326

27.

) , ap1 < ap2 ,


a < 1.
27.2. a = 1 + , > 0.

d
(1 + d) = 1 + nd + C d
n > y/d, a > y.
2
n

+...>n .

27.3. , x
1 = p1 /q x2 = p2 /q. ,

q
q
q
ap1 +p2 = ap1 ap2 . ax1 +x2 = ap1 +p2 = ap1 ap2 = ax1 ax2 .
27.4.
27.3.
= p/q, q
apx = (ax )p .
27.5. : xn =1/n.
25.20.
{xn } kn , 1/kn <xn <1/kn .
a1/kn < axn < a1/kn a > 1 a1/kn < axn < a1/kn a < 1.
, lim a1/kn = 1 = lim a1/kn .
n
n
. 25.20, lim a1/n = 1 . -

, a > 1. 27.1
{a1/n } . , ,
lim a1/n = c. {a1/(2n) }
n
, c = c2 , a1/n = (a1/(2n) )2 . ,
c = 0 1. a1/n > 1, c > 1.
27.6. , a > 1; a < 1 . {xn } {xn }, x, {xn }
, {xn } . 27.1
{axn } .

, lim axn = c .
n

lim axn = c . , xn xn 0,
n

27.5 c /c = lim axn xn = 1, . . c = c = c.


n

{xn } kn ,
xkn < xn < xkn . lim axn = c. c x.
n
27.7. ) p q , x > p > q > y.

327

{xn } {yn } , x y xn > p


yn 6 q n. 27.1
axn > ap > aq > ayn , ax > ap > aq > ay .
) .
27.8. 27.6.
{xn } {xn }.
27.7 xkn < xn < xkn axkn < axn <

< axkn , lim axn = c = ax .


n

27.9. ax1 +x2 = ax1 ax2 ( 27.3), f(x) = ax ( 27.8).


27.10. f(x) = ax ( 27.8)
( 27.1,
f). , 27.2
ay , (
, ay = 1/ay ). x > 0 y,
ay = x. y f.
27.11. x0 = ay0 , y0 = loga x0 .
> 0 |ay0 ay0 +e | |ay0 ay0 e |. g(y) = ay
, |ay0 ay | < |y0 y| < , . . |x0 x| <
| loga x0 loga x| < .
27.12.
: ay1 +y2 = ay1 ay2 ( 27.9).
27.13. : x = 2. f(x) = 52x1 + 5x+1
, 250
x. , f(2) = 53 + 53 = 250.
27.14. : x = 2. 2x 6= 0,
3x 2 = 32 2x . f(x) = 3x 2
, g(x) = 32 2x . f(x) = g(x)
. .
27.15. : 31 . , 2100 = 102410 > 100010 ,
2100 31 . ,

102410
100010

<

1025 10
1000

41 10
40

<

41 40 39
32
41

...
=
< 10.
40 39 38
31
31

328

27.

, 2100 = 102410 < 10 100010 , 2100


32 .
27.16. ) aloga x = x. b, loga x logb a = logb x.
) ) x = b ,
logb b = 1.
(a+b)2
=
27.17. lg
9
=lg ab ( , ab > 0). ,
(a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab = 7ab + 2ab = 9ab.
lg 2
lg 5
27.18.
+
.

lg p

lg p

, 2 lg < lg 2 + lg 5, . . lg( 2 ) < lg 10.


, 2 < 9,87 ( 33.4).
27.19. 3/10<lg 2 , 103 <210 =
= 1024, lg 2 < 1/3 , 8 = 23 < 10.
27.20. (a1)(a+1)<a2 , loga (a1)+
+ loga (a + 1) < 2. ,
p
loga (a 1) + loga (a + 1) > 2 loga (a 1) loga (a + 1).

loga (a 1) loga (a + 1) < 1, . . loga1 a > loga (a + 1).


27.21. a = log2 3 b = log3 5. 2a = 3,
a
8 = 33 > 52 = 9b > 8b . , log2 3 > log3 5.
27.22. , log20 80 = 1 + 2 log20 2 log80 640 = 1 + 3 log80 2.
, log20 2 =

1
1
log80 2 =
. , 3 log2 20 =
log2 20
log2 80

= log2 8000 > log2 6400 = 2 log2 80. log20 80 < log80 640.

17
7
log13 17 1 = log13
.
5
13
17
7
7
17
7
, > . log5 > log13 > log13
.
5
13
5
5
13

27.23. , log5 7 1 = log5

, log5 7 > log13 17.


3
27.24. , log7 27 = 3 log7 3 =
.
log
37

(log3 7)2 > 3, . . log37> 3. , 3 < 7/4. 7 > 3 3 74 > 37 , . . 2401 >
> 2187. , log3 7 > log7 27.
27.25. ) , log2 3=p/q, p q
. 2p/q = 3, . . 2p = 3q . .
) , log2 3 = p/q, p q

. ( 2)p/q = 3, . . 2p = 32q . .
) 6.25.

329

27.26. a = 2 b = log2 3. a b

( 6.16 27.25). ab = ( 2)log 2 3 = 3.


27.27. , lim (1 + 1/n)n = e (
n

25.37). x > 1 n
, n 6 x < n + 1.

1 n+1
1 n
1
1 x
< 1+
= 1+
1+
,
1+
x
n
n
n

1 n
1 n+1
1 x
1 1
> 1+
= 1+
.
1+
1+
n+1

n+1

n e.
, x
. y = x ,

1 y1
1
1 y y y
=
= 1+
1+
.
1
y1

y1

y1

y e.
27.28. 27.27 lim (1+x)1/x =e. , x0

, lim

x0

1
ln(1+x)=1.
x

27.29. (1 + x)a = 1 + y. y 0 x 0. ,
a ln(1 + x) = ln(1 + y).
y
y
a ln(1 + x)
(1 + x)a 1
= =

.
x
x
ln(1 + y)
x

27.28, .
27.30. ax 1 = y. y 0 x 0. ,
x=

ln(1 + y)
ax 1
y
.
=
ln a. ln a
x
ln(1 + y)

27.28, .
27.31. ,
et + et 2 et et 2

= et et = 1.
2

27.32. ,

4 sh x ch y = ex+y + exy ex+y exy ,

4 ch x sh y = ex+y exy + ex+y exy .

. .

330

27.

27.33. y = Arsh x. x = sh y =

ey ey
.
2

e2y 2xey 1 = 0.


y
2 + 1. ey > 0, ey = x +
x
x2 + 1,
ey ,
e
=
x

2
. . y = ln(x + x + 1).
ey + ey
. e2y 2xey +1=
y=Arch x. x=ch y=
2

y
= 0, , e
= x x2
1. , y = ln(x x2 1).
(x + x2 1)(x x2 1) = 1 ,
p
p
ln(x x2 1) = ln(x + x2 1).
ey ey
. ey (1 x) =
ey + ey
1+x
1
1+x
= ey (1 + x), , e2y =
. , y = ln
.
1x
2
1x

y = Arth x. x = th y =

27.34. ) , 1 = ch2 x sh2 x = ch2 x tg2 .


ch2 x = 1 + tg2 = 1/ cos2 . , ch x cos .

1 + sin a

) , ex = sh x + ch x = tg +
.
+
=
= tg
a p
cos a
cos a
2
4
x = ln tg
. +
2
4
a p
1 + tg(a/2)
+
. ,
, tg
=
2

1 tg(a/2)

a p 1
a
x
1
1 + tg(a/2)
= ln
,
= ln tg
+
= Arth tg
2
2
2
4
2
1 tg(a/2)
2

28

28.1.
f(x) x0
lim

xx0

f(x) f(x0 )
= f (x0 ).
x x0

, , f(x) x0 .
f(x), [a, b], a b .
g(x) = f (x) f(x) f (x).
f (x) . . n-
f(n) (x).

28.1. f(x) x0 .
, (x0 , y0 ) (x1 , y1 ), y0 =
=f(x0 ) y1 =f(x1 ), yy0 =k(x1 )(xx0 ).
, lim k(x1 ) = f (x0 ).
x1 x0

y f(x0 ) = f (x0 )(x x0 ) y = f(x) (x0 , f(x0 )).

28.2. , f(x) x0 , .
28.3. , f(x) g(x) x0 , :
) (f + g) (x0 ) = f (x0 ) + g (x0 );
) (fg)(x0 )=f(x0 )g(x0 )+f(x0 )g(x0 ), (fg)(x)=f(x)g(x);

332

28.

 f 
g

(x0 ) =

f (x0 )g(x0 ) f(x0 )g (x0 )


, g(x0 ) 6= 0.
(g(x0 ))2

f g gf(x)=g(f(x)).

28.4. f x0 ,
g y0 = f(x0 ). , x0 U(x0 ),
x U(x0 ) x 6= x0 , f(x) 6= f(x0 ).
, g f x0
(g f) (x0 ) = g [f(x0 )]f (x0 ).

f(x) [a, b]. y [f(a), f(b)] x [a, b], y = f(x).


g(y) = x.

28.5. f (x0 ) 6= 0, g(y) f(x) .

, y = f(x0 ), g (y0 ) =

1
.
f (x0 )

28.2.
28.6. , (xn ) = nxn1 n.
28.7. , (xa ) = axa1 a x.
28.8. , (sin x) = cos x (cos x) = sin x.
28.9. , (tg x) =

1
(ctg x) = 2 x 6= k .
sin x

(2k + 1)
1
x 6=
2
2
cos x

28.10. , (ax ) = ax ln a a > 0.

1
.
x ln a
1
(arctg x) =
28.12. , (arcsin x) = p
1 x2
1
=
.
1 + x2

28.11. , (loga x) =

28.13. u(x) v(x) ,


u(x) . , -

333

uv = u(x)v(x) .
28.14. f(x) = xsin x (
x > 0).
28.15. f(x) = cosx a
sinx a, 0 < a < /2 .

28.3.
28.16. , f(x) n > 2
, f(x) f (x)
.
28.17. ,
x40 + a1 x30 + a2 x20 + a3 x0 + a4 = 0,
4x30 + 3a1 x20 + 2a2 x0 + a3 = 0,
x4 + a1 x3 + a2 x2 + a3 x + a4 (x x0 )2 .
28.18. ,
fn (x) = 1 + x +

xn
x2
+...+
2!
n!

.
. 23.22, 24.7.
28.4.
28.19. P(x) . , n-
P(n) (x) n! n.
28.20. ,

.
28.21. f g n. ,
fg(n) f g(n1) +f g(n2) f(3) g(n3) +. . .+(1)n f(n) g .

334

28.

28.22. p q . ,

q2

p3

x3 + px + q = 0 p D = + .
4
27
28.23. f(x) = (x x1) . . . (x xn ), x1 , . . . , xn
. ,
(
n
X
0 0 6 k 6 n 2;
xki
=
f (xi )
1 k = n 1.
i=1

28.24. P(x) = (x x1) . . . (x xn ), x1 , . . . , xn . , (P (x))2 > P(x)P (x)


x.
28.25. . , .
28.26. , .
28.27. , P(x) = a0 + a1 xk1 + a2 xk2 +
+ . . . + an xkn n .
28.28. ,
P(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an

,
a2i >

ni+1 i+1

ai1 ai+1 ,
ni
i

i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1

().
. 10.33.

28.5.
28.29. (x + a)n = A0 + A1 x + . . . + An xn .
A0 , . . . , An .

335

28.30. 1 + 2x + 3x2 + . . . + nxn1 , 1 + x + x2 + . . . + xn =


. 14.16, 30.14.

1 xn+1
.
1x

28.6.
28.31. y = ex (x0 , y0 ) Ox (x1 , 0). , x1 x0
.
28.32. , Oy, A1 , A2 A3 . k1
A1 , kij
Ai Aj . , k1 = k12 + k13 k23 .

y = f(x) (x0 , y0 ) , (x0 , y0 )


.

28.33. , y = f(x)
(x0 , y0 )
f (x0 )(y y0 ) = x x0 .
28.34. y = x2 (x0 , y0 ) Oy (0, y1 ). , y1 y0
.
. 8.17.
28.7. ,
28.35. f(x) [a, b] x0
. , x0 , f (x0 ) = 0 ().
28.36. f(x) [a, b],
f(a) = f(b). ,
x0 , f (x0 ) = 0 ().

336

28.

28.37. f(x) [a, b].


, x0 ,
f (x0 ) =

f(a) f(b)
ab

().

,
f(b) f(a) = f (x0 )(b a),

28.38. f(x) [a, b],


f (x) = 0 x [a, b]. ,
f(x) [a, b].
28.39. f(x) [a, b].
) , (
) , f (x) > 0
x (a, b).
) , f (x) > 0 x (a, b) [p, q],
[a, b], f ,
f(x) .
28.40. f(x) g(x) [a, b]. , f(a) = g(a) f (x) > g (x)
x (a, b), f(x) > g(x)
x (a, b).
x2
28.41. , x > 0, cos x > 1
sin x >
>x

x3
.
6

1
3

28.42. , 0 < x < /2, tg x > x + x3 .

. 28.41
28.42 , . ,
(). ( , )
: , .

337

.
29.8.

28.43. ) 0 < < 1 x > 0. , xa x 6


61 .
) a, b, p q ,

1
1
1
1
+ = 1. , ab 6 ap + bq .
p
q
p
q

28.44. f(x) g(x)


[a, b], g (x)
. , x0 [a, b],
f(b) f(a)
f (x0 )
=
g(b) g(a)
g (x0 )

().

28.8.

a < b < p/2, a sin b <


a b < p/2, a tg b > b tg a.
a p/2, 2 sin a +tg a >3a.

28.45. , 0 <
< sin .
28.46. , 0< <
28.47. , 0< <
28.48. ) , ex > 1 + x

x 6= 0.

n+1 1
1
< ln
< ) ,
n+1
n
n

n.
28.49. x > 0, x 6= 1. , : ) ln x < x 1;
) ln x >

x1
.
x

28.50. ) , ln x < n(x1/n 1) < x1/n ln x


x 6= 1.
) , lim n(x1/n 1) = ln x n
x 6= 1.
28.51. x > 0.
) , lim n ln(1 + x/n) = x.
n

) , lim (1 + x/n)n = ex .
n

28.52. , ex > xe
x 6= e.

338

28.

28.53. a b . ,
b 2a + a 2b > a + b.
28.54. a > b > 0. ,

ab
a+b
ab <
<
.
ln a ln b

28.55. ,
sin x +

1
1
1
sin 2x + sin 3x + . . . + sin nx > 0
2
3
n

0 < x < .
28.56. 0 < x < /4. ,
2

(cos x)cos

> (sin x)sin

(cos x)cos

< (sin x)sin x .

28.57. , x > 1 x 6= 0,
2|x|
|x|
.
< |ln(1 + x)| <
2+x
1+x

. 8.17.
28.9.
28.58. f(x) g(x) ( 28.44) , , f(a) = g(a) =
f (x)

f(x)

= 0. , lim
=A
= A, lim
xa+ g (x)
xa+ g(x)
( ).
28.59.
lim

x0

x sin x
.
x3

ax xa
.
xa x a
tg x x
.
28.61. lim
x0 x sin x

28.60. lim

28.10.
28.62. () x3 3x = a a?

339

28.63. x3 + 1 = ax a?
28.64. ex = ax a?
28.65. ax = x a?
28.66. ax = loga x
  a 6= 1?
1

28.67.
=log 1 x?
16
16
28.68. , n
fn (x) = 1 + x +

xn
x2
+...+
2!
n!

, n
.
. 24.4.
28.11.
28.69. , f(x) , f (x) .
28.70. , , f(x) = sin x + sin x .

28.12.

k (x1 , . . . , xn ) Ckn . k

k (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
k (x1 , . . . , xn )/Cn . ,
0 (x1 , . . . , xn ) = 1.

28.71. x1 , . . . , xn , y1 , . . . , yn1
. ,
k (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
= k (y1 , . . . , yn1 ).

340

28.

28.72. x1 , . . . , xn
= k (x1 , . . . , xn ). ,
p
p
p
3
n
1>
2>
3 >...>
n

Sk =

().
28.73. x1 , . . . , xn . , k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1

Sk2(x1, . . . , xn) > Sk1(x1, . . . , xn)Sk+1(x1, . . . , xn)

().
28.13.
f(x) , P0 (x), . . . , Pn (x),
P0 (x)(f(x))n + P1 (x)(f(x))n1 + . . . + Pn (x) = 0,
P0 (x) . f(x) .

28.74. , f(x) = sin x .


28.75. , f(x)=ex .
28.14.
28.76. ) a . ,
f(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . + an xn

f(x) = A0 + A1 (x a) + A2 (x a)2 + . . . + An (x a)n ,
A0 , A1 , . . . , An .
) , A0 = f(a), A1 = f (a), A2 =
. . . , An =

f(n) (a)
.
n!

f (a)
, ...
2!

28.77. a , f(x) ,
n + 1

341

x a b ( b). ,
x a b
T(x) = f(a) +

f (a)
f (a)
f(n) (a)
(x a) +
(x a)2 + . . . +
(x a)n ,
1!
2!
n!

f(x) T(x) =

f(n+1) ( )
(x a)n+1
(n + 1)!

j a x ( ).

28.78. ) , sin x x

x3
+
3!

|x|2n+2
x5
x7
x2n+1

+ . . . + (1)n

.
5!
7!
(2n + 1)!
(2n + 2)!
2
4
x
x
x6
) , cos x 1 + +
2!
4!
6!
|x|2n+1
x2n

.
+ . . . + (1)n
(2n)!
(2n + 1)!
x3
x2
) , ex 1 + x + + + . . .
2!
3!
n+1
xn
x |x|
...+
e
.
n!
(n + 1)!

. 28.78 .
. 29.8.

28.1. y y0 =

f(x1 ) f(x0 )
f(x1 ) f(x0 )
(x x0 ), k(x1 ) =
. =
x1 x0
x1 x0

, lim k(x1 ) =
x1 x0
= f (x0 ).
28.2.
f(x) f(x0 ) =
lim

xx0

f(x) f(x0 )
(x x0 ).
x x0

f(x) f(x0 )
= f (x0 )
x x0

lim (x x0 ) = 0.

xx0

lim (f(x) f(x0 )) = f (x0 ) 0 = 0. , f(x)


x0 .

xx0

342

28.

28.3. )
.
) h(x) = f(x)g(x).
h(x) h(x0 ) = f(x)(g(x) g(x0 )) + g(x0 )(f(x) f(x0 )).
x x0 ,
f(x) f(x0 ) x x0 .
) h(x) = f(x)/g(x).

1
g(x) g(x0 )
f(x) f(x0 )
h(x) h(x0 )
=
f(x0 )
.
g(x0 )
x x0

g(x)g(x0 )

x x0

x x0

x x0 , .
28.4.

g f(x) g f(x0 )
g f(x) g f(x0 ) f(x) f(x0 )
=

x x0
f(x) f(x0 )
x x0

, g f x0
(g f) (x0 ) = g [f(x0 )]f (x0 ).
28.5. ,
28.6. ,

f(x) f(x0 )
y y0
=
.
x x0
f(y) f(y0 )

xn xn0
f(x) f(x0 )
=
= xn1 + xn2 x0 + . . . + x0n1 .
x x0
x x0

x x0 n x0n1 .
28.7. ,
xa xa0
x x0

y=

= xa0

(xa /xa0 ) 1
(1 + y)a 1
= xa1
,
0
x x0
y

xx0
(1+y)a 1
. , y0 xx0 . , lim
=
x0
y
y0

=a ( 27.29).
28.8. ,

x + x0
x x0
cos
,
2
2
x x0
x + x0
cos x cos x0 = 2 sin
sin
.
2
2

sin x sin x0 = 2 sin

1
x x0
1
sin
xx0 ( 26.6)
x x0
2
2

sin x cos x ( 26.9).

343

28.9. 28.3 )
sin x (sin x) cos x sin x(cos x) cos2 x + sin2 x
=
= 1.
=
2
2
cos x

cos x

cos x

(ctg x) .
28.10. , ax ax0 = ax0 (axx0 1). ,

axx0 1
= ln a 27.30.
xx0
x x0
ln x
, , (ln x) =
28.11. loga x=
ln a

x x0
x
= ln 1 +
= 1/x. ln x ln x0 = ln
,
x0
x0
ln x ln x0
1 ln(1 + y)
x x0

=
, y =
. ,
x x0
x0
y
x0
ln(1 + y)
= 1 ( 27.28).
lim
y
y0

lim

28.12. x = sin y, arcsin x = y. arcsin ,


sin. , 28.5,
(arcsin x) =

1
1
1
.
=
=p
(sin y)
cos y
1 x2

x = tg y, arctg x = y,
(arctg x) =

1
1
1
= cos2 y =
=
.
(tg y)
1 + tg2 y
1 + x2

28.13. , y = uv , ln y = v ln u.

u
vu
y
= v ln u + v . y = y v ln u +
.
,
y
u
u
sin x
28.14. 28.13 f (x) = xsin x
+ cos x ln x .
x
28.15. 28.13
f (x) = cosx a ln cos a sinx a ln sin a = cosx a(ln cos a tgx a ln sin a).

28.16. , f(x) = (x x0 )m g(x), m > 2.


f (x)=m(xx0 )m1 g(x)+(xx0 )m g (x) x0 .
, f(x) = (x x0 )g(x), g(x0 ) 6= 0.
f (x) = g(x) + (x x0 )g (x), f (x0 ) = g(x0 ) 6= 0. , f(x) 1,
f (x).
28.17. f(x) = x4 + a1 x3 + a2 x2 + a3 x + a4 .
f(x0 ) = f (x0 ) = 0. , x0 f(x), . . f(x) (x x0 )2 .

344

28.

28.18. , fn (x)
. fn (x) fn (x) = fn1 (x) xn

x0 . , fn (x0 )fn1 (x0 )=0. fn (x)fn1 (x)= ,


n!
x0 = 0. , fn (0) 6= 0.
28.19. xm . , n 6 m,
(xm )(n) = m(m 1) . . . (m n + 1)xmn = n!

m!
xmn = n! Cnm xmn .
n! (m n)!

n! Cnm , , n!, Cnm .


n > m, (xm )(n) = 0.
28.20. f(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 . an1
,
f
an
an1
.
nan
(n 1)an1
f (x) = nan xn1 + (n 1)an1 xn2 + . . . + a1
, nan
(n 1)an1
an1

=
.
(n 1)nan
nan

28.21. fg(n+1) + f g(n)


f g(n) f g(n2) + f g(n2) + . . . + (1)n f(n) g + (1)n f(n+1) g.
,
fg(n+1) f(n+1) g. f g n,
(n + 1)- .
28.22. f(x) = x3 + px + q. f (x) = 3x2 + p.
p > 0, f x
. . , D > 0.
p < 0. f

p/3

p/3,
p/3,


p/3 . ,
2
2
2
2
f(x)f(x) = q x (x + p) . x = p/3
4D.
D < 0, f x p/3 p/3,
. . D>0, . D = 0, .
n
P
g(xi )f(x)
x1 , . . . , xn
28.23.

i=1

f (xi )(x xi )

g(x1 ), . . . , g(xn ). g(x)


n
n
P
g(xi )f(x)
g(xi )
g(x) P
n 1, g(x) =
, . .
=
.

i=1

f (xi )(x xi )

f(x)

i=1

f (xi )(x xi )

345

g(x) = xk+1 , 0 6 k 6 n 2.
n
P
xk+1
xk+1
i
=
. f(0) 6= 0, ,

f(x)

i=1

f (xi )(x xi )

x = 0, 0 6 k 6 n 2.
xnf(x)
=
g(x)=xnf(x).
f(x)
n
n
P
xi
, f(xi ) = 0. x = 0,
=

i=1

f (xi )(xxi )

k = n 1.
28.24. x = xi , .
, x P.
P (x)
1
1
=
+...+
.
P(x)
x x1
x xn

,
1
1
P (x)P(x) (P (x))2
=
...
< 0.
2
2
(P(x))
(x x1 )
(x xn )2

28.25. x x + c , 4- a/2, 3a/2.

a2
9a2
x2
x2
4x3 5ax. ,
4

4
5
a 0.

2

28.26. f .

F G, : F =
G =

(f )2 +f +1
,
2

(f )2 f + 1
, F(0) = f(0) G(0) = 0. f = F G,
2

F > 0 G > 0 (. . F G ),
(f )2 f + 1 = (f 1/2)2 + 3/4 > 3/4.
28.27. n. n = 1 a0 + a1 xk ,
. , P(x) n .
. P (x) = b1 xk1 1 + b2 xk2 1 + . . .
. . . + bn xkn 1 n 1 . , k1 < k2 < . . . < kn . P (x)
xk1 1 ( x = 0).
, b1 + b2 xk2 k1 + . . . + bn xkn k1
n 1 .
.

346

28.

28.28. Q(y) = yn P(y1 ). Q(y) ,

Q(n2) (y) = (n 2)(n 3) . . . 4 3[n(n 1)an y2 + 2(n 1)an1 y + 2an2 ]

. ,

(n 1)2 a2n1 > 2n(n 1)an an2 .

i = n 1 .

P(ni1) (x) = b0 xi+1 + b1 xi + . . . + bi+1 x2 + bi x + bi1 .


,
b2i >

2(i + 1)
bi1 bi+1 .
i

bi+1 = (n i + 1) . . . 4 3ai+1 ,
bi = (n i) . . . 3 2ai ,
bi1 = (n i 1) . . . 2 1ai1 ,
(2(n i)ai )2 >

2(i + 1)
2(n i + 1)(n i)ai1 ai+1 .
i

.
28.29. x = 0 A0 = an . ,
n(x + a)n1 = A1 + 2A2 x + . . . + nAn xn1 .
x = 0 A1 = nan1 . ,
n(n 1)(x + a)n2 = 2 1 A2 + 3 2 A3 x + . . . + n(n 1)An xn2 .

m- (m 6 n)
n(n 1) . . . (n m + 1)(x + a)nm = m(m 1) . . . 1 Am +

+ (m + 1)m . . . 2 Am+1 x + . . . + n(n 1) . . . (n m + 1)An xnm .

, n(n 1) . . . (n m + 1)anm = m(m 1) . . . 1 Am .


1 xn+1 1 (n + 1)xn + nxn+1
=
28.30. :
.
2
1x

(1 x)

. 9.6.

347

28.31. y = f(x) (x0 , y0 )


y y0 = f (x0 )(x x0 ). x1 y0 = ex0 (x1 x0 ). , y0 = ex0 , x0 x1 = 1.
28.32. k1 kij , ,
y = ax2 . Ai = (xi , yi ). k1 = 2ax1
kij =

x2i x2j
yi yj
=a
= a(xi + xj ).
xi xj
xi xj

.
y y0
= k, 28.33.
x x0

, (x0 , y0 ),

y y0
1
= , tg(
x x0
k

f + 90 ) = tg(1f) .

y = f(x) (x0 , y0 )
y y0
= f (x0 ), (x0 , y0 ) x x0
1
y y0
=
.

x x0
f (x0 )

28.34. y = x2 (x0 , y0 ) -

y y0
1
=
. y1 , x=0.
x x0
2x0
1
y1 y0
=
, . . y1 y0 = 1/2.

x0
2x0

28.35. f(x0 ) 6 f(x) x


[a, b].
lim

xx0 +

f(x) f(x0 )
x x0

lim

xx0

f(x) f(x0 )
.
x x0

.
, . , , .
f (x0 ).
28.36. f(x) [a, b],
( 26.17)
M m. M = m, f(x)
, x0
. M > m,
, f(a) = f(b).
, x0 [a, b]
f(x) ,
( 28.35) f (x0 ) = 0.

348

28.

28.37. F(x) = f(x)

f(a) f(b)
(xa). [a, b]

ab

F(a) = F(b) = f(a). F(x)


( 28.36). , x0 [a, b], F (x0 ) = 0,

. . f (x0 )

f(a) f(b)
= 0.
ab

28.38. a < x 6 b. ( 28.37) f [a, x]. ,


f(x) f(a) = f (x0 )(x a) x0 [a, x].
f (x0 ) = 0, f(x) = f(a).
28.39. ) ,
f (x) > 0 f(x).
, f (x) > 0 x (a, b). [a, b] x y ,
x < y. ( 28.37) [x, y].
, f(y) f(x) = f (z)(y x)
z (x, y). f (z) > 0, f(y) > f(x).
) ) f(x) .
[a, b] x y , x < y.
z [x, y] f(x) 6 f(z) 6 f(y).
f(x) = f(y), f [x, y].
f ,
.
28.40. 28.39 f(x) g(x)
[a, b].
x2
28.41. f(x) = cos x g(x) = 1
. f(0) = g(0)
2

f (x) = sin x > x = g (x) x > 0, sin x < x ( 11.1). f(x) > g(x) x > 0 28.40.
f(x) = sin x g(x) = x
x2

x3
. f (x) = cos x
6

x2

g (x) = 1 . cos x > 1


2
2
.
1
28.42. , (tg x) =
> 1 + x2 , . .
2
cos x

cos2

1 = tg2 x > x2 . tg x > x

11.1.
28.43. ) f(x) = xa x. f (x) = (xa1 1).

f (x) > 0 0 < x < 1 f (x) < 0 x > 1. , f(x)

349

0 < x < 1 x > 1. ,


x f(x) f(1) = 1 .
) ). ,
ap 1/p 1 ap 1
ap
1
6
= x = q .
q
q + .

pb

b1+q/p = bq .
. .
8.45 26.23.
28.44.
F(x) = (f(b) f(a))(g(x) g(a)) (f(x) f(a))(g(b) g(a)).

F (x) = (f(b) f(a))g (x) f (x)(g(b) g(a))

F(a) = F(b) = 0. F(x) ( 28.36). ,


x0 ,
(f(b) f(a))g (x0 ) f (x0 )(g(b) g(a)) = 0.

(1)

g (x0 ) 6= 0. , g(b) g(a) 6= 0, x1 ,


g (x1 ) = 0. (1)
g (x0 )(g(b) g(a)) .
28.45. 0 < x < /2.
sin x x cos x sin x cos x(x tg x)
=
=
< 0.
2
2

sin a

a < b < p/2, a


28.46. 0 < x < p/2.

0 <

tg x
x

>

sin b

x sin x cos x
> 0,
x2 cos2 x

sin x < x cos x < 1.


28.47. f(x) = 2 sin x + tg x 3x. ,
f (x) = 2 cos x +

a p

1
2 cos3 x 3 cos2 x + 1

3
=
=
cos2 x
cos2 x
(1 cos x)(1 + cos x 2 cos2 x)
.
=
cos2 x

0 < < /2, 1 cos x > 0 1 + cos x 2 cos2 x = 1 cos2 x +


+ cos x(1 cos x) > 0. 0 < < /2, f( ) > f(0) = 0.

a p

350

28.

28.48. ) f(x)=ex x. f (x)=ex 1. f (x)>0


x > 0 f (x) < 0 x < 0. , f(x) > f(0) = 1
x 6= 0.
) ex > 1 + x ,

x > ln(1
+ x)
1 + x > 0, x 6= 0. ln 1 +

. . ln

1
n

<

1
n
1
n+1
< ln
<
.
n
n
n+1
n+1

1
1
ln 1
n
n+1

<

1
,
n+1

28.49. ) f(x) = x ln x. f (x) = 1 1/x.


f (x) < 0 x < 1 f (x) > 0 x > 1. , x > 0,
x 6= 1, f(x) > f(1) = 0. .
) ln t < t 1 t = 1/x.

ln x < 1/x 1, . . ln x >

x1
.
x

28.50. ) y = x1/n . n ln y < y 1 < y ln y.


28.49.
) ), lim x1/n = 1 (n
25.20).
28.51. ) 28.49

x x
x/n
< ,
< ln 1 +
1 + x/n

x
x

< x.
< n ln 1 +
1 + x/n
n

) , (1 + x/n)n = en ln(1+x/n) . )
lim n ln(1 + x/n) = x. lim (1 + x/n)n = ex .
n

28.52. x >
> e ln x, . . ln x/x < 1/e. f(x) = ln x/x.
, f (x) = (1 ln x)/x2 . f x = e. , lim (ln x/x) =
x+0

lim (ln x/x) = 0. f(x) 6 f(e) = ln e/e = 1/e, x+


x = e.
28.53. f(x) = b xa + a xb , x > 1. ,
f (x) = ab(xa1 xb1 ) > 0 x > 1, xa1 /xb1 =
= xa+b > 1. , f f(2) > f(1), . .
b 2a + a 2b > a + b.
28.54. a = bx, x > 1.

x+1
x1
x1
x1
<
, . . 2
< ln x < .
x<
ln x

x+1

351

1
1
x
x > 1,
= x1 x1/2 + x1/2 > x1 = (ln x)
2
x
x 1
1
4
< . , f(1) = g(1)
2
=
2
x+1

(x + 1)

f (x) > g (x) x > 1, f(x) > g(x) x > 1.


28.55. n. n = 1 1

. n = 2 sin x + sin 2x = sin x(1 + cos x). ,


2
sin x > 0 1 + cos x > 0 0 < x < .
,

fn1 (x) = sin x +

1
1
sin 2x + . . . +
sin(n 1)x > 0
2
n1
1

0 < x < . , fn (x) = fn1 (x) + sin nx > 0


n
0 < x < . x0 [0, ], fn (x)
. , fn (x0 ) 6 0,
x0 6= 0 . fn (x0 ) = 0.

x0
1
x0 sin
sin n +
2
2 .

fn (x0 ) = cos x0 + cos 2x0 + . . . + cos nx0 =


x0
sin
2

x0
1
x0
1

x0 = sin , , cos n +
x0 = cos .
sin n +
2
2
2
2

1
sin nx0 =
n

1
x0
x0
1
1
sin n +
x0 cos
x0 sin
.
cos n +
=
n
2
2
2
2
2
x0
x0
1
0 sin
cos
= sin x0 > 0.
n
2
2
n

fn (x0 ) fn1 (x0 ) =

, fn (x0 ) fn1 (x0 ) > 0, , fn1 (x0 ) 6 fn (x0 ) 6 0.


.
28.56. x (0 < x < /4)
f(y) = cosy x siny x y > 0. , f(0) = 0, f(y) > 0 y > 0
f(y) 0 y . , 28.15

f (y) = cos xy (ln cos x tgy x ln sin x).

g(y) = tgy x , f (y) = 0 y.


f(2) = f(2)(cos2 x + sin2 x) = f(4) , 2 4, f (2) > 0 f (4) < 0.

352

28.

f (2) > 0 cos2 x ln cos x >


2
2
>sin2 x ln sin x, . . ln((cos x)cos x )>ln((sin x)sin x ). .
f (4) < 0.
y
. , (cos x)cos x >
y
y
y
> (sin x)sin x 0 < y 6 2 (cos x)cos x < (sin x)sin x y > 4.
28.57.
2x
,
2+x
x
g(x) = ln(1 + x)
.
1+x

f(x) = ln(1 + x)

, f(0) = g(0) = 0 g (0) 6 0 6 f (0),


x 6= 0 . ,
x 2
4
1
=
,

f(x) =
2
1+x

g(x) =

(2 + x)

2+x

(1 1 + x)2
1
2+x
=

1+x
2(1 + x)3/2
2(1 + x)3/2

, f(x) > 0 x > 0 f(x) < 0 x < 0.


.
.
28.58. x, a < x 6 b,
[a, x]. ,
x1 ,
f(x) f(a)
f (x1 )
f(x)
=
=
.
g(x)
g(x) g(a)
g (x1 )

x a, x1 a. .
28.59. ,
lim

x0

x sin x
1 cos x
sin x
1
= lim
= lim
= .
6
x0
x0 6x
x3
3x2

28.60.
lim

xa

a x xa
= lim (ax xa ) = lim (ln a ax axa1 ) =
xa
xa
xa

= ln a aa aa = aa (ln a 1).

353

28.61. : 2. :
1
1
1
1 + cos x
1 cos x2
cos2 x
=
=

.
2
1 cos x
cos x 1 cos x
cos2 x

2 x 0.
28.62. : a > 2 a < 2, ; a = 2,
; 2 < a < 2, .
f(x) = x3 3x. f (x) = 3x2 3. f (x) = 0
, x = 1. x < 1, f (x) > 0;
1 < x < 1, f (x) < 0; x > 1, f (x) > 0. ,
x < 1 f(x) , 1 < x < 1 f(x)
, x > 1 f(x) . ,
f(1) = 2 f(1) = 2.
3
3
28.63. : a < 3 2, ; a = 3 2, ;
2
2
3
3
a >
2, .
2
, x = 0 , x2 + 1/x = a.
f(x)=x2 +1/x. f (x)=2x1/x2 . f (x)=0
1

. , x < 0
, x =
3
2

f(x) + ; 0 < x <


f(x)
3
1 3
2
1
3
2; x >
+ f
f(x)
=
3
3
2
2
1 3 2
3
=
f
2 +.
3
2

28.64. : a < 0 ; 0 6 a < e ;


a = e ; a > e .
f(x) = ex ax. , f (x) = ex a.
a < 0, f (x) > 0 x.
f(x) +, f(x) = 0
x. a = 0 ex = 0,
. a > 0. f (x) = 0 x0 = ln a. f(x0 ) = a(1 ln a); ,
f(x0 ) > 0 a < e, f(x0 ) = 0 a = e f(x0 ) < 0 a > e.
f(x) + f(x0 ),
f(x0 ) +.
28.65. : a > e1/e ; 0 < a 6 1
a = e1/e ; 1 < a < e1/e .
f(x) = ax x. , f (x) = ax ln a 1.
0 < a < 1, f(x) + .

354

28.

a = 1 : x = 1. a > 1,
f (x0 ) = 0 x0 = loga (ln a).
1
1
.
loga
f(x0 ) = ax0 x0 =
ln a

ln a

f(x) + f(x0 ),
f(x0 ) +.
, f(x0 )=0 , a1/ ln a =aloga(1/ ln a)
,
1

ln a = ln
,
. . a1/ ln a = 1/ ln a. ,
ln a
ln a
1
. . ln
= 1. , 1/ ln a = e, . . a = e1/e .
ln a

28.66. : 0 < a < ee ; 1 < a < e1/e


; a = e1/e ee 6 a < 1 ; a > e1/e
.
a > 1.
ax > x = x > loga x = ax > loga x,
ax < x = x < loga x = ax < loga x,
ax = x = x = loga x = ax = loga x.

ax = loga x ax = x. 28.65.
, 0 < a < 1. f(x) = loga x
ax . x 0 + f(x) +
. f (x) < 0 x > 0,
.
x > 0,
f (x) =

1 (ln a)2 xax


1
ax ln a =
x ln a
x ln a

g(x) = (ln a)2 xax 1, ln a < 0.


,
g (x) = (ln a)2 ax + (ln a)3 xax = ax (ln a)2 (1 + x ln a).
, g (x) x0 = 1/ ln a.
ln a

g(x0 ) =
1. , ln a < e, . . a > ee ,
e
g(x) < 0 x > 0, f(x) ,
.
a = ee f(x) .

355

, 0 < a < ee . ax = x .
0 < a 6 1 x1 . , g(x1 ) > 0, . . (ln a)2 x1 ax1 > 1. ax1 = x1
1
, ln a =
a = x1/x
1

1
ln x1 x1 ax1 = x21 . ,
x1

(ln x1 )2 > 1. ,
x1 < 1/e.
(x) = x1/x . ,
1/x
(x1 ) = x1 1 = a (1/e) = ee . 0 < x < 1/e (x)
,
ln x 1
ln x

(x) = e x
2 > 0.
2

, 0 < a < e , . . 0 < (x1 ) < (1/e). , x1 < 1/e.


x 0 x0 = 1/ ln a g(x)
g(x0 ); .
g(x1 ) > 0 , g(x)
x2 x3 , x2 < x1 < x3 . ,
f(x2 ) < 0 f(x3 ) > 0. , f (x),
, f(x) : x1 ,
x2 < x2 x3 > x3 .
28.67. : .

x1 = 1/2 x2 =
1

.
=1/4. , x=
16
28.66.
. , , .
,
.
28.68. , fn (x) ( 28.18). ,
n = 0, 1, . . . , 2k. ( k = 0:
f0 (x) = 1 .) ,
f2k+1 (x) . , ,
,

f2k+1
(x) = f2k (x), .
, f2k+2 (x) . f2k+2 (x)

f2k+2
(x) = f2k+1 (x),
f2k+2 (x) .

356

28.

f2k+2 (x) , .
, , f2k+2 (x)
x1 x2 . x0
f2k+1 (x).
2k+2
2k+2
f2k+2 (x0 ) = f2k+1 (x0 ) +

x0

(2k + 2)!

x0

(2k + 2)!

> 0.

x0 f2k+2 (x). f2k+2 (x) > 0


x. , f2k+2 (x) .
28.69. g(x) = f(x + T), T . g (x) = (x + T) f (x + T) = f (x + T). f(x + T) = f(x),
g (x) = f (x) f (x) = f (x + T).
28.70. , f(x) = sin x + sin x . 28.69 f (x) = cos x+ cos x
. 26.2 .
28.71.

P(x) = (x x1 ) . . . (x xn ) =

= xn C1n

S (x , . . . , x )x
1

1
n1 1
P (x) = xn1
Cn
n
n

n1

+ C2n

S (x , . . . , x )x
1

n2

S (x , . . . , x )x

...

S (x , . . . , x )x

n3

...

n3
n1 )x

...

n2

n2 2
Cn
n

,
1
P (x) = xn1 C1n1
n

Ckn1
=

nk k
Cn .
n

S (y , . . . , y
1

n2
n1 )x

+ C2n1

nk k
Cn
k (y1 , . . . , yn1 ) =
n

S (y , . . . , y
2

S (x , . . . , x ).
k

Ckn1 =

28.72. n. n = 2
x1 + x2
> x1 x2 . n > 3.

2
, x1 < x2 < . . . < xn .
(x x1 ) . . . (x xn ) n 1
y1 < y2 < . . . < yn1 . 28.71
k (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
k (y1 , . . . , yn1 ). ,
y1 , . . . , yn1 ,

357

p
n1

n1 (x1 , . . . , xn ) >
p
n
>
n (x1 , . . . , xn ), . .
r
x1 . . . xn p
n1 1 x1 . . . xn
+...+
> n x1 . . . xn ).

x1

xn

n 1, r
x1 . . . xn .
1 1
1 n 1
1
+. . .+
. . . ,
>
n x1

xn

x1

xn


1
1
, . . .,
.
x1
xn

28.73. n. n = 2
(x1 + x2 )2 > 4x1 x2 . n > 3.
, x1 < x2 < . . . < xn .
(x x1 ) . . . (x xn ) n 1
y1 < y2 < . . . < yn1 . 28.71 k (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
= k (y1 , . . . , yn1 ). , k 6 n 2,
y1 , . . . , yn1
.
,

2
n1 (x1 ,

. . . , xn ) >

n2 (x1 ,

. . . , xn )

S (x , . . . , x ).
1

n (x1 , . . . , xn ) = x1 . . . xn . , x1 . . . xn . ,
1
1
1
, ...,
.
nk (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
k
x1 . . . xn

x1

xn


1
1
1
1
2
, ...,
, ...,
> 2
,
1

x1

xn

x1

xn

, n > 3.
28.74. ,

P0 (x) sinn x + P1 (x) sinn1 x + . . . + Pn (x) = 0,


P0 (x) 6= 0 n , . n
, Pn (x) 6= 0. , x = k , k , sin x = 0, Pn (k ) = 0 k.
Pn .
.

358

28.

28.75. . ,
P0 (x)enx + P1 (x)e(n1)x + . . . + Pn (x) = 0,
k

k1

P0 (x) = a0 x + a1 x

(1)

+ . . . + ak , a0 6= 0.

1
G(x) = k nx (P0 (x)enx + P1 (x)e(n1)x + . . . + Pn (x)). ,
x e
ax
a1
+ ... + k +
G(x) = 0 x. , G(x) = a0 +
x
x
1 Pn (x)
1 P1 (x)
+ . . . + nx
, lim G(x) = a0 6= 0,
+ x
x
e
e
xk
xk
m
x
lim x = 0. .
x e

. , (1), ,
n . n , Pn (x) . (1)
Pn (x),
R0 (x)enx + R1 (x)e(n1)x + . . . + Rn1 (x)ex + 1 = 0,

R0 (x), . . . , Rn1 (x) , R0 (x)6= 0.


ex ,

(R0 + nR0 )e(n1)x + (R1 + (n 1)R1 )e(n2)x + . . . + (Rn1 + Rn1 ) = 0.
:
. n ,
R0 + nR0 = 0, . . . , Rn1 + Rn1 = 0. R0 = P/Q, P Q ( , P 6= 0).
R0 + nR0 = 0 , P Q PQ + nPQ = 0. P Q PQ
Q, PQ Q, , Q Q.
, Q . , P . R0 = 0, ,
R0 = R0 /n = 0. .
28.76. ) ,
xk = (a + (x a))k =

k
X
i=0

Cik ai (x a)ki .

) A0 , x = a.
f(a) = A0 . f(x),
f (x) = A1 + 2A2 (x a) + . . . + nAn (x a)n1 .

359

x = a, f (a) = A1 . f (x):
f (x) = 1 2A2 + 2 3A3 (x a) + . . . + (n 1)nAn (x a)n2 .

x = a, f (a) = 1 2A2 .
, Ak =
28.77. , T(a) = f(a). ,
T (x) = f (a) +
T (x) = f (a) +

f(k) (a)
k 6 n.
k!

f(n) (a)
f (a)
(x a) + . . . +
(x a)n1 ,
1!
(n 1)!

f (a)
f(n) (a)
(x a) + . . . +
(x a)n2 ,
1!
(n 2)!

. ...... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...... ...... ..... ...... .....
T(n) (x) = f(n) (a),
T(n+1) (x) = 0.

T(a)=f(a), T(a)=f(a), . . . , T(n) (a)=f(n) (a) T(n+1) (x)=


= 0.
(x) = f(x) T(x).
(a) = (a) = (a) = . . . = (n) (a) = 0 (n+1) (x) = f(n+1) (x).

f(x) f(x) f(a)


y(x) = y(x) y(a) .

f
(x a)
.
y(x) =
(n + 1)!
y(a) = y (a) = y (a) = . . . = y (a) = 0 y
(x) = 1. ,
y, (n + 1)-
, a.
x 6= a. f(a) = y(a) = 0 ,

(n)

n+1

(n+1)

( 28.44)

f(x) f (x1 )
y(x) = y (x1 ) .

f (x) f (x) f (a)


y (x) = y (x) y (a) . -

x1 a x,

f (a) = y (a) = 0 ,

x2 a x1 ( ,
a x),
,

f (x1 ) f (x2 )
y (x1 ) = y (x2 ) . -

f(x) f (x1 ) f (x2 )


f(n+1) (xn+1 )
=
=
= . . . = (n+1)
,
y(x) y (x1 ) y (x2 )
y
(xn+1 )
xn+1 a x.

360

28.

,
= xn+1 .

(n+1)

(x) = f(n+1) (x)

(n+1)

(x) = 1.

j=

f(x) (n+1)
f(n+1) (j)
=f
(j), . . f(x) T(x) =
(x a)n+1 .
y(x)
(n + 1)!

28.78.
a = 0 f(x).

29

29.1.
F(x), F (x) = f(x), f(x).
, ( ), C. , F1 (x)
F2 (x) f(x), (x) = F1 (x) F2 (x),
(x) = 0. 28.38 (x) .
]
f(x) f(x) dx.

29.1. ,

dx
1
xa
=
ln
+ C.
2a
x+a
x2 a2

29.2. F(x) f(x) [a, b], (y) [p, q], a 6 (y) 6 b y [p, q]
y0 [p, q] U(y0 ), y U(y0 ) y 6= y0 ,
(y) 6= (y0 ). , F( (y))
f( (y)) (y).

] 29.2
]
: f(x) dx = F(x) + C, f( (y)) (y) dy = F( (y)) + C.
(y) dy = d (y).

29.3.
29.4.

] ex dx ] cos x dx
dx
;
.
;
2
1 + e2x
1 + sin2 x
] x(1 + ln x)
]

tg x dx.

362

29.

]
29.5. , f(x) dx . x = (y) ,
y = (x).
]
f( (y)) (y) dy=F(y) y= (x). F( (x))
. ]
1 x2 dx.
29.6.
]
29.7.
1 + x2 dx.
] dx
.
29.8.

1+

29.9. ,
]
]
f(x)g (x) dx = f(x)g(x) f (x)g(x) dx

( ).
]
]29.10.
]
] :
) x3 ln x dx; ) arctg x dx; ) x cos x dx; ) xex dx.
] ln x
29.11.
dx.
x]
]
29.12. : ) eax sin bx dx; ) eax cos bx dx.
29.13. ,
]
fg(n+1) dx = fg(n) f g(n1) + f g(n2) . . .
]
. . . + (1)n f(n) g + (1)n+1 f(n+1) g dx.
)

:
]29.14. P(x)
] .
]
P(x)eax dx; ) P(x) sin ax dx; ) P(x) cos ax dx.
29.2.
[a, b] f(x).
x0 = a < x1 < x2 < . . . < xn1 <
< b = xn . [xk , xk+1 ]
k
n1
P
f( k )(xk+1 xk ). , f(x) k=0

, ,
k .

363

f(x)
]b
[a, b] f(x) dx.
a

f(x) [a, b], .


,
.
,
.
[a, b] f(x) . [xk , xk+1 ]
Mk mk f(x)
.
n1
X
k=0

Mk (xk+1 xk )

n1
X
k=0

mk (xk+1 xk )

; k .
,
.

29.15. , , .
29.16. , .
29.17. I , , s
S , , . ,

| I| 6 S s.

29.18. , f(x)
[a, b] .
29.19. f(x)
[a, b]. , [a, b] ,
]b
f(x) dx = f( )(b a).
a

364

29.

29.20. , f(x)
]b
[a, b], f(x) dx > 0. a

, f(x0 ) > 0 x0 [a, b],


]b
f(x) dx > 0.
a


a
]a
]
]b
f(x) dx a < b. , f(x) dx = f(x) dx.
b


]b

]c
]c
f(x) dx + f(x) dx = f(x) dx.

29.21. f(x)
x
]
[a, b] F(x) = f(t) dt. , F (x) = f(x), . .
a

F(x) f(x).
29.22. f(x)
[a, b]. ,
]b
a

f(x) dx = F(b) F(a),

F(x) f(x) ( ).
F(b) F(a)
b
F(x)|a .

29.3.
29.23. Un =

p]/2

cosn x dx.

) , n , Un =
n , Un =

(n 1)!!
,
n!!

(n 1)!!
, n!!
n!!
2

365

, n
n .
 (2n)!! 2
1
( ) , = lim
n n (2n 1)!!
).
p]/2
p
29.24. ,
ln(sin x) dx = ln 2.

x
]

x
]

29.25. f1 (x) = f(t) dx, f2 (x) = f1 (t) dx, . . . , fn (x) =


x
]

= fn1 (t) dx. ,


a

fn (x) =

x
(1)n1 ]
f(t)(t x)n1 dt.
(n 1)!
a

29.4.
f(x) [a, b] .
f( k )(xk1 xk ) m(xk1 xk )
M(xk1 xk ), m M f(x) [xk , xk+1 ]. ,
, y = f(x),
, , [xk , xk+1 ].
]b
f(x) dx , y = f(x)

y = 0, x = a x = b.

29.26. 1
.
29.27. y =
= sin x 0 .

29.5.
Oxyz, Ox
[a, b]. , ,

366

29.

x [a, b] Ox,
S(x).
]b
S(x) dx.
a

29.28.
V R h.
29.29.
V R.
29.30. , R,
.
29.31. ,
, . R h.
29.6.
y = f(x), f(x)
[a, b]. x0 = a < x1 < . . . < xn1 < b = xn
. Ak = (xk , f(xk )),
k = 0, 1, . . . , n.
l,
, l .

29.32. , f(x) [a, b]


, y = f(x)
]b p

1 + f 2 (x) dx.
a

29.33.
R.
29.34. 2y = x2


x2
(0, 0) x0 , 0 .
2
29.35. y = ch x, (x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ).
29.36. y = f(x) [a, b]
t, . . x(t), a = x(t0 ) b = x(t1 ),

367

y(t) = f(x(t)). ,
t]1 p
dx
dy
2
2

y = .
x + y dt, x =
dt

t0

dt

29.37. , x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 .


29.38.
x = a(t sin t),

y = a(1 cos t),

06t62 .

29.7.
f(x) [a, b], x0 = a < x1 < . . . < xn1 < b = xn
[a, b]. y = f(x) Ox.
Ak = (xk , f(xk )) , .
, Ak Ak+1 ,
, y = f(x).

29.39. , f(x)
[a, b] , , y = f(x),

p
]b
2
f(x) 1 + (f (x))2 dx.

29.40. , R, ( ), 2 Rh, h
.

29.8.
29.41. t > 0.
) , t

t2
t2
t4
t3
6sin t6t 1 6cos t61 + .
6
4
2 24

368

29.

) ,
t

t3
t5
t4n+3
t3
t5
t4n+1
+ ...
6 sin t 6 t + . . . +
,
3!
5!
(4n + 3)!
3!
5!
(4n + 1)!

t4
t4n+2
t2
t4
t4n
t2
+ ...
6 cos t 6 1 + . . . +
.
2!
4!
(4n + 2)!
2!
4!
(4n)!

sin t
> cos t.
p
t
1
4
1
29.43. , 0<t6 p/2,
6 +1 .
sin t t
p

29.42. , 0 < t 6 /2,

3

29.44. , 3 sin t < 2t + t cos t t > 0.


29.45. t > 0. ,

t2n
t2 t3 t4
t2n+1
t2 t3 t4
+ +. . .
< ln(1 + t) < t + + . . . +
.
2
3
4
2n
2
3
4
2n + 1

29.46. , t > 0
t

t3 t5 t7
t4n1
t3 t5 t7
t4n+1
+ +. . .
<arctg t<t + +. . .+
.
3
5
7
4n 1
3
5
7
4n + 1

29.47. ) , 0 6 t 6 a,
1+t+

tn
t2
t3
tn1
tn
t2 t3
+ + . . . + 6 et 6 1 + t + + + . . . +
+ ea .
2! 3!
n!
2! 3!
(n 1)!
n!

) , 0 > t > a, n
, n .
29.48. f(x) [a, b],
. , [a, b]
x, f (x) (f(x))2 < 1.

29.9.
n1
P

n
.
n2 + k 2
p
n1
P n2 k 2
29.50. lim
.
n k=0
n2

29.49. lim

n k=0

29.51. lim

2n 1
P

n k=n

29.52. lim

n1
P

n k=0

. 25.42.

1
n2

k2

369

29.10.
29.53. :
1
1

1
2

C1n C2n + . . . + (1)n1 Cnn


29.54. )

1
]

1
1 1
1
=1+ + +...+ .
n
2 3
n

(x2 1)n dx, n

, 29.13.
) ,
1
1
1
1
C1n
+ C2n
C3n
+ . . . + (1)n Cnn =
2n + 1
2n 1
2n 3
2n 5
(1)n 22n (n!)2
.
=
(2n + 1)!

. 14.17.
29.11.
29.55. , n > 3 f(x) n a1 < a2 < . . . < an ,
a]2
a1

|f(x)| dx =

a]3
a2

|f(x)| dx = . . . =

an1
]
an

|f(x)| dx.

29.12.

]b
a

f(x) dx :

1) f(x) (a, b),


[a, b];
2) a = / b = .

370

29.


]v
f(x) dx, u a+ (, u ) v b (u

, v +). , u v
.

1
]
29.56. xa dx,
0
1 < a < 0.

]
29.57. , xk ex dx = k!
0
k.

x a
=(ln(xa)ln(x+a)) =
29.1. , ln
x+a

2a
.
x2 a 2

1
1

=
xa x+a

29.2. ( 28.4) , (F( (y))) = F ( (y)) (y). , F ( (y)) = f( (y)).


29.3. 29.2 28.12
] d ln x
] dy
]
dx
=
=
= arctg y + C = arctg ln x + C;
2
2
2

1+y
1 + ln x
] dy
dex
=
=
= arctg y + C = arctg ex + C;
1 + e2x
1 + e2x
1 + y2
] d sin x
] dy
] cos x dx
= arctg y + C = arctg sin x + C.
=
=
2
2
1 + y2
1 + sin x
1 + sin x
x(1 + ln x)

] ex dx

29.4. 29.2
]
] d cos x
tg x dx =
= ln cos x + C.
cos x

]
]

] 29.5. 29.2 f( (y)) (y) dy = f( (y)) d (y) =


= f(x) dx.
29.6. x = sin y. , 29.5
]p
]
] 1 + cos 2y
y
1 ]
dy = +
cos 2y d(2y) =
1 x2 dx = cos2 y dy =

f
2

2
4
p
y
sin 2y
arcsin x
x 1 x2
= +
+C=
+
+ C.
2
4
2
2

371

29.7. x = sh y. , 29.5
]
] 1 + ch 2y
]p
y
1 ]
dy = +
ch 2y d(2y) =
1 + x2 dx = ch2 y dy =
2
2
4
p
y
sh 2y
Arsh x
x 1 + x2
= +
+C=
+
+C=
2
4
2
2
p
p
x 1 + x2
1
= ln(x + 1 + x2 ) +
+ C.
2
2

29.8. x = y2 . , 29.5
]
] dx
] 2y dy
1
=
=2 1
dy =
1+y
1+y
1+ x

= 2y 2 ln(1 + y) + C = 2 x 2 ln(1 + x) + C.
29.9. ,

f(x)g (x) dx = (f(x)g(x)) f (x)g(x).

.
x4
] x4
]
]
x4
= ln x

d(ln x) =
29.10. ) x3 ln x dx = ln x d
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
]
x
x 1
x
x
= ln x

dx =
ln x
+ C.
4
4 x
4
16
]
] x dx
1
) arctg x dx = x arctg x
= x arctg x ln(1 + x2 ) + C.
2
1 + x2 ]
]
]
) x cos x dx= x d(sin x) = x sin x sin x dx= x sin x+ cos x+ C.
]
]
]
) xex dx = x d(ex ) = xex ex dx = xex ex + C.
29.11. f(x)=
= g(x) = ln x.
] 1
]
1
ln x dx.
ln x dx = (ln x)2
x

,
] ln x
: I = (ln x)2 (I + C), I =
dx.
x
] ln x
(ln x)2
,
dx =
+ C ( C ).
x
2
29.12. ) ,
]
a ] ax
1
e cos bx dx =
eax sin bx dx = eax cos bx +
b
b
1 ax
a
a2 ]
= e cos bx + 2 eax sin bx 2 eax sin bx dx.
b
b
b

372

29.

]
I = eax sin bx dx
I=

a2
eax
(b cos bx + a sin bx) 2 (I + C).
2
b
b

,
]
eax sin bx dx =

eax
(a sin bx b cos bx) + C.
+ b2

a2

)
]
eax
eax cos bx dx = 2
(a cos bx + b sin bx) + C.
2
a +b

29.13. 29.9, g
g(n) :
]
]
fg(n+1) dx = fg(n) f g(n) dx.


]
]
f g(n) dx = f g(n1) f g(n1) dx,
]
]
f g(n1) dx = f g(n2) f g(n2) dx,
... ...... ..... ...... ...... ..... ...... ....
]
]
f(n) g dx = f(n) g f(n+1) g dx.

.
29.14. ) 29.13. g(n+1) =
eax
eax
, g(n1) = 2 , . . .
a
a
P P P

]
2 + 3 . . . + C.
P(x)eax dx = eax
a
a
a
sin ax
cos ax
(n+1)
(n)
, g(n1) = 2 , g(n2) =
) g
= sin ax, g =
a
a
cos ax

= eax , g(n) =

=
]
]

a3

, . . .

P P

P P
3 + . . . + C.
P(x) sin ax dx = sin ax 2 4 + . . . cos ax
a

) )

P P

P P
3 + . . . + cos ax 2 4 + . . . + C.
P(x) cos ax dx = sin ax
a

29.15. ,
. [c, d] y
f(x) [c, d], [c, y] [y, d] M,

373

M1 M2 . ,
M1 (y c) + M2 (d y) 6 M(d c).

, M1 6 M M2 6 M.

M1 (y c) + M2 (d y) 6 M(y c) + M(d y) = M(d c).

.
29.16. s1 , S2 .
, .
s S . 29.15 s1 6 s S 6 S2 .
, s 6 S.
29.17. , , 29.16 s
S0 . s 6 S0 , I 6 S0 .
S0 . ,
s6 I 6 S. , s6 6 S.
.
29.18. 29.17 , ,
S s .
f(x) [a, b] ( 26.25), > 0 > 0 ,
x x [a, b] ,
|f(x ) f(x )| < . , Mk mk < , ,

Ss=

n1
X
k=0

(Mk mk )(xk+1 xk ) <

n1
X
k=0

(xk+1 xk ) = (b a).

, , S s .
29.19. M m
f(x) [a, b].
]b
m(b a) M(b a). f(x) dx = c(b a),
a

c m M.
m M, c = f( )
[a, b].

374

29.

29.20. f(x) > 0 [a, b], , .


, f(x0 ) = c > 0. ,
> 0 ,
x0 [a, b].
f(x) > c/2 |x x0 | < . , a0 + 6 x0 6 b .

]b

f(x) dx =

x0 ]

f(x) dx +

x0 ]+

d
d

]b

f(x) dx +

x0

x0 +

f(x) dx.

, 2 c/2 = c > 0.
29.21. x x + x [a, b].
x+x
]
F(x + x) F(x) =
f(t) dt. 29.19

x x x + x. F(x + x) F(x)
= f(x), x x x 0.
x

f( )x,
, lim

x0

29.22. (x) =

x
]

f(t) dt. , (b) =

]b
= f(x) dx. , 29.21 (x)=f(x).
a

(x) , , (x) = F(x) + C, C . , (a) = 0. F(a) = C. ,


]b
a

f(x) dx = (b) = F(b) + C = F(b) F(a).

29.23. ) , U0 =

p
2

p/2 = 1. n > 1.

U1 = sin x|0

, ,
Un =

p]/2

p/2
p/2 ] sin x d cosn1 x.

cosn1 x d sin x = sin x cosn1 x|0

,
Un = (n 1)

p]/2
0

cosn2 x sin2 x dx = (n 1)

p]/2
0

cosn2 x(1 cos2 x) dx,

375

. . Un = (n 1)(Un2 Un ). , Un =

, Un2 =

n1
Un2 . n

n3
Un4 . . n2

, .
) 0 6 x 6 /2,

cos2n+2 x 6 cos2n+1 x 6 cos2n x,


U2n+2 < U2n+1 < U2n . ),

(2n)!!
(2n 1)!! p
(2n + 1)!! p
<
<
.
(2n + 2)!! 2
(2n + 1)!!
(2n)!! 2

,
2n + 1 p (2n)!! 2 1
p
<
< .
2n + 2 2
(2n 1)!! 2n + 1
2
2n + 1

, lim
= 1 lim
= , n 2n + 2
n 2n + 1
2
.
29.24. . ,
sin

p
2n

sin

n
2p
(n 1)p
. . . sin
= n1
2n
2n
2

( 23.8 ).
n1
X

1
kp
p (n 1) ln 2 + 2 ln n
p
ln sin
=
ln 2,
2n
2n
2
n
2

k=1

ln n 0 ( 25.17 ).
n
[0, /2] n
.
. ,
p]/2
p]/2
p/2 sin 2x
1 ]
dx,
ln(sin x) dx =
ln(cos x) dx =
ln

sin 2x
. ,
ln(sin x) + ln(cos x) = ln(sin x cos x) = ln
2
p]/2 sin 2x
p]/2
p
ln
ln(sin 2x) dx ln 2,
dx =
0

p]/2
0

p]/2
p]
dy
ln(sin 2x) dx = ln(sin y) =
ln(sin y) dy.
0

376

29.

, a =

p]/2

ln(sin x) dx a =

a
p
p
ln 2, a = ln 2.
2
4
2

29.25. 29.13

x
]
fn (x) = fn1 (t) 1 dx =
a

(t x)3
(t x)2
+ fn3 (t)
...
= fn1 (t)(t x) fn2 (t)
2!

3!

x
x
n1
]

(1)n2 f(t) (t x)
. . . + (1)n2 f1 (t)
dt;

(n 1)!
(n 1)!
a
a
(t x)n1 (n1)
= 1. ,
(t x)n1

(n 1)!

, , t = a,
fk (a) = 0, t = x. ,
.
29.26. 2 ,
y = 1 x2 y = 0. ,
p

1
] p
arcsin x 1
x 1 x2 1
+
1 x2 dx =

(. 29.6). ,
p
.
p]
2
p
29.27. sin x dx = cos x|0 = 2.
1

R2 h. Ox 29.28. :
3
.
h
] R 2
1
V=
x dx =
R2 h.

p
p

3
4
R3 . ,
29.29. :
3

x, R2 x2 .
(R2 x2 ),

R
]
2pR3
4pR3
x3 R
V=
(R2 x2 ) dx = 2 R3
=
.
= 2 R3

p3

377

16

R3 . ,
29.30. :
3
Ox Oy .
x2 + z2 6 R y2 + z2 6 R.
z = z0 x0 6 R2 z20p y0 6 R2 z20 .
, 2 R2 z20 .
4(R2 z20 ).

R
]
16
z3 R
8
4(R2 z2 ) dz = 8R3 4 = 8R3 R3 = R3 .
3

2
29.31. : hR2 . 3
h
2
2
x + y 6 R2 0 6 z 6 x. R

y = y0
p
hp 2
1h
R y20 .
R2 y20
(R2 y20 ).
R
2R

R
] 1h
h 3
y3 R
h 4R3
(R2 y2 ) dy =

.
2R
=
R

2R

2R

2R

p
29.32. , Ak Ak+1 = (xk+1 xk )2 + (f(xk+1 ) f(xk ))2 .

f(xk+1 ) f(xk ) = f (

x )(x
k

k+1

xk )

k [xk , xk+1 ].

n1 q
X
1 + f 2 ( k )(xk+1 xk ),

k=0

. .
p
1 + f 2 (x). , [xk , xk+1 ] Ak Ak+1 ,
,
.
29.33.
x
, y = R2 x2 . , y = p

R
]e q
1 + y 2 dx = lim
lim

e0 R+e

R 2 x2

R
]

e0 R+e

R dx
p

R 2 x2

= lim R arcsin

e0

x Re
=

R R+e

p.

378

29.

29.34.
x]0
0

q
x]0 p
q
x0 1 + x20
1
+ ln(x0 + 1 + x20 )
1 + y 2 dx =
1 + x2 dx =
0

(. 29.7).
p
29.35. , y = sh x 1 + (y )2 = ch x. x]2
ch x dx = sh x2 sh x1 (,
x1

x1 < x2 ).
29.36.
s
r
t]1 q
t]1
dy 2
]b
y 2
dx =
1+
1 + 2 x dt =
x 2 + y 2 dt;
a

dx

t0

t0

,
x > 0.
29.37. : 6a. :
x = a sin3 t, y = a cos3 t.
, x y .
, x =
p
2

2
2

=3a cos t sin t y =3a sin t cos t. x +y 2 =3a sin t cos t,


,
3a

p]/2

sin t cos t dt =

3a
p/2 3a
sin2 t
= .
2
2
0

6a.
29.38. : 8a. ,
q
q
t
x 2 + y 2 = a (1 cos t)2 + sin2 t = 2a sin .
2


2a

2]

sin

t
t 2p
dt = 4a cos = 8a.
2
2 0

29.39. ,
. , Ak Ak+1 ,
p
(f(xk ) + f(xk+1 )) (xk+1 xk )2 + (f(xk+1 ) f(xk ))2 .

379


f(xk+1 ) f(xk ) = f ( k )(xk+1 xk )
k [xk , xk+1 ].
n1
q
X
(f(xk ) + f(xk+1 )) 1 + (f ( k ))2 (xk+1 xk ).

k=0


n1
q
X
2
f( k ) 1 + (f ( k ))2 (xk+1 xk ).

k=0

,
p
f(x) 1+(f (x))2 .
29.40. ,
x
y= R2 x2 . , y = p
2 x2
R
p
R
.
1 + y 2 = p

R 2 x2

a+h
] p
a

R2 x2 p

R 2 x2

dx = 2 R

a+h
]

dx = 2 Rh.

29.41. cos x 6 1 ,

]t

cos x dx 6

. . sin t 6 t. ,

]t

]t

1 dx,

sin x dx 6

]t

t2
t2
t2
, . . 1 cos t 6 . 1 6 cos t
2
2
2
0
t3
t 6 sin t . .
6
t3
t2
29.42. t 6sin t cos t61 +
6
2
t4
( 29.41). ,
+
24
sin t 3
t2 3
t2
t4
t6
> 1
=1 +

.
t
6
2
12
216

6 x dx =

t4
t6
t2
t4
t2
+

>1 +
.
2
12
216
2
24
6
4
t
t

> 0, . . t2 < 9.

24 216

, 1

0 < t 6 /2 .

380

29.

29.43. f(t) =
=1

p2

1
sin2 t

1
p
. , f
2
2
t

. ,
f (t) =

2 cos t
2 sin t 3
2

cos
t
.
=
t
t3
sin3 t
sin3 t

29.42 f (t) > 0, . .


p
,
f(t) . , f(t)6 f
. .

sin t

4
1
61 2.
t2
p

29.44. 29.41
t5
t3
+ ,
2
40
t3
t5
t7
2t + t cos t > 3t +

.
2
24
720

3 sin t 6 3t

t5
t7
t5

> , . . t2 < 12,


24
720
40

. , , 2t > 3, . . t > 3/2.


29.45. x > 0,
1 x + x2 x3 + . . . x2n1 <

1
< 1 x + x2 x3 + . . . + x2n .
1+x

,
(1 x + x2 x3 + . . . x2n1 )(1 + x) = 1 x2n < 1,

(1 x + x2 x3 + . . . + x2n )(1 + x) = 1 + x2n+1 > 1.

]t
0

xk dx =

tk
.
k

29.46. ,

1 x2 + x4 x6 + . . . t4n2 <

]t dx

]t
0

1+x

= ln(1 + t)

dx
1
= arctg t.
2
1+x
1 + x2

1
< 1 x2 + x4 x6 + . . . + t4n .
1 + x2

, .

381

29.47. ) e > 1, 1 6 ex 6 ea 0 6 x 6 t. ]t
]t
]t
1 dx 6 ex dx 6 ea dx, . . t 6 et 1 6 ea t.
0

t2

t2

1 + x 6 ex 6 1 + ea x 1 + t + 6 et 6 1 + t + ea
2
2
. .
x
a
) . 0> x> t 1> e > e .
0
0
0
]
]
]
1 dx > ex dx > ea dx, . . t > 1 et > ea t.
t

t 6 et 1 6 ea t.
t2

t2

1 + x 6 ex 6 1 + ea x 1 + t + > et > 1 + t + ea
2
2
. .

2
29.48. , a 6 x 6 b, f (x) (f(x)) > 1,

f (x)
> 1. F(x) = arctg(f(x)). 1 + (f(x))2
(x)
f
1
F (x) =
> 1, (arctg y) =
. ,
1 + (f(x))2
1 + y2

. .
]b

F (x) dx > b a = , . . F(b) F(a) > . -

, /2 /2,
F(b) F(a) < . .
/4. 29.49. :
n1
P 1
1

. n
2

1
]
0

k=0

p
dx
= .
4
1 + x2

n 1 + (k/n)

29.50. :r /4. k 2
n1
P 1

1
. n

1
]
0

k=0

1 x2 dx =

29.51.

p
4

ln 2. ,

2] dx
1
1
1
1
1+
+
+...+

= ln 2.
n
1 + 1/n
1 + 2/n
1 + n/n
1+x
1

. 30.8 ).

382

29.

29.52. :
n1
P 1
p

k=0

1
= arcsin x|0

p
2

p/2.
1

1
]
dx
=
. p

1 (k/n)2

1 x2

1 qn

1q
n1
P
1 (1 t)n
q = 1 t.
(1 t)k =
.
t
k=0

29.53. 1 + q + q2 + . . . + qn1 =

1
]
]1
1

0 1. , (1 t)k dt = xk dx =
0

1
]

k+1

]
1 (1 t)n
dt = C1n C2n t + . . . + (1)n1 Cnn tn1 dt =
t

= C1n

1
1
1
C2n + . . . + (1)n1 Cnn .
1
2
n

29.54. )
P(x)(x + 1)n , P(x) = (x 1)n .
29.13,
1
]
1

(x + 1)n+2
(x + 1)n+1
n(x 1)n1
(x2 1)n dx = (x 1)n
n+1

. . . + (1)n n!

(n + 1)(n + 2)

+...

1
(x + 1)2n+1

.
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (2n + 1) 1

x = 1 , x = 1
, .
]1
1

(x2 1)n dx = (1)n n!

(1)n 22n+1 (n!)2


22n+1
=
.
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (2n + 1)
(2n + 1)!

) , (x2 1)n = x2n C1n x2n2 + C2n x2n4 . . . . ).


29.55. f(x) , a]3
a]2
a]4
: f(x) dx = f(x) dx = . . . = f(x) dx =
a1

a2

a3

= . . . f(x) = F (x) F. -

383

: F(a2 ) F(a1 ) = F(a2 ) F(a3 ) = F(a4 )


F(a3 ) = F(a4 ) F(a5 ) = . . . , . . F(a1 ) = F(a3 ) = F(a5 ) = . . . F(a2 ) =
= F(a4 ) = F(a6 ) = . . .
, F(x) = Tn+1 (x) ,
F . Tn+1 (cos ) =
= cos(n + 1) , sin Tn+1 (cos ) = (n + 1) sin(n + 1) .
Tn+1 (cos ) = 0, sin(n + 1) = 0, ,
Tn+1 (cos ) = cos(n + 1) = 1. ,
F(x) .
1
]1
1

29.56. , xa dx =
xa+1 . a > 1, a + 1 > 0.

f
f

0
a+1

a+1

x
x = 0. 1
]
1
1 < a < 0.
, xa dx =
a+1

29.57. ,

]
]

xk ex dx = xk ex |0 + k xk1 ex dx.
0

k x

x e

x = 0, x = .

]
Jk = xk ex dx
0

Jk = kJk1 . ,

]
0

ex dx = ex |0 = 1.

30

{an } , bn = a1 + a2 + . . . + an .
{bn } , ,

an ( ).
n=1

lim bn .

30.1.
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+ . . . = 1.
12
23
34 45

P
1
30.2.
n(n+1)
. . . (n+k)
n=1

30.1. ,

k.

30.3. |x| < 1.


1
P
30.4.
sin nx.
n=1

nxn1 .

n=1

30.2.

30.5. a1 = 1 an = n(an1 + 1) n > 2. ,




Q
1
= e.
1+

an

n=1

30.3.

1
P

n=1

. (-

30.6).
Hn = 1 +

1
1
1
1
+ + +...+ .
2
3
4
n

385

30.6. , n
ln(n + 1) < Hn < 1 + ln n.
1 1 1
+ + + . . . .
3 5 7
1
1
1
30.8. ) an = +
+...+
.
n
n+1
2n

30.7. , 1 +

lim an .
1
1
1
1
. ,
) bn = 1 + + . . .
2
3
4
2n
lim bn = ln 2.

30.9. ) ,
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+ . . . = ln 2.
12 34
56
78

) ,
1
1
1
+
+
+ . . . = 1 ln 2.
23 45
67

30.10. ,
1

1 1 1
1 1
1
1
+ + . . . = ln 2.
2
4 3 6
8 5
2

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
.
2n + 1
2n + 3
2n + 5
4n 1
1
, lim an = ln 2.
2
n

30.11. an =

30.12. ,

1
1
1
1
+
+
+ . . . = ln 2.
1 2 3 5 6 7 9 10 11
4

30.13. ,
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ . . . = ln 2 .
123 345 567
2

30.14. ,
n
X
xk
k=1

= Hn +

n
X
k=1

Ckn

(x 1)k
.
k

386

30.

30.15. p1 = 2, p2 = 3, . . . .
) ,
pm



 

1 1 X 1
1 1
1 1
>
... 1
1
1
.
2

) , 1 +

pm

m 1
P

n=1

n=1

> ln ln pm .

pn

30.16. ,


1
1
lim 1 + + . . . + ln n .
2

g = 0,5772157 . . . 30.16

30.17. ,

n=1

e1/n
= eg ,
1 + 1/n

30.4.
30.18. , 1 < x < 1,
ln(1 + x) = x

x3
x4
x5
x2
+

+
...
2
3
4
5

30.19. , 1 < x < 1,




1+x
x3
x5
x7
ln
=2 x+
+
+
+... .
1x

30.20. ) , n
 1

1
1
ln(n + 1) = ln n + 2
+
+
+
.
.
.
.
3
5
2n + 1

3(2n + 1)

) ,

2
1
ln 2 =
1+
+
3

39

1
1
+... .
2 +
59
7 93

30.21. ) ,
 


1
1
ln 1 +
<1+
1< n+
2

5(2n + 1)

1
.
12n(n + 1)

387
n! en

) , an = n+1/2
n
() a.
j
) , n! = ann+1/2 en+ 12n ,
0 1.
30.22. , a 30.21
2 , . .
 n n
 n n

< n! < 2 n
e1/(12n)
2 n

( ).

30.5.
1

30.23. an = 1 + + . . . + (1)n
.
3 5
7
2n + 1
) , lim an = /4.

) ,

30.24. ,
1+

1
1
6 a2k1 6
.
2(4k + 1)
4
4k + 1

2
1
1
1
+
+
+
.
.
.
=
.
6
22
32
42

30.25. ) ,
(a1 + a2 + . . . + an )2 <

(a21 + 22 a22 + . . . + n2 a2n ).

) ,
(a1 + a2 + . . . + an )4 <

p2 (a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n)(a21 + 22a22 + . . . + n2a2n)

( ).
30.6.
z ez 1 + z +

z2
z3
+ +...
2!
3!

30.26. , z.
30.27. , ez ew =ez+w
z w.

388

30.

30.28. , x ,
e = cos x + i sin x ().
30.29. , epi = 1 e2pi = 1.
ix

. f(x) = ex
x .
. , f(0) = 1 = f(2 i).

30.7.

30.30. , 0 < x < /4 (sin x)sin x < (cos x)cos x .


30.8.
30.31. ) a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . ,
P
1/an
1. ,
n=1
.
) a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . ,

P
1/an
. ,
n=1
.
30.32. ) a1 , a2 , a3 , . . .
P
1/an ,
n=1

. , 0,a1 a2 a3 . . . .
) , 0,12357111317 . . . ( ) .
30.9.
a1 , a2 , . . . , 1.
Q

(1 + ak ) ,
k=1

() lim
.

n
Q

n k=1

(1 + ak ), -

389

30.33. ,
ak > 0, Q
(1 + ak )
P ,

ak .
30.34. ,

0 6 bk < 1, Q
(1 bk )
P ,

bk .

Q
(1+ak )
Q
, (1 + |ak |) .
Q
30.33 , (1 + ak )

,
P
|ak |.

30.35. ,
.

30.1. ,
30.2. :

1
1
1
=
.
n(n + 1)
n
n+1

1
. ,
k k!

1
1
1
1
.
=

n(n + 1) . . . (n + k)
k n(n + 1) . . . (n + k 1)
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + k)

m
X
n=1

1
1 1
1
=

.
n(n + 1) . . . (n + k)
k k!
(m + 1)(m + 2) . . . (m + k)

30.3. :
m+1
X

1
(1 x)2

nxn1 =

. 9.6

(m + 1)xm+2 (m + 2)xm+1 + 1
(1 x)2

n=1

, lim xm = 0.
m

px h x i

+
30.4. : 0 x = 2k
2
2p
.
x x + 2k .

390

30.

, 0 < x < 2 . ,
sin

cos x + cos 2x + cos 3x + . . . + cos nx =


( 11.28).
1
1
fn (x) = sin x + sin 2x + . . . + sin nx +
2
n

(0, 2 )

(2n + 1)x
1
2

x
2
2 sin
2

2n + 1
x
x
2
+
x
2
(2n + 1) sin
2
cos

x
2n + 1
cos cos
x
2
2

fn (x) =
0.
x
(4n + 2) sin2
2

fn (y)
x . fn (x) fn ( ) = fn ( )(x ). n
1
P
p
x

sin nx + = 0.

n=1

an+1

.
30.5. an+1 =(n+1)(an +1) , an +1=
n+1
N
N
Q
Q
aN+1
an+1
1
PN =
1+
=
. , PN+1 =
=

an
(N + 1)!
n=1
n=1 (n + 1)an
PN
1
aN+1 + 1
= PN +
= PN +
. PN = (PN PN1 ) +
= PN
aN+1
aN+1
(N + 1)!
1
1
1
+ (PN1 PN2 ) + . . . + (P2 P1 ) + P1 =
+
+ . . . + + 1.
N!
(N 1)!
1!
1
1
< ln(k + 1) ln k < 30.6. 28.48 )
k+1
k

k. k = 1, 2, . . .
. . . , n,
Hn+1 1 < ln(n + 1) < Hn .

1
1
>
,
2n + 1 2n

1
1
1
1
1
1
+ + + . . . ,
1 + + + . . . .
3
5
7
2
2
3

30.7.

30.6 .

30.8. ) : ln 2. 28.48 ) ln

1
k+1
< <
k
k

k
. k = n, n + 1, . . . , 2n.
k1
2n
2n + 1
< an < ln
. , lim an = ln 2.
ln
n
n
n1

< ln

391

. 29.51.
) 13.4 bn = an .
30.9. ) ,

1
1
1
=
.
n(n + 1)
n
n+1

30.8 ) .
) 30.1 ).
30.10. , 3n
1+

1
ln 2.
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+ +...+
...
=
3
5
2n 1
2
4
6
4n
1
1
1
1
.
= H2n Hn H2n = (H2n1 Hn ) +
2
2
2
4n

30.8 ) H2n1 Hn ln 2 n .
30.11. ,
1
2

an = H4n1 H2n (H2n1 Hn ).


30.8 ) H4n1 H2n ln 2 H2n1 Hn ln 2.
30.12. ,
1 1
1
1
, n = 1, 2, . . .
+

2 4n 3

4n 1

2n 1

n
+

1
+
2n + 1

1
1
1
+
+...+
. 2n + 2
2n + 3
4n 1

30.11.
30.13. ,

1 1
1 1
1
.
=
+
(n 1)n(n + 1)
2 n1
n+1
n

,
1 1
1
11
1 1
1+
,
, ...,
+
2

2 3

1
2

+ H2n1 +

1
1 1
1

+
2 2n 1
2n + 1
2n

1
1
1
Hn Hn .
2n + 1
2
2

, H2n1 Hn ln 2 ( 30.8 ).

392

30.

30.14. f(x) =

n xk
P

k=1

Ckn

(x 1)k
. , f(1) = Hn .
k

, f (x) = 0 x. ,
n
n
n
P
P
P
Ckn (x 1)k1 .
Ckn (x 1)k1 . g(x) =
xk1
f (x) =
k=1

k=1
xn

k=1

n
P
1
(x 1)g(x) + 1 = (x 1 + 1) , g(x) =
=
xk1 ,
x1
k=1
.

1
1
1
1 1
= 1 + + 2 + 3 + . . .
30.15. ) , 1
p
p
p
p
1/n,
n 2, 3, . . . , pm ( n = 1).
1/n, 1 6 n 6 pm , .

pm
P
1
1 1
ln 1+ <
) 28.48 ) ln 1+ < .
n
n
n
n=1
pm 1
m
m
m
P
Q
Q
Q
pk
1 1
1
<
=
<
1
=
1+
. pk
pk 1
n=1 n
k=1 pk 1
k=1
k=1

pm
pm
P
P
1
,
ln 1 +
=
(ln(n + 1) ln n) = ln(pm + 1). n
n=1
n=1

m
m
P
P
1
1
<
. ,
ln 1 +
ln ln pm < ln ln(pm + 1) <
n

pk 1
k=1 pk 1
k=1
m
m 1
P
P
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
= +
.
<
+
+
+
+. . .
pk 1 pk (pk 1)pk
p
1
p
12
23
34
k
k
k=1
k=1
1
1
1
,
+
+
+. . .=1 30.1.
12 23 34

30.16.
um =

1
] 1
1
m+1
1
dt.
ln
=

m
m
m
m+t
0

, 0 6 t 6 1,
06

1
1
t
1

=
6 2,
m
m+t
m(m + t)
m

0 6 um 6 1/m2 . ,
30.24).

m=1

um = 1 +

um (-

m=1

n
1
1
1
1
.
+ . . . + ln(n + 1) = 1 + + . . . + ln n + ln
2
n
2
n
n+1

n
, lim ln
= 0.
n

n+1

393

30.17. n
1

1
1
1
n
e1+ 2 + 3 +...+ n
=
e1+ 2 + 3 +...+ n ln n .
n+1
n+1

1
1 1
n
=1, lim 1+ + +. . .+ ln n =
, lim
n
2 3
n
n n+1

ge

.
30.18.

(1)n tn
1
= 1 t + t2 . . . + (1)n1 tn1 +
1+t
1+t

, x > 1,
]x dt
x2
x3
xn
ln(1 + x) =
=x
+
. . . + (1)n1
+ (1)n Rn ,
0

Rn =

x
]

1+t

tn
dt.
1+t

0
x
]
xn
6
0 6 x 6 1, 0 6 Rn 6 tn dt =

n+1

1
0 n .
n+1

1 6 x < 0, x = y. Rn =
y
]y tn
1 ] n
yn
dt, |Rn | 6
t dt =
0
= (1)n+1
0

1t

1y

n .
30.19.
x

(1 y)(n + 1)

x2
x3
x4
x5
+

+
. . . = ln(1 + x)
2
3
4
5
x3
x4
x5
x2

. . . = ln(1 x),
2
3
4
5

.
30.20. ) 30.19 x =

1+x
n+1
=
, .
1x
n

1
. 2n + 1

) ) n = 1, ln 1 = 0.
30.21. ) 30.20 )

1
1
1
1
+
+...
ln 1 +
=1+
n+
2
4
2

3(2n + 1)

5(2n + 1)

1
1
1
1
1+
+
+
.
.
.
=1+
2
4
3 (2n + 1)

(2n + 1)

12n(n + 1)

394

30.

) ) )

1
1 n+1/2
1+
e< 1+
< e 12n(n+1) .
n

(1)

1 n+1/2
1+
(n + 1)n+1+1/2
n! en
an
n
=
= n+1/2
,
an+1
e
n
(n + 1)! en+1

(1)
1<

1
an
< e 12n(n+1) .
an+1

, an e 12n < an+1 e 12(n+1) an > an+1 . 1


{an e 12n } , {an }
1
1
. a1 e 12 < an e 12n < an < a1 , 1
. e 12n 1,
1
a. , an e 12n < a < an ,
j
0 1. ,
. . a = an e 12n
n! en j
a = n+1/2 e 12n .

30.22. ( 29.23)
1
(2n)!!
= lim
. ,
:

n (2n 1)!!

2 4 . . . 2n
(2 4 . . . 2n)2
(n!)2 22n
(2n)!!
=
=
=
.
(2n 1)!!
1 3 . . . (2n 1)
(2n)!
(2n)!

n! (2n)! an nn+1/2 en a2n (2n)2n+1/2 e2n


:

a
a2n n2n+1 e2n 22n
a2n
1
= .
= lim
= lim
2n+1/2 2n 2n+1/2

n a2n n

a2n 2

a = 2 .
30.23. , lim (a2k1 a2k ) = 0, n

1 t4k

= 1 t2 + t4 t6 + . . . t4k2
).
1 + t2
,

p
4

= arctg 1 =

1
]
0

1
1 + t2

dt =

1
]
0

1 t4k
1 + t2

dt +

]1
0

t4k
1 + t2

dt =

]1
1 1 1
= (1 t2 + t4 t6 + . . . t4k2 ) dt+ Rk = 1 + + . . .
0

1
+ Rk ,
4k 1

395

1
]

t4k
t4k
1
dt. t4k 6
6 t4k 0 6 t 6 1,
2
2
2
1
+
t
1
+
t
0
1
1
6 Rk 6
.
2(4k + 1)
4k + 1
1
1
2

Rk =

a < a < sin a 0 < a < p/2.


2p
np
p
,
, . . .,
.
a =
2n + 1 2n + 1
2n + 1
30.24. 11.1 ctg

23.7,
n(2n 1) 2n + 1 2
1
1 2n(n + 1)
1+ 2 +...+ 2 <
<
,

. .

p2 n(2n 1)
3(2n + 1)2

<1+

, lim

p2 2n(n + 1)
1
1
+...+ 2 <
.
2
2
n
3(2n + 1)2
n(2n 1)
1
2n(n + 1)
= lim
= .
n (2n + 1)2
2
(2n + 1)2

30.25. ) ( 1.9)

1
1 2
(a1 + a2 + . . . + an )2 = a1 + 2a2 + . . . + nan
6
2
n

1
1
6 1 + 2 + . . . + 2 (a21 + 22 a22 + . . . + n2 a2n ).
2

p2

, 1 + 2 + . . . + 2 <
( 30.24).
6
2
n
) x .
, ak
r

x+

k2
1
.
ak r
x
k2
x+
x

x
x
+
+
.
.
.
+
(a1 + a2 + . . . + an )2 6

1 + x2
22 + x2
n2 + x2

1
x(a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n ) + (a21 + 22 a22 + . . . + n2 a2n ) .
x

p
x
x
x
+ 2
+... + 2
< .
2
1 + x2
2 + x2
n + x2
1 2
2 2
2
2
2
x , x(a1 + a2 + . . . + an ) = (a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + n2 a2n )
x

11.35

396

30.
n zk
P

30.26. sn =

k=0

k!

m < n. , |sn sm | 6

n
P

k=m+1

|z|k
.
k!

x2
x3
1 + x +
+
+ . . . , x = |z|, . , 2!
3!

, ,
.
n zk
P
.
30.27. fn (z) =
k=0

k!

X zk wl
1

k+l=m

k!

l!

m!

Ckm zk wl =

k+l=m

(z + w)m
m!

, fn (z)fn (w) fn (z + w)
(ez fn (z))(ew fn (w)).
|fn (z)fn (w) fn (z + w)| 6 (e|z| fn (|z|))(e|w| fn (|w|)).

n ,
ez ew = lim fn (z)fn (w) = lim fn (z + w) = ez+w .
n

30.28.
x3

x2

x4

x5

x6

x7

i +
+i
i +...=
eix = 1 + ix
2!
3!
4!
5!
6!
7!

x2
x4
x6
x3
x5
x7
= 1
+

+... +i x
+

+... =
2!

4!

6!

3!

5!

7!

= cos x + i sin x.

30.29. 30.28.
30.30. , f(t) = tt (0, 1);
t0 = 1/e 0,367879.
u=sin2 x v=cos2 x. u+v=1 0<u<1/2<v<1.


1
1
u ln u <
v ln v
, ( u) u < ( v) v , . .
2
2
( ). , u + v = 1.

v2
v3
ln u = ln(1 v) = v +
+
+... .
2


v2
u2
v3
u3
u v+
+
+... > v u+
+
+... .
2

397

uv


v2
u2
v
u
+... > u 1+ +
+... .
v 1+ +
2

, v > u > 0.
.
28.56.
30.31. ) an 6 10k 1, n 6 9k 1, k ,
. , n > 9k ,
k+1
9 k
9P
9k+1 9k
1
6
.
an > 10k 1 an+1 > 10k .
=
8
k
n=9k +1

10

ak

, 8

k=0

10

9 k

10

< .

) , 21.29.
30.32. ) , 30.31 ), ,
an (
,
). , .

P
) 30.15
1/pn , p1 , p2 , . . . n=1

, .
n
Q
30.33. pn =
(1 + ak ) , k=1

,
+. ,
a1 + . . . + an 6 (1 + a1 ) . . . (1 + an ) 6 ea1 +...+an .

(1)

,
Q
, 1 + a 6 ea a > 0. (1) , (1+ak )=+ ,
P
ak = +.
n
Q
30.34. pn =
(1 bk ) , k=1

, .
, 0 6 bk < 1, 1 b 6 eb .
(1 b1 ) . . . (1 bn ) 6 eb1 ...bn .
P
,
bk , lim pn = 0.
n

398

30.

P
,
bk .

P
N,
bk < 1/2. 1 , 2 > 0,

a a

k=N

(1

a )(1 a ) > 1 a a .
1

, m ,
1 , . . . , m > 0,

(1

a ) . . . (1 a
1

, n > N,

m) > 1

...

m.

1
pn
= (1 bN )(1 bN+1 ) . . . (1 bn ) > 1 bN . . . bn > .
pN1
2

, pn pn > pN1 /2 > 0. lim pn


n
.
n
n
Q
Q
30.35. pn =
(1 + ak ) Pn =
(1 + |ak |).
k=1

|pn pn1 | = |an |

n1
Y
k=1

k=1

|1 + ak | 6 |an |

n1
Y
k=1

(1 + |ak |) = Pn Pn1 .

P
(Pn Pn1 )
P
. (pn pn1 ),
lim pn . ,
n
P ak
.
.
1 + ak
P
,
|ak |
1 + ak ,
1. , Q
ak

1
, ,
1 + ak
n
Q
ak
, qn =
1

lim Pn ,
n

k=1

. qn = p1
n , lim pn 6= 0.
n

1 + ak

31

31.1.
31.1. , p a p,
ap1 1 (mod p)
( ).
31.2. p = 4k + 3 . ,
a2 + b2 p, a b p.
31.3. , 4k + 1.
31.4. ) p . ,
q 2p 1, q 1 p.
) p, 2p 1 .
31.2.
p
2p 2 p. n > 1 , 2n 2 n.

31.5. , 341 = 11 31 .
31.6. , n ,
2n 1 .
. .
, 161 038 .

400

31.

31.3.

(n) 1, 2, . . .
. . . , n 1, n. , p , (p) = p 1.

31.7. ) , p , (pn ) =
= pn pn1 .
) , m n ,
(mn) = (m) (n).
31.8. , a n,
af(n) 1 (mod n) ( ).
31.9. a n . ,
m

P m a 1 n.
(d), 31.10. , n =
d, n.
31.11. ) 1712147 52.
) 1261020 138.
31.12. a m , k , ak 1 (mod m).
, (m) k.
31.13. a > 2 n . ,
(an 1) n.
a a
n = p 1 p 2 . . . pak n

.
a 1
L(n), 1 n = 1 (p1 1 (p1 1), . . .
a
k 1
(pk 1)) n > 1.
. . . , pk

31.14. , x n ,
xL(n) 1 (mod n).
31.4.
31.15. ) , (p 1)! + 1 p
, p ( ).
) ,
(
0 (mod p), p ;
((p 1)!)2
1 (mod p), p .

401

31.16. a(n) b(n)


((n 1)!)2 ((n 1)! + 1)2 n. , f(n) = na(n) +
+ 2b(n) , .
31.5.
31.17. , a
b (mod n1 ), . . . , a b (mod nk ), a b (mod n), n =
= (n1 , . . . , nn ).
31.18. p , n a
, p. ,
xn a (mod p) , xn a (mod pr )
r.
31.19. , a b (mod pn ), p
, ap bp (mod pn+1 ).
31.20. a > 2 n . ,
ak 1 (mod an 1) , k
n.
* * *
31.21. p , f(x1 , . . . , xn ) , p. ,
x1 , . . . , xn f(x1 , . . . , xn )
0 (mod p), f(x1 , . . . , xn )
p.
31.22. p , f(x1 , . . . , xn ) ,
f(x1 , . . . , xn ) 0 (mod p) x1 , . . .
. . . , xn . xm
i ,
m > p, xri , r m p. ,
0 0 (mod p).
31.23. f(x1 , . . . , xn ) , . -

402

31.

, n,
f(x1 , . . . , xn ) 0 (mod p), p ,
, (0, 0, . . . , 0) ().
31.24. a, b, c . , ax2 + by2 + cz2 0 (mod p) (x, y, z) 6=
6= (0, 0, 0) p.
31.6.

sk (n).

d1 , d2 , . . . n, 1 n.
k (n) dk1 + dk2 + . . . ,
0 (n) n,
1 (n)
n. (n) = 1 (n).

31.25. ) , p ,

sk(pa ) = 1 + pk + p2k + . . . + pak.


) , m n ,

sk (mn) = sk(m)sk (n).

n , (n) = 2n, . .
n, n, n.

31.26. ) , 2p 1 ,
2p1 (2p 1) ().
) , n ,
2p 1,
n = 2p1 (2p 1) ().
31.27. , n , , (n) < 2n.
31.28. , n , (n)/n .
31.29. ) m 6= n,
(n) = (m).
) , m 6= n, n (n) 6= m (m).
) m 6= n, n (n) =
= m (m).

403

31.30. ,
2n
X
k=1

s0 (k)

n h
i
X
2n

k=1

= n.

:
8
>
n = 1;
<1
k
(n) = (1) n = p1 . . . pk ;
>
:0
n = p2 m.

31.31. , F(n) =
f(n) =

m(d)F(n/d) =

d|n

f(d),

d|n

m(n/d)F(d),

d|n

Qd n ().
f(d),
31.32. , F(n) =
f(n) =

Y
d|n

F(n/d)m(d) =

d|n

F(d)m(n/d) .

d|n

31.7.
31.33. p , f(x) = xn + a1 xn1 + . . .
. . . + an . ,
n xi ,
0 6 xi 6 p 1 f(xi ) p ().
a p,
a b2 (mod p) b.
a .

31.34. p > 2 . ,
1, 2, . . . , p 1
p.
31.35. 1 6 a 6 p 1, p > 2 . , a
p , a(p1)/2 1 (mod p)
().

404

31.

31.36. p > 2 . , 1 p
, p 1 (mod 4).
31.37. r 2 , p1 , . . . , pr

4k + 1. ,
p 
i
= 1 i 6= j. , x2 dy2 =
pj

= 1, d = p1 . . . pr , .
31.8.
p
:
8
<0,
a >
= 1,
p
>
:1,

a
p

a p;
a ;
a .

(a/p).
31.35, p ,
(a/p) a(p1)/2 (mod p). , (ab/p) = (a/p)(b/p)
(
1
1
p = 4k + 1;
=
p
1 p = 4k + 3.

. p q .
p q
p1 q1
= (1) 2 2 .
q
p
2
=
, p ,
p
2
= (1)(p 1)/8 .
.
. , - . , ( 31.38)
( 31.39).

31.38. p , q , p. -

l 1
1 6 rl 6

p1
.
2

405

p1
lq rl (mod p),
2

m
 

. ,

q
= (1)m ().
p

31.39. p , a , p, a,p : i7 ai (mod p) p. , sgn a,p =(a/p),


sgn = 1 sgn = 1
().
31.40. ( 31.38) 5.29.
31.41. ) 31.39.
) m . ,
2
2
= (1)(m 1)/8 .

31.42. 11.31 ().

* * *
3
31.43. p . ,
=1

p = 12k 1

3
= 1 p = 12k 5.
p

31.44. 
p
. ,

3
= 1 p = 6k 1.
p = 6k + 1
p

 3 
p

=1

31.45. , 6k + 1.
n
31.46. )
 p = 2 1 , p > 3.

3
= 1.
p

)  p= 2n + 1 , p > 3. 3
,
= 1.
p

31.47. , 3n 1 2n 1 n > 1.

406

31.

31.9.

p ,
= e2pi/p = cos(2 /p) +
+ i sin(2 /p). a
k
p1
P k ak
. ga =
,

k=1

, ga a p (
p).

31.48. , g0 = 0.


1
p.
p

31.49. , g12 =
31.50. ,

2
5
4
cos
cos
=
,
5
5
2

7
2
4
6
sin
+ sin
sin
=
.
7
7
7
2

31.51. ,

p2
P

n=1

n(n + 1)
= 1.
p

31.52. n 6 p 2 (n, n + 1)
: (R, R), (N, N), (N, R), (R, N),
R , N . RR, NN,
NR, RN .
) , RR + NN RN NR = 1.
) = (1)(p1)/2 . ,

e
e

1
2
1
RN + NN = (p 1).
2

1
2
1
NR + NN = (p 2 + ),
2

RR + RN = (p 2 ),

) ,
RR =

e +4,
4

RN =

RR + NR = (p 1) 1,

p
,
4
4

NN = NR =

p
+
4

e 2.
4

31.10.
, p = 4k + 1 .
31.53 31.55.

407

36.19 ) . 546.
p = 4k + 1
( 31.56).
, p = 4k + 3
( 4.45 ). , , , ( 5.11).

31.53. p = 4k + 1 .
) , x,
x2 + 1 p.
) , 0 6 r1 , r2 <

< p 0 6 s1 , s2 < p , r1 x + s1 r2 x + s2
p,
(r1 , s1 ) 6= (r2 , s2 ).
) , p = (r1 r2 )2 + (s1 s2 )2 .
31.54. , p = 4k + 1 ,
17.12.
31.55. p = 4k + 1 .
) , x2 + y2 = mp
x, y, m.
) , m > 1, m.
31.56. , p =
= 4k + 1 . ( p = x2 + y2 , x y
x y.)
31.11.
31.57. , a b , ab
.

408

31.

31.58. p . ,
x, y m, 1 + x2 + y2 =
= mp, 0 < m < p.
31.59. p .
) , m<p
x1 , x2 , x3 x4 , x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 =
= mp.
) , m .
) , m 1.
31.60. ,

().
31.12.
p , x , p 1. xp1 1 (mod p).
d, xd 1 (mod p),
, x p.
x p,
p 1. ,
x, x2 , . . . , xp1 p.
p
( 31.63).

31.61. , d p 1.
31.62. , xm 1 (mod p), d
m.
31.63. ) , d (d) p.
) , d, p 1, (d) p.
) , p (p 1) .
31.64. ) n > 2. ,
d, xd+1 x (mod n)
x, , n = p1 . . . pk ,
p1 , . . . , pk .

409

) n = p1 . . . pk , p1 , . . . , pk . , d, xd+1 x (mod n) x,
(p1 1, . . . , pk 1).
31.65. p .
) , ap 1
a 1 2px + 1.
) , ap + 1
a + 1 2px + 1.
31.66. p . ,
2px + 1.
n
31.67. , 22 + 1
2n+1 x + 1.
31.68. , 3
p = 2n + 1, n > 1.
31.69. p S = 1n + 2n + . . . + (p 1)n .
,
(
1 (mod p), n p 1,
S
0 (mod p),
n p 1.
31.13.
m. x m, x, x2 , . . . , xf(m) ,
m. 31.71 31.77 ,
m , m = 2, 4, pa 2pa , p
.
a
ma1

1 (mod m ) 31.70. , (1 + km)


m.
31.71. p . , pa p.
31.72. x a2
p. , xp (p1) 6 1 (mod pa ), > 2.

410

31.

, x pa .
31.73. x
p. ,
x x + p p2 .
31.74. , x
p2 , p , x pa > 2.
31.75. p . ,

a
2p .
31.76. , 2n , n 6 2.
31.77. , m 2, 4, pa
2pa , p ,
m .

31.14.

p(n) , n.

p(n)/n = 0 ().
2 n
31.79. ,
< p(n) n > 200.
3 ln n
n
n > 55.
31.80. , p(n) < 3 ln 2
ln n

31.78. , lim

. , n
0,92129

n
<
ln n

p(n) < 1,10555 lnnn .

31.1. . 4.62 p a, 2a, . . . , (p 1)a


1, 2, . . . , p 1. , ap1 1 2 . . . (p 1) 1 2 . . . (p 1) (mod p).
b = 1 2 . . . (p 1) p, ap1 1 (mod p).

411

, b, bb 1 (mod p).
. , n np n p. n.
n = 1 . , np n
p. (n + 1)p (n + 1) = C1p np1 + C2p np2 + . . . + Cp1
n
p
p, Ckp , 16 k 6 p 1,
p ( 14.30).
n p, , np n = n(np1 1)
p, , np1 1 p.
31.2. , a b p.
p. ap1 1 (mod p) bp1 1 (mod p). ,
ap1 + bp1 2 (mod p). , ap1 + bp1 = a4k+2 +
+ b4k+2 = (a2 )2k+1 + (b2 )2k+1 a2 + b2 ,
p.
31.3. , p1 , . . . , pr
4k + 1. (2p1 . . . pr )2 + 1. , 4k 1.
31.2
4k 1. ,
p1 , . . . , pr .
31.4. ) , 2p 1 (mod q), q
. , q 6= 2. q 1 p, q 1 p 1, a b, ap + b(q 1) = 1
(. . 43). 2q1 1 (mod q). 2 2ap+b(q1) (2p )a (2q1 )b 1 (mod q). .
) : 211 1 = 23 89.
31.5. 2341 2 = 2(2340 2) = 2((210 )34 1)
10
2 1 = 1023. , 1023 = 3 341.
31.6. n 2n n 2 = na a.
22 1 2 = 2(22 2 1) = 2(2na 1).
2n 1.
31.7. ) 1, 2, . . . , pn 1 p pn1 1 ,
, p, 2p, . . . , p(pn1 1). (pn ) = pn 1
(pn1 1) = pn pn1 .
) m n ,
u v, um + vn = 1 (
). a b
m n, . . 0 6 a 6 m 1 0 6 b 6 n 1.

412

31.

(a, b) c,
avn+bum mn. , cavna (mod m) cbumb (mod n).
, , (a, b)
c.
m n mn.
(c, m) = (a(1 um) + bum, m) = (a, m) (c, n) =
= (b, n). c mn , a m b n
.
. ) ), (n), n = pa11 . . . pakk . 14.36.
31.8. a1 , a2 , . . . , af(n) 1 n 1, n. ai
aai n. aai n,
a1 , a2 , . . . , af(n) . a(ai aj )
i 6= j n. ,
a1 , a2 , . . . , af(n) .

af(n) a1 . . . af(n) a1 . . . af(n) (mod n).

(1)

b = a1 . . . af(n) a1 , a2 , . . . , af(n) . bb 1 (mod n)


b = ai . (1) b,
.
31.9. ( 31.8)
m = (n).
31.10. . 1/n, 2/n,
3/n, . . . , n/n; n.
. , n,
d (d).
. n a a
k
: n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . pa
k . d n
b
b
b
d = p1 1 p2 2 . . . pk k , 0 6 i 6 i , i = 1, . . . , k.
( 31.7 )
X
a
k
(d) = (1 + (p1 ) + . . . + (p1 1 )) . . . (1 + (pk ) + . . . + (pa
k )).

b a

, b
b
b
b
(p1 1 ) . . . (pk k ) = (p1 1 . . . pk k ).

413

1 + (p) + . . . + (pa ) = 1 + (p 1) + (p2 p) + . . . + (pa pa1 ) = pa .

31.11. ) : 7. 171 52 , 171f(52) 1 (mod 52). , (52) = (4) (13) = 24.


1712147 152489+11 1511 7 (mod 52).
) : 54. 126 138 :
6. , a b (mod 23),
6a 6b (mod 138). a = 21 1261019 . a 21 112246+7
2 117 9 (mod 23). 1261020 = 6a 54 (mod 138).
31.12. af(m) 1 (mod m).
(m) k : (m) = kq + r, 0 6 r < k. 1 af(m)
(ak )q ar ar (mod m). , r = 0,
k.
31.13. a an 1 . n
af(a 1) 1 (mod an 1). ,
(an 1) n (. 31.20).
ai 1 (p 1)
i
1 (mod piai ). 31.14. xpi

f f

L(n)

(
piai 1 (pi 1)

, L(n) piai 1 (pi 1)). xL(n) 1 (mod piai ). , xL(n) 1


a
k
p1 1 , . . . , pa
k , n.
31.15. ) , p p > 2 ( p = 2
). a 1, 2,
3, . . . , p 1. a, 16 a 6 p 1,
aa 1 (mod p) (. 4.63). a = a,
a2 1 = (a 1)(a + 1) p, a = 1 p 1.
, 2, 3, . . . , p 2 , 1 p. ,
(p 1)! p 1 1 (mod p).
, p = qr, 1 < r, q < p. (p 1)!
q, (p 1)! 6 1 (mod p).
) , p = qr, 1 < r < q < p. (p 1)!
qr = p. , p = q2 ,
q . q = 2, q2 = 4 (3!)2 = 36 4.
q > 2, (p 1)! q 2q,
(p 1)!, , q2 = p.
31.16. n ,
( 31.15 ) a(n) = 1 b(n) = 0, f(n) = n.
n , , 31.15 ),

414

31.

((n 1)!)2 0 (mod n) 2(n 1)! 0 (mod n). a(n) = 0


b(n) = 1, , f(n) = 2.
31.17. a b n1 , n2 , . . . , nk ,
.
31.18. r. , xnr =a+mpr.
t , xr+1 = xr + tpr
xnr+1 a (mod pr+1 ). ,
xnr+1 = (xr + tpr )n = xnr + nxrn1 tpr +

n(n 1) n2 2 2r
xr t p + . . . =
2

= a + mpr + nxrn1 tpr + . . .


, pr+1 .
, t , mpr + nxrn1 tpr pr+1 , . . m + nxrn1 t p.
n a p. nxrn1
p. m t
, nxrn1 t m (mod p).
31.19. a = b + mpn , m .
p(p 1) p2
b (mpn )2 + . . .
2
p(p 1) p2
pbp1 mpn ,
b (mpn )2 , . . . pn+1 .
2

ap = bp + pbp1 mpn +

31.20. k k = pn + r, 0 6 r < n. ,
an 1 (mod an 1), ak ar (mod an 1). r > 0,
a 6 ar 6 an1 < an 1. ar 1 (mod an 1)
, r = 0, . . k n.
31.21. n. n = 1 .
, f(x) p, cf(x) xm + a1 xm1 + . . . + am (mod p)
c; m < p.
( 31.33) cf(x) 0 (mod p)
m p x. m < p,
x, f(x) 6 0 (mod p).
, n. f(x1 , . . . , xn , xn+1 )
0 (mod p), p.
f(x1 , . . . , xn , xn+1 )
m1
gm (x1 , . . . , xn )xm
n+1 + gm1 (x1 , . . . , xn )xn+1 + . . . + g0 (x1 , . . . , xn ).

x1 , . . . , xn am = gm (x1 , . . . , xn ), . . .
. . . , a0 = g0 (x1 , . . . , xn ). am xm
n+1 + . . . + a0 0 (mod p) xn+1 , a0 . . . am 0 (mod p).

415

, gi (x1 , . . . , xn )0 (mod p) x1 , . . . , xn .
gi (x1 , . . . , xn ) p.
31.22. xpi xi (mod p), r
xm
i xi (mod p). ,
g(x1 , . . . , xn ),
p, g(x1 , . . . , xn ) 0 (mod p)
x1 , . . . , xn . 31.21
g(x1 , . . . , xn ) p.
31.23. , f(x1 , . . . , xn ) 0 (mod p)
(0, . . . , 0).
1 (f(x1 , . . . , xn ))p1 (1 xp1
) . . . (1 xp1
) (mod p)
n
1

(1)

. (x1 , . . . , xn ) = (0, . . . , 0) , (x1 , . . . , xn ) 6= (0, . . . , 0)


.
(1) ,
31.22. , .
, , ,
. . . xnp1 .
xp1
1
n(p 1);
. .
31.24. ( 31.23),
.
31.25. ) pa 1, p, p2 , . . . , pa .
) d d m n. dd
mn. m n :
mn P
(m)
=
aki
P P
m n. `

k
P k `P k
k
k k
bj = k (m) k (n).
ai
k (n) = bj , k (mn) = ai bj =
31.26. ) 2p1 (2p 1) , 31.25 ) (2p1 (2p 1)) = (2p1 ) (2p 1). ,
31.25 ) (2p1 ) = 1 + 2 + 4 + . . . + 2p1 = 2p 1
(2p 1) = 1 + 2p 1 = 2p .
) n = 2p1 m, m , . 2p m = 2n = (n) = (2p1 ) (m) = (2p 1) (m).
m 2p 1. m= (2p 1)m . 2p (2p 1)m = 2p m=
= (n) = (2p1 ) (m) = (2p 1) (m), (m) = 2p m .

s
s

416

31.

m= (2p 1)m , m+ m = 2p m = (m).


, m m m.
m + m = (m) ,
m m = 1.
a a
31.27. n = p11 p22 , p1 p2 ,
p1 > 3 p2 > 5.

a1 +1
1

s(n) = p p
,

a +1

1 p 22

1 1

s(n)
n

p2 1

<

a +1

<

p 11

a +1

p 22

p1 1 p2 1

=n

p1
p2

p1 1 p2 1

p1
p2
3 5
15

6 =
< 2.
p1 1 p2 1
2 4
8

31.28. (n)/n d/n,


d n. d/n = d , d
n, d P
n, d
n. , (n)/n = 1/d,
d
n.
n = N!.

s(n)
n

>1+

1
1
1
1
+ + +...+ ,
2
3
4
N

1, 2, 3, . . . , N n. , ( 30.6).
31.29. ) : 5 8.
a
) n = p11 . . . pakk p1 > p2 > . . . > pk .

n (n) =

k
Y
i=1

i 1
(p2a
(pi 1))
i

, n (n), p1 . p1 ,
n (n), 2a1 1. , n (n), p1 a1 . n = pa11 n2 .

n2 (n2 ) =

nf(n)

2a 1
p1 1 (p1

1)

, p2 a2 . .

) : 12 h14.
2n + 2 i h 2n i

= 0, 2n + 1 2n + 2
31.30. ,
k

k. 1. -

417

,
n+2 h
X
2n + 2 i
k=1

f(n) =

n h
X
2n i

k=1

2n
P

k=1

s (2n + 1) + s (2n + 2) + 1.

s (k) P
n

k=1

h 2n i
k

, f(n + 1) f(n) = 1.

, f(1) = 1.
31.31.
n > 1
P ,
a
a

(d) = 0. n = p1 1 . . . pk k .
X

m(d) =

d|n

d|n

m(d) = 1 C

1
k

d | p1 ...pk

+ C2k + . . . + (1)k = (1 1)k = 0.

,
X
X
X
f(d1 ) (b) =
f(d1 )
F(a) (b) =

ab=n

d1 d2 b=n

d1 | n

n/d1 = m.
X

m(b) =

d2 b=m

X
b|m

X
f(d1 )

d1 | n

d2 b=n/d1

m(b)

(
1 n = d1 ;
(b) =
0 n 6= d1 .

d2 b=n/d1

m(b)

= f(n).

31.32. 31.31 .
31.33. n. n = 1 . f(x1 ) f(x) p (x ).
f(x) f(x1 ) = xn xn1 + a1 (xn1 x1n1 ) + an1 (x x1 ) =
=(xx1 )g(x) p. g(x)=xn1 +b1 xn2 +. . .+bn1
,
a1 , . . . , an x. 0 6 x 6 p 1 x 6= x1 , x x1
p. p g(x),
.
31.34. x, 1 6 x 6 p 1,
p x2 . x p x
, x 6= p x. ,
( 31.33) x2 c (mod p)

418

31.

. (p 1)/2 .
.
31.35. ab2 (mod p), ( 31.1) a(p1)/2 bp1 1 (mod p).
x(p1)/2 1 (mod p).
( 31.33) (p 1)/2, 31.34
(p 1)/2. x(p1)/2 1 (mod p).
a , a(p1)/2 1 (mod p). , x2 1 (mod p) :
x 1 (mod p), , (a(p1)/2 )2 = ap1 1 (mod p).
31.36. ( 31.35). p = 4k + 1, (1)(p1)/2 = (1)2k = 1, p = 4k + 3,
(1)(p1)/2 = (1)2k+1 = 1.
31.37. , x2 dy2 = 1
. ( , ) x2 dy2 = 1. d
4k + 1, 2 ( 2 + 1) (mod 4).
,
4 1,

xh

(x 1)(x + 1)
h2
=
,
.
4d
4

/4 (
) : u2 =

x1
2d1

v2 =

x+1
2d2

, d1 d2

d. u v ,
( 1, + 1) = 2. , u 6= 0, 6= 1. ,

1
1
d2 v2 d1 u2 = ( + 1) ( 1) = 1.
2
2

, d1 6= 1 d2 6= 1. r = 2 ,
d1 d2 .
1. d1 .
p d2 .
d p pi

i1
2k+1
1
=
...
= (1)2k+1 = 1.
p

, d1 u2 1 (mod p), 1
p.
2. d2
.

419

p d1 d
2
= 1. , d2 v2 1 (mod p).

, d1 = 1 d2 = d,
d1 = d d2 = 1.
1. d1 = 1 d2 = d, . . dv2 u2 = 1.
, x2
dy2 = 1 .
2. d1 = d d2 = 1, . . v2 du2 = 1.
, (v, u) x2 dy2 = 1.
, u2 v2 =

x2 1
4d

h2
4

, uv =

h
2

, ,

u < . , .
31.38. , l k 1

p1
, rl 6= rk . , rl = rk ,
2

(l k)q p, l k p. |l k| 6 p 1.
, r1 , r2 , . . . , r(p1)/2 p1
. ,
2
p1
q r(p1)/2 (mod p),
q r1 (mod p), . . . ,
2

1, 2, . . . ,

p 1 p1
p1
! q 2 (1)m r1 . . . r(p1)/2 = (1)m
! (mod p).
2
2

p1
p1
q
(mod p) (, q 2 (1)m (mod p). q 2
p
31.35).
Q
31.39. A(x1 , . . . , xp ) =
(xi xj ).
16i<j6p

A ,
. A(xs(1) , . . . , xs(p) )
A(x1 , . . . , xp ). x1 = 1, . . . , xp = p.

sgn

a,p

16i<j6p

pa,p (i) pa,p (j)


ij

16i<j6p

ai aj
=
ij

16i<j6p
p

a a (mod p), sgn

a,p a

a ap(p1)/2 (mod p).

(p1)/2

(a/p) (mod p).

420

31.

e r (mod p), e = 1 1 6 r 6 p 2 1 . , e = (1)


. , e = 1 ,
{lq/p} < 1/2. , a [2a] = [2[a] + 2{a}] = 2[a] + [2{a}]
, {a} < 1/2. a = {lq/p}, ,
31.40. lq

l l

[2lq/p]

[2ql/p] , {lq/p} <1/2.


, q
= (1)m ,

:
m=

(p1)/2
P

[2lq/p].

l=1

a a + p ,
2 a 2a 4 (a + p)/2 (a + p)/2
=
=
=
= (1)s ,
p

s=

(p1)/2h

X
l=1

(1)

(p1)/2h
(p1)/2h
X al i p2 1
X al i (p1)/2
X
(a + p)l i
.
l=
=
+
+
p
p
p
8
l=1

l=1

l=1

= (1)(p

1)/8

.
a
(1),
= (1)M ,
p
h
i
(p1)/2
P al
M=
.
, a = 1

l=1

p q .
q p
p

= (1)

(p1)/2
P

[ql/p]+

(q1)/2
P

l=1

[ pl/q]

l=1

,
(p1)/2h

X
l=1

(q1)/2h
X pl i p 1 q 1
ql i
+
=

p
q
2
2
l=1

5.29.
31.41. ) P = {0, 1, . . . , pq 1} P = {(a, b) : 0 6 a < p, 0 6
6 b < q}.
c 7 c = (c (mod p), c (mod q)) P P.
, : P P,
(a, b)=a+pb (a, b)=qa+b. , (a, b)=(a, a+pb (mod q)),

mn

421

(a0 , b),

a0 .
,

P


sgn

m=

p
q

p
. sgn
q

n=

q
.
p

n m

P 1 : qa+b7
7 a + pb. (1)k , k
P, qa + b > qa + b a + pb < a + pb . |b b | < q
|a a | < p, : a > a
p1 q1

.
b < b . , k = C2q C2p =
2
2
p q
p1 q1
= sgn sgn = sgn 1 = (1) 2 2 .
q

n m

) m = 3 . , m > 3 ,
.
2 1 m
m+ 2
m1 m+1
m+1
=
= (1) 2 (1) 2 2
=
m+2
m+2
m+2
m
2
(m+2)2 1
m+1
m2 1
m+1
8
= (1) 2
.
= (1) 2 (1) 8 = (1)
m

31.42. lq

e r (mod p), e = 1 1 6 r 6 p 2 1 .
l l

2plq
2prl
sin
= l sin
. l = 1, 2, . . .
p
p
p1
. . .,
. ,
2
p1
r1 , . . . , r(p1)/2 1, 2, . . . ,
.
2


q
Y
= 1 . . . (p1)/2 =
p

sin

16l6(p1)/2

2pl
2plq .
sin
.
p
p

11.31 2k + 1 = q
2pl
= sin
.
p

q
p

16l6(p1)/2

(4)(q1)/2

16m6(q1)/2

2pl
2pm
sin2
=
sin2

= (4)(p1)(q1)/4

f=

Y
2pm
2pl
.
sin2
sin2
l,m

422

31.

p
q

= (4)(p1)(q1)/4

Y
2pl
2pm
.
sin2
sin2
q

l,m

p
,
q
q
p1 q1
,


p
2
p
q 2
. ,
= (1)(p1)(q1)/4
.
q
p
3 p
31.43.
=
p
3
1
= (1)(p1)/2 . ,
= 1. p = 12k 1
3
3
3
= 1, p = 12k 5
= 1.

p
p
3 1 3
3
31.44. ,
=
= (1)(p1)/2
. ,
p

(1)(p1)/2 = 1 p = 12k + 1 p = 12k + 5, (1)(p1)/2 = 1


p = 12k 1 p = 12k 5. 31.43, .
31.45. , 6k + 1. N , p
4N2 + 3. p p
6= 3, N

3. (2N)2 3 (mod p),

3
= 1.
p

31.44 p 6k + 1. N
p. , N 4N2 + 3 p. , 3 p, . . p = 3. .
31.46. ) , p 1 (mod 4). , p 1 (mod 3).
, n , 22m 1 2m 1,
m > 1. 22
1 (mod 3), 2n 1 1 (mod 3) n. , p 7 (mod 12).
31.43.
) , p 1 (mod 4). , p 1 (mod 3). , n , 2n + 1
2+ 1= 3. 22 1 (mod 3), 2n + 1 1 (mod 3)
n. , p 5 (mod 12).
31.43.
31.47. n = 2m, 2n 1 22 1 = 3.
3n 1 3. ,
n = 2m + 1. 24 22 (mod 12), 22m 4 (mod 12), -

423

, 2n 1 7 (mod 12). p > 3


12 1 5. 2n 1
p > 3, 12 5.
, 3n 1 2n 1. , ,
n
3 1 p. , 32(m+1) = 3n+1 3 (mod p). 3
= 1.
p

(. 31.43).
p1
Pk
. 1 p 1
31.48. , g0 =
p

k=1

, .
31.49. ,
p1
p1
X
X
k
l
kl k+l
k+l
g12 =
=
.
k,l=1

k,l=1

l k 7 kl
p,
X kl2
X k
X kl
k+l
kl+l
l(k+1)
=
=
=
p

k,l

X 1
l

k,l

X k X

k6=1

k,l

l(k+1)

1
X k
(p 1) + (1)
,
p

k6=1

k 6= 1
l(k + 1) p
1, 2, . . . , p 1 + 2 + . . . + p1 = 1.
1
P k
,
+
= g0 = 0.
p
k6=1 p
1
31.50. g12 =
p p = 5 7. p = 5
p

g1 = 5, p = 7 g1 = i 7. ,
.
.
31.51. n 6 p 1
n 6 p 1, nn
1 (mod p). p 1 = p 1. n
1 p 2, n 1 p 2 (
). , n2 (1 + n) n2 + n n(n + 1) (mod p),

p2
p2
p2
1
X
n(n + 1) X n2 (1 + n) X 1 + n
=
=
= g0
= 1,
n=1

n=1

g0 = 0 ( 31.48).

e e

n=1

424

31.

31.52. ) ,

n n + 1
p

= 1 RR NN, -

NR RN 1. , RR +
p2
P n(n + 1)
+ NN RN NR =
. p

n=1

31.51.
) 2, 3, . . . , p1 RR+NR,
RN + NN. 1, 2, 3, . . .
. . . , p 1 . , 1 .
1

RN + NN = (p 1) RR + NR = (p 1) 1.
2
2
1, 2, . . . , p 2 RR + RN,

p1

=
NR + NN. ,
p
1
1
1
=
= . RR+RN= (p2 ) NR+NN= (p2+ ).

e
1
) RR+NNRNNR=1, RR+RN= (p2e)
2
1
1
NR + NN = (p 2 + e). RR + NN = (p 3).
2
2
1
RR + RN = (p 2 e) RN + NN =
2
1
1
= (p 1), RR NN = (e + 1). , RR =
2
2
p

p e+4
p e2
p e

NN = +
. RN =
4
4
4
4
4
4
p
e2
NR = +
.
4
4

. ) : RR + NN + RN + NR = p 2;
.
31.53. ) 31.36.

) r
0 6 r < p,

r p (
r 0). ,

(r, s) p p = p. ,
- rx + s
p.
) r1 x+s1 r2 x+s2 (mod p), . . (r1 r2 )x(s2 s1 ) (mod p).
u = |r1 r2 | v = |s1 s2 |.
u v
; , u, v < p.
ux v (mod p), u2 x2 v2 (mod p). x2 + 1 0 (mod p), 2 2
2
2
2
0
u2 (x2 + 1)
p). ,
2u x + u v + u 2 (mod
2
2
2
u + v < ( p) + ( p) = 2p, u + v2 = p.

425

31.54. 31.36 q, q2 1 (mod p). = q/p.


C = p. 17.12

q

x < C = p y , |x y| 6 1/C, . . x y 6 .
p
p

|r| q
1
r =xqyp.
= x y6 , |r|6 p. -

, 0 < x2 + r2 < 2p. , x2 + r2 x2 + x2 q2


x2 (1 + q2 ) 0 (mod p). x2 + r2 = p.
31.55. ) 31.36
x , x2 1 (mod p), . . x2 + 1 = mp. ,
,
y = 1.
) m0 ,

x2 + y2 = m0 p.
(1)
x y p, ,
|x|<p/2 |y|<p/2. , x2 +y2 <p2 /2, , m0 <p/2.
m0 > 1. , m0 x. m0 y,

m0 p
p
x2 + y2
= 2 =
,
m0
m20
m0

, 1 < m0 < p/2.


c d , x1 = x cm0
y1 = y dm0 |x1 | 6 m0 /2 |y1 | 6 m0 /2.
, x1 y1 m2

m0

. , 0 < x21 + y21 6 2 0 =


m0
4
2
x21 + y21 x2 + y2 0 (mod m0 ). ,
x21 + y21 = m0 m1 ,

(2)

0 < m1 6 m0 /2. (1) (2).

m20 m1 p = (x2 + y2 )(x21 + y21 ) = (xx1 + yy1 )2 + (xy1 yx1 )2 .

xx1 + yy1 = x(x cm0 ) + y(y dm0 ) = x2 + y2 m0 (cx + dy) =


= m0 (p cx dy),
xy1 yx1 = x(y dm0 ) y(x cm0 ) = m0 (cy dx).

, m20 m1 p = m20 (X2 + Y2 ), X = p cx dy Y =


= cy dx. m20 , X2 + Y2 = m1 p,
0 < m1 6 m0 /2.

426

31.

31.56. , p = x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 . z2
1 (mod p) : z h (mod p).
x hy (mod p) a hb (mod p). x a
, , x hy (mod p) a hb (mod p).
xb ya (mod p).
,
p2 = (x2 + y2 )(a2 + b2 ) = (xa + yb)2 + (xb ya)2 .

(1)

xb ya 0 (mod p), (xa + yb)2 p2 . ,


(1) p2 .
1 .
, xa + yb = 0,
xb ya = 0. x y , a b
. xb = ya, x = a y = b, x = a
y = b. xa = yb, x = b y = a, x = b
y = a.
31.57. a = x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 b = y21 + y22 + y23 + y24 .
, ab = z21 + z22 + z23 + z24 ,
z1 = x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 + x4 y4 ,
z2 = x1 y2 x2 y1 + x3 y4 x4 y3 ,
z3 = x1 y3 x3 y1 + x4 y2 x2 y4 ,
z4 = x1 y4 x4 y1 + x2 y3 x3 y2 .
31.58. x2 , x 06 x6

p1
,
2

p. , x21 x22 (mod p),


x1 x2 0 (mod p). 0 < x1 + x2 < p.
p1

, 1 y2 , 0 6 y 6
2
p.
p + 1, -
p. . , x2 1 y2 (mod p), . . 1 + x2 + y2 = mp,
p 2
p 1 2 p 2
<
. , 1 + x2 + y2 < 1 + 2
< p2 ,
x2 , y2 6
2
2
2
, 0 < m < p.
31.59. ) 31.58: x1 = 1, x2 = x, x3 = y x4 = 0.
) , x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 . x1 , x2 , x3 x4 .
, x1 x2 x3 x4

427

.
x x 2 x + x 2 x x 2 x + x 2 m
1
2
3
4
3
4
1
2
+
+
+
= p
2

, m m/2.
) , m0
m, m0 6= 1. ) m0 .
xi xi = m0 bi + yi ,
|yi | < m0 /2. , ri xi
m0 , ri m0 ri m0 .
x1 , x2 , x3 x4 m0 ,
m0 p = x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 m0 , , p
m0 . 1 < m0 < p. , y1 , y2 ,
y3 y4 . ,
1 2
(1)
0 < y21 + y22 + y23 + y24 < 4 m0 = m20 .
2

, yi xi (mod m0 ),

y21 + y22 + y23 + y24 x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 = m0 p 0 (mod m0 ).

(2)

y21

(1) (2) , + y22 + y23 + y24 = m0 m1 , 0 < m1 < m0 .


x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 = m0 p y21 + y22 + y23 + y24 = m0 m1

31.57. z21 + z22 + z23 + z24 = m20 m1 p.


, z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 m0 . ,
X
X
z1 =
xi (xi bi m0 )
x2i m0 p 0 (mod m0 ),
z2 = x1 (x2 b2 m0 ) x2 (x1 b1 m0 ) + x3 (x4 b4 m0 ) x4 (x3 b3 m0 ) =
= m0 (x1 b2 + x2 b1 x3 b4 + x4 b3 ) 0 (mod m0 ).

z3 z4 .
ti = zi /m0 . t21 + t22 + t23 + t24 = m1 p, 0 < m1 < m0 .
, m0 .
31.60. 31.59
.
2 : 2 = 12 + 12 + 02 + 02 .
31.57.
31.61. p 1 = qd + r, 0 6 r < d. 1 xp1 xqd+r
xr (mod p). d , xd 1 (mod p). , r = 0.

428

31.

31.62. 31.61.
31.63. ) x d.
d 1, x, x2 , x3 , . . . , xd1 Xd 1 (mod p). ,
d, ( 31.33).
y, d,
yd 1 (mod p). , y 1, x, x2 , x3 , . . . , xd1 . xk d
, d k . ,
xk , x2k , . . . , x(d1)k 1 ,
k, 2k, . . . , (d 1)k d.
, d
, (d) .
) x d,
p 1. )
d
P
(d) . p 1 6
(d),
d, p 1.
d, p 1,

P
(d) , : pP 1 <
(d).
, 31.10 p 1 =
(d). d, p 1, (d) .
) ):
d = p 1.
31.64. ) , n = p2 q. x = pq.
x 6 0 (mod n), xd+1 0 (mod n) d.
, n = p1 . . . pk , p1 , . . . , pk . xd+1 x p1 , . . . , pk , n. p , xp1 1 (mod p),
x(p1)m+1 x (mod p). , xd+1 x (mod p) d,
p 1. , d
(p1 1, . . . , pk 1).
) ) , d = (p1 1, . . . , pk 1),
xd+1 x (mod n) x. , xd+1
x (mod n) x, d (p1 1, . . . , pk 1).
, d
p1 1, . . . , pk 1.
xd+1 x (mod n), xd+1 x (mod pi ). xi pi . xri 1 (mod pi )
, r pi 1. xd+1
xi (mod pi ),
i

429

i 1
i 2)
xdi xd+p
xd+1+(p
xi xipi 2 xipi 1 1 (mod pi ).
i
i

d pi 1 ( 31.62).
31.65. ) q ap 1.
ap 1 (mod q). 31.62 d
a q p, . . d = 1
d = p. d = 1, a 1 (mod q), q
a 1. d = p, 31.61 p q 1.
, q 1 , q 1 = 2px.
) q ap + 1.
p
a 1 (mod q). a2p 1 (mod q). , d a q 2p. ,
a 6 1 (mod q) ap 6 1 (mod q), d = 2 d = 2p.
a2 1 (mod q), a 1 (mod q), . . q a + 1.
d = 2p, 2p q 1. q 1 = 2px.
31.66. , :
31.65 ) 2p 1
. ,
2px + 1, , p1 , . . . , pn . (p1 . . . pn )p 1. 31.65 )
2px + 1. , a = p1 . . . pn .
a 1 (mod p), . . a = 1 + px.
p1
ap 1
(p 1)(p 2) 2 2
=1+
px +
p x +...
2
3!
p2 x

px = a 1, ap 1
, a 1. , (p1 . . . pn )p 1
p1 , . . . , pn . 2px + 1, p1 , . . . , pn , .
n
n
31.67. q 22 + 1. 22
n+1
1 (mod q), 22
1 (mod q). 31.62
d 2 q 2n+1 .
n
, d = 2n+1 , 22 6 1 (mod q). ,
n+1
2
q 1 ( 31.61).
31.68.
n > 1 3 p . 31.46 )

3
p

= 1, 32

n1

1 (mod 2n + 1).

3 2n + 1 2n ,
2n1 . , 3 2n + 1
2n .

430

31.

31.69. n p 1, an 1 (mod p) a,
p. , S p 1 1 (mod p).
, n p 1. x p. 31.62
xn 6 1 (mod p). x p,
p x, 2x, 3x, . . . , (p 1)x
1, 2, . . . , p 1. , S xn S (mod p). ,
xn 6 1 (mod p), S 0 (mod p).
31.70. , r > 1, (1 + kmr )m 1 (mod mr+1 ).
, (1 + kmr )m = 1 + C1m kmr + C2m k2 m2r + . . .
C1m kmr = kmr+1 mr+1 . m2r , mr+1 . 2
, (1+kmr )m =1+k1 m2 , (1+kmr )m =(1+k1 m2 )m =1+k2 m3 . .
31.71. x pa , s<pa1 (p1), xs 1 (mod pa ).
, xt 1 (mod p)
a1
t < p 1. 31.70 xtp
1 (mod pa ). , x p.
31.72. k ,
xk 1 (mod pa ). pa1 (p 1) k ( 31.12). , xk 1 (mod p), k p 1. ,
k = pb (p 1), 0 6 6 1. , 6 2. ,
b
xp (p1) 1 (mod pa ) pa2b ,
a2
xp (p1) 1 (mod pa ), . , = p 1, . . k = pa1 (p 1) = (pa ).
31.73. , x x + p p2 .
p, 31.72 xp1 1 (mod p2 ) (x + p)p1 1 (mod p2 ). ,
(x + p)p1 xp1 = (p 1)xp2 p + C2p1 xp3 p2 + . . . p2 ,
, p(p 1)xp2 p2 , . . (p 1)xp2 p.
, p 1 x p.
31.74. x p ,
xp1 1 (mod p), . . xp1 = 1 + pt. k, xk 1 (mod p2 ), p(p 1),
t p.
xp1 = 1 + pt n = pa2 , > 2.

a2
xp (p1) = (1 + pt)n = 1 + npt + C2n p2 t2 + . . . + Cnn pn tn .

b a

b a

431

14.33 Csn ps pa s > 2.


a2
, npt= pa1 t pa . xp (p1) 1+ npt6
a
6 1 (mod p ). , 31.72 x pa .
31.75. , (2pa ) = (pa ). x pa . x x + pa ,
, x . ,
xk 1 (mod pa ) , xk 1 (mod 2pa ).
xk 1 (mod pa ) xk 1 (mod 2), xk 1 (mod 2pa ).
.
31.76. 1 3 2 4. , n > 3,
2n . (2n ) = 2n1 , n2
, x2
1 (mod 2n ) n > 3 x. x = 1 + 2t. x2 = 1 + 4t(t + 1) 1 (mod 8).
n = 3 . ,
n2
n1
x2
= 1 + 2n t, n > 3. x2
= (1 + 2n t)2 = 1 + 2n+1 t + 22n t2
n+1
1 (mod 2 ).
31.77. , x , m.
31.14 xL(m) 1 (mod m), L(m)
. , m
, L(m) < (m).
m p1 p2 , p1 1 p2 1
. (p1 1, p2 1) < (p1 1)(p2 1), ,
L(m) < (m).
m = 2a pb , > 2, > 1 p ,
(m) = 2a1 pb1 (p 1) L(m) = (2a1 , pb1 (p 1)).
2a1 p 1 2, L(m) < (m).
31.78. n k , 22k2 < n 6 22k .

p(n)/n 6 p(2

2k

)/n < (22k )/22k2 = 4 (22k )/22k .

, lim

p(2

2k

)/22k = 0.

p, 2m1 <
m1
<p6 2m , C22m =
=

(2m )!
,
((2m1 )!)2
m

m1

22 > C22m

>

2m1 <p62m

p > (2m1 )p(2

) (2m1 )

432

31.

p(2

) (2m1 ) 6

2m
.
m1

(2)

(2) m = k + 1, k + 2, . . . , 2k , m 1 > k, . . 2m /(m 1) 6 2m /k.


p(2

2k

) (2k ) 6

2k+1 + 2k+2 + . . . + 22k


22k+1
6
.
k
k

p(2 ) 6 2 .
k

p(22k )
22k

2
2k
22k+1
1
+
= k+ .
k
2
22k
k22k

31.79.
14.34, pm Ckn , pm 6 n.
Q m
Ckn =
p 6 np(n) .
p6n

n .

2n = (1 + 1)n =

n
X

Ckn 6 (n + 1)np(n) ,

k=0

. .

+ 1)
. , p(n) > n ln 2 lnln(n
n

2
2
ln(n + 1)
n, . . ln 2 >
.
3
3
n
ln(x + 1)
, x > 2
x

n > 201, n ln 2 ln(n + 1) >

n = 201.
: ln 2 2/3 0,02648

ln 202
0,02641.
201

31.80. p, n < p 6
6 2n, Cn2n ,
Y
p 6 Cn2n < 22n .
np(2n)p(n) 6
n<p62n

p(2n) p(n) < 2nlnlnn 2 .

(1)

433

, n
n
. (1) ,
(n) < 3 ln 2

ln n

p(2n) < 3 ln 2 lnnn + 2 ln 2 lnnn = 5 ln 2 lnnn .


2n
.
p(2n) < 3 ln 2
ln(2n)



5 ln 2

n
2n
6 3 ln 2
,
ln n
ln(2n)

. .

5
6
6
.
ln n
ln 2 + ln n

ln n > 5 ln 2. n > 25 .
,

2n + 1
.
p(2n + 1) < 3 ln 2 ln(2n
+ 1)
, (1) p(2n + 1) 6 p(2n) + 1

p(2n + 1) < p(n) + 2nlnlnn 2 + 1 < 3nlnlnn 2 + 2nlnlnn 2 + 1.


,
5 ln 2
. .
5+
, 3

n
2n + 1
+ 1 < 3 ln 2
,
ln n
ln(2n + 1)

ln n
ln n
2n + 1
<3
.
n ln 2
n ln(2n + 1)

2n + 1
> 6,
n
ln n
ln n
<6
.
5+
n ln 2
ln(2n + 1)

n > 55, 5,1053, 5,1052 ( ).


, , n 55 109.
,
n, 2n 2n + 1.

32

II

, () .
( 10.2) ,
n n ,
.
.
, .

32.1. f g . ,

(1)

|f(z) g(z)| < |f(z)| + |g(z)|

z ,
f g, ().
32.2. f(z) = zn + a1 zn1 + . . . + an , ai . , |z|=1+max |ai |
i

n f (
).
32.1.
,
, (a, b).
a0 , a1 , . . . , an , a0 an 6= 0.
. ,

435

32.3. N(x) f(x), f (x), . . . , f(n) (x), f n.


, f (
), a b, f(a) 6= 0,
f(b) 6= 0 a < b, N(a) N(b),
N(a) N(b)
().
32.4. ) , f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an , an 6= 0,

a0 , a1 , . . . , an ( ).
) , f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an , an 6= 0, (1)n a0 ,
(1)n1 a1 , . . . , an .
32.5. , f(x) = a0 xn +
+ a1 xn1 + . . . + an , an 6= 0, 2m (. .
), 2m (
) , 2m + 1 , ,
, 2m , , ,
2m + 2 ( ).
f(x) f1 (x) = f (x). f f1 :
f = q1 f 1 f 2 ,
f 1 = q2 f 2 f 3 ,
...... ...... ..... ....
fn2 = qn1 fn1 fn ,
fn1 = qn fn .
f, f1 , . . . , fn1 , fn f.

436

32. II

32.6. w(x) f(x), f1 (x), . . . , fn (x). , f ( ),


a b, f(a) 6= 0, f(b) 6= 0 a < b,
w(a) w(b) ().
32.7. , P
P ().

32.8. P(z) = (z x1 ) . . . (z xn ), x1 < . . . < xn .


, xi
xi (xi , xi+1 ), P .
32.2.

,

. , . , ,
. , , ,
.
. K ,
x y
x + y xy ( K).
:
x + y = y + x ( );
(x + y) + z = x + (y + z) ();
K 0, x + 0 = x
x K;
x K
x, x + (x) = 0;
x(y + z) = xy + xz (x + y)z = xz + yz (
).
K ,
, . . xy = yx x y K.
K ,
, . . (xy)z = x(yz) x, y z K.

437

1 K , 1x = x1 = x
x K.
, .
, x 6= 0 x1 , xx1 = 1.
k K (: k K; K
k),
k K, k
, K; k , K. ,

.
f g k. , f g, f = gh,
h ( k).
d f g,
f g d. d f g
f g,
f g.
,
k.
d = (f, g) f g
.
, deg f > deg g, deg . r1 f g,
r2 g r1 , . . . , rk+1
rk1 rk . ri ,
n rn+1 = 0, . . rn1 rn .
f g rn , rn rn1 ,
rn2 , . . . , f g h, rn h, h
r1 , r2 , . . . , rn = (f, g).

, .
) d f g,
a b, d = af + bg.
) f g k K. f g K,
k.

438

32. II

f k k, f = gh, g h
k.
f k.
f = f1 . . . fs f
k f1 , . . . , fs ,
k. 1. , fi (x) = ai xi + . . .
k, gi = a1
i fi k,
1. f = f1 . . . fs
f = ag1 . . . gs , a = a1 . . . as .
,
.

32.9. , qr p, q r
p.
32.10. k . , f(x)
k
, .
, , . .
f(x) ,
.
;

.
.
P
f(x) = ai xi , ai .
a0 , . . . , an f. f cont(f). ,
f(x) = cont(f)g(x), g 1.

32.11. , cont(fg) = cont(f) cont(g) (


).
32.12. ,
, .

439

32.13. f(x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn ,
p an p,
a0 , . . . , an1 p, a0
p2 . , f
( ).
32.14. , p , f(x) = xp1 + xp2 + . . . + x + 1 .
32.3.
f(x1 , . . . , xn ) ,

f(xs(1) , . . . , xs(n) ) = f(x1 , . . . , xn ).



( )
X
xi1 . . . xik ,
k (x1 , . . . , xn ) =

i1 <...<ik

1 6 k 6 n; , 0 = 1 k (x1 , . . . , xn ) = 0
k > n.

s(t) =

st
k

k=0

n
Y

(1 + txi ).

i=1

x1 , . . . , xn xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an ,
k
k (x1 , . . . , xn ) = (1) ak .

X
i
x11 . . . xinn .
pk (x1 , . . . , xn ) =

i1 +...+in =k


p(t) =

X
k=0

pk tk =

n
Y
i=1

(1 txi )1 .

440

32. II



sk (x1 , . . . , xn ) = xk1 + . . . + xkn .

n

X
X
xi (1 txi )1 .
sk tk1 =
s(t) =
i=1

k=1


X i
in
mi1 ...in (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
xs1 (1) . . . xs
(n) .

sSn
32.15. , a+b+c+d=2 1/a+1/b+1/c+
+ 1/d = 2,
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
= 2.
1a

1b

1c

1d

* * *
32.16. ,
n
X
(1)r

sr pnr = 0.

r=0

32.17. ,

npn =

n
X

sr pnr .

r=1

32.18. sk = xk1 + . . . + xkn . ,


n n = s1 n1 s2 n2 + . . . + (1)n1 sn 0
( ).
32.19. x, y, z . , 2(x4 + y4 + z4 ) .
32.20. x1 , . . . , x5 , x1 + . . . + x5
x21 + . . . + x25 n. ,
x51 + . . . + x55 5x1 . . . x5 n.

* * *
32.21. x1 , x2 , x3 x3 + px + q.
sn = xn1 + xn2 + xn3 n = 1, 2, . . . , 10.

441

32.22. x1 = b + c + d, x2 = (a + b + c), x3 = a d,
y1 = a + c + d, y2 = (a + b + d) y3 = b c. , ,
t3 + p1 t + q1 t3 + p2 t + q2 x1 , x2 , x3
y1 , y2 , y3 . , p1 = p2
, ad = bc.
32.23.
f2n = (b + c + d)2n + (a + b + c)2n +
+ (a d)2n (a + c + d)2n (a + b + d)2n (b c)2n ,
ad = bc. , f2 = f4 = 0 64f6 f10 = 45f82
( ).
* * *
32.24. ) f(x1 , . . . , xn ) . , g(y1 , . . . , yn ),
f(x1 , . . . , xn ) = g( 1 , . . . , n ). g (
).
) , f(x1 , . . . , xn )
, f(x1 , . . . , xn ) =
= g( 1 , . . . , n ), g .

,
x1 , . . . , xn xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an ,

Y
D = (xi xj )2 ,
i<j

x1 , . . . , xn ,
a1 , . . . , an . .
f(x1 , . . . , xn ) ,
f(. . . , xi , . . . , xj , . . .) = f(. . . , xj , . . . , xi , . . .),

. . xi xj Q.
= (xi xj ).
i<j

442

32. II

32.25. , f(x1 , . . . , xn )
(x1 , . . . , xn )g(x1 , . . . , xn ),
g .

= ( 1 , . . . , n ) , . . 1 > 2 > . . . > n > 0. > ,


| | = 1 + . . . + n . ,
1 + . . . + k > 1 + . . . + k k = 1, 2, . . . , n.

1 X ls(1)
l
Ml (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
. . . xn s(n) .
(1)
x1

l l
l m

l
l m

n!

sSn

| |.
, = (1, . . . , 1), Ml (x1 , . . . , xn ) = x1 . . . xn .
, (1) n! x1 . . . xn . = (n, 0, . . . , 0), Ml (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
= (xn1 + . . . + xnn )/n. , (1)
(n 1)! xn1 , (n 1)! xn2 . .

32.26. , Ml (x) > Mm (x) x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) x1 , . . .


. . . , xn , | | = | | > .
, =
x1 = . . . = xn ().

m l m

l m

32.4.

32.27. , cos n
cos , . . Tn (x),
Tn (x) = cos n x = cos .

Tn (x) 32.27 .

32.28. Tn (x) n 6 5.
32.29. , |Tn (x)| 6 1 x 6 1.
32.30. , Tn (x) = 2n1xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an ,
a1 , . . . , an .

443

32.31. Pn (x) = xn + . . . n
1, |Pn (x)| 6

6 1. Pn (x) =
1
2n1

n1

1
|x| 6
2n1

Tn (x). ( ,

Tn (x)

[1, 1] n 1.)
32.32. , Tn(x) Tm(x)
: Tn (Tm (x)) = Tm (Tn (x)).


2l

32.33. ) n = 2k + 1. , cos
n
l Tk+1 (x)
Tk (x).
 2lp 
) n = 2k. , cos
n

l Tk+1 (x) Tk1 (x).


32.34. ) Tk+1 (x)Tk (x) k64.

) , cos
cos
5
5
2
4x + 2x 1.
2p
4p
6p
) , cos
, cos
cos

8x3 + 4x2 4x 1.
) , cos

2
4
8
, cos
cos

9
9
9

8x3 6x + 1.

Tn (x) Pn (x) = 2Tn (x/2) 1. Pn (x) Pn+1 (x) = xPn (x) Pn1 (x), P0 (x) = 1 P1 (x) = x,
Pn (x) .
z = cos + i sin = eif , z + z1 = 2 cos zn + zn =
= 2 cos n . P(z + z1 ) = 2Tn (cos ) = 2 cos n = zn + zn ,
. . Pn (x) zn + zn z + z1 .

32.35. Pn
: cos( ) ,
2 cos( ) , . . cos( ) = 0, 1/2 1.

ap

. 29.55.

a
ap

ap

444

32. II

32.5.

, .
1, , .
, ,
.
f(x) g(x) , x .

. ,
f
1. , .
, 1. , (. . ) , . ,
, .

( 32.11).

32.36. x0
a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an1 x + an = 0
a0 , a1 , . . . , an . ,
a0 x0 .
32.37. f(x)=
=an xn +an1 xn1 +. . .+a0 , n > 2. ,

c
p

c > 0 ( ), > n

p q ( ).

P
2k!
32.38. , =
k=0
().

445

a b

32.39. ) , (x, y)
. , ( , ) .
) , (x, y)
. , ( , ) .

a b
fa b

fa b

a b
ab a b

, ( (
),
). , 6= 0
. ,
, 1
P
k

a
x

n, 1 k
P
nk

ak x . ,
1 . ,
,
.

a b
fa b

32.40.
,
( , ) = 0, . ,
i , , j , , ( i , j ) = 0.
32.41.

a
b

a
fa b

f(x) = xn +

bn1xn1 + . . . + b0,

0 , . . . , n1 . ,
.

,
. ,
.

32.42. ,
.

a = 2 cos(kp/n) -

32.6.
k , f(x)
k. f(x) k, ,
k . k( ).
, k . ,

a
a

446

32. II


f(x) ( k).

32.43. f(x) n
k, . ,
k( ) cn1 n1 +cn2 n2 +. . .+c1 +c0 ,
c0 , . . . , cn1 k.
32.44. f(x) n
k, . ,
n1
n1
P
P
dm m , c0 , . . . , cn1 d0 , . . . , dn1
cm m =

m=0

m=0

k, cm = dm m = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.

32.1.
v(z) = f(z) w(z) = g(z). (1) ,

v w .
v *
v(z) z
. vt = tv + (1 t)w.
v0 = w v1 = v. , z
vt (z) . ,
ind(t) vt . ind(t) t, ind(t) = const. ,
v w .
, v , v(z)=0.
( z0 |z z0 | =
= ,
.) v(z) = f(z)
z0 z0 f.
,

v(z) = f(z) w(z) = g(z) ,

f g.

*
6 . . . . .:
, 2006.

447

32.2. a = max |ai |. g(z) = zn i

0 n.
, |z| = 1 + a, |f(z) g(z)| < |f(z)| + |g(z)|.
, |f(z) g(z)| < |g(z)|, . .
|a1 zn1 + . . . + an | < |z|n .
, |z| = 1 + a,
|a1 zn1 + . . . + an | 6 a(|z|n1 + . . . + 1) = a

|z|n 1
= |z|n 1 < |z|n .
|z| 1

32.3. x [a, b] a b. N(x) , x


f(m) m 6 n.
, x
r- x0 f(x). x0
f(x), f (x), . . . , f(r) (x)
(x x0 )r g(x0 ), (x x0 )r1 rg(x0 ), . . . , r! g(x0 ). ,
x < x0 r ,
x > x0 ( , x x0 ).
, x f(m) , f.
f(m1) ,
m m 1 . . , x
r- x0 f(m) , f(m1) . , x0 f(m1) (x),
f(m) (x), . . . , f(m+r) (x) .
x0 F(x0 ), (x x0 )r G(x0 ), (x x0 )r1 r G(x0 ), . . . , r! G(x0 ).
F(x0 ),
x < x0 r , x > x0
. , F(x0 )
(x x0 )r G(x0 ), r
x < x0 x > x0 , r
x < x0 1 , x > x0
( , F(x0 ) G(x0 )
). , r
r, r
r 1. .

448

32. II

32.4. ) f(r) (0) = r! anr , N(0)


f.
, N(+) = 0.
)
f(x) = b0 xn + b1 xn1 + . . . + bn , bk = (1)nk ak .
32.5.
, 32.4. , ank xk
ank+2m+1 xk2m1 2m .
,
2m + 1 . ( ank ank+2m+1
, , , ). ,
2m, 2m .
, ank xk ank+2m+2 xk2m2 2m + 1 . 2m + 2
(
ank ank+2m+2 ),
( ). , 2m, 2m + 2.
32.6. , f
(. . f f ).
fn .
,
f1 , . . . , fn1 , .

, . . fr ( ) = 0, fr1 ( ) 6= 0. ,
fr1 = qr fr fr+1 , fr1 ( ) = fr+1 ( ).
fr1 ( ), , fr+1 ( ) 2 > 0, < 0.
a b. x0
f, f(x) f (x) ,
. ,
1.
, , x0 .
, f x0
m. f f1
(x x0 )m1 , f1 , . . . , fr (x x0 )m1 .
f, f1 , . . . , fr (x x0 )m1 ,

a
a

a e

ff
f

449

, 1 , . . . , r (x) = f(x)/(x x0 )m1 .


x0 ,
x0 , 1 , . . . , r
1. x
f, f1 , . . . , fr , 1 , . . . , r , .
32.7. P(z) = (z z1 ) . . . (z zn ). ,

f f
f f
f

P (z)
1
1
=
+...+
.
P(z)
z z1
z zn

(1)

, P (w) = 0, P(w) 6= 0 w z1 , . . . , zn . w
, z1 , . . . , zn .
w z1 , . . . , w zn ,
. , 1
1
1
z
, . . .,
, = 2 . w z1
w zn
z
|z|
P(z)
1
1
,
=
+...+
6= 0. .
P (z)
z z1
z zn

w P.
32.8. z1 < z2 < . . . < zn1
x1 , . . . , xn , z1 < z2 < . . . < zn1
x1 , . . . , xi , . . . , xn . zk zk (1) 32.7
n
X
i=1

1
= 0,
z k xi

n
X
i=1

1
= 0.
zk xi

(2)

, , . . zk < zk k. zk xi < zk xi . zk xi zk xi
. , zj < xi , zj < xi j 6 i 1 zj > xi ,

zj > xi j > i. ,

1
1
<
i = 1, . . .
z k xi
zk xi

. . . , n. (2)
.
32.9. q p. (p, q) = 1,
. . a b, ap + bq = 1.
r, apr + bqr = r.
pr qr p, r p.
32.10. n = deg f. ,

450

32. II

f f. n = 1 f . n f
n. , f , . . f = gh,
deg g < n deg h< n. g h
.
. ag1 . . . gs =
= bh1 . . . ht , a, b k g1 , . . . , gs , h1 , . . . , ht
k 1. ,
a = b. g1 . . . gs h1 . , g1 , . . . , gs
h1 . , 32.9.
g1 h1 . ,
g1 h1 1, g1 = h1 . g1 . . . gs =
= h1 . . . ht g1 = h1 .
s = t g1 = hi1 , . . . , gs = his , {i1 , . . . , is }
{1, . . . , s}.
32.11. , cont(f) = cont(g) =
= 1. , f g cont(f)
Pcont(g) .
P
P
f(x) = ai xi , g(x) = bi xi , fg(x) = ci xi . ,
cont(fg) = d > 1 p d. fg p, f g
, p. ar f, p, bs
g, p.
cr+s = ar bs + ar+1 bs1 + ar+2 bs2 + . . . + ar1 bs+1 + ar2 bs+2 + . . .
ar bs 6 0 (mod p),

bs1 bs2 . . . b0 0 (mod p), ar1 ar2 . . . a0 0 (mod p).

.
32.12. f f = gh,
g, h .
, cont(f) = 1. g m , mg .
n = cont(mg). r = m/n ,
rg cont(rg) = 1. s -

451

h. , rs = 1, . .
f = (rg)(sh) . , cont(rg) cont(sh) = cont(rsgh),
. . 1 = cont(rsf). , cont(f) = 1, rs = 1.
32.13. ,

X
X
cl xl ,
bk xk
f = gh =

g h
. b0 c0 = a0 p,
b0 c0 p. , , b0
p. c0 p, a0 = b0 c0 p2 .
bi p, an p. bi p i, 0 < i 6 deg g < n; ,
i bi , p.
, ai p. ,
ai = bi c0 + bi1 c1 + . . . + b0 ci , bi1 c1 , . . . , b0 ci
p, bi c0 p. .
32.14.
f(x + 1) =

(x + 1)p 1
= xp1 + C1p xp2 + . . . + Cp1
p
(x + 1) 1

,
C1p xp2 , . . . , Cp1
p ( 14.30).
p
32.15. k k-
a, b, c, d. 1 = 2 3 = 2 4 .

1
1
1
1
4 3s1 + 2s2 s3
=
+
+
+
=
1a
1b
1c
1d
1 s1 + s2 s3 + s4
4 6 + 2s2 2s4
=
= 2.
1 2 + s2 2s4 + s4

32.16. (t) p(t) (t)p(t)=1. tn , n> 1,


, .
32.17. s(t) p(t) :

s(t) =

p (t)
d
ln p(t) =
,
dt
p(t)

. . s(t)p(t) = p (t).

tn1 , .
32.18. .
s0

s1

n1

+ s2

n2

+ . . . + (1)n sn

= 0.

452

32. II

snk k xink xj1 . . . xjk .


i j1 , . . . , jk , xink+1 (xj1 . . . xbi . . . xjk ) snk+1 k1 ( xbi , xi ), i j1 , . . . , jk ,
xnk1
(xi xj1 . . . xjk ) snk1 k+1 .
i
. s(t) (t) :

s(t) =

d
ln
dt

(t)
,
s(t) = ss(t)

. . s(t) (t) =

s (t).

tn1 ,
n
X
(1)r1 sr nr .
n n=

r=1

32.19. 1 = x + y + z, 2 = xy + yz + zx, 3 = xyz sk = xk +


+ yk + zk . n = 1, 2 4, , 1 = s1 = 0. 2 2 = s2
s4 + s2 2 = 0. , 2s4 = s2 (2 2 ) = s22 .
32.20. 1 = s1 2 2 = s1 1 s2 .
1 = s1 s2 n. , 2 2
n. n , 2 n.
5 5 = s1 4 s2 3 + s3 2 s4 1 + s5 .
s1 4 , s2 3 , s3 2 , s4 1 n, s5 5 5 n.
32.21. xn+3
+ pxn+1
+ qxni = 0 ,
i
i
sn+3 + psn+1 + qsn = 0. ,

s0 =3 s1 =0. , s1 =
p
q

s
s
s

s
s

1
1
x2 x3 +x1 x3 +x1 x2
1
+ + =
=
x1 x2 x3
x1 x2 x3

= . sn , s1 , s0 , s1 .
s2 = 2p, s3 = 3q, s4 = 2p2 , s5 = 5pq, s6 = 2p3 + 3q2 ,
s7 = 7p2 q, s8 = 2p4 8pq2 , s9 = 9p3 q 3q3 , s10 = 2p5 + 15p2 q2 .
32.22. , p1 = x1 x2 + (x1 + x2 )x3 = x1 x2 x23 = (b + c + d)
(a + b + c) (d a)2 p2 = (a + c + d)(a + b + d) (b c)2 .
p1 p2 = 3(ad bc).
32.23. x1 , x2 , x3 , y1 , y2 , y3
t3 + p1 t + q1 t3 + p2 t + q2 , 32.22.
p1 = p2 , ad = bc. p1 = p2 = p.
sn = xn1 + xn2 + xn3 sn = yn1 + yn2 + yn3 . f2n = s2n s2n . 32.21 sn n 6 10.
. s2 s4 p,

453

f2 = f4 = 0. , f6 = 3(q21 q22 ), f8 = 8p(q22 q21 ) f10 = 15p2 (q21 q22 ).


64f6 f10 = 45(8p(q21 q22 ))2 = 45f82 .
P
k
32.24. ) f(x1 , . . . , xn ) = ak1 ,...,kn x11 . . . xknn
m, k1 + . . . + kn = m
. , f l
. , x1 1 . . . xln n
m
m
n
, x1 1 . . . xn , 1 = 1 , . . . , k = k
k+1 > k+1 (, k = 0). axl1 1 . . . xln n f. 1 > . . . > n .

l l l l
f1 = f a 1 1 2 2 2 3 . . . nln .
(1)

l m

l
s

l m

l l
s1 1 2 . . . snln
l l
l l
x 1 2 (x1 x2 )l2 l3 . . . (x1 . . . xn )ln = x 1 x 2 . . . xln ,
1

f1 f. f1
(1) . . ,
.
f(x1 , . . . , xn ) =
= g( 1 , . . . , n ). ,
X
i
g(y1 , . . . , yn ) =
ai1 ...in y11 . . . yinn

, y1 = 1 = x1 + . . .
. . . + xn , . . . , yn = n = x1 . . . xn .

i +...+in

ai1 ...in x11

i +...+in

x22

. . . xinn ,

. , .
) ).
32.25. , f . ,
f/ ,
. , , f x1 x2 .
x1 = u + v, x2 = v u.
f(x1 , x2 , x3 , . . . , xn ) = f1 (u, v, x3 , . . . , xn ),

f1 . x1 = x2 , u = 0.
f1 (0, v, x3 , . . . , xn ) = 0. , f1
u, . . f x1 x2 . , f xi xj i < j.

454

32. II

32.26. , x > 0. x1 = . . . = xk = a xk+1 = . . . = xn = 1.

1 6 lim Ml (x)/Mm (x) = lim (al1 +...+lk /am1 +...+mk ).


a

l m

, 1 + . . . + k > 1 + . . . + k .
k = n, x1 = . . . = xn = a,
Ml (x)/Mm (x) = al1 +...+ln /am1 +...+mn .
a > 1, , | | > | |. 0 < a < 1
| | 6 | |.
.
Rij . i > j > 0,
i < j. Rij = , i = i + 1, j = j 1 k = k
k 6= i, j. , > | | = | |.
1. = Rij , Ml (x) > Mm (x), , x1 = . . . = xn . (, x1 , . . . , xn .)
p, q, 16p<q6n, Ml (x)Mm (x)

m m
m m

m m
m m
m m
m m m m
l m
l

A (xlp i xq j + xlq i xp j xpmi xq j xqmi xp j ),


(1)
A . xp = a, xq = b, i = , j = . , i = + 1, j = 1
> . (1), A,

a b

m am b

l a

l b

aa+1 bb1+ab1 ba+1aa bb ab ba=(ab)b1 (ab)(aa+1bba+1b )>0,

, a = b. Ml (x) Mm (x) > 0, x1 , . . . , xn


, .
2. > | | = | |, 6= , Rij .
i , i 6= i .

> , i > i . | | = | | ,
P
( k k ) = 0, j < j j. ,
i < j j > 0.
Rij . ,
i = i + 1,
j= j1
k = k k 6= i, j. , i > i
j < j ,
| i i | = | i i | + 1, | j j | = | j j | + 1.
,
X
X
| k k| =
| k k | 2,

m
l m
l m
m
n m
n m
l m
l m

l m l

l m
l m
m
n m
l n
l m
l n

l m

l m
l

l m
m
n

l n

l m

455

. .
Rij 2
P

| k k |. Rij .
1 2 .
32.27.

l m

cos(n + 1) + cos(n 1) = 2 cos

f cos nf

Tn+1 (x) = 2xTn (x) Tn1 (x).

Tn (x), T0 (x) = 1 T1 (x) = x,


.
32.28. : T1 (x) = x, T2 (x) = 2x2 1, T3 (x) = 4x3 3x,
T4 (x) = 8x4 8x2 + 1, T5 (x) = 16x5 20x3 + 5x.
32.29. , Tn (x) = cos n x = cos .
32.30. Tn+1 (x) =
= 2xTn (x) Tn1 (x), 32.27.
32.31.
Tn (x)=2n1 xn +. . . , , Tn (cos(k /n))=cos k =(1)k

k=0, 1, . . . , n. Q(x)=

2n1

Tn (x)Pn (x).

n 1,

1
1
Tn (x) Pn (x) . , |Pn (x)| 6 n1
2n1
2

|x| 6 1 , xk = cos(k /n) Q(xk ) Tn (xk ). ,


[xk+1 , xk ] Q(x)
, Q(x) .
,
Q(xk ) = 0. xk , [xk+1 , xk ] [xk , xk1 ] .
, xk+1 xk1 Q(x)
(. 32.1).
xk+1

xk

xk1

xk+1

. 32.1

xk

xk1

456

32. II

[xk+1 , xk ] n,
Q(x) n .
n 1 , ,
1

. . Pn (x) = n1 Tn (x).
2
. . 11.38.
32.32. x = cos . Tn (x) = cos(n ) = y Tm (y) =
=cos m(n ), Tm (Tn (x))=cos mn . Tn (Tm (x))=
= cos mn . , Tn (Tm (x)) = Tm (Tn (x)) |x| < 1, ,
x.
32.33. ) n = 2k + 1
= 2l /n. Tk+1 (cos )
Tk (cos )=cos(k+1) cos k . (k+1) +k =(2k+1) =
= 2l . , cos(k + 1) = cos k .
) n = 2k = 2l /n. Tk+1 (cos ) Tk1 (cos ) =
= cos(k + 1) cos(k 1) . (k + 1) + (k 1) = 2k = 2l .
, cos(k + 1) = cos(k 1) .
32.34. ) 32.28, T2
T1 = 2x2 x 1, T3 T2 = 4x3 2x2 3x + 1, T4 T3 = 8x4 4x3
8x2 + 3x + 1, T5 T4 = 16x5 8x4 20x3 + 8x2 + 5x 1.

f
f

f
f
f
f
f
f p
f
f
f

f
f
f
f p

f f
f
f
f
2p

4p

cos
) 32.33 cos 0=1, cos
5
5
T3 T2 . x 1,
.
2p

4p

6p

) 1, cos
, cos
cos
7
7
7
T4 T3 . x 1, .
4p
6p
1
8p
2p
, cos
, cos
= cos

) 1, cos
9
9
9
2
9
T5 T4 . (2x + 1)
(x 1) = 2x2 x 1, .
32.35.
= m/n . x0 =
=2 cos t, t= . Pn (x0 )=2 cos(nt)=2 cos(n )=2 cos(m )=
= 2. x0 Pn (x) 2 = xn + b1 xn1 + . . .
. . . + bn . x0 = 2 cos( ) = p/q
. pn + b1 pn1 q + . . . + bn qn = 0, ,
pn q. p q , q = 1,
. . 2 cos( ) .
32.36. y0 = a0 x0

a
ap

ap

ap

ap

yn + a1 yn1 + a2 a0 yn2 + . . . + an1 a0n2 y + an a0n1 = 0.


a0 = 0 , a0 =
6 0 y = a0 x;
a0n1 .

457

32.37. | p/q| > 1,


c = 1. , | p/q| < 1, ,
n
Q
|p/q| < | | + 1. f(x) f(x) = an (x i ),

a
a = a.

i=1

p
n
p Y p


f
=|an |

i=2

n
Y

a <|a |a pq
i

i=2

(| |+1+|

a |)=c a pq ,
i

c1 , |an | .
, a0 , . . . , an , . |an |
. ,

qn f(p/q) = an pn + an1 pn1 q + . . . + a0 qn


, |qn f(p/q)| > 1. ,

1 p

1
p
c

>
> f
n = n,

c1

c1 q

c = c1
1 .
32.38. n
n
P
=
2k! = p/q, p q = 2n! .

a=

k=0

1
1
2
2
p
1
= (n+1)! 1 + n+2 + (n+2)(n+3) + . . . < (n+1)! = n+1 .
q
2
q
2
2
2

,
32.37

a N.

c
p

> N,

, 2qn1 > cqN , . . c < 2qNn1 = 2 2n! (Nn1) .


lim 2n! (Nn1) = 0. .
n

32.39. ) { 1 , . . . , n } { 1 , . . . , m } , .

a b

F(t) =

m
n Y
Y
i=1 j=1

f a b )).

(t ( i ,

458

32. II


1 , . . . , n 1 , . . . , m .
.
) .
32.40. { 1 , . . . , n } { 1 , . . . , m } , .

a b

f(x) =

m
Y

f(x, b ).
j

j=1

a
fa b


f( ) = 0.
Q
f(x) (x i ), , f( i ) = 0, . . ( i , j ) = 0
j.
32.41.
Y
(xn + n1,i xn1 + . . . + 0,l ),
F(x) =

i,...,l

{ n1,i }, . . . , { 0,l } , n1 , . . . , 0
. , F . , F.
32.42. ,
= + 1 , = exp(k /n). 1 . 32.40 , 1 = 1 + 1
1 ,

1 .
xn 1=0, 1 , ,
1 = exp(l /n). 1 = 2 cos(l /n) .
32.43. ,
k( ). ,
. , , ,
(,
). : (x) (x)
k, ( ) 6= 0,

a e e
a
e
e

a
e
e
a

a e e

f
ya

f(a)
n1
n2
y(a) = cn1 a + cn2 a + . . . + c1 a + c0

c0 , . . . , cn1 k.
f(x) k,
(x). , a(x) b(x) k, a(x) (x) + b(x)f(x) = 1

(. . 437). x =

y
a

y(a) = a( ). ,

459

f(a)
y(a) = f(a)a(a). f(x)a(x) f(x) :

f(x)a(x) = q(x)f(x) + r(x), r(x)


n 1. , f(a)a(a) = r(a).
P
32.44. b = c d . ,
b a =
n1

m=0

= 0, b0 , . . . , bn1 k, b0 = b1 = . . . = bn1 = 0.
g(x) = bn1 xn1 + . . . + b0 f(x), g(x) f(x).
g(x) f(x), g(x) = 0, . . b0 = b1 = . . .
. . . = bn1 = 0.

33

,
. ,
, .
,

.
.

33.1.
33.1. ,
0,1234567891011 . . . 4748495051
0,51504948 . . . 4321

0,239.
33.2. ,
0,999 . . . 9 (100 ),
0,999 . . . 9 (100 ).
33.3. 0,00001

 



1
1
1
1
1 2 1 3 . . . 1 99 .
1
10

10

33.4. , 3,14 <

10

10

p < 3,142 9,86 < p2 < 9,87.

33.2. .
33.5. a. , an ,
2 log2 n .

461

33.6. P(x)=an xn+


+ an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 x = x0 , an xn0 ,
an1 xn1
, . . . , a1 x0 ,
0
a0 . 2n 1 (
xk0 k = 2, 3, . . . , n n 1 ).
P(x0 ), n
n ( ).
33.7. , ( , , ).
33.3.
. a1 , a2 , . . . , an . ,
: as(1) 6 as(2) 6 . . .
. . . 6 as(n) ; (1), . . . , (n) 1, . . . , n.
: (
) ; ;
, , . .

33.8. n .
, .
) , n 1 .
) , ,
n 1 .

. .
.
a1 a2 , , . a3 a2 ( a2 ,
2- ) ,
, . a3 a2
, a3 a1 . .

33.9. , n 1

n(n 1)
.
2

462

33.

, ,
.

33.10. n > 2 . , . . n ,
n/2 , n ,
n1

n+1

. ,
2
2
,
. . m- ,
. ,
m m 1 < log2 n 6 m.
. , x1 6 x2 6 . . . 6 xp y1 6 y2 6 . . . 6 yq .

. x1 y1
( x1 = y1 , ).
. (
) . . .
. n ,
33.10.
,
.
(
) . . , , .
, .

33.11. n . ,
mn
2m + 1 , m
m 1 < log2 n 6 m.
33.12. 2n .

463

) , , 3n 2
.
) , 3n 2 .
33.13. n
.
) , , n + m 2
, m
m 1 < log2 n 6 m.
) , n + m 2
.
33.4.
m
p q. e ,
p 1 q 1. m e ,
p q .
, p q ,
m (. . m )
.
, * x < m,
: x xe m.
,
.
p q, d,
:
de 1 (mod

f(m)),

1 6 d < (m).

*
: = 00, = 01, = 02, . . .

464

33.

(m) = (p 1)(q 1) . d , e
(m).
, xe a (mod m). x m,
xf(m) 1 (mod m), ad xed x (mod m).
d ( m). ,
, x m, . . a m. ,
(a, m) = r s = m/r. m
, s r
p q. , (m) (s). , de 1 (mod (s)) ad xed x (mod s). a x
r, ad 0 x (mod r).
r s , ad x (mod m).

33.1. a = 0,1234 . . . 5051 b = 0,5150 . . . 321.


, 0,239b 6 a < 0,24b. 0,515 < b < 0,516,
0,239b<0,2390,516=0,123324<a 0,24b>0,240,515=0,1236>a.
33.2. 0 < a < 1, 0 < a2 < a < 1. 1 > a2 > 0,9
. . 9}.
| .{z
100

1 > a > 0,9


. . 9} (, a | .{z
100
).
33.3. : 0,89001.

1
1
1
1
1 2 ... 1 5 b = 1 6 ...
a = 1
10
10
10
10

1
. . . 1 99 . ,
10

0,89001 +

1
2
< a < 0,89001 + 6 .
106
10

1
. , 0 < x, y < 1,
106
1
1
1
2
(1x)(1y)>1xy. b>1 6 7 . . . 99 >1 6 .
10
10
10
10

, b < 1

465

,
ab < 0,890012 0,999999 < 0,890012,
ab > 0,890011 0,999998 > 0,890009.
33.4.
4 arctg

1
1
p
arctg
= .
5
239
4

( 11.11) ,
29.46. ,
1
1
p 1

>4

> 0,78514923,
4
5
239
3 53

p
1
1
1
1
1
+
< 0,78540526.

<4

+
3
5
3
4

35

55

239

3 239

3,1405 < < 3,1416 9,862 < 2 < 9,8698.


33.5. n a0 + a1 2 + . . .
. . . + am 2m , am 6= 0. m 6 log2 n < m + 1,
m
2m 6 n < 2m+1 . a, a2 , a4 , . . . , a2 ,
m . an , -
. m + 1 , m .
2m 6 2 log2 n .
33.6. b1 = an x0 + an1 , b2 = b1 x0 + an2 , . . . , bn = bn1 x0 + a0 .
bn = P(x0 ),
P(x) = (. . . ((an x0 + an1 )x0 + an2 ) . . .)x0 + a0 .

33.7. f
( ). deg f = n
r = [n/2]. f(x) , g(x) r. g(x),
cj = f(j), j= 0, 1, . . . , r. cj = 0, x j f(x). cj 6= 0, g(j) cj .
d0 , . . . , dr c0 , . . . , cr g(x) r,
g(j) = dj , j = 0, 1, . . . , r. ,
g(x) =

r
X
j=0

dj gj (x),

gj (x) =

Y xk
.

06k6r
k6=j

jk

466

33.

g(x) ,
f(x).
, ,
.
33.8. ) .
; . , n 1
.
)
. k ,
n k .
, k > n 1.
33.9. ,
a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
. a1 a2 , a2 a3 , . . . , an1 an . , a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
.
1 + 2 + . . . + (n 1) =

n(n 1)
.
2

33.10. m , 2m1 + 1
m ,

2m2 + 1 .
, 2m
m .
, n m , 2m1 + 1 6 n 6 2m ,
. . 2m1 < n 6 2m . , .
33.11. 33.10 m,
, , , ( ,
, ).
, p q , p + q 1
. ,
. , , .
.

467

m 2m1 ( ).
n 2m1 ( , , ,

). 2m2 ; n 2m2 . .
mn 2m1 2m2 . . . 2 1 = mn 2m + 1 .
33.12. )
n . , n
n . ,
n .
, n 1 ( 33.8).
( n ),
n 1 .
) k ak , - - , bk ,
- ,
- , ck , - , - , dk , . a0 =b0 =c0 =0 d0 =2n. m , bm =cm =1, am =2n2 dm =0.
3
2

fk =bk +ck + dk . , f0 =3n fm =2.


, ,
x > y, x y , .
,
, fk fk+1 6 1. , f0 f1 6 1, f1 f2 6 1, . . . , fm fm1 6 1, f0 fm 6 m,
. . 3n 2 6 m. .
1) ak ,
: fk+1 = fk .
2) a ak b bk . , a < b. ak+1 = ak + 1 bk+1 = bk 1,
fk fk+1 = 1.
3) , a > c. ak+1 = ak + 1
ck+1 = ck 1, fk fk+1 = 1.
4) a d bk ck 1, dk 1, fk fk+1 = 1/2.

468

33.

5) bk ak 1, bk 1, fk fk+1 = 1.
6) , b < c. .
7) , b < d. ck 1,
dk 1, fk fk+1 = 1/2.
8) ck ak 1, ck 1, fk fk+1 = 1.
9) , c > d. bk 1,
dk 1, fk fk+1 = 1/2.
10) dk bk ck
1, dk 2, fk fk+1 = 1.
33.13. ) n , 33.10.
m . , (m 1)- ,
.
( ). , (m 2)- , . .
. n 1 . ,
, n 1 .
. ,

,
. ,
,
. m. m 1 .
) , ,
, .
ki , i ( , a < b b < c
, a < c, ;
). ki
,
ki 1. ,
, j . kj+1 1,
ki .
, , -

469

,
k1 + k2 > n + m 2. , , k1 > n 1,
, , - ( ,
, ). ,
k2 > m 1.

, . , k2 > m 1 , :
(1) ;
(2)
;
(3) ,
( ,
).
,
: ,
.
.
. (1) (2)
. (3) .
k, k ,
( ) 2k .
k = 0 . ,
k , - . ,
, (3)
k . , 2k ;
2k+1 , .
, m , n .
m , , , (
). , k2 > m 1.

34

34.1.

. .
(x) , : 1 (x) = (x) k+1 (x) = ( k (x)) k > 1, n (x) = x
n. , (x) = 1 x, 2 (x) = x.
,
f(x), f( (x)), . . . , f( n1 (x)). x
1 (x), 2 (x), . . . , n1 (x) , .

f
f

ff

f
f

f
f

34.1. f(x), 2f(1 x) +


+ 1 = xf(x).
34.2. f(x),
x 6= 1
 1 
f(x) + f
= x.
1x

34.3. f(x),
x 6= 0, 1
x 1
= 1.
xf(x) + 2f
x+1

34.2.

34.4. ) , x f(x) ,
f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) f(xy) = f(x)f(y). ,
f(x) = x x, f(x) = 0 x.

471

) , f(x)
,
.
34.5. f(x),
x
xf(y) + yf(x) = (x + y)f(x)f(y)
x, y.
34.6. f(x),
x, x, y
f(x)f(y) = f(x y).
34.7. , f(x), x
f(f(x)) = x2 2.
34.3.

34.8. f(x) x

f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y).
, f(x) = Cx, C = f(1).
34.9. , x f(x) =
= ax f(x/2), a .
34.10. f(x) x,
f(x0 ) 6= 0 x0 . ,

f(x + y) = f(x)f(y),
x

f(x) = a a > 0.
34.11. f(x)
x > 0
f(xy) = f(x) + f(y).
) , f(a) = 1 a,
f(x) = loga x.

472

34.

) , f(x0 ) 6= 0 x0 ,
f(a) = 1 a.
34.12.
f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) + f(x)f(y).
34.13.
f(x + y)f(x y) = (f(x))2
().
34.4.

34.14. f,
f(x)f (x) = 0 x.
34.5.
34.15. P(x), xP(x 1) = (x 26)P(x).
34.16. P(x, y) :
P(x, y) = P(x + 1, y + 1) x y. ,
n
P
ak (x y)k.
P(x, y) =
k=0

28.76 f n + 1
f(x) = f(y) + (x y)f (y) + . . . + (x y)n+1

f(n+1) (y)
.
(n + 1)!

f(n+1) , ,
(x y)n+1

f(n+1) (y)
=
(n + 1)!

= (x y)n

yf(n+1) (y)
(n + 1)!

xf(n+1) (x)
c + (x y)n
+c .
(n + 1)!

473

,
f(x) =

n
X
k=0

(x y)k gk (y) + (x y)n h(x)

(1)

:
() f n + 1;
() gk (y) = f(k) (y)/k! k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1;
() gn (y) = f(n) (y)/n! yf(n+1) (y)/(n + 1)! c;
() h(x) = xf(n+1) (x)/(n + 1)! + c.

34.17. f, g0 , . . . , gn , h ,
x, y, x 6= y,
(1). ,
()().
34.18. ) f(x) n
x, y, x 6= y,
f(x)

n1
X
(x y)k (k)
f (y)
k!
k=0

(x y)

f(n) (x) + f(n) (y)


.
(n + 1)!

, f n.
) , x, y, x 6= y,

f(x) g(y)
=
xy

f(x) + f(y) ,

(2)

f 2, g = f = f .
34.19. ,
x + y
f(x) g(y)
=

xy

(3)

(2)
34.20. ) f( x + ) = f(x) = 1.
) , f( x + ) = f(x) n,
n
= 1. ( , 6= 1, n > 3).
34.21. f n > 3 f( x + ) = f(x), 6= 1 n = 1. ,

474

34.



f(x) = a0 x +

a1

n

+ c.

34.1. 1x x, 2f(x)+1=(1x)f(1x).
xf(x) 1

. , f(1 x) =
2
, 2f(x) + 1 =
= (1 x)

xf(x) 1
x3
.
, , f(x) = 2
2
x x+4

,
.
1
34.2. 1 (x) =
. 2 (x) = 1 1/x 3 (x) = x.

1x


8
1
>
= x,
> f(x) + f
>
>
1x
>
<

1
1
1
f
+f 1
=
,
>
1x
x
1x
>
>
>
1
1
>
:
f 1
+ f(x) = 1 .
x

.
1
1
1
x+1
.
f(x) =
2

1x

, .

f (x) = xx + 11 : f (x) = 1/x,


f (x) = x1 + x1 f (x) = x.
34.3.

8
x1
>
= 1,
xf(x)
+
2f
>
>
x+1
>
>
>

>
x1
x1
>
>
+ 2f
= 1,
f
<
x+1
x+1
x

x+1
1
1
>
>
>
f
+ 2f
= 1,
>
>
x
x
1x
>
>

>
>
: x + 1 f x + 1 + 2f(x) = 1.
1x

1x

475

, .
2x . ,

1x
, ,
2(x + 1)

4x(x 1)
.
x+1
15x(x 1)
12x2 3x + 3
f(x) =
.
2(x + 1)
2(x + 1)

, x 6= 0, 1, f(x) =

4x2 x + 1
. 5(x 1)

, f(x)
.
34.4. ) , f(x) 6= 0 x.
f(x 1) = f(x)f(1) , f(1) = 1. ,
f(0) = f(0 + 0) = f(0) + f(0), f(0) = 0.
f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) , n , f(nx) = nf(x). , f(n) = n, f(1) = nf(1/n),
. . f(1/n) = 1/n, f(m/n) = mf(1/n) = m/n m. , f(x) + f(x) = f(x x) = f(0) = 0.
) , x > y, f(x) > f(y). ,
x> y, x= y + t2 t.
f(x) = f(y) + f(t2 ) = f(y) + (f(t))2 > f(y).
, f(x) 6= x
x ( , f(x) 6= 0
x). , , f(x) > x. r, f(x) > r > x. r > x
, f(r) > f(x), . . r > f(x). .
f(x) < x, .
34.5. x = y. 2xf(x) = 2x(f(x))2 .
x 6= 0, f(x) = 0 1.
, f(a) = 0 a 6= 0. x = a,
af(y) = 0 y, . . f = 0.
, f(a) = 1 a 6= 0. x = a,
af(y) + y = (a + y)f(y), . . y = yf(y). , f(y) = 1
y 6= 0.
, f(x) = 0 x,
f(x) = 1 x 6= 0 f(0) = c .
34.6. x0 , f(x0 ) 6= 0, y = 0.
f(x0 )f(0) = f(x0 ), f(0) = 1. x = y,
(f(x))2 = f(0) = 1. , f(x) = 1. , y = x/2, f(x)f(x/2)=f(x/2), f(x/2)=16= 0. f(x)=1.

476

34.

34.7. g(x) = x2 2 h(x) = g(g(x)) = x4


4x2 + 2. g(x) = x 1 2.
h(x) = x.
, x4 4x2 x + 2
x2 x 2. x2 + x 1.

1
2

. , h(x) = x
1,

2,

1
2

(1)

, f(x), x
.
a b (1). , f(a) =
= f(b), a = b. , f(a) = f(b), g(a) = f(f(a)) =
= f(f(b)) = g(b). h(a) = h(b). h(a) = a h(b) = b.
a = 1 2, g(f(a)) = f(f(f(a))) = f(g(a)) = f(a), f(a) = 1 2.
1

, h(f(a)) = f(h(a)) = f(a), f(a)


a =
2
(1). , f (1) . , f ,
1 2, . f(a) = a

f(a) =

1
2

. f(a) = a ,

1 +

b
a

a b

1
2

1
4

1
2
2k

g(a) = a. , =
=
, f( ) =
2
2
f( ) = . = f( ) = f(f( )) = g( ). .
34.8. , f(2x) = f(x + x) = f(x) + f(x) = 2f(x), f(3x) =
= f(2x + x) = f(2x) + f(x) = 2f(x) + f(x) = 3f(x). , f(nx) = nf(x) n. ,
f(x) = f(x+ 0) = f(x) + f(0), f(0) = 0, , f(x) + f(x) =
= f(x x) = f(0) = 0. , f(nx) = nf(x) n.
x = m/n f(nx) =
= nf(x), . . f(m/n) = f(m)/n = (m/n)f(1). f ,
f(x) = xf(1) () x. ,
x .
34.9. , f(x) = ax f(x/2) = ax ax/2 f(x/4) = ax ax/2 ax/4 f(x/8) =
k
= . . . = ax(1+1/2+1/4+...+1/2 ) f(x/2k+1 ). k , f(x/2k+1 ) f(0),

b a

f . , 1+ + +. . .+

477

k . f(x) = a2x f(0). , f(x) = Ca2x ,


C .
34.10. f(x)f(x0 x)=f(x0 ) , f(x)6=0
x. f(x) > 0 x, f(x) = f(x/2)f(x/2).
n ,
f(nx) = (f(x))n

(1)

n. , f(0) = 1,
f(x) = f(x + 0) = f(x)f(0). , f(x)f(x) = f(0) = 1. (1) n. ,
f(n) = an , a = f(1).
, f(r) = ar r = m/n. (1)
x = m/n: f(m) = (f(m/n))n . , f(m) = am ,
am = (f(m/n))n , . . f(m/n) = am/n .
f(x)=ax x.
f , f(x) = ax x.
34.11. ) u = loga x, . . x = au ,
g(u) = f(x) = f(au ). g .
g(u + v) = g(u) + g(v). , g(u + v) = f(au+v ) = f(au av ) = f(au ) + f(av ) = g(u) + g(v). 34.8 g(u) = ug(1) = uf(a) = u. ,
f(x) = g(u) = u = loga x.
) , f(xn0 ) = nf(x0 ) n.
f 1, 1.
34.12. ,
f(2x) = 2f(x) + (f(x))2 = (1 + f(x))2 1.

(1)

n, n
f(nx) = (1 + f(x))n 1.
(2)
, ,

f((n + 1)x) = f(nx + x) = f(nx) + f(x) + f(x)f(nx) =


= (1 + f(x))n 1 + f(x) + f(x)(1 + f(x))n f(x) = (1 + f(x))n+1 1.
f(1) = c. (2) x = 1:
f(n) = (1 + c)n 1.

x = m/n:
m n
m
1.
= 1+f
f n
n

478

34.

m
= f(m) = (1 + c)m 1,
f n
n

m n
= (1 + c)m ,
1+f
n

. .

m
n

= (1 + c)m/n 1.

, (1) x x/2,
f(x) + 1 = (1 + f(x/2))2 > 0.
,
x > 0, f(x) = kx 1, k = c + 1 > 0.
x = 0, y = x:
f(y) = f(0) + f(y) + f(0)f(y),

f(0) = f(x) + f(x) + f(x)f(x).


f(y) 6 1, f(0) = 0. x > 0
0 = kx 1 + f(x) + (kx 1)f(x) = kx 1 + kx f(x),
f(x) = kx 1.
, , f(x) 1, f(x) 0,
f(x) = kx 1, k > 0, k 6= 1. ,

.
34.13. f(0) = a f(1) = b.

x
=
y
=
t/2,

f(t/2)
=
af(t),

f(1/2) = ab= a(a/b)1/2 = ac1/2 , c= b/a, f(1/4) = af(1/2) = ac1/4 ,


n
, f(1/2n ) = ac1/2 ( a = 0,
f(1/2n ) = 0,
a).
x =
=

1
1
y = n .
2
2n1

f
. .
f

3 1 1 2
,
n f
n = f
n1

3
2n

= (ac1/2

n1

)2 (ac1/2 )1 = ac3/2 .


, f
x =
f
, f

m1
2n

479
n

= ac(m1)/2 f

m
2n

= acm/2 ,

1
m
y = n .
2n
2

m + 1 m 1 m 2
f
= f n
n
n
2

m+1
2n

= ac(m+1)/2 . , f

m
2n

= acm/2

m. f(x) = acx
x.
x = 0.
f(y)f(y) = (f(0))2 = a2 ,
, f(y) =

a2
a2
= y = acy .
f(y)
ac

, f(x) = acx .
34.14. : (f2 (x)) = 0,
f2 (x) . f ,
f(x) .
34.15. x = 0 0 = 26P(0), . . P(0) = 0.
x = 1 P(0) = 25P(1), . . P(1) = 0.
x = 2, 3, . . . , 25 2P(1) = 24P(2), . . .
. . . , 25P(24) = P(25). P(0) = P(1) = . . . = P(25) = 0. ,
P(x) = x(x 1)(x 2) . . . (x 25)Q(x), Q(x) . xP(x 1) = (x 26)P(x) ,
Q(x 1) = Q(x), . . Q(x) = c .
34.16. t = y x. P(x, t + x) = P(x + 1, t + x + 1)
x t. Q(t, x) = P(x, t + x).
: Q(t, x) = Q(t, x + 1) x.
Q(t, x) x. , t = t0
g(x) = Q(t0 , x). g(x + 1) g(x) = 0,
g(x) .
34.17. y = 0 y = 1 (1)
f(x) =
f(x) =

n
X

k=0
n
X
k=0

ck xk + xn h(x),

x 6= 0,

dk xk + (x 1)n h(x),

(2)
x 6= 1.

(3)

480

34.

h(x) =

n
X

(dk ck )xk
k=0
.
xn (x 1)n

x 6= 0, 1, n
x = 1/2.
y = 2 y = 4,
h(x) =

n
X

k=0

(fk ek )xk

(x 2)n (x 4)n

x 6= 2, 3, 4.
, h , (2) (3) , f
.
n x (1),
f(n) (x) = n! gn (y) +

dn
((x y)n h(x)).
dxn

x , gn (y) . (1) x
n, n 1 , gn1 (y)
, . . , g0 , . . . , gn .
(1) y y = 0.
0=

n
X
k=0

kxk1 gk (0) +

n
X
k=0

kxk gk (0) nxn1 h(x).

, xn1 h(x)
n. (1) n y
y = 0, , h(x) (
n). h(x) , xn1 h(x) n, h(x) = ax + b.
h(x) = ax + b f(x) ,
(2) , f(x) n + 1.

n+1 (k)
X
f (y) k
f(x + y) =
x .
k=0

k!

481

, x x + y, (1)

f(x + y) =

n
X

xk gk (y) + xn (ax + ay + b).

k=0

f(k) (y)
k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,
k!
f(n) (y)
f(n+1) (y)
gn (y) =
ay b
= a.
n!
(n + 1)!

gk (y) =

34.18.
34.17.
34.19. , (3)
x, y, x 6= y,
x + y f(x) + f(y)
=
.

, (3) x x + y, y x y.
f(x + y) g(x y)
=
2y

f(x)

(4)

x, y, y 6= 0. (4) x = u + v
x = u v,

f
f

f(u + v + y) g(u + v y) = 2y (u + v),


f(u v + y) g(u v y) = 2y (u v).
(4) x u, y v y, y v:

f(u + v + y) g(u v y) = 2(v + y) (u),


f(u v + y) g(u + v y) = 2(v y) (u).

f(u + v) + f(u v) = 2f(u).


u + v = x, u v = y,
x+ y
(x) + (y) = 2
.

482

34.

34.20. ) = 1 f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an , a0 6= 0,


f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an = a0 (x + )n + a1 (x + )n1 + . . . + an .

, a1 = a1 + a0 n ,
. . = 0.

= 1, f(x + ) = f(x)
g(x) = f(x + /2) g(x) = g(x),

a0 x2n + a2 x2n2 + . . . + a2n .

)
f(x) = a0 xn + . . . , n = 1.
34.21. f(x) = xn +

+ a1 xn1 + . . . + an . , aj = Cjn

bj

(a 1)j

j = 1, . . . , n 1. j.
xnj f(x)
f( x + ) ,

(1

nj

)aj =

j1
X

as Cjs
ns

a b
nj

js

(1)

s=0

j = 1 (1

n1

a1 = C1n

)a1 = C1n

a b. a
n1

= 1,

a1 b
b
= C1n
.
1
a
1
1a

.
(. . j = k
j = k + 1) (1)

bs

= 1. as = Csn
s= 1, . . . , k.
(a 1)s

(1

nk1

)ak+1 =Cnk+1

nk1

k+1

k
X

Csn Ck+1s
ns

s=1

ank+1 bk+1
.
(a1)s

= Ck+1
Csk+1 .
, Csn Ck+1s
n
ns
h
1
nk1 k+1
+ . . . + Ckk+1
(1 nk1 )ak+1 = Ck+1
1 + C1k+1
n

a1

i
1
.
k
(a 1)

483

1 k+1 1 k+1
ak+1 1
.

=
1+
k+1

a1

ak+1 =
,

a1

1a

nk1

Ck+1
n

(a 1)

k+1

= 1,
ak+1 = Ck+1
n

bk+1

an ank1
.
(a 1)k+1

(a 1)k+1

35

35.1.
a1 , a2 , . . . a0
[a0 ; a1 ]=a0 +
[a0 ; a1 , a2 ]=a0 +

1
a0 a1 +1 p1
=
= ,
a1
a1
q1
1
a1 +

a0 a1 a2 +a0 +a2 p2
= ,
a1 a2 +1
q2

a2
1

[a0 ; a1 , a2 , a3 ]=a0 +
a1 +

1
a2 +

a0 a1 a2 a3 +a0 a1 +a0 a3 +a2 a3 +1 p3


=
a1 a2 a3 +a1 +a3
q3

1
a3

. . pk /qk k
, lim pk /qk =
k
= [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . .] *.


, . .
a0 , a1 , . . . , [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . .] = . , a0 = [ ],
2
3
3
2
h 1 i
1
1
a1 =
5 , a3 = 6
7 . .
1
a a 0 , a2 = 4 1
6
a2 7
a1
5
4
1
a a0

a a0

a1

* (Kettenbruchen).

, (continued fractions).

485

35.1. , [0; 1, 1, 1, . . .]
, [1; 1, 1, 1, . . .]
.
35.2. , . m < n . :
n = a0 m + r1 , m = a1 r1 + r2 , r1 = a2 r2 + r3 , . . . , rs1 = as rs .
m
xk = [0; ak , ak+1 , . . . , as ] k = 0, 1, . . . , s. x0 = ,
x1 =

r1
r2
rs
, x2 = , . . . , xs =
.
m
r1
rs1

35.3. p0 = a0 q0 = 1.
) , k > 2
pk = ak pk1 + pk2 qk = ak qk1 + qk2 .
) , pk1 qk qk1 pk = (1)k .
) , pk2 qk qk2 pk = (1)k1 ak .
35.4. , pk /qk .
35.5.
1 [0; 2, 3, 4, . . . , n] = [0; x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ].

35.6. ,

pn
1
1
1
(1)n1
= a0 +

+
...+
.
qn
q0 q1
q1 q2
q2 q3
qn1 qn
K0 = 1, K1 (x1 ) = x1 ,
Kn (x1 , . . . , xn ) = xn Kn1 (x1 , . . . , xn1 ) + Kn2 (x1 , . . . , xn2 ).
35.3 a) pn = Kn+1 (a0 , . . . , an ) qn =
= Kn (a1 , . . . , an ), . .
[a0 ; a1 , . . . , an ] =

Kn+1 (a0 , . . . , an )
.
Kn (a1 , . . . , an )

35.7. , Kn (x1 , . . . , xn )
, x1 x2 . . . xn
xi xi+1 . , ; ,
1 ().

486

35.

35.8. ,
Kn (x1 , . . . , xn ) = x1 Kn1 (x2 , . . . , xn ) + Kn2 (x3 , . . . , xn )
.
35.9. , Kn (x1 , . . . , xn )
Fn+1 .

35.2.

, x y , y > 1. x/y , a/b


|a b | > |x y |.

35.10. ,
.

35.3.

, d
.

35.11. d , . x2 dy2 = 1 d .
, x2 dy2 = 1.
, . . (. . 76).
,

> 1 1 < < 0,


. .1/ > 1. ,
[ d] + d .

a a

a a

35.12. , , . .
[a0 ; a1 , . . . , ak , a0 , a1 , . . . , ak , . . .].

487

35.13. d = [a0 ; a1 , . . . , ak1 , 2a0 , a1 , . . .], . . k . ,


pk1 /qk1 x2 dy2 = (1)k .

35.1. x = [0; 1, 1, 1, . . .]. x =

1
, . . x(1 + x) = 1.
1+x

, x > 0.
, .
y = [1; 1, 1, 1, . . .]. y 1 = 1/y, . . y(y 1) = 1.
, y > 0.

, y =

5+1
1
= .
2
x

r1
m
, y1 = ,
n
m

35.2. y0 =

r2
rs
, . . . , ys =
. r1
rs1
1
k 6 s (
0 1. , yk =
ak + yk+1

y2 =

ys+1 = 0). ,
rk1 = rk ak + rk+1 ( m = r0 n = r1 ). ,
ys = [0; as ], ys1 = [0; asa , as ], . . . , y0 = [0; a0 , . . . , as ], .
35.3. ) k. k = 2 . a0 , a1 , . . .
,
h
i
1
[a0 ; a1 , . . . , ak+1 ] = a0 ; a1 , . . . , ak +
.
ak+1

ak +

1
pk1 + pk2

ak+1
pk+1
=
=
1
qk+1
qk1 + qk2
ak +
ak+1
ak+1 (ak pk1 + pk2 ) + pk1
ak+1 pk + pk1
=
=
.
ak+1 (ak qk1 + qk2 ) + qk1
ak+1 qk + qk1

) ) ).
35.4.

1
6 a0 +
, ,
a1

a>p

2k /q2k

a6p

2k+1 /q2k+1 .

a>a , a6
0

488

35.

35.3 )
pk2
pk
(1)k1 ak

=
.
qk2
qk
qk qk2

a
a < . . . < qp

( )
p0
p2
<
<...<
q0
q2

<

p1
.
q1

pk /qk ,
35.3 )

p
1
k pk1
=

qk

qk1

qk qk1

qk k .
35.5. : x1 = 1, x2 = 1, x3 = 3, x4 = 4, . . . , xn = n. 1/2, x1 < 2, , x1 = 1.
1
1
[0; 3, 4, . . . , n] = a [0; x2 , . . . , xn ] = x. 1
=
,
2+a 1+x
. . 1/x = 1 + a. , [1; 3, 4, . . . , n] = [x2 ; x3 , . . . , xn ].
,
1 x2 , x2 =1. [3; 4, . . . , n]=
= [x3 ; x4 , . . . , xn ]. , x3 = 3
. .
35.6. 35.3 )
pk1
pk1
pk2
(1)k1
(1)k2
pk
=
+
.
=
+
. .
qk
qk1
qk1 qk
qk1
qk2
qk2 qk1
p1
p0
1
1

=
+
= a0 +
.
q1
q0
q0 q1
q0 q1

35.7. n. n = 1 . . , xi xi+1 ,
: , xn , , xn .
xn xn1 ,
.
35.8. , 35.7,
xn x1 , ,

, .
35.9. an = Kn (1, 1, . . . , 1). a0 = 1, a1 = 1 an = an1 +
+ an2 n > 2.
35.10. , x/y = [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . .],

489

pn /qn . , p0 /q0 < x/y < p1 /q1 .


, x/y < p0 /q0 = a0 ,

x
x
0 6 a0 < 6 y
= y x.

a
a y a y a
|x ay| > | a a |, . x/y > p /q
> a,
x
p
x
06
6 a,
y
q
y
0

1>

x p
x
1

1
,
> >

|x y| >

q1

yq1

1
1
=
> |a0
q1
a1

a |,

.
, x/y [p0 /q0 , p1 /q1 ],
, pn1 /qn1 pn+1 /qn+1 (
). , n
x
pn+1
pn1
< <
6
qn1
y
qn+1

a 6 pq

( n ).

p

x p
1
1
n pn1

n1
6
,
<
=
yqn1
y
qn1
qn
qn1
qn qn1

p
x
1
n+1 x
6
6 ,
yqn+1
qn+1
y
y


1
pn+1
pn pn
pn+1 pn

.
=
=
6 +

qn

qn

, qn < y |x y| >

qn+1

qn

qn+1

qn qn+1

1
> |pn qn |. ,
qn+1

x/y .
, x/y = pn /qn . ,
a/b 6= pn /qn 1 6 b < qn ,

(1)

|pn qn | 6 |a b |.

p
p
p
n1
n pn1
n
=
=
+
qn

qn1

qn

qn1

1
qn qn1

490

35.

p
p
p

n+1
n1 pn+1
n1

=

=
qn1

qn+1

qn1

qn+1

an+1
qn1 qn+1

1
1
6 |pn1 qn1 | 6
qn+1
qn

(2)

qn |pn1 qn1 | + qn1 |pn qn | = 1.

(3)

a = pn1 b = qn1 , (2)

|pn qn | 6

1
qn+1

6 |pn1 qn1 | = |a b |.

, |aqn1 bpn1 | > 1.


a


1
pn1
pn1


> a
>
,
+
b

. .

qn1

qn1

bqn1

qn1 |a b | + b|pn1 qn1 | > 1.

(4)

b < qn , (3)

b|pn1 qn1 | + qn1 |pn qn | 6 1.

(5)

(5) (4) |pn qn | 6 |a b |, .


35.11. 35.10 ,
x2 dy2 = 1, x y , x/y
d ( y = 1 ).
,
x 1 x2 y2 d
1

p =
p .
d =
y

y x+y

y(x + y

d)

, x =dy 1>(d1)y , x+y d>( d1+ d)y>

1
>2y d > 2. , |x y d| < .
2y

a/b 6= x/y |a b d| 6 |x y d| (a , b ).

a x
1
a
x
1
y+b
1

6 6 d + d <
+ 2=
.
2
2

by

2by

2y

2by

2y < y + b, .
. b > y. , x/y
d.

491

a
ax +
p
b b 4ac
=
+ bx + c = 0, a, b, c , a =

2a
2

35.12.

P D
. Q = 2a,

Q
P+ D
.
, =
Q

= [a0 ; a1 , a2 , . . .]. k =
= [ak ; ak+1 , ak+2 , . . .]; = [a0 ; a1 , . . . , ak1 , k ].
1. k
. , k = l

k l.
P D
P+ D
=
, =
.

a a

a
Q
a a > a > 0 2P
= a + a > 0.
Q

, Q> 0 P
> 0. a < 0 a > 1, P < D
Q

2 D
=
Q

Q < P + D < 2 D. , D

P+ D
.
Q

P1 + D

.
Q1

a1 = a0 a
1

a1

1 >1

a =a

0+

a1

a1 =a0 a;
1

> 1. ,

aa

P1 + D
P+ D
a0 =
,
Q
Q

P1 = a0 Q P. , P= b, Q= 2a D = b2 4ac. P21 D = a20 Q2 + 2a0 Q + 4ac Q. ,

Q(P1 + D)
P1 + D
=
.
=
1=
Q1
P21 D
P1 + D
Q

k ,

Pk + D

, Pk , Qk ,
Qk
1

= ak +

ak+1 . , -

.
2. k = l k, l > 1, k1 = l1 .

a a

492

35.

a a

1 ,
, =
= a0 + 1

1 , a0 ,

1 . , = a0 0 < < 1. a1
h 1 i
a0 = . a0 1 ,

a1

.
35.13.

pk1 a +
pk2
,
= [ d] + d = [2a0 ; a1 , . . . , ak1 , ] =

qk2
qk1 a +

pk1
pk1

+ a0 . =

qk1
qk1

k1
q
,

k1 )
pk2 = 0.
+ (
qk2 p

= a0 + d,

2a0 + (a20 d) = 0.

k1 q
k2 = 2a0
k2 = (d a20 )
, p
qk1 p
qk1 .
k2
k1 = (1)k1
p
qk1
qk2 p

(1)k1 = (d a20 )q2k1
pk1 (
pk1 2a0 qk1 ) =

= (d a20 )q2k1 (pk1 + a0 qk1 )(pk1 a0 qk1 ) = dq2k1 p2k1 .

36

36.1.
a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 +
+ a3 x3 + . . . x 6= 0;
a0 , a1 , . . . ,
f(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + . . .;
f x 6= 0.
f(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . g(x) =
= b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + . . .

f(x) + g(x) = (a0 + b0 ) + (a1 + b1 )x + (a2 + b2 )x2 + . . . ,
f(x)g(x) = a0 b0 + (a1 b0 + a0 b1 )x + (a2 b0 + a1 b1 + a0 b2 )x2 + . . .
, a0 = 1 ak = 0 k > 1,
1.
, f( x) = g(x), f(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . .
g(x) = b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + . . . , bk = k ak .

36.1. f(x) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . . . g(x) = 1 x + x2


x3 + . . . : ) f(x)f(x); ) f(x)g(x).
36.2. f(x) = 1 + x + x2 + x3 + . . . g(x), f(x)g(x) = 1.
36.3. f(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . ,
a0 6= 0. ,
g(x) = b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + . . . ,
f(x)g(x) = 1.

494

36.

36.2.

P
f(x) =
ak xk k=0

P
D(f(x)) =
kak xk1 .
k=1

36.4. ,
:
) D(f(x) + g(x)) = D(f(x)) + D(g(x));
) D(f(x)g(x)) = f(x)D(g(x)) + g(x)D(f(x));
) D(f(x)n ) = nf(x)n1 D(f(x)) n;
) f(x)1, D(f(x)1 )=
=f(x)2 D(f(x)) D(f(x)n )=nf(x)n1 D(f(x))
n.
) D(fr ) = rfr1 D(f) r
f = 1 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . .
36.5. f = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . .
P
xn
S(Dn (f)) .
S(f) = a0 . , f =
n=0

n!

36.3.
36.6. , n f(x) = 1 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . .
g(x) = 1 + b1 x + b2 x2 + . . . ,
g(x)n = f(x).
g(x)

n
f(x) (f(x))1/n .

36.7. , r
(1+x)r =1+rx+

r(r1)(r2) . . . (rn+1) n
r(r1) 2
x +. . .+
x +. . .
2!
n!

36.4.

Exp(x) = 1 + x +

x2
x3
xn
+
+...+
+...
2!
3!
n!

495

36.8. , : ) Exp((a + b)x) = Exp(ax) Exp(bx);


) Exp(kx) = (Exp(x))k k.
36.9. ,
(
n
X
0 0 < m < n,
(1)nk km Ckn =
n! m = n.
k=1
f = 1 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . .
f
1
2

1
3

Ln(f) = g g2 + g3 . . . =
2

(1)k+1

k=1

gk
,
k

g = f 1 = a1 x + a2 x + . . . , Ln(f)
, xn
1
2

1
3

1
n

g g2 + g3 . . . + (1)n+1 gn .

36.10. , D(Ln(f)) = f1 D(f).


36.11. , f = 1 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . h = 1 +
+ b1 x + b2 x2 + . . . , Ln(fh) = Ln(f) + Ln(h).
36.12. , Ln(fr ) = r Ln(f) r.
36.13. , Ln(f) = Ln(h), f = h.
36.14. , g = a1 x + a2 x2 + . . . r
,
(1+g)r =1+rg+

r(r1) 2
r(r1)(r2) . . . (rn+1) n
g +. . .+
g +. . .
2!
n!

36.15. a0 , a1 , . . . b0 ,
n
P
Cin ai n > 0. ,
b1 , . . . , bn =
i=0
n
P
an = (1)ni Cin bi n > 0.
i=0

36.5.

Q
(1 + xm ) 36.16. ,
m=1

496

36.

36.17. :
)
)

(1 x2m1 )2 =

m=1

(1 xm) =

m=1

(1 x2m )1

m=1

(1 + xm )

m=1

(1)k xk ;

k=

(1)k xk

().

k=

36.18. s(n) d n,
n/d (s(n) = 0 n 6 0).

1 xn
P
Q
s(n)xn1 . ,
) f =
n g=
n=1

1+x

n=1

D(f) = 2fg.
) , s(n) 2s(n 1) + 2s(n 22 ) 2s(n 32 ) +
+ . . . = (1)n+1 n, n ;
.
36.19. ) 36.18 ), ,
p 4k + 1
.
) , p 8k + 3 .
36.6.
a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . f(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . . .
, , -
.

36.20. , ak = Ckn , k = 0, 1, . . . , n, (1 + x)n .

P
ck xk
36.21. f(x) =
k=1

, . . c1 = 1, c2 = c1 c1
ck = c1 ck1 + c2 ck2 + . . . + ck1 c1 k > 3.
) , (f(x))2 = f(x) x.
) , cn =

(2n 2)!
.
n! (n 1)!

497

36.7.
Exp(x) 1 1

B
P
n n
.
x .
36.3

n=0

n!

Bn .
, B0 = 1.
Bn (z) =
n
P
=
Ckn Bnk zk .
k=0

Bn (z) = (B + z)n , , Bk Bk .

36.22. , k > 1 k1
k
P
P
Bp Cpk = 0.
Bp Cpk = Bk , . .

p=0

p=0

36.22
(B + 1)k = Bk , , Bp
Bp .
36.23. , Bn (0) = Bn (1) = Bn .
36.24. 36.22
B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 B5 .
36.25. , B2k+1 = 0 k.
36.26. ) , Bn (z+1)Bn(z)=nzn1 n>2.
) , n > 1
1 n + 2 n + 3 n + . . . + kn =

1
(B
(k + 1) Bn+1 (0)).
n + 1 n+1

36.27. , Bn (z) = nBn1 (z).


36.8.
p(n) , n (
; , , ).
p(n) .
, p(1) = 1, p(2) = 2 (1 + 1; 2), p(3) = 3 (1 + 1 + 1;
1 + 2; 3), p(4) = 5 (1 + 1 + 1 + 1; 1 + 1 + 2; 1 + 3; 2 + 2; 4) . .

498

36.

36.28. ,
1+

p(n)x =

n=1

Y

(1 x )

n=1

1

36.29. ,

Y
X
3n2 +n 
3n2 n
(1 xn ) = 1 +
(1)n x 2 + x 2
n=1

n=1

( ).
36.30. ,

 



X
3k2 k
3k2 + k
p(n) =
(1)k+1 p n
+p n
2

k=1

(, p(0) = 1 p(m) = 0 m < 0).


36.31. d(n) n
, l(n) n
. , d(n) = l(n) ().

36.9.

1 , . . . , n

P
x1 , . . . , xn , . . 1 = x1 + . . . + xn , 2 = xi xj , . . . , n = x1 . . . xn .
i<j
, , sk = xk1 + . . . + xkn .

36.32. ,
(1)k sk X (1)l1 +l2 +...+ln (l1 + l2 + . . . + ln 1)!
=
l1 ! . . . ln !

sl1 . . . sln ,
1

l1 , . . . , ln , l1 + 2l2 + . . . + nln = k
( ).
36.33. ,
X
(1)l1 +l2 +...+ln
(1)k k =
sl11 . . . slnn ,
ln
l2
l1

1 2 . . . n l1 ! . . . ln !

l1 , . . . , ln , l1 + 2l2 + . . . + nln = k
( ).

499

36.1. : ) 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + . . .; ) 1 + x2 + x4 + x6 + . . .


36.2. : g(x) = 1 x.
36.3. a0 b0 = 1, a1 b0 + a0 b1 = 0,
a2 b0 + a1 b1 + a0 b2 = 0, . . . , b0 =
b1 =

a 2 b0 + a 1 b1
a 1 b0
, b2 =
. .
a0
a0

k=0

xk1

bk xk .
P
D(f(x)g(x)) k
ai bj , -

36.4. ) f(x) =

ak xk g(x) =

1
,
a0

k=0

i+j=k

+P
g(x)D(f(x)) xk1
P f(x)D(g(x))
P
jai bj +
iai bj = k
ai bj .

i+j=k

i+j=k

i+j=k

) n, ):

D(f(x)n+1 ) = D(f(x) f(x)n ) = f(x)D(f(x)n ) + f(x)n D(f(x)) =


= nf(x)f(x)n1 D(f(x)) + f(x)n D(f(x)) = (n + 1)(f(x))n D(f(x)).
) ) f(x)(f(x))1 =
= 1. fD(f1 ) + f1 D(f) = 0, . . D(f1 ) =
= f2 D(f). ): D(fn ) =
= D((f1 )n ) = n(f1 )n1 D(f1 ) = nfn1 D(f).
) 36.6 , fr .
r = m/n, m n . )
D((fr )n ) = n(fr )n1 D(fr ) D((fr )n ) = D(fm ) = mfm1 D(f).
D(fr ) =

m fm1
fm1
D(f)
=
r
D(f) = rfr1 D(f).
n frnr
fmr

P
36.5. Dn (f) =
j(j 1) . . . (j n + 1)aj xjn .
n
j=n
S(D (f)) = n! an .
36.6. n , (1 + b1 x + b2 x2 + . . .)n =
= 1 + c1 x + c2 x2 + . . . , c1 = nb1 , c2 = nb2 + pn,2 (b1 ), c3 = nb3 +
+ pn,3 (b1 , b2 ), . . . , ck = nbk + pn,k (b1 , . . . , bk1 ), . . . ( pn,m ). a1 = nb1 , a2 = nb2 +
+ pn,2 (b1 ), a3 = nb3 + pn,3 (b1 , b2 ), . . . ,
b1 =

a2 pn,2 (b1 )
a3 pn,3 (b1 , b2 )
a1
, b2 =
, b3 =
. .
n
n
n

36.7. 36.4 ) D((1 + x)r ) = r(1 + x)r1 D(1 + x) =


= r(1 + x)r1 . n Dn ((1 + x)r ) =
= r(r 1)(r 2) . . . (r n + 1)(1 + x)rn . -

500

36.

36.5. f=(1+x)r , S(Dn (f))=r(r1)(r2) . . .


. . . (r n + 1).
f=

X
n=0

S(Dn (f))

xn X r(r 1)(r 2) . . . (r n + 1) n
=
x .
n!
n!
n=0

m ak bmk
P
(a + b)m
=
, . .
m!
k=0 k! (m k)!
m
P
m!
m!
ak bmk .
= Ckm .
(a + b)m =
k! (m k)!
k=0 k! (m k)!

36.8. ) ,

) ) k.
36.9.

n
n
X
X
k m xm
(1)nk Ckn
=
(1)nk Ckn Exp(kx) =
m!

m=0
X
n
X

k=0

k=0

m=0

(1)

nk m

Ckn

k=0

xm
.
m!

36.8 ), n
P
:
(1)nk Ckn Exp(kx) =
k=0

n
n
P
x2
x3
(1)nk Ckn (Exp(x))k = (Exp(x) 1)n = x +
=
+
+ . . . . 2!

k=0

3!

xm , m<n,
, xn 1.
. .
10.34 37.4.

1
1
36.10. , D(Ln(f)) = D g g2 + g3 . . . . 2
3
, Ln(f)
,

1
1
1
1
D g g2 + g3 . . . = D(g) D(g2 ) + D(g3 ) . . . =
2

= D(g) gD(g) + g D(g) . . . = D(g)(1 g + g2 . . .) =

= D(g)(1 + g)1 = f1 D(f),

D(f) = D(f 1) = D(g).


36.11. 36.10 , D(Ln(fh)) = (fh)1 D(fh) =
= (fh)1 (fD(h) + hD(f)) = h1 D(h) + f1 D(f) = D(Ln(f) + Ln(h)).

501

, Ln(fh) Ln(f) + Ln(h) x0 . Ln(fh) = Ln(f) + Ln(h).


36.12. , Ln(f1 ) = Ln(f). 36.11 f1 f = 1 , Ln(f1 ) + Ln(f) =
= Ln(f1 f) = Ln(1) = 0.
36.11 n Ln(fn ) =
= n Ln(f) n. ,
Ln(f1 ) = Ln(f) , Ln(fn ) = n Ln(f) n.
r = m/n, m n , m Ln(f) = Ln(fm ) =
m
= Ln((fr )n ) = n Ln(fr ), Ln(fr ) = Ln(f) = r Ln(f).
n
36.13. , Ln(f) = 0, f = 1. , D(Ln(f)) = D(0) = 0, f1 D(f) = 0. , D(f) = 0
f = 1.
Ln(f)=Ln(h), 36.11 Ln(f1 h)=Ln(f1)+
+ Ln(h). , 36.12 Ln(f1 ) = Ln(f). Ln(f1 h) = 0 f1 h = 1.
36.14.
Cnr =

r(r 1)(r 2) . . . (r n + 1)
n!

r n.

P
h=1+
Cnr gn . , (1 + g)r = h. ,
n=1

D(h) = D(g)

nCnr gn1 ,

n=1

(1 + g)D(h) = D(g)
= D(g)

nCnr gn1 + D(g)

n=1

nCnr gn1 + D(g)

n=2

n=1

nCnr gn =

n=1

(n 1)Crn1 gn1 =

X
(nCnr + (n 1)Crn1 )gn1 =
= rD(g) + D(g)
n=2

= rD(g) + D(g)

X
n=2

rCrn1 gn1 = rD(g)

n=1

rCnr gn = rD(g)h.

h (1 + g)1 , h1 D(h) = r(1 + g)1 D(g) = r(1 + g)1 D(1 + g). ,


h1D(h)=D(Ln(h)) r(1+g)1D(1+g)=D(r Ln(1+g))=D(Ln(1+g)r ),

502

36.

D(Ln(h)) = D(Ln(1 + g)r ). Ln(h)


Ln(1 + g)r x0 , Ln(h) =
= Ln(1 + g)r . 36.13, h = (1 + g)r .
a xn
P
n
36.15. A(x) =
B(x) =
=

b xn
P
n

n=0

n!

n=0

n!

i=0

i=0

bn x n X i a n x n X a n xn
Cn
=
=
.
n!
n!
i! (n i)!

,
B(x) =

X
bn x n

n!

n=0

n
X
X
n=0 i=0

a n xn
= Exp(x)A(x).
i! (n i)!

Exp(x), A(x) =
= Exp(x)B(x). xn /n!,
n
P
an = (1)ni Cin bi .
i=0

36.16. xn n
Q

(1 + xm ).
m=1

36.17. )
F(y) =

n
Y

(1 + x2i1 y)(y + x2i1 ) =

n
X

Ai (x)yn+i ,

(1)

i=n

i=1

Ai (x) .
,
(y + x2n1 )F(x2 y) = x2n1 (1 + x2n+1 y)F(y),
(y + x2n1 )

n
X

Ai (x)x2n+2i yn+i = x2n1 (1 + x2n+1 y)

i=n

. .
n
X

Ai (x)yn+i .

i=n

yn+i ,
Ai1 (x)x2n+2i2 + Ai (x)x4n+2i1 = Ai1 (x)x4n + Ai (x)x2n1 ,
Ai1 (x) = Ai (x)

1 x2n+2i

x2i1 x2n+1

= Ai (x)

1 x2n+2i

x2i1 (1 x2n2i+2 )

. .

503
2

, An (x) = x x3 x5 . . . x2n1 = xn .
Ank (x) = x(nk)
2

Aj (x) = xj

nj
Y
i=1

(1 x4n )(1 x4n2 ) . . . (1 x4n2k+2 )


,
(1 x2 )(1 x4 ) . . . (1 x2k )

. .

(1 x4n2i+2 )(1 x2i )1 =


2

= xj

nj
Y
i=1

(1 x4n2i+2 )(1 + x2i + x4i + x6i + . . .).

(1) y = 1.
n
Y
i=1

(1 x2i1 )2 =

n
X

(1)i Ai (x).

i=n

) n . ,

Q
r. xr
(1 x2m1 )2
m=1
n
Q
,
(1 x2i1 )2 i=1

n. , Ai (x) xr
r < i2 . r > i2 , n Ai (x) xr , xr

2 Q
(1 x2m )1 .
xi
m=1

) ),

Q

(1 x2m )(1 + xm ).
m=1

(1 + xm )

m=1

(1)k xk =

k=

(1 x2m1 )2 (1 x2m )(1 + xm ).

m=1

Q

(1 x2m1 )(1 x2m ) =
m=1

Q
Q
Q
=
(1xm )
(1xm )(1+xm )=
(1x2m ).
m=1

m=1

m=1

, .
m 1 xn
Q
36.18. ) fm =
n .
n=1

D(Ln(fm )) = D

1+x

X
m
(Ln(1 xn ) Ln(1 + xn )) .
n=1

504

36.

, D(Ln(h)) = h1 D(h),
D(Ln(fm )) =
= 2

m
X
nxn1
n=1
m
X
n=1

1 xn

nxn1
=
1 + xn

(nxn1 + nx3n1 + nx5n1 + . . .) = 2

sm (n)xn1 ,

n=1

sm (n) d n, n/d d 6 m; m > n, sm (n) = s(n).


1
, D(Ln(fm )) = fm
D(fm ).

m
X
sm (n)xn1 .
s(n)xn1 +
D(fm ) = fm D(Ln(fm )) = 2fm
n=1

n=m+1

r , m xr D(fm ), D(f) 2fg .

P
2
) 36.17 ) f = 1 + 2
(1)m xm .
m=1

D(f) = 2fg.

P
2
2
(1)m m2 xm 1 .
m=1

, xn1 2(s(n) 2s(n 1) +


+2s(n22 )2s(n32 )+. . .). xn1
, .
36.19. ) n , s(n)
. , n , n/d , d ; n s(n)
. n , s(n)
d + n/d.
n ,
n m2 . s(n m2 )
, , s(n) 4.
p , s(p) = p + 1. ,
p , p + 1 4.
4k + 1
.
) ). n ,
n m2 .
s(n m2 ) 4, , s(n) 8.
, p ,

505

, s(p) = p + 1 8.
p 8k+3
.
36.20. , (1 + x)n = C0n + C1n x + . . . + Cnn xn = a0 + a1 x + . . .
. . . + an xn .
36.21. ) ,
(f(x))2 = c1 c1 x2 + (c1 c2 + c2 c1 )x3 + (c1 c3 + c2 c2 + c3 c1 )x4 + . . . = f(x) x.
1 1
14x.
) (f(x))2 =f(x)x , f(x)=
2 2

1
1
, f(0) = 0, f(x) =
1 4x. 2
2
36.7

11
1
1
(4x)2 + . . .
(1 4x)1/2 = 1 + (4x) + 2 2
2
2!
1
1

11
1
2 ...
n+1
2
2
...+ 2 2
(4x)n + . . .
n!

xn
1 3 5 . . . (2n 3) n
1 (1) (3) (5) . . . (2n + 3)
(4)n =
2 =
2n n!
n!
(2n 2)!
(2n 2)!
2n = 2
.
=
n! (n 1)!
n! 2n1 (n 1)!

cn =

(2n 2)!
.
n! (n 1)!

36.22. ,

Bn n
x2
x3
x
+
+...
x = 1.
1+ +
2!

3!

4!

n=0

n!

xk1
k1

X Bp C
1 B0
1
B1
1
B2
1
Bk1
k

+...+
=
.
k! 0!
(k 1)! 1!
(k 2)! 2!
1! (k 1)!
k!
p

p=0

k>1 ,
k! .
n
P
36.23. Bn (z) =
Ckn Bk znk . Bn (0) = Bn
k=0
n
P
Bn (1) =
Ckn Bk = Bn 36.22.
k=0

506

36.

36.24. k = 2 2B1 + B0 = 0, B1 = 1/2.


k = 3 3B2 + 3B1 + B0 = 0, B2 = 1/6. k = 4
4B3 + 6B2 + 4B1 + B0 = 0, B3 = 0.
B4 = 1/30 B5 = 0.
36.25. ex Exp(x).
,

X
Bn
x
=
(x)n .
x
e

n=0

n!

X Bn
x
xex
x
=x+ x
=x+
xn .
=
x
x
1e
e 1
n!
e 1
n=0

x+

X
Bn
n=0

n!

xn =

X
Bn
n=0

n!

(x)n .

n > 1 Bn = Bn .
36.26. )
Bn (z + 1) Bn (z) =

n
X
k=0

Ckn Bnk

k1
X

Cpk zp .

p=0

z p > n 1.
, zn1 Cnn Cnn1 = n. ,
n
P
Ckn Cpk Bnk = 0. p, 0 6 p 6 n 2,
k=p+1

m = n k.
np1
P
Cnnm Cpnm Bm = 0. , Cnnm Cpnm = Cpn Cm
np .
m=0
np1
P
,
Cm
np Bm = 0 36.22.
m=0

Bn+1 (1) Bn+1 (0) = (n + 1) 0n ,


Bn+1 (2) Bn+1 (2) = (n + 1) 1n ,
. ...... ...... ..... ...... ..... ...... .
Bn+1 (k + 1) Bn+1 (k) = (n + 1) kn ,


36.27. Bn (z) =

n
P

507

Ckn Bk znk .

k=0

Bn (z) =

n
X
n! (n k)
k=0

k! (n k)!

Bk znk1 = n

Ckn1 Bk zn1k = nBn1 (z).

k=0

= 1 + xn + x2n + x3n + . . .
1
Q

(1 xn )

n 1

36.28. , (1 x )

xm

n1
X

n=1

m a1 + 2a2 + . . . + kak ,
a1 , a2 , . . . , ak . :
1+...+1+2+...+2+...+k+...+k.
| {z }
| {z } | {z }
a1

a2

ak

m
p(m).

Q
36.29.
(1 xn )
n=1

, xm . m
m = n1 + n2 + . . . + nk , n1 < n2 < . . . < nk
, (1)k .
xm .
m
m = n1 + n2 + . . . + nk , n1 < n2 < . . . < nk . s
, s nks+1 , nks+2 , . . . , nk ,
. . nk nks+1 = s 1.
, n1 6 s, , n1 = s = k.
(n1 , n2 , . . . , nk )
(n2 , . . . , nkn1 , nkn1 +1 + 1, nk + 1);
k = n1 , (n2 + 1, . . . , nk + 1).
m. n1 6 s , nkn1 +1 + 1, . . .
. . . , nk + 1 . , (nkn1 +1 + 1) nkn1 > 1,
n1 < n2 .
, n1 6 s, , n1 = s + 1
s = k. (n1 , n2 , . . . , nk )
(s, n1 , . . . , nks , nks+1 1, . . . , nk 1);

k=s, (s, n1 1, . . . , nk 1).


nks < nks+1 ,

508

36.

nks+1 , . . . , nk . ,
m. s .
m: ,
n1 6 s, n1 >s,
. ,
1. xm
. (k, k + 1, . . . , 2k 1) (k + 1, k + 2, . . . , 2k).

(1)k xa (1)k xb , a = k + (k + 1) + . . . + (2k 1) =


3k2 + k
.
2

b = (k + 1) + (k + 2) + . . . + 2k =

36.30. 36.28

n=1

(1 xn ) = 1 +

p(n)xn

n=1

, 36.29

1+

X
k=1

3k2 k
2

(1 xk ) = 1.

k=1

` 3k2 k
3k2 +k
(1)k x 2 + x 2 .

X
X
` 3k2 k
3k2 +k
(1)k x 2 + x 2
1+
p(n)xn
1+
=1
n=1

k=1

.
xn , n > 1, , .
36.31. d(n)
(1 + x)(1 + x2 )(1 + x3 )(1 + x4 ) . . . ,

l(n)

1
1
1
1

...

1 x 1 x3 1 x5 1 x7

(1 + x)(1 + x2 )(1 + x3 ) . . . =

1 x2 1 x4 1 x6

...

1 x 1 x2 1 x3

1 x2k ,
1 x2k+1 .

509

36.32.

X
(1)k xki
xi
=
, i = 1, . . . , n.
Ln 1 +
k
x

k=1

(
xi /x.) ,

X
(1)k sk
x1
xn
.
Ln 1 +
... 1+
=
k
x

x1
xn
Ln 1 +
... 1+
= Ln 1 +
x

=
=

s1

X
(1)k
1+
k=1

k=1 k=l1 +...+ln

s2

s1

k=1

(1)k
k!

k
l1 ! . . . ln !

x2

s2
x2

l1
1

+...+

+...+
...

sn
xn

sn k
xn

ln (l1 +2l2 +...+nln )


nx

X (1)l1 +...+ln (l1 + . . . + ln 1)!

l1 ! . . . ln !

l1
1

...

ln (l1 +2l2 +...+nln )


.
nx

k , .
x
36.33.

s2
xn
s1
x1
s3
... 1
= 2 3 ...
Ln 1
x

2x

3x

,
s

s
s

xn
x1
3
1
2
... 1
= Exp
Exp 2 Exp 3 . . . =
1
x

(1)l1

l1 =0

2x

s11

l1 ! xl1

(1)l2

l2 =0

s22

l2 ! (2x)l2

=
,

xn
x1
... 1
=1
1

s1

3x

(1)l3

l3 =0

s33

l3 ! (3x)l3

X (1)l1 +l2 +l3 +... sl1 sl2 sl3 . . .


1 2 3

1l1 2l2 3l3 . . . xl1 +l2 +l3 +...

s2
x2

. . . + (1)n

sn

x
xn
1
k , .
x
x

...=

37

37.1.
x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . .
x0 , x1 ,
x2 , . . . , xk = xk+1 xk . ,
2 xk = xk+1 xk . .

37.1. , n xk =
37.2. , xn =

n
P

n
P

(1)nl Cln xk+l .

l=0

Cln l x0 , 0 xk = xk .

l=0


xk = f(x + hk), f , h ,
x. k x0
k f(x).

37.3. , f(x) n,
n- , , n! an hn ,
an .
37.4. ,
(
n
X
0
n > m,
nl l m
(1) Cn l =
m!
n = m.
l=0
37.5. , n apx+q = apx+q (apx 1)n .
37.6. ,




ax
ax n
cos ax + b + n
,
n sin(ax + b) = 2 sin
2
2




ax
ax n
sin ax + b + n
n cos(ax + b) = 2 sin
.
2


1
x

37.7. , =

511

x
.
x(x + x)

37.8. , arctg x = arctg

x
.
1 + x(x + x)

37.9. (x) , f(x) = (x)


f(x). ,

f(x) + f(x + h) + . . . + f(x + (n 1)h) = f(x + nh) f(x).

37.10. ,

 sin(a(x+nh)+b)sin(ax+b)
n1
P
ah
.
cos a(x+kh)+b+
=
)
ah

k=0
n1
P

arctg

k=0

2 sin

1
= arctg n.
1 + k(k + 1)

37.2.

,
xk = (x + h)k xk = kxk1 h +

k(k 1) k2
h
+ . . . + hk .
2

, , kxk1 h.
xk x
x(k)
h = x(x h) . . . (x (k 1)h).
(k1)
37.11. , x(k)
.
h = khxh
h = 1 x(k) . x(k) = kx(k1) xk .
n1
P (k)
n(k)
m =
37.12. ,
.
m=0

k+1

37.3.

37.13. f(x) [1, n]. ,


n1
X
k=1

n
n
]
]
1
f(k) = f(x) dx (f(n) f(1)) + B1 ({x})f (x) dx,
1

B1 (z) = z 1/2 .

512

37.

37.14. f(x) m [1, n]. ,


n1
X
k=1

n
]
B2
1
f(k) = f(x) dx (f(n) f(1)) + (f (n) f (1)) + . . .

2!

...+

Rmn =

(1) Bm (m1)
(f
(n) f(m1) (1)) + Rmn ,
m!

n
(1)m+1 ]
Bm ({x})f(m) (x) dx.
m!
1

37.1. n. n = 1 .
, n.
n+1 xk = n xk+1 n xk =

n
X
l=0

(1)nl Cln (xk+l+1 xk+l ) =

n
n+1
X
X
(1)nl+1 Cln xk+l .
(1)nl+1 Cnl1 xk+l +
=
l=0

l=1

Cnl1

+ Cln

= Cln+1 .

,
37.2. n. n = 1 x1 =
= (x1 x0 ) + x0 = 1 x0 + 0 x0 . , n.
xn+1 =

n
X

Cln l x1 =

Cln l (1 x0 + 0 x0 ) =

l=0

l=0

n
X

n
X

Cnl1 l x0 +

Cln l x0 .

l=0

l=1

,
37.3.

n
X

Cnl1

+ Cln

= Cln+1 .

(x+(k+1)h)m (x+kh)m =C1m h(x+kh)m1 +C2m h2 (x+kh)m2 +. . .

, xm m 1 C1m h = mh.
xk = f(x + kh)

513

f1 (x + kh), f1 n 1 nhan . ,
f2 (x + kh), f2 n 2 n(n 1)h2 an . , , n-
n(n 1) . . . 2 1 hn an .
37.4. xk = km . 37.3 m xk = m! n xk = 0
n > m. , 37.1
n xk =

n
X

(1)nl Cln xk+l =

n
X

(1)nl Cln (k + l)m .

l=0

l=0

k = 0 .
. .
10.34 36.9.
37.5. n = 1. ,

apx+q = ap(x+x)+q apx+q = apx+q (apx 1).


37.6. n = 1.

sin(ax + b) = sin(ax + b + ax) sin(ax + b) =
= 2 sin
.
37.7. ,

ax
ax
.
cos ax + b + n
2
2

1
1
x
=
.
x + x
x
x(x + x)

37.8. y = arctg(x + x) arctg x,


tg y =

x
(x + x) x
=
.
1 + x(x + x)
1 + x(x + x)

37.9. (x) = f(x + h) f(x), (x + h) = f(x + 2h)


f(x+ h), . . . , (x+ (n 1)h) = f(x+ nh) f(x+ (n 1)h).
, .
37.10. 37.9 37.6 37.8. x = 1.
37.11. ,

x(k)
h = (x + h)x . . . (x (k 2)h) x(x h) . . . (x (k 1)h) =

= x(x h) . . . (x (k 2)h)((x + h) (x (k 1)h)) = khx(k1)


.
h

514

37.

37.12. f(x) =

x(k)

k+1

f(x) = x

(k)

. f(x) = (x)

h = 1. 37.9, .
37.13. ,
k+1
]

{x}

k+1 k+1

]
1
1

f (x) dx = x k
f(x)

f(x) dx =
2
2
k
k
1
2

= (f(k + 1) + f(k))

k+1
]

f(x) dx.

k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1 .
.
37.14. , Bm (x) = mBm1 (x) ( 36.27). m > 1
n
1
1 ]
Bm ({x})f(m) (x) dx =
(Bm+1 (1)f(m) (n) Bm+1 (0)f(m) (1))
m!
(m + 1)!
1

n
]
1
Bm+1 ({x})f(m+1) (x) dx.
(m + 1)!
1

, Bm+1 (1) = Bm+1 (0) = Bm+1 36.23. 37.13 .


.

38

.
. ,
.
. (x(t), y(t)), x(t) y(t)
t. ,
(cos t, sin t).

38.1. , x (t) 6= 0 y (t) 6= 0. ,


(x(t), y(t)) (x(t0 ), y(t0 ))

y y(t0 )
x x(t0 )
=
.
x (t0 )
y (t0 )
,
f(x, y) = 0, :
f
f(x, y0 ) f(x0 , y0 )
(x0 , y0 ) = lim
,
xx0
x
x x0
f
f(x0 , y) f(x0 , y0 )
(x0 , y0 ) = lim
.
yy0
y
y y0

, x
f(x, y0 ), y0 ,
y f(x0 , y),
x0 .
f
f
38.2. ,
(x , y ) 6= 0
(x , y ) 6= 0.
x 0 0
y 0 0

, (x0 , y0 ) , -

516

38.

f(x, y) = 0,
(x x0 )

f
f
(x , y ) + (y y0) (x0 , y0 ) = 0.
x 0 0
y

38.1.
X r O
OX
Ox. (r, ) (x, y) :
x = r cos , y = r sin ;
r2 = x2 + y2 , tg = x/y.
, (a, 0) (a, 0) a2 .

38.3. : ) ; ) .
38.2.
, , .
x, y
Ca , .
Ca C, Ca ,
Ca .
. , r
l , l r.
, Ca
f(x, y, ) = 0, f .
C, , : x = ( ), y = ( ), C
Ca ( ( ), ( )).
x0 = ( 0 ) y0 = ( 0 ). C Ca0
(x0 , y0 )

fa

fa
ya
fa ya
ya

1 df
f
1 dy
f
+
= 0 (x x0 ) + (y y0 ) = 0.
x x0 da
y y0 da
x
y

(38.1)

, ,

f df
f dy

= 0.
x da
y da

(38.2)

517

f a y(a)) Ca,
f(f(a), y(a), a) = 0
a. ,

( ( ),

f df
f dy
f

+
+
= 0.
x da
y da
a

(38.3)

=0. , , (38.2),
a
( )

a) = 0,

f(x, y,

f
(x, y,
a

a) = 0.

(38.4)

(38.1) , , (x0 , y0 ,

a)
0

f
f

x
y

. , ; ,
(38.4),
.
. ,
Ca1 Ca2 ( 1 6= 2 ) ,

(x( ), y( )) 1 2 . (x( ), y( ))
. , f(x, y, 1 ) = 0
f(x, y, 2 ) = 0,

a
a

a a
a a a

0=

a
a a

f(x, y,

a a
a

a1 ) f(x, y, a2 ) f
=
(x, y, a* ),
a1 a2
a

* 1
(x( ), y( ))

a .
2

a a) = 0 af (x(a), y(a), a) = 0,

f(x( ), y( ),

, .

38.4. , a2 /2.
38.5. O
A B. OA OB A1 B1

518

38.

, OB1 : B1 B = AA1 : A1 O. ,
A1 B1 .
38.6.
, v0 .
38.6 .

38.7. , , l (. 38.1),
x2/3 + y2/3 = l2/3 .
38.7
.

. 38.1

38.8. ,

1/4,

1,
.

r,
R, r R,
.
r, R,
r R,
.
r/R ,
( ).
. ,
( ), ( ).
.

519

38.9. ) k 6= 0, 1 , eif eikf .


, .
) k 6= 0, 1
.
38.10. , , , ( ,
, . . 38.2).

. 38.3

. 38.2

38.11. S A. A
. , (. 38.3).
38.3.

g(t) = (x(t), y(t)) .


dg

, v(t) =
(t) 6= 0 t.
dt
t ]t
s = s(t) = |v( )| d .
0
dg
dg
dg dt
v(t)
ds

= |v(t)|,
=
=
, . . = 1.

t t

dt

ds

dt ds

|v(t)|

ds

520

38.
v(s)=

dg(s)
ds

dv
v. n ,
ds
dv
v.
= k(s)n. |k(s)| ds

g .

38.12. , R
1/R.
38.13. , (t) = (x(t), y(t)) t

k2 =

(x y y x )2
2

(x + y )3

.
x2

y2

38.14. 2 + 2 = 1
a
b
.
38.4.
,
y = f(x) y = g(x). , f(x0 ) = g(x0 ).
(
1), f (x0 ) = g (x0 ). n, f(x0 ) = g(x0 ), f (x0 ) = g (x0 ), . . .
. . . , f(n) (x0 ) = g(n) (x0 ). , 2, .
, ,
( ). , y = f(x), .
y = g(x) , R
(a, b), . . g
(x a)2 + (g(x) b)2 = R2 .
,
2(x a) + 2g (x)(g(x) b) = 0,

2 + 2g (x)(g(x) b) + 2(g (x))2 = 0.

521

y = f(x)
(x0 , y0 ),
(x0 a)2 + (y0 b)2 = R2 ,

(x0 a) + y0 (y0 b) = 0,

1 + y0 (y0 b) + (y0 )2 = 0,

y0 = f (x0 ) y0 = f (x0 ). , a, b, R , :
. , y0 6= 0,
. ,
y0 = 0 (
), a = x0 , b = y0 +

1
1
, R2 = 2 .
y
(y
0
0)


. 38.13 k2 =

2
(y
0)

(1 + y0 2 )3

= (y0 )2 . ,


1/k.

38.15. , .

38.5. .

(s) = (x(s), y(s)) . q = (x0 , y0 )


F(s) = | (s) q|2. s0 F, F (s0 ) = 0.
, F (s0 ) = 0. ,

dg
,
F (s) = 2 (s) q,
ds
dg 2

d2 g

F (s) = 2 + 2 (s) q,
= 2(1 + ( (s) q, kn))
2

ds

ds

( k n . 520.) s0
F ,
#

(s0 )q (s0 ), s0 ,
1
#

k(s0 ) 6= 0 (s0 )q =
n. q

g
g,

k(s0 )

| (s) q|2

522

38.

. ,
s0 , q
1
#

(s0 )q =
n. -

k(s0 )

, q , (s0 ). ,
q
(s1 ) (s2 ), s1 s0 s2 s0 . ,
, .

. ,
,
: .

x2

y2

38.16. 2 + 2 = 1 ,
a
b
(a cos t0 , b sin t0 );
.
38.17. .
, , .

38.18. , ( ).

38.1. y y(t0 ) =
= k(x x(t0 )),
k = lim

tt0

y y(t )
y y(t0 )
t t0 y (t0 )
0
=
= lim

.
x x(t0 ) tt0
t t0
x x(t0 )
x (t0 )

38.2. , (x0 , y0 )
y = (x), , ,
.

523

f
( , y0 )(x1 x0 ),
x
f
f(x1 , y1 ) f(x1 , y0 ) = (x0 , )(y1 y0 ),
y

f(x1 , y0 ) f(x0 , y0 ) =

x0 x1 ,
y0 y1 . (x1 , y1 ) ,

f
f
( , y0 )(x1 x0 ) + (x0 ,
x
y

h)(y

y0 ) = 0.

y y0 = k(x x0 ),
f
f
(x, y0 )
(x0 , y0 )
y1 y0
x
x
= lim
.
k = lim
=
f
x1 x0 f
x1 x0 x1 x0
(x0 , h)
(x0 , y0 )
y
y

38.3. ) : (x2 + y2 )2 = 2a2 (x2 y2 ).


,
((x a)2 + y2 )((x + a)2 + y2 ) = a4 ,

. . x4 + a4 + y4 2a2 x2 + 2a2 y2 + 2x2 y2 = a4 .


, .
) : r2 = 2a2 cos2 2 . ,

f sin f).
f sin f = cos 2f.
2

r4 = 2a2 r2 (cos2

2
, cos2
38.4. ,
.
( a, 0) (0, a/ ),
> 0. , , x + 2 y = a.
,
1 2 ,
aa a
a
1 2
,
. 1 2 ,

aaa1 +a a2 a1 + a2

,
.

a
a

2a

a
a a a

xy = a2 /4.
38.5. , O , A = (1, 1)
B = (1, 1). A1 = (1 , 1 ) B1 = ( , ) [0, 1]. , A1 B1 ,
(2 1)x + y = 2 (1 ). ,

a
a

a
a

a a

524

38.

(x0 , y0 ) , 1 2 , x0 = 1 1 2 . 1 2 , x0 1 2 .

a a

a a

a a a a

1
x + y = (1 x2 ),
2
1 + x2
. . y =
.
2
2

38.6. Oy , Ox
v0 . t x(t) = v0 cos t,

gt2
,
t
2

y(t) = v0 sin
, . , ,
y(t) = v0 t

v0
gt2
, y(t) t =

2
g

y(t) =

. ,

v20

2g

, y =

v20
2g

kx2 .

k, Ox (
). y(t0 ) = 0 t0 6= 0, t0 =
x(t0 ) =

2v20 sin a cos a


g

v20

v20 sin 2a
g

2v0 sin a
.
g

. , k

v2 2 g
v20
g
y=
k 0 = 0, k = 2 .
2g

, y =

2v0
v20

2g

g 2
x
2v20

.
,
, . . t

v20
2g

g cos2 a 2
t > v0 sin
2

a t gt2

t .
cos2 1 sin2 ,

. .

g v0
sin
2 g

v20

2g

at

v0 sin

a t + g sin2

t2 > 0,

> 0. t=

v0
.
g sin a

525

38.7. (a1 , 0) (0, b1 ) l


(a2 , 0) (0, b2 ) l.
a=

a1 + a2
b1 + b2
b=
, a1 = a + , b1 = b , a2 = a , b2 = b +
2
2

a b

. (a + ) + (b ) = (a ) +
+ (b + )2 a = b .
(, a1 a2 b1 b2
). , ,

a b

x
y
+
= 1,
a+a
bb

x
y
+
= 1.
aa
b+b

,
ax

a2 a2

by

ax

= 1,

b 2 b2

a 2 a2

by

b2 b2

a = b ,
y
x
=
.
2
2
2
2
a(a a )

b(b b )

,
x=

a(a2 a2 )
,
a 2 + b2

y=

b(b2 b2 )
.
a 2 + b2

0, 0. ,
: x = a3 /l2 y = b3 /l2 .
x2/3 + y2/3 = (a2 + b2 )/l4/3 = l2 /l4/3 = l2/3 .
38.8. . ,
r R.

r1 = R r
1
r2 = r 2 . 1 2
(r1 + r2 ) 1 = r2 ( 2 + 1 ),
R = r1 + r2 r = r2 (
).
r1 1 = r2 2 .
:

w
w

x = r1 cos
y = r1 sin

w t+r
w t+r
1

cos
2 sin
2

w t,
w t.
2

526

38.

, R = 4r, r1 = 3r, r2 = r
1 = 1,

w . -

= 3

x = 3r cos t + r cos 3t = 4r cos3 t,


y = 3r sin t r sin 3t = 4r sin3 t,
, x2/3 + y2/3 = (4r)2/3 = R2/3 .
. , r
R. r2 = r r1 = R + r
1 r2 = r
2 . 1 2 (r1 r2 ) 1 = r2 ( 2 1 ).
r1 1 = r2 2 .
. l = 4r
O. r
,
P = (l, 0). X, A. AP AX ,
, AX, 4AOP,
2AOP. B OA, M N
BX .
OBM OBN ,
B O. MN = 2OB = OA = l.
MN X.
, MN AX, X AX,
A X. , X
,
l.
38.9. ) A = eif , B = eikf , A = ei(f+a) , B = eik(f+a) .
, , C AB A B 0. , k > 0, C
AB, k < 0, C . , AC : CB = 1 : |k|. , AC : CB = sin B : sin A =
= sin : sin k 1 : k, CB : CB = sin B : sin B 1. , C, , -

w
w

w
w

w w
w w

1
eikf + keif
=
(cos k
1+k
1+k

527

f + k cos f, sin kf + k sin f).

38.8, - .
) : |k 1|. , eif eikf ,
. . eif + eikf = 0. eif
ei(k1)f = 1. |k 1| .
38.10. , Ox .
A = eiy . A1 ,
. A
, . . , A Oy.
A1 A AB.
, A1 = ei(3y+p) . = + . 3 + = 3 + 3 + = 3 + = /2.
38.9 k = 3,
.
38.11. , , A = (1, 0).
, eiy ,
ei(2y+p) . = + . 2 + = 2 + 2 + =
= 2 + = .
38.9 k = 2, .
38.12. R
x(t) = R cos t, y(t) = R sin t.
v(t) = ( R sin t, R cos t).
= 1/R. |v(t)| = 1, . . t .

dv
dv


= R1 (cos t, sin t) k = = 1/R.
dt
dt
dg
dg ds
dg

=

=
38.13. s ,
dt
ds dt
ds
dg 2 ds 2
dg
dg dg 1/2

. ,
=

.
= 1. =
dt
dt
ds
dt
dt
t,


d2 g ds
d2 g dg 1/2 dg dg d2 g dg 3/2
= 2

=
2
2

y f a

f a

y p f a p f a

y f a

ds

dt

dt

dt

dt

w
w w

y p f

a p

dt

dt

dt

(g , g )g
g
g g 2 p
(g , g )g
`p 3 =
.
=p
`

g2
g 2
g2 3

528

38.

d2 g 2

. , 2 = k2
ds
ds 2
2
= ,

dt

k2 =

g 2 g 2 (g , g )2 (x 2 + y 2 )(x 2 + y 2 ) (x x + y y )2
=
.
( g 2 ) 3
(x 2 + y 2 )3

.
38.14. : x(t) =
= a cos t, y(t) = b sin t.
x y y x = ab(cos2 t + sin2 t) = ab,
2

x + y = a2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t.

38.13
k2 =

a 2 b2
2

(a2 sin t + b2 cos2 t)3

. 38.16.
38.15. , y=f(x),
f (0) = 0.
(0, f(0)). ( , f( )) (x ) + f ( )(y f( )) = 0; (0, f(0))
Ox.
e
0, f( ) +
.
0
f (e)

1
. .
0, f(0) +

e
e

e e

f (0)

38.16. (x0 , y0 ) F(t) = (x0 a cos t)2 + (y0 b sin t)2 .


(x0 , y0 ), F (t0 ) = 0 F (t0 ) = 0, . .
x0 a sin t0 y0 b cos t0 + (b2 a2 ) sin t0 cos t0 = 0,

x0 a cos t0 + y0 b sin t0 + (b2 a2 )(cos2 t0 sin2 t0 ) = 0.

,
x0 =

a 2 b2
cos3 t0 ,
a

y0 =

a 2 b2
sin3 t0 .
b

R
R2 = (x0 a cos t0 )2 + (y0 b sin t0 )2 =

(a2 sin2 t0 + b2 cos2 t0 )3


.
a 2 b2

529

38.17. , 38.16, ,
(ax)2/3 + (by)2/3 = (a2 b2 )2/3 .

38.18. Ox, O. , 1
.
X; S1 Ox P (. 38.4).
Q
S1

X
P
O

O1

S1
Q

. 38.4

OP PX. PQ S1 O1 ( , 0), . .

Ox. O1 P QX.
S1 , S1 P, X Q ,
X Q, Q X Q1 P.
l, Q . O O1
. O1 P Q O .
Q X Q O, . . X

530

38.

, ,
1 l ,

O .
, XX
. P
X, PX . Q
X , Q X
, PX
.

39

39.1.
39.1. . ,
, , , .
39.2.
:
x X: x X (x X);
x 6 X: x X;
A X: A X, . . A X;
A B A B;
, A B;
A B A B;
, A B.
, U, A A;
U,
A.

39.2. ) , A (B C) = (A B) (A C).
) , A (B C) = (A B) (A C).
39.3. , A B = A B A B = A B (
).

532

39.

, , 39.2
39.3,
,
. n
n ( ), 2n . U,
U ,
.

39.4. 39.2 39.3, .


39.3.
X Y , f : X Y, , . . y Y
x X, f(x) = y. ,
X Y ,
.
:
[a, b] x, a 6 x 6 b;
(a, b) x,
a < x < b;
[a, b) x,
a 6 x < b; (a, b] ,
a < x 6 b.

39.5. , [0, 1] [0, a]


a.
39.6. , (0, 1) (1, +) .
39.7. , (1, 1) .
39.8. , a1 , a2 , . . . , ai = 0 1 i, .

533

39.9. , [0, 1] [0, 1).


39.4.
, .

39.10. , .
39.11. ,
.
39.12. , , .
39.13. ,
.
39.14. , n n
.
39.15. , .
39.16. ,
.
39.17. , .
39.18. , .
39.19. , X ,
Y , X Y
X.
39.5.
, ,
.

39.20. ) , (0, 1)
.
) , [0, 1]
.

534

39.

39.21. ) , a1 , a2 , . . . , ai = 0 1, .
) , .
39.22. ,
.
39.6.
39.23. , X P(X) ().
39.24. ,
, .
39.7.
,
,
, : .

. X
*, .
Y , X, .
, : Y Y Y 6 Y? Y Y,
Y Y,
Y 6 Y, Y Y.
. M
, P(M) .
M , P(M) M. , ( 39.23)
* ,
: ,
. .

535

P(M)

, M,
M.
,
:
X1 X2 , X2 X3 , X3 X4 , . . . ,
.
, Y
( ).

39.1. x.
: , x,
x.
, .
39.2. ) x A (B C), x A x B C. x A,
x A B x A C, x (A B) (A C).
x B C, x B x C, x A B x A C, ,
x (A B) (A C).
x (A B) (A C), x A B x A C. x A
x B C. , x A (B C).
) x A (B C), x A x B C. x A B
x A C.
x (A B) (A C), x A B x A C.
x A x B C.
39.3. x A B x 6 A B x 6 A x 6 B x A B.
x A B x 6 A B x 6 A x 6 B x A B.
39.4. . 39.1.

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
C

. 39.1

A
A
A

B
B
B

536

39.

39.5. [0, 1] [0, a]


x 7 ax.
39.6. (0, 1) (1, +) x 7 1/x.
px
39.7. f(x) = tg
2

(1, 1)
.
39.8. a1 , a2 , . . . , n, an = 1. .
39.9. a1 , a2 , . . . , 0 1. f : [0, 1] [0, 1) : f(1) = a1 ,
f(ai ) = ai+1 f(x) = x, x 1 ai i. ,
f . , f1 : [0, 1) [0, 1] :
f1 (a1 ) = 1, f1 (ai ) = ai1 i > 2 f(x) = x, x ai
i.
39.10. 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, . . .
.
39.11. k

k + 1 k + 2
1
0
1
k1
,
, . . .,
, ,
, . . .,
.
1
2
k1 k k1
1

k = 1, 2, 3, . . .
,
. ,
.
. . 4.13.
39.12. ,
i1 < i2 <
< i3 < . . . (
), ( ).
39.13. k- ak1 ,
ak2 , ak3 , . . . a11 ; a12 , a21 ; a13 ,
a22 , a31 ; a14 , a23 , a32 , a41 ; . . .
. .

537

39.14. ( ). , ( 39.13).
.
.
. .
39.15. 39.13 39.14.
39.16. , n, .
n , n (
pxn qxn1 , ).

.
39.17. ,
.
39.18. , ,
.
39.19. , X Y . , Y Y ,
Y, X. Y
Y, .
X1 X, X2 X1
X. X1 Y X1 ,
.
X1 Y X1 .
X2 X2 ( )
X Y X.
39.20. ) 39.5 39.7.
) ,
39.9.
39.21. ) ,
[0, 1] a1 , a2 , . . . , ai = 0 1.

a2
a3
a1
+ 2 + 3 + . . . [0, 1]
2
2
2

. , 0,01111 . . . 0,1000 . . .
. -

538

39.

, 0,1111 . . . ,
[0, 1].
,
.
X , Y . X ,
39.19 X Y .
) ) 39.8.
39.22. . 39.21 a1 , a2 , . . . ,
ai = 0 1. ,
.
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . b1 , b2 , b3 , . . . a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 ,
a3 , b3 , . . .
.
39.23. , : X P(X). Y

x X, x 6 (x). , X. , , Y = (y).

f
f

y Y y 6 (y) y 6 Y.

Y,
, (y) = Y.
. , X = , P(X) = {} .
39.24. 39.21 ) P(X) X . P(X) X, . . ,
.

1.
x2 + y2 = 1, ,
. A . ,
A (1, 0) (3/5, 4/5).
(1, 0),

.
, (1, 0),
y = t(x 1), x = 1 (
x = 1 y = t(x 1), t = ; , t ).
y = t(x 1) x2 + y2 = 1, x2 + t2 (x 1)2 = 1, . .
x2

2t
t2 1
x+ 2
= 0.
t +1
t +1
2

, x = 1, . x
.
x=

t2 1
,
t2 + 1

y = t(x 1) =

2t
.
t2 + 1

540

, x2 + y2 = 1
y = t(x 1)
 t2 1 2t 
.
, 2
2
t +1

t +1

,
,
t. ,
t2 1
2t
y= 2
t2 + 1
t +1
y
. x y , t =
x1

t , x =

. t = ,
(1, 0), .

, . .
(a, b, c), a2 +b2 =c2 . ,
(a, b, c) ,
m n, a = m2 n2 ,
b = 2mn, c = m2 + n2 ( a = 2mn, b = m2 n2 , c = m2 + n2 ).
, . a, b, c
d, d.
, a/c b/c .
(a/c, b/c) x2 + y2 = 1
. ,
a
t2 1
= 2
,
c
t +1

2t
b
= 2
,
c
t +1

t . t = m/n
.
m2 n2
a
= 2
,
c
m + n2

2mn
b
= 2
.
c
m + n2

m/n , m n
. ,
,

m2 n2
2mn
.
2
2
m +n
m2 + n2

1.

541

m n , . . m = 2p + 1 n = 2q + 1, ,
,
a
2m1 n1
,
= 2
c
m1 + n21

b
m2 n21
,
= 21
c
m1 + n21

m1 =p+q+1 n1 =pq. , m1 n1 , .
, , t, . ,
ax2 + bxy + cy2 + dx + ey + f = 0.

(1)

.
, :
a, b, . . . , f ;
;
(1) .
(1), t , . , , (1)
. .
x2 + y2 = 1.
2x2 + 5y2 = 1. ,
. ,
(x, y) . ,
x = p1 /q y = p2 /q, p1 , p2 , q
(. . d,
).

542

p1 , p2 , q 2p21 + 5p22 =
= q2 . 2p21 q2 5 . a2 5
1 0. 2p21 5
2 0, q2 1 0.
, 2p21 q2 5, ,
25. 5p22 25, , p2 5. ,
p1 , p2 , q 5, .
, , , ,
: , ,
, . , 0
1 ( ).
P(x) = x(x + a)(x b), a b , P (x) = 3x2 + 2(a b)x ab. ,
D = 4((a b)2 + 3ab) = 4(a2 + b2 + ab) . :
a2 + b2 + ab = c2 , c .
x = a/c y = b/c. x2 + y2 + xy = 1.
: x = 1 y = 0. y = t(x 1).
y :
x2 + t2 (x2 2x + 1) + tx(x 1) 1 = 0,
x2

. .

t + 2t
t 1
x+
= 0.
1 + t + t2
1 + t + t2

x = 1. x =
=

t2 1
. y = t(x 1) =
1 + t + t2

t2 + 2t
. ,
1 + t + t2

2.

543

. c t . a = c

t2 1
t2 + 2t

b
=
c
. 1 + t + t2
1 + t + t2

, a = t2 1 b = (t2 + 2t),
t , ,
,
, .
2.
, p(x) , x, . ,
p(z) = 0 p , p(z)=p(z)=0, . . z p.
. ,
t
s
Y
Y
(x k )mk ,
p(x) = a (x zj )(x zj )

k=1

j=1

k .
, p(x) > 0 x. x ,
t
s
Y
Y
(x k )mk > 0,
(x zj )(x zj )

k=1

j=1

a > 0. , mk . , mk . ,
m1 , . . . , ms 1 < . . . < s .
s1 < x < s

t
Y

(x

k=1

ak)m

< 0,

544

. . p(x) < 0. ( s = 1,
x < s .)
,
. ,



l
l
Y
Y
p(x) =
a
a
(x zj )
(x zj ) ,

j=1

j=1

zj .

l
Y
a
(x zj ) = q(x) + ir(x),
j=1

q r .
l
Y
a
(x zj ) = q(x) ir(x).
j=1

p(x) = (q(x))2 + (r(x))2 .


, . . (
,
), . 1888 .,
.
. 1967 . , ,
F(x, y) = x2 y2 (x2 + y2 3) + 1
,
. , , ,

2.

545

, ,
, .
F ,
F(x, y) =

(1 x2 y2 )2 + x2 (1 y2 )2 + x2 (1 x2 )2 y2
.
1 + x2

P
, F(x, y) = fj (x, y)2 , fj

.
P
2
fj (x, 0) = F(x, 0) = 1.
P fj (x, 20) x ,
fj (x, 0) , fj (x, 0). , fj (x, 0) = cj , ,
fj (x, y) = cj + ygj (x, y). , fj (x, y)=cj +xgj (x, y). , cj =cj fj (x, y)=cj +
+ xyhj (x, y),
deg hj = deg fj 2 6

1
deg F 2 = 1;
2

deg f f. ,
X
X
X
x2 y2 (x2 + y2 3) + 1 = x2 y2
h2j + 2xy
cj hj +
c2j ,

. .

x2 y2 (x2 + y2 3) x2 y2

h2j = 2xy

cj hj +

c2j 1.

, , 3, , , P
4. , x2 y2 (x2 y2 3) x2 y2 h2j = 0,
P
, x2 + y2 3 = h2j . ,
x2 + y2 3 < 0 x = y = 0.
. ,
. ,

546

,
. ,
, 17
23 .
1927 . . . ,
. 1967 .
. ; ,
n 2n . , 2n
. n = 2 , 2n = 4
. , 1971 . ,
,
F(x, y), ,
.
;
.
3.
1658 . ,
,
4k + 1 ,
.
. , .
1747 ., .
1770 . , .
p = 4k + 1
; -

3.

547

31.5331.55 36.19 ). ,
, . *
.
, . M
. : M M ,
( (m)) = m m M.
. ( M)
{m, (m)} . (m)
, m,
( (m)) = m.
, (m) = m ( m ). M
, M
( , ).
. x2 + 4yz = p
. , p = 4k + 1,
, y = z. , p = x2 + (2y)2 . , y = z,
(x, y, z) = (x, z, y). ,
. ,
. :

(1)

(x + 2z, z, y x z), x < y z;


(x, y, z) = (2y x, y, x y + z), y z < x < 2y; (2)

(x 2y, x y + z, y), 2y < x.


(3)

ss

ss

* D. Z a g i e r. A one-sentence proof that every prime p 1 (mod 4) is a


sum of two squares // Amer. Math. Monthly. 1990. V. 97. P. 114.

548

, x 6= 2y x 6= y z,
p = x2 + 4yz = 4(y2 + yz) p = (y z)2 + 4yz = (y + z)2 .
, , x2 + 4yz = p
.

(x + 2z)2 + 4z(y x z) = x2 + 4yz,

(x 2y)2 + 4y(x y + z) = x2 + 4yz.

(x, y, z) = (x , y , z ). x < y z, x =x+2z>


> 2z = 2y , . . (1) (3).
, (3) (1), (2) (2).
, .
(1) ,

x = x + 2z > x; (3) x = x 2y < x. (2),


z = z = x y + z,
. . x = y. p = x2 + 4yz = x(x + 4z), , x = y = 1 ( p).
p = 4k + 1, (1, 1, k) ( , p 4k + 1).
.

.
, 4k + 3
. , 2m + 1 4(m2 + m) + 1,
4 1. ,
4 0, 1 2, 3.
p = 4k + 1 .
, 21
.
, m = a2 + b2 n = c2 + d2 ,
mn = (ac + bd)2 + (ad bc)2 .
4k + 1

4. 17-

549

. - 4k + 3
,
. ,
a2 + b2 p = 4k + 3, a b
p ( 31.2).
4. 17-
,
. , ,
.
. ,
,
.

. 1 I, IV : , , , .
,
1796 ., 19- ,
17-k
. , n = 22 + 1
, n-. ,
, n- , n = 2m p1 . . . ps ,
k
p1 , . . . , ps 22 + 1.
.

550

17- , .
(cos

a + i sin a)n = cos na + i sin na

, xn 1 = 0
2k

2k

cos
+ i sin
.
n
n
n-. , n-
xn 1 = 0. x = 1. ,
xn 1 x 1.
xn1 + xn2 + . . . + x2 + x + 1. .
, a + ib
, a b,
. . a + ib . ,

a b a b, ab, a/b, a.
,
h pa2 + b2 + a 1/2  pa2 + b2 a 1/2 i

+i
a + ib =
.
2

a b ,
a + ib . ,
u v ,
x2 + ux + v = 0 .
n- n = 3 n = 5. n = 3
x2 + x + 1 = 0. ,
.
n = 5 x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1 = 0.
u = x + x1 . , u2 + u 1 = 0.
u1 u2 . x2 u1 x + 1 = 0
x2 u2 x + 1 = 0.
.

4. 17-

551


17-. , ,
, x16 + x15 + . . .
. . . + x + 1 = 0 ,
.

e = cos 217p + i sin 217p ;


e2, e3, . . . , e16 . .
, l wk ( k) wk+l
, , wk
.
, wk = eg ,

1, g, g2 , g3 , . . . , g15 17.
,

wk+l = eg

k+l

eg g = (wk)g .
k l

g , , 3.

w0 = e, w1 = e3 , w2 = e9, w3 = e10,
w4 = e13, w5 = e5, w6 = e15 , w7 = e11 ,
w8 = e16, w9 = e14, w10 = e8 , w11 = e7,
w12 = e4 , w13 = e12 , w14 = e2, w15 = e6.


x1 =

7
X
k=0

w2k,

x2 =

7
X

w2k+1.

k=0

wi = 1, x1 + x2 = 1.

e e16) + (e8 + e9 ) + (e2 + e15 ) + (e4 + e13) =


= 2(cos a + cos 8a + cos 2a + cos 4a),
x2 = 2(cos 3a + cos 7a + cos 5a + cos 6a),

x1 = ( +

552

a = 2p/17.
2 cos pa cos qa = cos(p + q)a + cos(p q)a,

x1 x2 = 8(cos + cos 2 + cos 3 + . . . + cos 8 ) = 4(x1 + x2 ) = 4.


, x1 x2 x2 + x 4 = 0 . , x1 x2 .

y1 =

3
X

w4k = 2(cos a + cos 4a),

k=0

y2 =

3
X

w4k+2 = 2(cos 8a + cos 2a).

k=0

, y1 + y2 = x1

y1 y2 = 2(cos + cos 2 + cos 3 + . . . + cos 8 ) = x1 + x2 = 1.


, y1 y2
y2 x1 y + 1 = 0. ,
y3 =

3
X

w4k+1 = 2(cos 3a + cos 5a),

k=0

y4 =

3
X

w4k+3 = 2(cos 7a + cos 6a)

k=0

y2 x2 y + 1 = 0.
, y1 , y2 , y3 y4 .
, ,

w4 + w12 = 2 cos 4a.


, z1 +z2 =y1 z1 z2 =2(cos 5a +cos 3a)=y3 . 2
z1 =

w0 + w8 = 2 cos a,

z2 =

, z1 z2 z y1 z+y3 =0.

5.

a
e

553

z1 = 2 cos , , = cos + i sin .


17-.

5.
,

, ,

3
2a, a, . ,
2
, .
. , ,
.
, .
. ,

.
; ,
.
, ,
.
, :
1) , ;
2) ,
;
3) ,
;
4) .

554

. ,
. ,

,
. , l S . ,
A B
AB l S.
,
. Oxy. .
, x y.
1. , t1 , . . . , tn s1 s2 .
si (i = 1, 2) , t1 , . . . , tn ,
, , .
. .
) .
, .
.
) . ,
(a1 , b1 ) (a2 , b2 ),

x a1
a2 a1
=
,
y b1
b2 b1

5.

555

. . (b2 b1 )x + (a1 a2 )y = a1 b2 a2 b1 .
.
,
p1 x + q1 y = r1 ,

r q r q
1 2
2 1

p 1 q2 p 2 q1

p2 x + q2 y = r2 ,

p1 r2 p2 r1
.
p 1 q2 p 2 q1

, . , ,
,
, , .
.
.
) .
(a1 , b1 ),
(a2 , b2 ),
(x a1 )2 + (y b1 )2 = (a2 a1 )2 + (b2 b1 )2 ,

. . x2 2a1 x + y2 2b1 y = c1 , c1 = a22 2a1 a2 + b22 2b1 b2 .



px + qy = r x2 2ax + y2 2by = c

px + qy = r,

x2 2ax + y2 2by = c.

p q . , q 6= 0.
y x:
y=

r px
.
q

(1)

556

,
(p2 + q2 )x2 + 2(bpq aq2 pr)x + (r2 2bqr c2 q) = 0.

x1 x2 , ,
. y1 y2 (1).
) .

(
x2 2a1 x + y2 2b1 y = c1 ,
x2 2a2 x + y2 2b2 y = c2 .

,
(
2(a2 a1 )x + 2(b2 b1 )y = c1 c2 ,
x2 2a2 x + y2 2b2 y = c2 .


).

a (1, 0)
Ox. ,

( 3 2, 0). ,


. 1 3 2
, , , ,
, . ., , .
, 3 2
. , 3 2
( 31.2 ).

5.

557

2. , x3 + Ax2 + Bx + C = 0, A, B, C
, .
.
. ,
, u1 , . . . , un , , ,

P(u1 , . . . , un )/Q(u1 , . . . , un ),
P Q , . . , . ,
P1
P2
P1 Q2 P2 Q1

=
,
Q1
Q2
Q1 Q2
P1 P2
P1 P2
P1 Q2
P1 P2

=
,
:
=
.
Q1 Q2
Q1 Q2
Q1 Q2
P2 Q1

, ,
.

.
,
(1
+
2)
=
3
+
2 2,
p

. . 3 + 2 2 = 1 + 2. ,
1 + 2 1, 2.
, .
n . n.

R, R n 1;
k .
k .
x3 + Ax2 + Bx + C = 0
x1 , x2 , x3 ( ),

558


(x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 ) = x3 + Ax2 + Bx + C.

, x1 + x2 + x3 = A.
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
, , .
x1 n k.
, n = 0, . . x1 .
, n>1. x1- n k. R
n, .
x1

a+b R
,
x1 =
c+d R

(2)

a, b, c d k 1
n . ,
c d R 6= 0.
d = 0, c 6= 0.
d 6= 0,
,

R = c/d. c d R = 0

R (2),
x1 n, k 1 n. ,
x1 n, k. ,
c d R 6= 0, ,

(a + b R)(c d R)
= p + q R.
x1 =
2
2
c d R

x1 = p + q R ,

0 = (p + q R)3 + A(p + q R)2 + B(p + q R) + C = M + N R,

5.

559

M N k 1
n .
N 6= 0, R = M/N, ,
. , M = N = 0. ,

(p q R)3 + A(p q R)2 + B(p q R) + C = M N R,

. . x2 = p q R .
x1 + x2 + x3 = A, x3 = A x1 x2 = A 2p.
,
x3 , n, n k1. x1 n k.
2 , 3 2
. ,
x3 2 = 0.

, , 3 2. 3 2 , x3 2 = 0 . , ,
.

, ,
, ,
30 .
Oxy, AOB Ox
OA. , A B
O 1.
(cos 3 , sin 3 ) (cos , sin ). ,

 3 1 
= 10 ,
.
,
2 2
. -

560

, sin 10
.

f
f cos 2f + cos f sin 2f =
= sin f(1 2 sin2 f) + 2(1 sin2 f) sin f = 3 sin f 4 sin3 f,

sin 3 = sin( + 2 ) = sin

x = sin 10
3x 4x3 = 1/2, . .
8x3 6x + 1 = 0.

(3)

2 , . 2x = p/q,
p q , .
p3 3pq2 + q3 = 0, . . q3 = p(3q2 p2 ). , q
p, , p = 1. 1 3q2 + q3 = 0,
. . q2 (q 3) = 1. 1 q, q = 1.
, x = 1/2. , 1/2 (3).
, (3) , , sin 10 .


, . ,
,
. , , ,
3, 1 1, .
, . . . . 6- . .: , 2007.
, , , ( 5.55

6.

561

b g

= ,
),
. . = 2 . , 12.37 )

a p b

b
g
b
g
lb = 4p sin(a/2) sin(g/2)/(sin a + sin g).

la = 4p sin( /2) sin( /2)/(sin + sin ),

3=

b
a

a
b

b
g
b
b

sin( /2) sin + sin


la
=

=
lb
sin( /2) sin + sin
sin 2 + sin
sin(3 /2)
sin( /2)
=
=

.
cos
4 sin( /2) cos( /2)
2 cos

b
b

, x=sin( /2)
. , sin(3 /2) = 3x 4x3
cos = 1 2x2 . x
4x3 12x2 3x + 6 = 0. y = 2x 2
y3 15y 10 = 0. 2 ,
. , p/q, p q
, .
p3 = 5q2 (3p + 2q), p = 5r, r .
25r3 = q2 (15r + 2q). , q
5, .

6.

, .
,
. ,
, .
; , .
, , -

562

. , , . 1, .
:

, ?.
1890 . ,
5
,
. . 1
:
4 ?. ( ,
.) 1977 . ,
4 .

, .
,
. G ,
f(G, x) x .
, f(G, x) n, n .
, .
, G
, n . ,
. f(G, x) = xn .
G n ,
. ,
f(G, x) = x(x 1) . . . (x n + 1).

6.

563

f(G, x) n.
, , f(G, x) n G n .
G+
n n , A B . G
n,
, , ,
A B. G+
n Gn1 ,

, G+
n Gn ,
, A B (
, ). +
G
n , Gn Gn1 . 2.
C

A
G+
n

B
G
n

A=B
Gn1

. 2

, A = B D, () .
G
n
A B Gn1 ,
A B G+
n .
+
f(G
n , x) = f(Gn , x) + f(Gn1 , x).

(1)

(1) ,
Gn n , f(Gn , x) n. n. n = 1
, f(G1 , x) = x. -

564

, Gn1 n 1 f(Gn1 , x) n.
G
n n .
(1), G
n
n ,
. x(x 1) . . . (x n + 1),
f(G
n , x) = x(x 1) . . . (x n + 1) + f1 + . . . + fk ,

f1 , . . . , fk n 1
, . . n 1.
, , , x(x 1) . . . (x n + 1). , ,
, xn . (1)

f(G+
n , x) = f(Gn , x) f(Gn1 , x).

(2)

,
G+
n n ,
.
n
f(G+
n , x) = x g1 . . . gl ,

(3)

g1 , . . . , gl n 1
.
. , (3), .
1. n
xn a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 a3 xn3 + . . . ,

ai > 0.

1932 . .

7. e

7. e

565

1. e .
. , e .
am em + . . . + a1 e + a0 = 0,

a0 6= 0,

(1)

a0 , a1 , . . . , am .
29.14 ) f(x) d
x
]
f(t)et dt = F(0) exF(x),
0

F(x) = f(x) + f (x) + . . .+ f(d) (x). ,


k
k
]
f(t)et dt = F(0) ek F(k),
0

. .

k
]
F(0)ek F(k) = ek f(t)et dt.

(2)

f(x) =

1
xn1 ((x 1) . . . (x m))n , n (n 1)!

( n ,
); d (m + 1)n 1. (2)
k = 0, 1, . . . , m, ak . (1) ,
m
P
ak ek F(0) = 0,

k=0

m
X
k=0

ak F(k) =

m
X
k=0

ak ek

k
]

f(t)et dt.

(3)

, n ,
(3) , , 1.

566

, f(0)=f (0)=. . .=f(n2) (0)=0, f(n1) (0)=


= (1)mn (m!)n f(l) (k) = 0 0 6 l 6 n 1 1 6 k 6 m. 28.19 l
xn1 ((x 1) . . . (x m))n l!.
f(l) (x) l > n , n. ,
F(0) =

(m+1)n1
X

f(l) (0) = (1)mn (m!)n + nA,

l=n1

F(k) =

(m+1)n1
X

f(l) (k) = nBk ,

1 6 k 6 m.

l=n

A Bk .
n , m |a0 |. (3)
a0 F(0) n, ak F(k), 1 6 k 6 m,
m
P
ak F(k)
n. ,
k=0

. , 1.
, n , (3) 1.
m(m+1)n1

0 6 x 6 m, |x k| 6 m, |f(x)| 6
.
(n 1)!
,
m

m
k
]
]k
X
m(m+1)n X
k
k
t


|a
|e
et dt.
a
e
<
f(t)e
dt
k
k


,
m

<e

m
P

k=0

(n 1)!

k=0

k
]

et dt = 1 ek < 1,

|ak | = c0 . ,

k=0

m
P

k=0

k
]
|ak |ek et dt <

X

k
n
]
m

k
t

< c0 c1 ,
a
e
f(t)e
dt
k


(n 1)!
k=0

7. e

c1 = mm+1 . 25.19 lim

n , c0

567

cn1
= 0. (n 1)!

cn1
< 1, .
(n 1)!

p
p

2. .
. , . i ,
i (
x2 + 1), ( 32.39). ,
i

p0 xm + p1 xm1 + . . . + pm1 x + pm = 0,

(4)

p0 , . . . , pm , p0 > 0. , , i, .
1 , . . . , m (4);
i. 30.29 epi = 1,

b
p

(eb1 + 1)(eb2 + 1) . . . (ebm + 1) = 0.

,
X
X
X
1+
ebk +
ebk +bl + . . . +
eb1 +...+bm = 0.

b b b
a
p

(5)

1 , . . . , n k , k + l , . . . , 1 + . . .
. . .+ m , , n+1 , . . . , N
( ). , N > n, (4) i ( 23.18).
(5)

K + ea1 + ea2 + . . . + ean = 0,

(6)

K > 2 .
p0 1 , . . . , p0 m ( 32.36), p0 1 , . . . , p0 n
( 32.39).

568

F(z1 , . . . , zn ) , F(p0 1 , . . . , p0 n ) . , F(z1 , . . . , zn )



k (z1 , . . . , zn ).
k (p0 1 , . . . , p0 n ) =
= k (p0 1 , . . . , p0 N ), , . ,
k (p0 1 , . . . , p0 N ) p0 1 , . . . , p0 m .
. f(x) = c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + . . . + cn xn F(x) =
= f(x) + f (x) + f (x) + . . . + f(n) (x).

P ex = e|x| Q(x) + F(x),


P =

n
P

ck k! Q(x) =

n
P

k=0

k=0

ck qk (x)xk+1 , |qk (x)| < 1.

. 29.47
k! ex = k! + k! x +

k! 2
k!
x +...+
xk1 + xk + xk+1 qk (x)e|x| ,
2!
(k 1)!

|qk (x)| < 1.


k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n
, ck , .
x =
= 0, 1 , 2 , . . . , n , K
. (6),

a a

KF(0) + F(

a1) + . . . + F(an) + e|a |Q(a1) + . . . + e|a | Q(an) = 0.


1

(7)
, f(x),
,
1 , . . . , m .

f(x) =

pnt+t1
xt1 (x
0

a ) (x a ) . . . (x a ) ,
1

(t 1)!

(8)

7. e

569

t , .
f(x) :
f(x) =

At1 xt1 + At xt + . . .
,
(t 1)!

f(x) =

Bt pt0 (x

a ) +B

f(x) =

Ct pt0 (x

a ) +C

t+1
t+1 p0 (x

(t 1)!

t+1
t+1 p0 (x

(t 1)!

a)
1

a)
2

t+1

t+1

+...
+...

....... ............ ........... ............ ....


,
(8) . ,
At1 = (1)n pt1
0 (p0

a1)t . . . (p0 an)t

(9)

. , At , At+1 , . . .
.
, (8)
f(x) =

pnt+t1
[(x
0

a )+a ]
1

t1

(x 1 )t [(x
(t 1)!

a ) + (a a )] . . . ,
1

Bt , Bt+1 , . . .
p0 1 , p0 2 , . . . , p0 n . f(x) . Bt +Ct +. . . , Bt+1 +Ct+1 +. . . , . . .
,
p0 1 , . . . , p0 n .
,

F(0) = At + tAt + t(t + 1)At+1 + . . . ,

a1) = tBtpt0 + t(t + 1)Bt+1pt+1


+...,
0
+...,
F(a2 ) = tCt pt0 + t(t + 1)Ct+1pt+1
0
F(

......... ............ ........... .......


F(
t.

a1) + . . . + F(an) ,

570

t ,
K, p0 |(p0 1 ) . . . (p0 n )|.

KF(0) = KAt1 + KtAt + Kt(t + 1)At+1 + . . .

, t. , (9) , At1 t.
(7). ,
KF(0) + F( 1 ) + . . . + F( n ) ,
t. , ,

L = e| a1 | Q( 1 ) + . . . + e| an | Q( n )

1 t.
f(x) :
Q(x) =

At1 qt1 xt + At qt xt+1 + . . .


,
(t 1)!

|qk | < 1. , lim

xs
= 0.
s!

8.

.
(18021829)
, .
, ,
. , 5,
( ) .
( ) ,
. , xn = 0 xn = 1.

(18111832).

8.

571


5 ,
,
, . ,
, . ,
, . (
.)

17981813 . (17651822),
. ,
. , (. 4
. 574).
. , 1825 .
,
F(x) = xn + c1 xn1 + . . . + cn = 0

(1)

n- , c1 , . . . , cn L.
, L = Q .
c1 , . . . , cn Q, = Q(c1 , . . . , cn ).
1 , . . . , n (1),
, (F).

572

, (1) , (F) R ,

1 = s1 a1 , 2 = s2 a2 , . . . , m = sm am , a1 , a2 ( 1 ),
a3 ( 1 , 2 ), . . . , am ( 1 , . . . , m1 ).
, , F(x) = x2 + c1 x + c2 . = Q(c1 , c2 )

(F) = ( a1 ), a1 = c21 4c2 .


, s1 , . . . , sm 1 , . . . , m
. ,

sk = uv, k = sk ak
= u ak

1 = v .
.
, (1) . 1 , . . . , m ,
1 , . . . , m . K.
K, (F) ( 1 , . . . , m ) K( 1 , . . . , m ).

.
1. p , k
. xp a k , a = bp
b k.
. , xp a = f(x)
g(x), f(x) g(x) k.

p
p = a.

r r

f(x) = xr + c1 xr1 + . . . + cr = (x

eb

en b) . . . (x en b).
1

l r = cr k, l = n1 + . . . + nr .
( l )p = 1, ( r )p = (cr )p , . . ar = (cr )p . p
1 6 r = deg f < p, rs + pt = 1
s t. , a=ars apt =(csr at )p =bp , b=csr at k.
, a = bp , xp a , x b.

8.

573

2. s ai k =

/ k, li k
= K( 1 , . . . , i1 ). i = s ai
, l s.
. l = ns, li = ani k,
ai k.
, li = a k, l = sq + r,
0 < r < s. a = li = (ai )q ri , , ri = b,
b = a(ai )q . k xs ai xr b i , ,
r < s. , xs ai
k. 1 , ai = bs ,
b k. , b = i , s .
K k, i k. .
, 1 , . . . , m ,

(1), . .
m . .
3. (1)

er

r
r
a

a = u0 + r + u2 r2 + . . . + us1rs1,

s rm , r = s a, a ul -
k = K(r1 , . . . , rm1 ).
. a K(r1 , . . . , rm ) = k(rm )
rsm k,
a = b0 + b1rm + b2r2m + . . . + bs1rms1,
(2)

bi k. , / k,
b1 = 1.
b1 , . . . , bs1 . bl 6= 0,
1 6 l < s. = bl lm . s ,
ul + vs = 1 u v.
u
u 1vs
v
= bul av m , . . m = c u , c = bu
= bul ul
m = bl m
l a k.
s l
s
s ls
/ k. , = bl m = bl a k.
m
/ k,

r
r

574

ru , ,

(2) m c
bl lm = .

r r
a = b0 + b1cru + b2c2 r2u + . . . + r + . . . + bs1r(s1)u (3)
2 , rt k ,
t s. u s ,
1, ru , r2u , . . . , r(s1)u
1, r, r2 , . . . , rs1 ( ). , (3) a:
a = b0 + r + b2r2 + . . . + bs1rs1.

4. 1 , . . . , m (1)
, 1 , . . . , m
K 1 , . . . , m (1).
.
1 , . . . , m . ,
K ,
1 , . . . , m ,
1 , . . . , m . 3 m
s ,

a
r

a = u0 + r + u2r2 + . . . + us1rs1 ,
ul k = K(r1 , . . . , rm1 ) rs = a k. ,
x xs a
a(x) = u0 + x + u2x2 + . . . + us1xs1

(1).
F(x) = xn + c1 xn1 + . . . + cn x ( ). , s = a k,

ax

b0 + b1 + . . . + bs1

xs1,

bl k. xs a b0 + b1 x + . . . + bs1 xs1
, k.
1 xs a k,

8.

575

b0 = b1 = . . . = bs1 = 0. , xs a, ( ) (1).
s . = r ,

ax
e
x er
ar+1 = u0 + er r + u2 e2r r2 + . . . + us1e(s1)r rs1

r = 0, 1, . . . , s 1 (1). , s = 3

a1 =u0 + r +u2 r2, a2 =u0 + er +u2 e2 r2, a3 =u0 + e2 r +u2 er2.


1 + e + e2 = 0,
a1 + a2 + a3 = 3u0, a1 + e1a2 + e2a3 = 3r,
a1 + e2a2 + e1a3 = 3u2r2.
1
, r = (a1 + e2 a2 + ea3 ). s > 3
3

, .
m . m1 .
( s = 3), u0 , ,
u2 2 , . . . , us1 s1
1 , . . . , m (1). ,
K( 1 , . . . , m1 ),

r
a
r

n0 + n1rm1 + n2r2m1 + . . . + nl1 rl1


m1 ,
nl K(r1 , . . . , rm2 ).
r1, . . . , rm , n1 = n2 = . . .
. . . = nl1 = 0 ,
rm1 .

n0 + n1rm1 + n2r2m1 + . . . + nl1 rl1


m1 = r(a1 , . . . , an ),
nl K(r1 , . . . , rm2 ), n1 , . . . , nl1
, r(a1 , . . . , an ) K.
Y
G(x) = (x r( s(1) , . . . ,

as(n))),

576

Sn .

G
(1), (1). , G K,

= 0 + 1 m1 + 2 2m1 + . . . + l1 l1
m1 .
, ( 1 , . . . , m1 ).
3, m1 , 1 = 1.

, . m2 . . 1 .
.
5 (). n > 5 n .
. , 1 n
xn + c1 xn1 + c2 xn2 + . . . + cn
. 14
1 . 1
1 , . . . , m ,
, ,
1 , . . . , n . ,
1 , . . . , m , 1 , . . . , m , = Q(c1 , . . . , cn )
K = ( 1 , . . . , m ) = Q( 1 , . . . , m , c1 , . . . , cn ).
1 1 , . . . , m
K, . .
1 = r( 1 , . . . , m , c1 , . . . , cn ),

b n nr

nr

n r

8.

577

r Q( 1 , . . . , m ). , 1 , . . . , m K
1 , . . . , n , . .

r1 = r1(a1, . . . , an, c1 , . . . , cn),


r1 Q(e1 , . . . , em ).
n, ,
a1, . . . , an , c1 , . . . , cn ( ) a1 , . . . , an .

, n > 5
n
.
1 2 3 4 5 6 . . . n
,
T=
2 3 4 5 1 6 ... n
5 , . ,
T 1 , . . . , n 1
.

p
1 = r1 ( 1 , . . . , n , c1 , . . . , cn ) = a1 ,

a1 c1 , . . . , cn Q( 1 , . . . , m ),
p1 = a1

( 1 , . . . , n , c1 , . . . , cn ) = 0,

fa

e
b

Q( 1 , . . . , m ). ,
1 , . . . , n . 1 = i1 , . . . , n = in ,
i1 , . . . , in 1, 2, . . . , n.

f( b1, . . . , bn , d1 , . . . , dn) = 0,
di = ci ( b1 , . . . , bn ). ci
, di = ci (a1 , . . . , an ) = ci .
f(ai , . . . , ai , c1 , . . . , cn) = 0.
1

578

, p1 = a1 T 1 , . . . , n , . . T( p1 ) = T(a1 ). ,
T( p1 ) = T( 1 )p . a1 , T(a1 ) = a1 . ,
l 1 . ( Tm T( 1 ) = 1l 1 Tm ( 1 ) = m
1
T, m , . . T(i1 ) = i2 ,
T(i2 ) = i3 , . . . , T(im ) = im+1 , Tm (i1 ) = im+1 .) T5 = I
, 51l 1 = T5 ( 1 ) = 1 ,
. . 51l = 1.

1 2 3 4 5 6 . . . n
U=
1 2 4 5 3 6 ... n

er

e r

e r

V=

1 2 3
2 3 1

4 5 6
4 5 6

. . . n
.
... n

er

, U3 = V 3 = I, U( 1 ) = 1m 1
3m
V( 1 ) = 1n 1 , 1 = 31n = 1. , VU = T,

er

r1) = VU(r1) = em1 +nr1 .


m+ n
l = e6(m+n) = 1,
, el1 = e1 , , el1 = e61l e5
1
1
6m
e51l = e1 = e61n = 1. T(r1 ) = r1 .
r2 , . . . , rm , T(ri ) = ri i = 2, . . . , m.
ri = ri (a1 , . . . , an , c1 , . . . , cn ),
a1 = r(r1 , . . . , rm , c1 , . . . , cn )
a1 , . . . , an ,
c1 , . . . , cn Q(e1 , . . . , em ). T(

T, . .

a1) = r(T(r1), . . . , T(cn)) = r(r1, . . . , cn ),


T(ci ) = ci T(ri ) = ri . ,

T(


T( 1 ) =
= 1 . , T

8.

a a

579

a a2

T( 1 )= 2 , , 1 = 2 . 1 =
.

f(x) . , f(x) = 0
, ,

1 = s1 a1 , 2 = s2 a2 , . . .

. . . , m = sm am , a1 Q, a2 Q( 1 ), a3 Q( 1 , 2 ), . . .
. . . , am Q( 1 , . . . , m1 ).
6 (). f(x) = 0,
f(x) p, , ,
.
, ,
k ( ) f(x) p k
g(x)
q. ,
f(x) = (x, ) (x, ),
k. ,
f, 1.
r u(y) =
= f(r) (r, y) (r, y) k. , u( ) = 0. , u
g, u( i ) =
= 0 i g. f(x)
(x, i ) (x, i ) x, x. ,
f(x) = (x, i ) (x, i ) q g.
q . ,
(f(x))q =(x)(x), (x)= (x, 1 ) . . . (x, q )

a
af

r
r

r r

y f

y f

a f a
y a f a

y a

y a

580

(x) = (x, 1 ) . . . (x, q ).


k 1 , . . . , q g,
k. x1 . f,
(f(x1 ))q = (x1 )(x1 ). f , ,
f. f .
= fm . = fn ;
+ = q.

m n.
mq = p nq = p. m n
p, q p.
, f(x) p, p
. , p

m n

y f

xp1 + xp2 + . . . + x2 + x + 1
q = p 1, q p.
, k
p . ,
, , . . ,
k . ,
, f(x)

g(x) ,
g(x).
, f(x) p

q
= a. , q
(. . 572). 1 . 572,

8.

581

xq a k. q p, , q = p.
xp = a p 0 = , 1 = , . . .
. . . , p1 = p1 . f(x)= (x, ) (x, ),
(x, i )
k. f(x)
i = 0, 1, . . . , p 1. , (x, )
. (x, i ) . , . , (x, m ) = (x, n ), , = m , (x, ) = (x, ), = nm . ,
(x, y) = (x, y ) y. xr
(x, y) (x, y ) h(y) k p. k xp a,
k ()
p. h( ) = 0 , h . , (x, ) =
2
n1
= (x, ) = (x, ) = . . . = (x,
).

le

l
l

lf

y le y le
l y le
y e
y
y e

l l le
y f
y l
y l
l le

le y le
y le
y(x, l) = y(x, l) + y(x, le )n+ . . . + y(x, le

n1

0 , . . . , p1 , xp a,
k. , p (x, i ) , ,
f(x) = (x, ) (x, ) . . . (x, p1 )

ly

le

le

, . . (x, )=x 0 ,
(x, ) = x 1 , . . . , (x, p1 ) = x n1 .
(x, ) = x (c0 + c1 + . . . + cp1 p1 ),
c0 , . . . , cp1 k. j =c0 +c1 j +. . .+cp1 jp1 .
f(x) = 0 j , . .

le

w
l

le

l
l

582

1. a .

xp a, , .
P
P
cs sj =
cs js s =
j j =
P
= ds s ; ds = cs js k, k . , j = j ,
(d0 d0 ) + (d1 d1 ) + . . . + (dp1 dp1 ) p1 = 0.
, ds ds k.
k
p,

P ds .
P
P ,
r = cs s rs = ds s (rj)s t = ds s (tj)s
, r j + t j 0 (mod p),
. . t 2j r (mod p). -

e
l

l
w

el

w w
l

le

le

le

p1



2
f(x).
2.
a .
p
= a k .

=. k f(x) ,
1. , f(x)
k.
xp a, , 0 = c0 + c1 + . . . + cp1 p1 .

ll

w0 = w0 = c0 + c1 l + . . . + cp1 lp1 =
= c0 + c1

c0 + c1 + . . . + cp1



+ . . . + cp1

lp1 = c0 + c1 l

 

 p1

+ . . . + cp1

 p1

(4)

c0 , . . . , cp1 , c0 , . . . , cp1 K().


xp a

8.

583

, (4)
p
j x a. ,
, G(x)
xp a, G(x)
xp a, G( i ) = 0. ,

le

l
j
e = le = lj.
j

lj
c0 + c1 l + . . . + cp1 lp1 = c0 + c1 l + . . . + cp1 lp1 .
, wj = wj , . . f(x)

(4)

. .
, , x5 4x + 2 = 0 . , f(x) = x5
4x + 2 ( 32.13).
,
f(2) < 0,

f(0) > 0,

f(1) < 0,

f(2) > 0.

, ,
f (x) = 5x4 4 .
, x5 4x + 2
. .
.
, ,
. , . 580 ,
f(x) -

584

, ,
.
9.
,
. ,
, . .
, .
,
. , ,
n > 3 xn + yn = zn , .
( fn + gn = hn ), ,
.
, , , fa + gb = hg f, g, h
, XIX .
.
.
1 (). a(x), b(x) c(x) ,
a + b + c = 0.
n0 (abc) 1, n0 (abc) abc.
. f = a/c g = b/c.
f g ,
f + g + 1 = 0. ,
f = g .

ab g

b
g
f /f
= = .
a
f
g /g

9.

585

f g
Q
ri
(x
Q i ) , ri . R(x) =
= (x i )ri
R X ri
.
=

Y
a(x) = (x

ai)a ,
i

b(x) =

ai
x
X bj
g /g =
x

f /f =

(x

bj )b ,

c(x) =

ck
x
X ck


Y
N0 = (x i )(x j )(x

(x

gk )c .
k

gk)

n0 (abc) f /f g /g n0 (abc) 1.
, a(x) b(x)

b
N0 f/f
=
a
N0 g/g

, a(x) b(x)
n0 (abc) 1. c(x) .
1 , 24. f deg f.
2 (). f g .
deg(f3 g2 ) >

1
deg f + 1.
2

. deg f3 6= deg g2 ,
deg(f3 g2 ) > deg f3 = 3 deg f >

1
deg f + 1.
2

, deg f3 = deg g2 = 6k.

586

F= f3 , G = g2 H = F G = f3 g2 .
, deg H 6 6k. 1
max(deg F, deg G, deg H) 6 n0 (FGH) 1 6
6 deg f + deg g + deg H 1,
. . 6k 6 2k + 3k + deg H 1. , deg H > k + 1 =
=

1
deg f + 1.
2

3. f, g h , .

fn + gn = hn
n > 3.
. 1 fn , gn hn deg f +deg g+
+ deg h 1, . .
n deg f, n deg g, n deg h 6 deg f + deg g + deg h 1.
,
n(deg f + deg g + deg) 6 3(deg f + deg g + deg h 1) <
< 3(deg f + deg g + deg h).
, n < 3.
fa + gb = hg
f, g, h , , ,
1. , , , > 2.
4. , , ,
2 6 6 6 .

a b g

a b g

a b g

a b g

fa + gb = hg
( , , ): (2, 2, ), (2, 3, 3), (2, 3, 4) (2, 3, 5).

a b g

9.

587

. a, b c f, g h. 1

aa 6 a + b + c 1,
bb 6 a + b + c 1,
gc 6 a + b + c 1.

(1)
(2)
(3)

a(a + b + c) 6 aa + bb + gc 6 3(a + b + c) 3,
, a < 3. a > 2, a = 2. a = 2
(1)

a 6 b + c 1.

(4)

(4), (2) (3),

bb + gc 6 3(b + c) + a 3.
, b 6 g, (4),

b(b + c) 6 4(b + c) 4,
, b < 4, . . b = 2 3.
, b = 3, g 6 5. b = 3
(2)

2b 6 a + c 1.

(5)

(4) (5),
b 6 2c 2.

(4) ,
a 6 3c 3.

(3) ,

c 6 6c 6,

g 6 5.

588

, fa +gb =hg,
.
. .
. .: , 1989;
. .
= = 2, = n n-.

 xn + 1 2  xn 1 2

= xn .

a b

= 2, = 3, = 3 .

12i 3(x5 x)2 + (x4 2i 3x2 + 1)3 = (x4 + 2i 3x2 + 1)3 .

= 2, = 3, = 4
.
(x12 33x8 33x4 + 1)2 + 108(x5 x)4 = (x8 + 14x4 + 1)3 .

= 2, = 3, = 5 . T2 + h3 = 1728f5 ,
T = x30 + 1 + 522(x25 x5 ) 10005(x20 + x10 ),
H = (x20 + 1) + 228(x15 x5 ) 494x10,
f = x(x10 + 11x5 1).

3 , xn + yn = zn ,
x, y, z , ,
. ,
xa + yb = zg
,
.
x2 + y3 = z4
, .
,

10.

589

. x = n(n 1)/2, y = n z2 = n(n + 1)/2. n , z .


2z2 = n(n + 1)
(2n + 1)2 2(2z)2 = 1.

,
. , n = 8
x = 28, y = 8, z = 6.
.
x2 + y4 = z6 .
,
.
x = 37 59 7 298 , y = 2 33 55 294 , z = 32 53 293 .
10.


. .
() - , l
l (. .
a, a + d, a + 2d, . . . , a + (l 1)d a d).
. . .
. . .
, .
() l
N(l), 1, 2, . . . , N(l) ,
l.

590

, ()
.
() l k
N(l, k), 1, 2, . . . , N(l, k)
k ,
l.
() (). ,
, (), k l.

1927 .
k k . () .
( ) l k
N(l, k), 1, 2, . . . , N(l, k)
k , l.
, .
,
. . .*
n- ** , .
,
.
1. S
. k
a
v ,
* P. G. A n d e r s o n. A generalization of Baudets conjecture (Van der
Waerdens theorem) // Amer. Math. Monthly. 1976. V. 83. P. 359361.
**
, ,
n = 2 3; n = 1.

10.

591

aS + v (. . S a v) .
a v ,
S k.
.
n = 1 S = {1, 2, . . . , l}.

N, 0 N 1. KN ;
Nn , n .
S .
(A S ) N, k,
KN k
aS + v.
. S , (A S ) .
, w , S, (A S )
(A Sw ), S w , S w.
p.
(CS,w,p ) Np ,
KNp k a1 , . . . , ap v
,
T0 = (a1 + . . . + ap )w + v,
T1 = a1 S + (a2 + . . . + ap )w + v,
T2 = (a1 + a2 )S + (a3 + . . . + ap )w + v,
................................
Tp = (a1 + . . . + ap )S + v
.

592

.
1. (A S ) , p (CS,w,p ).
(CS,w,p ) p = 1.
, KN1 a1 w + v a1 S + v.
(A S ) , KN aS + v. a1 = a
KN KN1 , v KN
aw + v KN1 .
,
(A S ) (CS,w,p ), (CS,w,p+1 ). ,
. k .
v v + KN . Nn ,
n
kN
n
k . kN
n
kN v v + KN .
, : u v
, u + x v + x x KN , . . u + KN v + KN
.
;
KN .
(A S ) (CS,w,p ). Np , KNp k
a1 , . . . , ap v,
T0 , T1 , . . . , Tp .
n
k = kNp , KNp .
(CS,w,1 )
. ,

10.

593

KN , ( ) a w + v a S + v . a S + v , KNp + a s + v
s S.

Tq + a s + v ,

q = 0, 1, . . . , p,

s. ,

Tq+1 = a S + Tq + v .
T0 = a w + T0 + v ,

T0 = (a + a1 + . . . + ap )w + v ,
T1 = a S + (a1 + a2 + . . . + ap )w + v ,
...... ........... ............ .......
Tp+1 = (a + a1 + . . . + ap )S + v ,
v = v + v .
2. (CS,w,p ) p, (A Sw ).
, (CS,w,p )
p = k, k . T0 , T1 , . . . , Tk .
, ,
. , , Tr Tq ,
r < q, . ,
Tr =(a1 + . . . + ar1 )S + (ar + . . . + aq1 )w + (aq + . . . + ap )w + v,
Tq =(a1 + . . . + ar1 )S + (ar + . . . + aq1 )S + (aq + . . . + ap )w + v.
a = ar + . . . + aq1
v = (a1 + . . . + ar1 )s + (aq + . . . + ap )w + v,
s S. a (S w) + v
.

594

11.
1717 .
Algebra, , ,
.
- (787 . 850), ,
- -- ( ).
.
-
: - () - (). -

. - .
-
.
. XIV .

.
- (787 . 850).
, -
. - ,
.
analysis,
, , .
arithmos (). . -

11.

595



. .
irrationalis (). arretos, , ,
. , , - , ,

. asymmetros, alogos,
irrationalis.
kathetos ().
quadratum ().
cubus, . .
linea,
( ).
mathematike, ,
, mathema ().
.
.
;
( akustikos ). .
pyramis,
. ,
, .
prisma,
( ).

596

proportio; analogia ().


radius (, ).
distance.
rombus,
.
, .
sphaira,
.
, .
punctum () pungo (). , , . semeion (, ), signum. ( .) , ,
stigma (),
punctum.
trapezium, .
, -
.
1701 .
figura fingo (, ).
schema ( , , ). .
cylindrus, , .

. . 285, 571,
576
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43, 49, 203,


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496
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294, 295, 337
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442
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287, 388, 400, 402,
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498, 511, 546
. 546

d- 259

576
389
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444
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485
465
325

325

325
325

325

43
436
436
367, 518

518
125
497
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389
388
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178
294

365
179

314
18, 498
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532
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484
484
484

384
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325
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518
269, 561
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269
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269

43, 203, 437,


485
437

435
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116
532
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183
286, 334, 441
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366
116, 258
531

531
17, 485

15 230
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547
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310, 532

129
130

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486
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600


48
436
436
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332

336
533
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277
128
409
324

441
325
295
17, 97
337
178
220
128
128
- 242
520
521
520
463
295
521
465
579


129
286
336, 408
66

404
438
516
444
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323
495
338


270
298
399, 464
162

403
403
298
102

441
544
438
453

131
, 131
438
439
147
444
130
497
442
532
533
131
131

440
531
533
276
442


437
486
519
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544
484
311
438
102
313
387
17, 97
98, 172, 313
102
442
96
369
294
518
230
363
259
335, 521

339
436

130
440

364

511
400
332

325
437

601

270
571
437
531
366
516
294

294

298
298
314
453
310

520
363
270
434
43
441
532
310, 532
238

518
534
237
237
534
238
519
270
270
161, 200, 486

161
361
408, 409

602

510
434
531
230
230

116
159
159
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338

183
310
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294
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486
438
439

159
277
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231
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n- 331
331
331
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515
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314
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434
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179
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603

238
239
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, 161
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116

402
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436

522
439

605

386
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494

498

339

439
518



,
05.06.2007 . 60 84/16. .
38 . . 2000 .
.
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. 610033, . , . , 122.



. ., . . . 2007
. . . 2006.
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. . . 2006
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. , . . . 2007
. . . 2007
. ., . ., . . . 2007
. . . 2006
. ., . ., . . . 2007
. ., . ., . . . 2006
. . . . 2007
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. . . . 79 . 2006
. . . 2006
. . . 2006
. ., . ., . .
. . 2007
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. . .
. 2007
. 2007
. . . . 2006
. . .
. 2006
., . ? 2007
. 2006
. 2007
. 2006
- . 2006.
2007
. . . . 1, 2. 2004, 2006

. . . 2007
. . . 2006
. ., . . . 2007
. . . 2006
. . . 2007
. . . . 2007
. . . 2006
. : . 2007
. . 2007
. : . 2007
XI . . . . 2006
XII . . . . 2007

. ., . ., . . .
14 . 2007

( )
. . .
. .
. .
. . 520 .
. .
. .
. . .

,
http://www.mccme.ru/publications/.
.
: 119002, ,
., . 11.
, . :
(495) 2417285. E-mail: biblio@mccme.ru.
1130
20 00 .