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. .

1998

541.1
. .
: / -.
, 1998. 220 . ISBN 5-7477-0249-1

. -,
7-11
.
AMS-TEX . Lh,
CyrTUG TEX.
:

. .-. ., . . . (),
. .-. ., . . . (),
. . (. 42 . ).

ISBN 5-7477-0249-1

c . ., 1998

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, 1998 .

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: a A.
: a A,
A a.
A 3 a .
A - .

B. , B A,
: B A. , B
A. :
a A,

B A.

, .
B, A. B = A.
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
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I. . . .

B A. B A
B = A.
B, A, B A.
B A , B .
.

A, . . A.
A B .
: c A
c B. C, A B.
: C = A B. A B 6= , ,
A B . , , A B = ,
, .
A B .
C A B.
A
B. C = A B.
, A B,
( ).
(1) , A B
;
(2) , A, B;
(3) , B, A.
A B. ,
A B. A \ B. ,
, ,
B \ A. A B, A \ B B \ A .
A B: A B = (A B) (A \ B) (B \ A).

2. . . .

2.
.
M . (a, b), a M b M .
, a , b . (b, a)
(a, b). M M
M M .
M M - .
R M M . , , M R.
, (a, b) R
, a b , .
(a, b) R
R
, : a + b. a + b : a
b R.
. : a = b, a < b b > a.
2.1. R M
R
, :
R

(1) : a a a M ;
R
R
(2) : a b b a;
R
R
R
(3) : a b b c a c.
,
R
, R a b R
a b : a b.

10

I. . . .

2.2. M R. a
M x M ,
R
a, ClR (a) = {x M : x a}.
R

2.1. a b, ClR (a) = ClR (b). a b ,


ClR (a) ClR (b) = .
, R,
. , ,
M/R.
M M/R .
2.1 ,
, .
a M . R
M
:
[
M=
Q.
QM/R

2.1. ,

R, 2.1.
3. .
3.1. P M
P
,
:
P

(1) : a b a 6= b;
P

(2) : a b b a;
P

(3) : a b b c a c.

5. . . .

11

a b a b b
a. , , P .
a b b a, ,
a b . M
P ,
. M , M
.
4. .
, , .
. a + b = c
, (a, b, c)
,
. .
4.1. , M
R, R
M M M .
5. .
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E. .
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12

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A m, , A m, m A.
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m.

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.

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.
.
.
:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

(8 A1A8);
(4 A9A12);
(5 A13A17);
(2 A18 A19);
(1 A20).

7. .

13

7. .
X Y . X
Y ,
x X
y Y . , , ,
( ). f : X Y ,
f X Y .
x X, f (x)
f x. y = f (x) Y
x X. x X, , y = f (x),
y Y .
, f f : X Y ,
, x X, .
, x1 = x2 f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).

X X.
: idX : X X. x
X
, idX (x) = x x X.
f : X Y g : Y Z .
.
h, x X
, x f , f (x)
g, g(f (x)).
h(x) = g(f (x)). h : X Z
g f h = g f .
g f (x) = g(f (x))

(7.1)

x X. , (7.1) g f .

14

I. . . .

, .
7.1. f : Z W ,
g : Y Z h : X Y ,
(f g) h = f (g h).

(7.2)

.
-. (7.2) ,
(7.2) .
,
X W .
, ,
,
x x X. (7.2)

(f g) h(x) = f (g h)(x)

(7.3)

x X.
(7.1), :
(f g) h(x) = f g(h(x)) = f (g(h(x))),
f (g h)(x) = f (g h(x)) = f (g(h(x))).
(7.3) f (g(h(x))).
(7.3), (7.2), . 
7.1. f : X Y X Y A X. B Y ,
A, A
B = f (A).
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

7. .

15


. f () = .
X Im f ,
Im f = f (X). X
f , Y ,
Im f f .
f .
7.2. f : X Y X Y y Y . ,
X, y, y. f 1 (y).
7.3. f : X Y X Y B
Y . ,
x X, f (x) B,
B. f 1 (B).
7.3 Y X, f 1 (Y ) = X.
f 1 () = . ,
B .
7.4. f : X Y , y Y f 1 (y)
.
7.5. f : X Y
, y Y f 1 (y)
.
7.6. f : X Y , .

16

I. . . .

7.2. f : X Y
, x1 6= x2 f (x1 ) 6= f (x2 ).
7.3. f : X Y
, Im f = Y .
7.1. 7.2 7.3, 7.4 7.5.
f : X Y .
y Y f 1 (y) ,
. ,
.
h : Y X, y Y f 1 (y).
h
f . h = f 1 .
7.4. h : Y X, f : X Y , ,
h = f 1 h1 = f .
7.5. f : X Y
f 1 : Y X
f f 1 = idY ,

f 1 f = idX .

7.6.
.
7.7.
.
7.8.
.
7.2. 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7 7.8.

8. .

17

8. .
X 0 X
f : X Y h : X 0 Y 0 .
h(x) = f (x) x X 0 , , h
f X 0 . f , ,
h
X 0 X.
f : X Y , X 0 X.
f ,
X 0 , f : X 0 Y ,
.
f : X 0 Y 0 X 0
X .
f (x) x X, X 0 , .
, f : X 0 Y 0
,
X.

.

II

1. .
A1.
.
A2. A B , .
A3.
, .
A1 A2 , , .
: AB ,
A B. ,
, AB CD.
A3 ,
.
, A1, A2 A3
.
.
A4. A, B ,
, ,
.

1. .

19

A5.
.
A6. - A B a
, a .
A7. , .
A8. , .
A1A8 ,
- .

.
1.1. , .
-. a 6= b , , A
a b. , .
a b B, A.
a b, A B.
A2. 
1.2. , ,
.
-. A 6= . A7.
.
B AB.
A B .
A6 . , AB
.

20

II. .

.
, AB .
AB .
.
, , AB. ,
C . A, B
C, ,
, .
A4, ,
AB. 
1.3.
, , .
-. C a.
a A1, ,
- A B. A, B C
. A4
, A, B
C. a A6.
, a .
, ,
C a.
, , C a, . ,
A, B C,
. A4. 
1.4. a, ,
.
a , , a . ,
. A a .

1. .

21

,
B a . A B a
. A6, , a
.
: a 6 . ,
a A.
.
1.5. ,
,
.
-. a b , . 1.1
, A. b A1.
b B,
A. B a,
b
a b.
a B 1.3.
a B . A B, b,
. A6,
b . ,
a b.
, .
,
a b,
a B. 1.3
,
. 
1.1. , .
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

22

II. .

-. . A8, A, B, C D,
. ,
.
,
. 
1.2. a , .
-. a . A3 A, B C,
. ,
a. ,
A, B C a,
. 
1.6. ,
.
-. . A5,
A . 1.1. X, . AX
A,
. 1.4.
, A AX
.
1.2 AX. Z, AX. A, X
Z . A4
= AXZ, .
A.
A7. ,
A

1. .

23

. B. ,
A B.
1.1.
Y , . AX
, Y ,
Y
/ AX. A, X Y .
A4
= AXY .
, X,
.
,
A. 1.2. ,
a,
A.
a . AX A.
1.1 , X
/ a. , a
B. , A
AX . B
/ AX
A, X B . ,
B a, A, X B
. A4 : = .
Y , , . . 6= . ,
B a.

a, A, B,
. a A1
C a, A. A, B C
,
. 
1.1. , 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6,
1.1 1.2.

24

II. .

, . ,
{1, 2, 3, 4}. , 1, 2, 3 4 .
{1, 2}, {1, 3}, {1, 4}, {2, 3}, {2, 4}, {3, 4}
.
:
{1, 2, 3}, {1, 2, 4}, {1, 3, 4}, {2, 3, 4}.
.
1.2. , A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7 A8.
2. .
. . A, B C,
, .
B A C, :
(A I B J C).

(2.1)


, (2.1).
A9. B A C,
C A.
(2.1), :
(A I B J C) = (C I B J A).

(2.2)

2. .

25

A9 (2.2)
.
A B . A2
AB. (
) AB, A B:
(AB) = {X AB :

(A I X J B)}.

A9 , (AB) (BA). A B .
,
, :
[AB] = {A} {B} (AB).
A9 [AB] [BA].
(AB) [AB],
A B . AB, [AB], [AB].
:
[AB) = {A} (AB),

[BA) = {B} (AB).

A10. A B AB
C, , B A C.
A11. A, B C,
,
.
A11 ,
:
(A I B J C),

(B I C J A),

(C I A J B).

(2.3)

26

II. .

A11 ,
(2.3) .
2.1. [AB] .
-. A10 A B.
C, AB,
(A I B J C). A11
(B I C J A). ,
C [AB].
, A,
B. , C [AB].
. 
, A9, A10 A11
.
[AB].
2.2. [AB] AB C1 C2 , ,
(A I B J C1 ) (B I A J C2 ).
-. , A B
A10 .
A10 .
C1 , (A I B J C1 ).
A B A10
. C2
(B I A J C2 ).
C1 C2 [AB], ,
. , C = C1 = C2 ,
A9, ,
(A I B J C) (C I A J B).
A11. 
A12. A, B C ,
, a,

2. .

27

, . ,
a [AB] ,

[AC] [BC].
A12, . .
2.3. [AB] .
-. 1.2, C, AB. A10 A
C. D, AC
, C [AD]. DB [DB] 2.1.
E DB,
[DB].
CE AD
C, [AD]. DB E, B.
CE A,
D B. a
CE A12
A, D B.
CE
[AB] [DB] . [DB] .
, CE DB
E,

[DB]. [AB]. CE
F . , [AB]
. 2.3 . 

28

II. .

2.4. A, B C,
, .
-. A, B C , . , A
B C, ,
C A B.
, B
A C. 1.2
D, AC (.
. 2.2). A10 A D
E AD, ,
D [AE]. DC
EC, EB. DC EB F . AF .
AF EC G.
ABE. DC [AE] D.
A12 [AB] [EB] . [AB]
, DC AB C. , ,
, [AB]
A B. : F , DC EB,
[EB].
EBC. AF
[EB] F . A12 [BC] [EC]
. [BC] ,
AF BC A, ,
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

2. .

29

,
, B C.
[EC], , , AF
G.
EDC
AG, EC G.
A12, ,
AG [DC] [DE]
. [DE] . , AG DE A,
E , (A I D J E). A11
(E I A J D), A
[DE]. : F
[DC].
ADC
EB, [DC] F .
A12. , EB [AD]
[AC] . [AD] .
, EB AD E.
(A I D J E) E (D I E J A) , , E
[AD]. [AC]. B,
EB AC,
[AC]. 2.4 . 
2.4 A11.
A, B C, ,
(2.3) ,
. A12
.
2.5. A, B C ,
, a,

30

II. .

, . , a [AB] ,

[AC] [BC].
-. , . a [AB], [BC]
[CA] . P ,
Q R. P , Q R AB,
BC CA, A, B C.
A, B C
a, , P , Q R
.
, R P Q. , R P Q, AR
P QB A12.
AR [P B] [QB]
. AR P B
A, QB C. A
[P B], , P
A B. C [QB],
Q B C.
, R
P Q. ,
Q R P , P
Q R. P , Q R a
.
2.4. ,
a [AC] [BC] ,
. 2.5 . 
3. .
3.1. B A C,
C B D. B C
A D.

3. .

31

-. (A I B J C) , A
BC, (B I C J D) , D
BC. ,
3.1
A, B, C D
.
1.2,
E,
AD. A10
C E.
CE F , , E
[CF ]. AE F B,
F BC. AE F C E,
[F C]. AE BC
A, [BC].
A12 AE [F B]
F BC G.
AEC. F B
AC B, [AC].
F B EC F ,
[EC]. , , G,
F B AE,
[AE].
F BC
GD. [F B] G [BC],
D [BC].
, GD
[F C] H.
GBD F C. , C [BD], , F
/ [GB].
, H

32

II. .

[GD].
AGD
F C. F C [GD]
H
[AG]. , E
[AG]. , C
[AD].
, .
.
, , B [AD], A c D B
C.
. 
3.2. C [AD]
B [AC], B
[AD], C [BD].
-. , C [AD], B [AC],
AD. 1.2,
E, AD. A10 F BE, ,
E F B.
F C ABE.
F C [AB] [BE] . ,
AB F C C,
[AB].
F BE
F C, [BE].
F C [AE]
, A12 [AB] [BE] ABE.

3. .

33

, F C 3.2
[AE].
DE, F C G. AED.
F C [AD]
C, [AE]. , , G
[ED].
BED.
F C [ED] G. F C BE F .
[BE]. A12
C, F C BD,
[BD].
3.2 , C B D.
, 3.1.
, B A C, C
B D. 3.1 , B [AD]. 3.2. 
3.1. B A C,
[AB] [BC] [AC].
-. [AB]. ,
, . A
A [AC]. B A C, B
[AC], . . B [AC].
X [AB].
X A B. B A
C. 3.2. X [AC].
, [AB] [AC].
[BC] [AC] A C

34

II. .

[AB] [AC],
. 
3.2. B A C,
[AC] [AB] [BC].
-. [AB] [BC]
[AC].
[AB] [BC] [AC].

(3.1)

[AC] [AB] [BC]. [AC] B


[AB] [BC].
[AC], B.
X.
X
/ [AB], 2.4
: A [BX] B [AX].
X [AC]
3.1. A [BC] X [BC].
A [BC] , B
[AC]. , B [AX].
X [AC] 3.2. 3.2
B [AC] X [BC].
, X [AC], B, , X
/ [AB]
X [BC].
[AC] [AB] [BC], (3.1)
[AB] [BC] = [AC]. . 
3.3. B A C, [AB] [BC] B.
-. B [AB] [BC].
[AB] [BC]. A C [AB] [BC], A
/ [BC] C
/ [AB]. ,

4. . .

35

X [AB] [BC], B,
[AB] [BC].
X [AB].
B [AC] X [AB], 3.2, X [AC]
B [XC]. B [XC] 2.4
X [BC], [AB]
[BC]. 
4. . .
n
a. , A1 , . . . , An .
A1 , . . . , An , n > 3 Ai Ai1
Ai+1 i = 2, . . . , n 1. A1 , . . . , An n 1 :
[A1 A2 ], [A2 A3 ], . . . , [An1 An ].

(4.1)

(4.1) , : [AiAi+1 ] [Ai+1 Ai+2 ] = {Ai+1 }.


3.3. 3.2
[AiAi+1 ] [Ai+1 Ai+2 ] = [Ai Ai+2 ].
,
[Ai Ai+m ] =

m
[

[Ai+q1 Ai+q ].

(4.2)

q=1

(4.2) : Ai [Aiq Ai+k ].


, Ai Aiq Ai+k .
,
[Ai Ai+1 ] [Aj Aj+1 ] = j > i + 2.
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

(4.3)

36

II. .

(4.3) , j > i + 2
Aj Ai+1 Aj+1 .
3.1 [Aj Aj+1 ] [Ai+1 Aj+1 ]. ,
3.3,
[AiAi+1 ] [Aj Aj+1 ] [Ai Ai+1 ] [Ai+1 Aj+1 ] = {Ai+1 }.
Ai+1 [Aj Aj+1 ].
[AiAi+1 ] [Aj Aj+1 ]
(4.3).
4.1. A1 , . . . , An B
, A1 , . . . , An . B A1 , . . . , An
, A1 , . . . , An+1 .
-. A1 , An B. 2.4 :
(A1 I An J B),

(A1 I B J An ),

(B I A1 J An ).

(4.4)

,
B = An+1 A1 , . . . , An+1 .
(4.4), B [A1 An ] A1 , . . . , An .
(4.2)
[A1 An ] =

n1
[

[Ai Ai+1 ],

(4.5)

i=1


. , B

4. . .

37

(4.5). B [Aq Aq+1 ]. Aq+1 , . . . , An :


Aq+1 Aq+2 , . . . , An An+1 .
B = Aq+1 A1 , . . . , An+1 .
(4.4),
A1 , . . . , An :
A1 A2 , . . . , An An+1 .
, B = A1 , A1 , . . . , An+1 , B
A1 , . . . , An . 
4.2. n , n > 3, , ,
A1 , . . . , An .
-. - 3 n . 2.4
.
A2 , A1 A3 .
A1 , A2 , A3 . , 4.1. 
n , n > 3,
,
.
A1 , . . . , An ,
B1 , . . . , Bn :
B1 = An , B2 = An1 , . . . , Bn = A1 .

(4.6)

38

II. .

4.1. [AB] ,
.
. . .

: AB. ,
[AB] [BA]
. , AB BA
.
. ,
.

4.2. AB CD, , , A1 , . . . , An ,
A = Ai , B = Ak , C = Aj D = Aq ,
sign(k i) = sign(q j).
, A1 , . . . , An 4.1
sign(k i) sign(q j).
(4.6) :
sign(k i) sign(k i),

sign(q j) sign(q j).

, ,
sign(k i) = sign(q j) ,

AB CD.

AB CD , 4.2.

4. . .

39

, .
:

(1) AB  AB AB;


(2) AB  CD CD  AB;



(3) AB  CD CD  EF AB  EF ;

(4) AB CD, CD


EF , AB  EF .
(1)-(4) , A1 , . . . , An , A, B, C, D, E F .
, , , .
, , ,

.
a
M N . , ,
. N M
.
X Y a , X

Y , XY ,

. . XY  M N .
: X Y .
:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

A B A 6= B;
A B B A;
A B B C A C;
A B
A B B A.

(1)-(4) ,

40

II. .

M N
.
4.3. B A C ,
A B C C B A.
4.1. ,
A1 , . . . , An , , (4.6).
4.2. (1)(4)
.
4.3. (1)(4)
.
4.4. 4.3.
5. .
O a. A1 a .

E. OE
.

(O, +) = {X a :

O X},

(, O) = {X a :

X O}.

(1)(4) , , (O, +) (, O)
, a :
a = (, O) {O} (O, +).

(5.1)

5. .

41

O
(, O) (O, +), , :
[O, ) = (, O) {O},

[O, +) = {O} (O, +).

, O a ,
O.
a, .
1.6, , ,
. , \ a .
\ a , A B, A = B, [AB]
a.
.
.
A B B C. A = B B = C,
A C
A B B C. A = C A C.
, A, B C .
:
(1) A, B C ;
(2) A, B C .
, , A C , AC a
O [AC].

AC OA. C O A. B
a, B 6= O. , B (, O) (O, +).
B (, O), B O A, A B.
B (O, +), C O B,
B C. A

42

II. .

C ,
A C.
A C
, a,
A, B C, [AC]
O. A12
[AB] [BC] .
A B
B C. A .

\ a . ,
. A1, O,
a. A,
, a.
AO A O A10. B AO, ,
O [AB].
B \ a. , [AB] a O.
, Cl(A) Cl(B) . , X \ a
. :
(1) X AO;
(2) X AO.
, X, A

B. OA
AO . (5.1) X
(, O) (O, +).
X (, O), X O B O. ,
4.3 X, B O, , O
[BX]. X Cl(B).
X (O, +), O X O A. ,
4.3, X Cl(A).
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

5. .

43

, X OA,
ABX, .
a
A, B X. [AB]
O. 2.5,
. a
ABX: [AX]
[BX]. a [AX], a [BX]
X Cl(B). a [BX], a
[AX] X Cl(A).
a+ = Cl(A) a = Cl(B).
, a,
, :
= a a a + .

(5.2)

(5.2) (5.1). a a+
.
(5.1), :
a = a a,

a+ = a+ a.

a b, O. 1.5 ,
a b.
a b
.
. a A, O. b B, O. B
a, ,

44

II. .

a+ a . a+ , B, b+
, A. ,
a+ b+ , :
AOB = a+ b+.

(5.3)

A10, a C ,
O A C.
D b. a b
:
AOB = a+ b+ ,

BOC = a+ b ,

COD = a b ,

DOA = a b+ .

A B, a+ b+ ,
AOB. AOB
BOA .
AOB (5.3). a+ b+ AOB.
O a b ( ). :
[OAi,

[OBi,

[OCi,

[ODi.

[O, +) [O, )
, .
5.1. AOB
[OAi [OBi.
[OAi [OBi AOB,
O . AOB COB

5. .

45

5.1 O [OBi,
[OAi [OCi
a, O.
.
. , AOB COB:
AOB COB = (a+ b+) (a+ b ) =
= a+ (b+ b ) = a+ = a+ .

(5.4)

a+ O
a . . AOC ,
a+ , a .
AOB COD 5.1. [OCi [ODi [OAi [OBi
a b. .
5.2. A, B O,
, AOB
O.
A, B C, . a BC, b AC
c AB. a, b c
, A, B C A4.
a+ , a A. , B b+
C c+ . ABC , a+ , b+ c+. ABC
[AB], [BC]
[AC], A, B C,

46

II. .

. ABC .
ABC a+ b+ c+ .
5.3. ABC [AB], [BC] [AC].
5.1. 5.1, 5.2 5.3,
.
5.1. A B [ABi
[BAi [AB].
5.2. (5.4), - .
5.3. A, B C , . ,
ABC .
6. .
. 1.1 , .
E \ . , A B, A = B, [AB]
.
.
. A B B C. A = B
B = C, A C A B B C. A = C
A C. , A, B C
. :
(1) A, B C ;
(2) A, B C .
, , A C , AC

6. .

47

O, [AC]. 1.4
O AC . AC

OA. C O A. B
, B 6= O. , B
(, O) (O, +),
(5.1). B (, O), B O A,
A B. B (O, +), C O B,
B C. ,
A C ,
A C.
A, B C
, A4.
A C , AC O [AC].
[AC] ,
O. 1.2 a
, . a
, A, B
C [AC] O.
A12
[AB] [BC] . A B B C.
A .
E \ . ,
,
. + . ,

E = +

(6.1)

(5.1) (5.2) .

48

II. .

(6.1)
= ,

+ = + .

6.1. A, B, C D ,
,
.
A, B, C D , .
A8. 6.1
A4 . .
:
= BCD,

= ACD,

= ABD,

= ABC.

, , . ,
:
A + ,

B + ,

C + ,

D + .

+ , + , + + . A, B, C D ABCD, [AB],
[AC], [AD], [BC], [BD] [DC] ,
ABC, ABD, ACD BCD ABCD. + ,
+ , + + ABCD.

.

6. .

49

, , .
(. [4]).
6.1. , ,
E \ , .
6.2. 6.1. 1.
6.2. AOB , A, O B, . , O, AOB
, [AB].
6.3. 6.2. [OAi , C OA,
[OAi, ABC.
6.4. A, B, C D ,
. , ABCD .
6.5. , ABCD

ABC, ABD, ACD BCD.

c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.


CopyRight

III

1. .

. ,
,
.
. , , , .


=.
, . () .
() .
,
.
2. .
A13. [AB] ,
C D , ,
[AB]
= [CD].

2. .

51

A14. , [AB]
= [CD]

[CD]
[EF
]

[AB]
[EF
].
=
=
A13 , A14.
.
2.1. , [AB]
= [CD] [CD]
= [AB].
-. [AB]
= [CD]. A13 [CD] [ABi A.
E [ABi , [CD]
= [AE].
[AB]
= [CD] [CD]
= [AE] A14
[AB]
= [AE].
A13 [AB] [ABi.
, E [ABi, [AB]
= [AE], . [AB]
= [AB].
E B. [CD]
[A],

=
. 
, A13 A14 2.1
.
A15. B A
C AC, L K M
KM . :
(1) [AB]
= [KL] [BC]
= [LM ] [AC]
= [KM ];

(2) [AB]
[KL]

[AC]
[KM
]

[BC]
=
=
= [LM ].
, (1) (2) A15 :
(3) [AC]
= [KM ] and [BC]
= [LM ] imply [AB]
= [KL].

52

III. .

(3) , A C K M .
A15 B [AC]
[AB] [BC], B, [AC]
(. 3.2 3.3 ).
, [AC] [AB]
[BC]. A15 : ,
, [AB] [BC],
[AC]. [BC]
[AC] [AB],
A15
: , [AC] [AB],
[BC].
2.1. [KM ] [AC]
B AC, A C.
KM L, ,
[KL]
= [AB] [LM ]
= [BC].
-. B A C:
(A I B J C),
(C I A J B),

(2.1)

(B I C J A).
2.4
(2.1) . ,
A13 [AB] [KM i.
L [KM i,

2. .

53

[KL]
= [AB] (. 2.2). , L [LKi.
, [LM
]
M
= [BC].
(A I B J C),

).
(K I L J M

(2.2)

(1)
(2.2) A, B, C, K, L M
]
A15. [K M
= [AC].


[KM ] = [AC], M M
[KLi, K.
.
A13 M = M
[KL]
= [AB],

[LM ]
= [BC].

(2.3)

, L KM . . (2.3)

L L,
.
[M Ki
, L. L
M . , L

(2.3) , L

(2.3). , L

,
, [LKi, M
M
]

M
]
, [L
= [BC]. [K L]
= [AB] [L
= [BC]

(1) A15 [K M] = [AC].


M
[KM ]
= [AC]. A13.

M = M , M M

L.
L
(2.1).

54

III. .

A,
B C (2.1). A13
K, [KM i.
L KM , ,
[KL]
= [AB].
[KM ]
= [AC]
(1) A15. [LM ]
= [BC]. , L
KM . .
, . [LM ]
[BC]


=
.
L. ,
L,
M

[M Ki. A13
, , [K M
]
[KLi M
= [AC].


[LK] [K M ] (1) A15. M
M
]
[LKi

[L
= [BC]. M M

[LM ] = [BC] [LM ] = [BC], A13.


L (2.1).
A, B C (2.1) A C
K M . . 
[AC] a [KM ]
b. 2.1 f : a b, f (A) = K, f (C) = M ,
f (X) [AX]
= [Kf (X)] [CX]
= [M f (X)]
X a.

2. .

55

h : b a.
h(K) = A, h(M ) = C , ,
[KZ]
= [Ah(Z)] [M Z]
= [Ch(Z)], h(Z)
Z b.
L 2.1 f h . , ,
.
, , 2.1,
, f :
(A I X J C) (K I f (X) J M ),
(C I A J X) (M I K J f (X)),

(2.4)

(X I C J A) (f (X) I M J K).
, K, M f (X)
b
A, C X a.
2.2. [KM ] b [AC] a. f : a b, f (A) = K, f (C) = M
[AX]
= [Kf (X)] [CX]
= [M f (X)] X, A
C. , a b
AC KM , X Y
a :
(1) X Y f (X) f (Y );
(2) [XY ] [f (X)f (Y )].
-. X, Y , A C a. X
Y A C, (2.4)
f . , X, Y , A
C a.

56

III. .

A C a :
(, A], [AC] [C, +). X Y
,
(XY ) , , A C.
(1) (2.4).

(1) A15.
, X Y
[AC]. X Y A X Y C.
A13
[f (X)M i Y , ,
[f (X)Y ]
= [XY ]. , A13,
[Y C]
= [Y C] ,
Y [Y Ki.
A15 [Kf (X)] [f (X)Y ],

[K Y ] = [AY ]. A15
[K C]

[K Y ] [Y C],
= [AC].
C = M ,
[Y M ]
= [Y C].
Y = f (Y ).
C = M Y = f (Y ) K f (X) f (Y ) M , f (X) f (Y ).
[f (X)f (Y )]
= [XY ] [f (X)Y ]
= [XY ]

Y = f (Y ).
, X Y
[C, +). X Y A C X Y .
A13 , f (X)
, [f (X)M ].
Y , , [f (X)Y ]
= [XY ].
A15 [M f (X)] [f (X)Y ].
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

3. .

57

[M Y ]
= [CY ], , , Y f (Y ).
f (X) f (Y ) [f (X)f (Y )]
= [XY ]
Y .
,
X Y (, A]
. ,
A c C K M , a b. 
3. .
3.1. f : a b a b,
X Y a [f (X)f (Y )]
= [XY ].
f h a
b. - A B a

f (A) = h(A),

f (B) = h(B),

X a, f = h.
2.1. 2.2 ,
. ,
f : a b A
B a [KM ],
[AB].
a O
. a [O, ) [O, +). b

58

III. .

Q ,
[Q, ) [Q, +). [O, +) E+ , A13,
b [QF+ ] [QF ], [OE+].
[QF+ ] [Q, +), [QF ]
[Q, ). ,
[OE+], a b:
f + (O) = Q,

f + (E+ ) = F+ ,

f (O) = Q,

f (E+) = F .

(3.1)

3.1. O a Q b f : a b,
a b.
+
fOQ
+
+
, X Y fOQ
(X) fOQ
(Y ).

, X Y fOQ
(Y ) fOQ
(X).
3.1. 3.1, , +

fOQ
fOQ

E+ [O, +) (3.1). , a b .
b a.
O Q +
. fOQ

+
OQ fOQ
= pOQ.
O = Q . O
Q ( ), pOO

3. .

59

: pOO = id. fOQ


O Q. O = Q

fOO

O. : fOO
= iO .

3.2.

pBC pAB = pAC ,

pAB iC = iC pBA ,

iC iC = id,

iA iB = pBC , C = iA(B).

3.3. a b a Q, Q
b.
O, O
+
fO+
,
fOQ pOO
Q
= pQ Q

fO
fOQ pOO
.
Q
= pQ Q

. 3.2 3.3
: f h(x) = f (h(x)) (see
7 ).
3.2. 2.1, 2.2 3.1, ,
3.2 3.3.
. .
iO .
O. X, O, a = OX, O X.
iO . i(X) = iO (X).
O i(O) = O. i : E E,
O.

60

III. .

4. .
.

4.1. AB CD, , ,
[AB] [CD].
, , ,
. 4.1
.
4.1. ,
.
, , . . ,
4.1. , .
.
4.1. A, B, C D,

, AB = CD AC = BD ,


, AC = BD AB = CD.
-. .

, AB = CD. AB

, AB

CD. :
A B,

C D.

(4.1)

(4.1)

4. . . . .

61

A, B, C D :
A B C D,

C D A B,

(4.2)

A C B D,

C A D B,

(4.3)

A C D B,

C A B D.

(4.4)

(4.2), (4.3) (4.4) . ,



AB CD,
.
, (4.4) .

[AB]
= [CD], AB = CD.
A13,
,
B D,

[B D] = [AC].
[CD]
= [AB], A15
[AD]
= [AD].
,
A13, D D
A.
(4.4).
, (4.3)
(4.2).

A B C D .

AB  CD A  BD

A B C D. [AB]
= [CD] [BC]
[BC]

62

III. .

A15 [AC]
= [BD]. , [AC]
= [BD]

[BC] = [BC] (2) A15 [AB]


= [CD]. . 
4.2. pAB = pCD
, AB = CD 4.1.
-. pAB pCD a
pAB = pCD = p.

a AC , , a. A C.
p A C 2.2:
p(A) p(C),

[p(A)p(C)]
= [AC].

p(A) = pAB (A) = B p(C) = pCD (C) = D. A C



B D, AC BD.
, [BD]
= [AC], ,

AC = BD. 4.1,

AB = CD.

, , AB = CD,

4.1 AC = BD. ,
[AC]
= [BD] A C B D. = pAB (C).
pAB C D

2.2 [AC] = [B D], A C


[AC]
[AC]

B D.
= [B D]
= [BD] [BD]
= [B D],

B D B D , D D

, B. , D = D,
A13. D = pAB (C),
pAB = pCD . 
4.3. : pAB pCD = pCD pAB .

4. . . . .

63

-. E

a, AB CD. F = pAB (E),


G = pCD (F ) H = pCD (E).
pAB = pEF ,

pCD = pF G = pEH .

(4.5)

pF G = pEH (4.5)
4.2. F G = EH.

4.1, EF = HG.
pEF = pHG .
pCD pAB = pF G pEF = pEG ,
pAB pCD = pHG pEH = pEG .

(4.6)

(4.6) 3.2.
(4.6),
pAB pCD = pCD pAB . 

. ,
4.2 , , 4.1.
,
, : p = pa .
id : id = pAA. A
.
.
,
, , p0 = id.
,
AA.
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

64

III. .

. 3.2

.
pa pb = pa+b .

(4.7)

(4.7)
.
4.4. :
(1) , a + b = b + a;
(2) , (a + b) + c = a + (b + c);
(3) 0, , 0 + a = a + 0 = a
a;
(4) a a0 , , a + a0 = a0 + a = 0.
4.3. (4.7),

. (4.7)
p0 = id.
. AB
a. a0 ,

BA. pa+a0 = pa pa0 = pAB pBA = pBB = id = p0 . ,


a + a0 = 0.

. ,
(., , [5]).
.

5. .

65

4.2. G ,
a b
a b,
a b, :
(1) , (a b) c = a (b c);
(2) e G, , e a = a e = a
a G;
(3) a G a0 , ,
a a0 = a0 a = e.
e ,
a0 a.
4.3. G
( ), ,
a b = b a.
4.2 4.3 4.4 ,
. ,
.
5. .
h k ,
. A h
B k. A B O.
A, B O 5.2
AOB. ,
A B h k.
h k. hOk
hk.
A16. hk ,
a+ m, -

66

III. .

a, n,
a+ , hk
= mn.
A17. A, B C
B
C .
A,

[AB]
= [AB],

[AC]
= [AC],

AC,

BAC
= B

C
ABC
= AB

ACB = AC B.
A16 A13 . A17 :
,
.
.
5.1. , , ,

.
, ABC F GH, :
[AB]
= [F G],
ABC
= F GH,

[BC]
= [GH],
BCA
= GHF,

[CA]
= [HF ],
CAB
= HF G.

5.1. ABC
B],
[AC]
C]
BAC
[AB]
= [A
= [A
C.

ABC AB

C AB

AC,

= B

-.
C
ABC AB

5. .

67

A17.

C].
A13, [B
Ci

[BC]
= [B
0 ],
C 0 , , [BC]
= [BC

0.
ABC

[AB]
= [AB],
0 ],
[BC]
= [BC
BC
0,
ABC
= A
0
A17 ABC
0

[AB] [BC ].
AC
0 . , ,
BAC
= B
AC.
,
BAC
= B
0

Ci
[AC
0i
, C 6= C , [A

, AB, Bi
, BAC.
[A
A16, C = C 0 .
C].
. 
[BC]
= [B
5.1
. .
C 5.2. ABC AB

AC,

[AB] = [AB], ABC = AB C BAC


= B

ABC AB C.
Ci
-. A13, [B
0
0
[BC
]. ABC
C , , [BC] =
0

ABC 5.1.
0 ,
ABC ABC
0

AC
. BAC = B
AC,
,
BAC = B
,
, C 0 6= C,

68

III. .

[A
Ci
[AC
0 i, AB,
, BAC.
[ABi
A16, , C 0 = C C.

ABC AB
5.3. h, k l ,
O . h0 , k0 l0
, O0
. , l hk
l0 h0 k0 ,
h0 l0 lk =
l0 k0 hk =
h0 k0 ;
(1) hl =
(2) hk
= h0 k0 hl
= h0 l0 lk
= l0 k0 ;
0 0
0 0

(3) hk = h k lk = l k hl = h0 l0 .
-. A h C k.
[AC] 6.2
l, AOC.
B [AC] l.
B
[AC], l
h k.
hl
= h0 l0
. . A13, h0
A0 , ,
[OA]
= [O0 A0 ].
0
0
l B , , [OB]
= [O0 B 0 ].
0
0
hl
= h l 5.1,
, AOB A0 O0 B 0 .
[AB]
= [A0 B 0 ],

OAB
= O0 A0 B 0 .

(5.1)

5. .

69

B 0 A0 B 0 , [B 0 A0 i.
C 0 , , [BC]
= [B 0 C 0 ]. A15 [A0 B 0 ] [B 0 C 0 ], [AC]
= [A0 C 0 ].
(5.1) 5.1 , AOC A0 O0 C 0 .
, :
[OC]
= [O0 C 0 ],
ACO
= A0 C 0 O0 ,

(5.2)

AOC
= A0 O0 C 0 .
(5.2) [BC]
= [B 0 C 0 ]. 5.1, ,
BOC B 0 O0 C 0 .
BOC
= B 0 O0 C 0 .

(5.3)

5.3 l0 k0 B 0 O0 C 0 . , O0 B 0 , .
(5.3)
lk
= l0 k0 ,

lk
= B 0 O0 C 0 .

A16
[O0 C 0 i = k0 , (5.2) hk
= h0 k0 .
5.3 [O0 C 0 i = k0 h0 k0
A0 O0 C 0 , ,
O0 A0 , h0 . ,
(5.2) :
hk
= h0 k0 ,

hk
= A0 O0 C 0 .

70

III. .

A16, [O0 C 0 i = k0 . [O0 C 0 i = k0 (5.3)


: lk
= l0 k0 .
5.3 . h k
h0 k0 . 
5.2. ABC , - . , [AB]
= [AC]. [BC] ,
[AB] [AC]
.
5.4. .
-. ABC , [AB] [AC] .
=C
: A = A, B

C = B. [AB] = [AC] A16

[AB]
= [AB],

[AC]
= [AC],

AC.

BAC
= B

A17.
B
C ACB
C B.

ABC
= A
= A

ABC = ACB
ACB
= ABC. ABC . 
5.1. ABC ADC
[AC],
AC. , [AB]
= [AD] [CB]
= [CD],

ABC = ADC ADC = ABC.


-. B D AC, , [BD]
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
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5. .

71

S.
S A C:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

A S C;
S A;
S A C;
S C;
C A S.

5.3, 5.4 5.5. ,


A C.
.

[AD] [CB] =
[CD]
. [AB] =
, BCD BAD . SBC
= SDC SBA
= SDA. [BAi
SBC, [DAi SDC. ,
5.3, ABC
= ADC. ADC
= ABC
.
BCD 5.4.

72

III. .

, . [AB]
= [AD]
[CB]
= [CD]
BCD BAD, SBC
= SDC SBA
=
SDA.
5.3. ABC
= ADC.
ADC
= ABC . 
5.2. ABC D, B
AC,
[AB]
= [AD] [CB]
= [CD].
-. D. h [ACi, AC.
ABC . ABC . A16,
A k, ,
CAB
= hk. A13, k
D [AB]
= [AD]. CAB
= CAD ABC ADC
5.1. [CB]
= [CD]. ,
D . B D
AC, D 6= B.
,
D. D
.
AC,
D
, .
,

D. 5.1 ABC

= ADC.

[AB] = [AD] [CB] = [C D], , ABC

ADC.

CAB
= CAD,

ACB
= AC D.

(5.4)

D:
CAB
= CAD,

ACB
= ACD.

(5.5)

5. .

73

[AB]
= [AD] [CB]
= [CD]
5.1. (5.4) (5.5)
A13 [ADi = [ADi

[CDi = [C Di. [ADi [CDi


= D.
, D

, D ,
= B.
B, D
= B .
5.1. D
D . 
C 5.5. ABC AB

[AB]
[
A
B],
[AC]
[
A
C]

[BC]
[
B
C],
=
=
=

ABC AB C.
[ACi.

-. h
AC .
C .
AB
A16 , A
k
0 , , CAB
k
hk
=
0
0

CAB = hk . k ,
C.
k AB
.
k
0 A13
k
0


D B [AB]
= [AD]
0
]. [AB]
= [AB
ABC 0 C AD
C.
5.1,
AB

D
B
0
, [AC] = [AC].
0 ],
[AB]
= [AB

[AB]
= [AD],

0 ],
[CB]
= [C B

[CB]
= [C D].

74

III. .


, B
0:
B,

[AB]
= [AB],

[CB]
= [C B].

=B
0 . ,
5.2 B
C.

ABC AB
5.5
.
5.6. , , .
5.1.
A16.
5.5.
6. .
6.1.
.
-. hk
O
hk

O. h l
.

h
l . kl

k
l,

6. .

75

. h, k l A, B C . , A13,
h, k
B
C ,

l A,
A],

[OA]
= [O

B],

[OB]
= [O

C].

[OC]
= [O

(6.1)

, hk
hk,
=

AOB AOB.
BAO
AO.
, [AB]
= [AB]
= B
(6.1) A15

[AC]
, = [AC].
C,

5.1 ABC AB

[BC] = [B C]. BOC B OC


5.5.
, , ,
O
C.
. 
BOC
= B
6.2. .
.
(. . 5.1 ).
.
6.1. , .
6.1. .
-. hk
, h k, A. ,
.
. h
,
. hk
. A16,

76

III. .

,
A k,

hk = hk. k B , B,
, [AB]

A13, k
= [AB].

B B ,

h. [B B]

- O 6= A. AOB AOB
.
5.1
AOB AOB,
OAB
, AOB AOB

[AB]
= [AB]
= OAB.
. 
6.2. .
-.
, - . AOB,
6.1.
6.2 A,
OA. A
[OA]
= [OA].

B].

[AB] [A
O.
h0 q 0 . AA 6.3 .
, B, O
q , hq h0 q 0 .
hq .
, q [OBi. ,
, q AOB

AOB.

AOB ( 6.2
A A).
q, , [AB] C. q q,

6. .

77

B.

AO
, f (A) = A f (B) = B.

f AB AB,

C = f (C). C [AB],

[AC] = [AC]. OAB = OAB


AOC AOC.

, AOC AOC = hk. h


q
hq, h
q
= hq, hq
. AOC
q
= hq h
= hq q. , [OCi

[OCi

B.

AOB, a q AO

C = B q = [OBi. , h0 q 0
AOB. . 
6.2.
, ,
, .
a b : a b.
, , , ,
.
6.1 6.2.
6.3. a , . A a
b,
a.
6.4.
, .
6.3 6.4 6.1 6.2. 6.4 , .
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

78

III. .

a B
. [BA], B A a,
, B a,
AB a.
6.5. B
/ a
a.
-. , B a. B.
O. OB a, . ,
, O a. h
k = [OBi. hk
, a
. O
, hk

k,
= hk.
[OB]

B,
= [OB].

[B B] a
. A, OAB OAB

OAB, OAB,
. , [BA] .
, B a. , ,
[BA] [B A].
B a. a

O, [AA]

h [OAi = [OAi. AB AB,


0
B
, B B
[AB]

0 ]. ,
[AB]
= [AB]
= [AB

7. .

79


OAB OAB,
0

OAB OAB .
OAB OAB,
0

OAB OAB .

AOB
= AOB,

[OB]
= [OB],

0
AOB
= AOB,
0
]
[OB
= [OB].


= [OB
0 i,
[OBi
=B
0 . A = A [BA] = [B A].

B

6.6. ABC .
6.1. 6.3 6.4,
6.1 6.2.
6.2. 6.6 6.5.
7. .
7.1. O
[AB], [AO]
= [OB].
7.2. hk O.
l, O,
hk, hl
= lk.
7.3. [AO], A
ABC O BC, , AO BC .
7.4. [AO], A
ABC c [BC], .

80

III. .

7.1. ABC
AO, A ,
BAC.
7.1 , ABC .
.
7.2. [AB] O,
.
-. [AB].
, AB. 6.3, A B ,
AB. , , M , ABM
.
,
A, C
, B,
[BD]
= [AC] ,
C D , AB. [CD]
AB O.
BOD AC. AC
[BD] ,
AC BD . AC
OD C, [OD]. , [OB] BOD
AC (. A12). (O I A J B).
(A I B J O) BD AOC. ,

7. .

81

(A I O J B), O
[AB].
ABC BAD. 5.1 BAC
= ABD [AC]
= [BD].

[AD] = [BC] ABC


= BAD.
(1) 5.3, CBD
= DAC,
CBD DAC.
DCB
= CDA,

CDB
= DCA.

5.2 ,
AOC BOD, COB DOA.
[AO]
= [OB],

[CO]
= [OD].

O [AB]
, , [CD]. 
7.2 7.1
. , hk
O.
A B, , [OA]
= [OB]. ,
[AB] AOB C,
, AOB.
.
7.3. hk l, .
7.4. .
7.5. .
7.1. 2.1 7.4 [AB]. ,
AB O, [AO]
=
[OB]. 7.4 7.5.

82

III. .

8. .
a, b c, . c a b
A B .
A .
B. CAB ABD
[ABi [BAi,
c
[AB].
CAB ABD c.

. CAB ABD,
a b c
EAB ABF .
EAB CAB,
ABF ABD.
8.1. a b , a = b,
.
.
: a k b.
A20, .
8.1. a b
c A B. , A B,
, a b .
-. , , ,

8. .

83

EAB
= ABF . CAB
= ABD
6.1.
. ,
EAB ABF , a b
. .
C F a
b. E
, [AE]
= [BF ]. A13.
E B [EB] EAB ABF .

[AE]
= [BF ],

[AB]
= [BA],

EAB
= ABF.

5.1 , EAB ABF .


EBA
= BAC. BAC
= ABD, , , EAB
= ABF . ,

EBA = DBA. A16 [BEi [BDi. , E


b, , a b . , a b
, , . 
8.2. ,
, .
8.1. 8.2 8.1.

IV

1. .
1.1. a
O. , a ,
,
O.
1.1. a,
O, , - ,
O.
-. :
a ,
,
O, .
.
a b c, O.
x,
O. x O
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

1. ORTHOGONALITY OF A LINE AND A PLANE.

85

. [O, +),
,
a b O.
B C [BC]. 6.2
, [O, +) [BC]
X.
a A,
O, , A13, , , [OA]

[OAi, A,
= [OA].
a b , AOB

AOB
. AOB
,
= AOB.

[OB] = [OB].

[OA]
= [OA],

[OB]
= [OB],

AOB
= AOB

AOB AOB.

[AB] = [AB]. a

c [AC]

= [AC].
:

[AB]
= [AB],

[AC]
= [AC],

[BC]
= [BC].

ABC ABC,
ABC
= ABC.

ABX ABX.
:

[AB]
= [AB],

[BX]
= [BX],

ABX
= ABX.


ABX ABX.
,

[AX] [AX] [AX] = [AX].


, [OX]
AX A
A A.

, O [AA]

86

IV. . . .

7.1 .
[OX] .
AX A
a x, . 
1.2. O a , a.
-. , .
B, a, a
B . , a
O 6.3 .
b , O
a.
C, .
C a . ,
, a .
6.3 ,
a O, c, ,
O a.
b c
O. , O.
(. 1.5 ). a b a c
. 1.1
a . .
. ,
a,
O.
,
O. b,
O.
a b a.

1. ORTHOGONALITY OF A LINE AND A PLANE.

87

a b O. ,
. C, ,
C a . ,

. ,
b O,

b .

c c. c c
O. a
a
c a c a. c 6= c,
a, O a.
6.3 . ,
c = c, =
.
. 
1.3. O a, .
-. .
B, O, OB.
b. b O
1.2. ,
O b.
c,
O. , c O 6.3 . a,
, O c. a b a b.
, a
a b,

a c.

a O
b c,

88

IV. . . .

O. 1.1 a
. a .
. ,
a,
O . a 6= a
, O a a
.
b, O. b a
a ,
b O b a
a. 6.3
. a = a
, ,
a. 
1.4. b a
O. b a ,
, O
a.
1.5. , O
a ,
, O a.
1.1. , 1.2 1.3.
1.2. 1.4 1.5.
2.
.
2.1. a,
[AB] ,
.
O [AB] M
a,

3. .

89

O. [AO]
= [BO] [OM ]
= [OM ] AOM BOM ,
[AM ]
= [BM ].
, , [AM ]
= [BM ]. AM B
, [M O] (. 7.1 ).
, AM
[AB]. : M [AM ]
= [BM ] ,
- [AB].
[AB]. ,
AB O.
1.5 , O [AB].

[AB]. .
2.1. A B M [AM ]
= [BM ] ,
[AB].
3. .
3.1. O.
, ,
O, O.
-. a
, O, b
. c
. a . , b a

90

IV. . . .

b c. , a c, c ,
a .
O b c
. a b a c 1.1
a . O
, a.
. b ,
. 
3.1.
O. ,
O, ,
O.
3.1 , ,
.
3.1.
c. , A c,
B c.
-. a b , A. A
a b .
, 6.3
AB
B.
B ,

AB. , .
C, b [AD],

3. .

91

[BC]. ABC BAD.


[AB]
= [BA],

[BC]
= [AD],

ABC
= BAD.

ABC BAD, [AC]


= [BD].
CAD DBC.
:
[AD]
= [BC],

[AC]
= [BD],

[CD]
= [DC].

CAD DBC CAD


= DBC. b
, CAD . ,
DBC . BC BD BC AB.
BC AB BD,
.
, B. BC
, B. 
3.1 ,
:
,
.
3.2.
,
.
3.2 . , ,
3.1.
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

92

IV. . . .

3.3. .
3.3 3.2 8.2
.
3.2. B ,
. [BA], B A , ,
B , AB
. A
B
.
3.4. B
/
.
-. ,
B .
O . OB ,
[BO] .
, [BO]
. 1.3 O
a, . [BO]
a, , B
/ a. a
B . c ,
.
6.5 B c.
A c, , AB
c.
, [BA] ,
B . ,
, O. 3.1
A.
a.
a

a c 6.5
a
= AB.

4. .

93

, [BA] .
[BA0 ],
ABA0 ,
6.6 .
3.3. 
3.1. 3.2 3.3.
4. .
,
a.
E :
E = + ,

E = + .

4.1. , . . , , .

. :
+ + ,

+ ,

,
, a
.
.

94

IV. . . .

, . a O
, a.
h k,
. hk,
O. O . ,
,
.
4.1.
.

.
c , , A B
. ,
c. 8.2
.
,
c,
a b. a,
A, C,
b D ,
[BD]
= [AC]. A13,
. C D
A B, [AD] [BC].

4. .

95

AC BD [BD]
AC. , B D
AC. , C
D AB. , D [ADi
BAC. 6.2 , , [ADi [BC]
M .
[BCi
ABD. , M
[AD].
ABD BAC.

[AB]
= [BA],

[AC]
= [BD],

BAC
= ABD,

. DAB
= CBA, AM B.
5.2
A B. [AM ]
= [BM ],
AM B .
DAB
= CBA,
ABD BAC [AD]
= [BC]. [AM ]
= [BM ], [CM ]
= [DM ].
A15. , CM D . AM B CM D. ,
A20,
.
- 4.1. A B (. . 4.4
). ,
.

96

IV. . . .

,
A B.
E.
D
F ,
:
[AC]
= [BD],
[AE]
= [BF ].

[AD], [BC], [AF ] [BE].


, 4.3.
[AD] [BC] M ,
[AF ] [BE] N .
AM B AN B :
[AM ]
= [BM ],

[AN ]
= [BN ].

[M N ] : [M N ]
= [M N ]. , 5.5 ,
AM N BM N . M AN
= M BN
, , DAF
= CBE.
[AD]
= [BC] [AF ]
= [BE],
CAB, ABD, EAB ABF .
DAF
= CBE 5.1 ,
DAF CBE.
[CE]
= [DF ],

[AC]
= [BD],

[AE]
= [BF ],

5. . . .

97

CAE DBF .
, CAE
= DBF ,
. 
5.
.

3 (. 3.1).
.
5.1. f : ,
X Y
[f (X)f (Y )]
= [XY ].
5.2. f : E E ,
X Y
[f (X)f (Y )]
= [XY ].
5.1. f
. :
(1) X, Y Z f , ,
f (X), f (Y ) f (Z) ,
(X I Y J Z) (f (X) I f (Y ) J f (Z));
(2) X, Y Z f , , f (X), f (Y ) f (Z) , XY Z f (X)f (Y )f (Z).
,
.

98

IV. . . .

5.1. A, B C ,
AC . B
[BC]

[AB]
= [AB]
= [BC]
.
-. .
, AC B,
.
2.1 , A
[B B].
ABC
A C. [B B],
, O (
AC. B
AC
[B B])
O AC AC. B AC,
BO
,
A, B C .
. 
- 5.1. (1)
. X, Y Z f . (1) X, Y Z ,
f (X), f (Y ) f (Z)
. , [XY ]
=
[f (X)f (Y )], [Y Z]
= [f (Y )f (Z)], [XZ]
= [f (X)f (Z)]. , X, Y Z 2.1
. [f (X)f (Z)] Y ,
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

5. . . .

99

, [XY ]
= [f (X)Y ] [Y Z]
= [Y f (Z)].

[XY ] = [f (X)f (Y )] [Y Z] = [f (Y )f (Z)], ,


, 5.1. , ,
f (X), f (Y ) f (Z) , ,
.
(f (X) I f (Y ) J f (Z))
(X I Y J Z) 2.2 .
(2) . X, Y Z
. , f (X), f (Y )
f (Z)
.
[XZ]
= [f (X)f (Z)] 2.1 . [XZ] Y , , [X Y ]
= [f (X)f (Y )] [Y Z]
=
[f (Y )f (Z)]. , [XY ]
= [f (X)f (Y )]
[Y Z]
= [f (Y )f (Z)], , 5.1. , , f (X), f (Y ) f (Z)
, .
. XY Z f (X)f (Y )f (Z)
[XY ]
= [f (X)f (Y )], [Y Z]
= [f (Y )f (Z)] [XZ]
= [f (X)f (Z)]. 
5.1 2.2 , .
.
, , .
f : E E .
1.5, , -

100

IV. . . .


,
. , ,

.
f , . a
, . a
b, . X Y
, a. [XY ] a
O. 5.1
f (O) f (X)f (Y ) b.
(X I O J Y ) (f (X) I f (O) J f (Y )). ,
f (X) f (Y )
b.
X Y ,
a. Z,
X
Y . f (X)
f (Z) b.
f (Y ) f (Z) .
, f (X) f (Y )
b.
.
5.2.

.
5.3.

5. . . .

101

.
5.3 5.2. .
f :
. a .

b . a
a+ a . b+ , a+ . X
a+ .
, X a.
X0 . ,
f (X0 ) ,
f (X) b . f (X)

102

IV. . . .

:
[f (X)f (X0)] b,

[f (X)f (X0)]
= [XX0],

f (X) b+.

, f (X0 ) b
f (X) .
Y a Y0 ,
Y a,
[f (Y )f (Y0 )] b,

[f (Y )f (Y0 )]
= [Y Y0 ],

f (Y ) b .

f (Y0 ) f (Y ) .
.
5.4. a ,
a+ a .
b , b+ b .
f : a b
f , a+ b+ a b .
-. X a+ . f (X) . X a X0 .
X0
f : a b, f (X0 ) b. f (X0 ) ,
b, , f (X0 ) b+ . f (X)
[XX0]
= [f (X)f (X0)].
Y a f (Y )
[f (Y0 )f (Y )i b
(. . 5.4 ).

5. . . .

103

f : ,
X a f : a b.
,
. [XY ]
= [f (X)f (Y )] X Y
. :
(1) X Y a;
(2) X Y a;
(3) X Y a
;
(4) X Y a.
[XY ]
= [f (X)f (Y )]
, f : a b
.
Y a X
/ a.
.

[X0 Y ] [f (X0)f (Y )]

[X0 Y ] = [f (X0)f (Y )].


, f : a b . , f (X)
[XX0]
= [f (X)f (X0)].
XX0Y
= f (X)f (X0)f (Y ), XX0Y f (X)f (X0)f (Y ),
[XY ]
= [f (X)f (Y )].
.
X0 Y0 Y f (X0 )f (Y0 )f (Y ) , . -

104

IV. . . .

Y X0 Y0
= f (Y )f (X0)f (Y0 )

[X0 Y ]
= [f (X0 )f (Y )]. , f (X)f (X0)f (Y0 )
XX0Y0 ,
5.3
.
f (X)f (X0)f (Y )
XX0Y .
[XX0]
= [f (X)f (X0)]
[X0Y ]
[f
(X
)f
(Y
)]

=
0
XX0Y f (X)f (X0)f (Y ), [XY ]
= [f (X)f (Y )] X Y .
[XY ]
[f (X)f (Y )]

. , , X
Y
a.
f (X)
f (Y ) b.
(2), (3) (4) , X0 = Y0 . .
, f : ,
f : a b, , .
, 5.4. 

6. . . .

105

5.5. ,
+ . ,
,
+ . f :

f : E E, + + .
f : E E ,
5.4. 5.5
5.4.
5.1. 5.3 5.5.
5.2. , iO : E E O
.
6. .
5.4 5.5 .
+ ,

E. = , + = =
+ . , f : . 5.5
z : E E, + , . .
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

106

IV. . . .

a , .
a+ a . b = a, b+ = a b = a+ . f : a b
a . , 5.4,

za : , a+ a . a.
za
.
= , + =
= + .
f :
a. 5.5 za : E E,
E a. za : E E. A ,
, : za : E E.
6.1. X
/ a , X za (X), a X0 , , .
6.1. , 6.1 za (X) X.
6.2. 6.1 ,
z z = id za za = id.
6.3. a , O . ,
za z = z za = iO .

7. .

107

7. .
hk O.
h a, k
b. hk ,
a b. hk = a+ b .
3

+
fOO
: a b, O
h k.
5.4,

hk : , a+ b+ a
b .
O hk h k.
h k hk. ,

k h. kh hk ,
hk kh = kh hk = id .
hk.
Y = hk (X) X . X a+ .
h k A B ,
[OA]
= [OX] [OB]
= [OX]. B = hk (A).
AOX.
a+ ,
hk b+. b+
BOY , AOX.
b+ , k ,
XOA, Y , ,
[OY ]
= [OX]. O = hk (O), B = hk (A) AOX BOY Y = hk (X).
X a Y = hk (X) -

108

IV. . . .

, ,
BOY , AOX, b .
7.1. hk :
. O = hk (O),
hk.
-. , O hk , +
fOO
: a b 5.4
(. ). , hk : .
, . X
, OX hk ( 2.1
). OX a ( a b),
X 6= O
a+ . X Y = hk (X),
. X = Y
,
7.2. Y b+ A b
, X A
b. [AX] OB
C. , A [XC], X a+
C a+ . B a+ . ,
B C OA O
[BC]. , , ,
B C OX.
OY B
= OXA
[XAi [XBi. [AX]
= [BY ]

7. .

109

A = B, , h 6= k
hk. ,
hk , O. 
7.2. h k
O, . f : O, h k. f = hk
hk O, f = zm
m,
hk.
-. , hk zm h k. a , h, b , k.
hk zm a
+
fOO
: a b. , 5.4,

f : .
a+ b+ a b , f = hk . a+ b a b+ ,
f = zm . 
. h
k 7.2, n.
h = k, hk = hh = id. m n. h k ,
, n, O. hk

O.
7.2
h k.
7.3. l O, , hk (l) = q hk = lq .

110

IV. . . .

-. , hk (l) = q , hk l q.
O. hk
lq . 
7.4.
O , , :
kl hk = hl ;

hk zm = zm kh ;

zm zm = id;

zm zn = hk , h n, k = zm (h).

-. h, k l
O, .
.
hk, kl, hl hk , kl hl .
f : f = kl hk . ,
f h l
O. 7.2 : f = hl f = zm .
, f O.
X,
q = [OXi,
f . kl hk (q) = q hk (q) = lk (q).
hk (q) = p 7.3.
hk = qp lk = qp . , kh = kl ,
h = l. , , h, k
l . f = zm
kl hk = hl .
m ,
O. O .
l q = hk (l).

7. .

111

hk = lq , 7.3. p = ql (l).
p q
m. p = ql (l) l = ql (q) ,
lq lp l, m.
, p = zm (q) q = zm (p).
hk zm (l) = hk (l) = lq (l) = q,
zm kh (l) = zm ql (l) = zm (p) = q.
f = hk zm g = zm kh l
q. f = lq ,
f = hk zm = lq zm = id. g = lq
, g = zm kh = lq
zm = lq pl = pq . , 7.2 f
g ,
lq. f = g,
hk zm = zm kh .
zm zm = id

zm : (. 6 ).
m 6= n , O. O n .
h k = zm (h).
f = zm zn f (h) = k.
7.2 : f = hk f = zu , u
, hk.
, f
O.
X, zm zn (X) = X zm (X) = zn (X). ,
Y = zm (X) = zn (X). X = Y ,
O zm zn . Y = zm (X) , m
[XY ], . Y = zn (X) n

112

IV. . . .

, m 6= n. , f
, O, f 6= zu . f = hk ,

. 
7.1. 7.4 3.2
.
7.2. , 7.3 7.4
, -
- .
8. .
f :
, O.
O. h
O. f k = f (h),
. , 7.2, ,
f O hk
zm , O. , f
f 1 ,
O. O (.
4.2 ). id,
: id = hh
(. 7.2).
O
. 7.3
7.4.
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

8. . . .

113

8.1. h, k, l q O, .
hk = lq ,
lk hq .
-. hk = lq . m
, l k. zm (l) = k zm (k) = l.
f = zm kh zm f (l):
f (l) = zm (kh (zm (l))) = zm (kh (k)) = zm (h).
,
7.4, f
f = (zm kh ) zm = (hk zm ) zm = hk (zm zm ) = hk .
zm (h) = f (l) = hk (l) = lq (l) = q. q
l m.
, hq
m, lk.
.
. lk
hq . m.
zm (h) = q zm (l) = k.
f = zm kh zm = hk hk (l):
hk (l) = f (l) = zm (kh (zm (l))) = zm (kh (k)) = zm (h) = q.
hk (l) = q 7.3
hk = lq . 
8.2. hk = lq hl = kq ,
, hl = kq hk = lq .

114

IV. . . .

8.3.
O : hk lq = lq hk .
8.2 8.1.
4.1 . 8.3
4.3 . ()
O (. 4.3 ).
8.1.
8.4. hk = lq hk
= lq.
8.1. 8.1, 8.2 8.4.
8.2.
hk pAB ,
8.3.
9. .
hk : hk
O. E + . = , + = + = .
5.5, hk : E E.
O c, . , hk : E E
c
hk.
h c
O.
h c. k
c . , c

9. . . .

115

c, hk
.

. ,
c,
+ . c = d c+ d+ .
f : c d id : c c. 5.4
f : , c+ d+ ,
c d . 5.5
f f : E E, + +
.
9.1. , f : E E, ,
, , .

.
9.1. hk : E E c,
(h 6= k). hk
c.
9.2. h k ,
c . f : E E, c h
k. f = hk
, f = z ,
,
h k.

116

IV. . . .

.
,
. ,
.
9.2, 7.2, ,
h k . h
k , hk :
hk = id. h k
, hk
c, h k: hk = zc .
9.3. ,
, :
kl hk = hl ,

hk z = z kh ,

z z = id,

z z = hk , h , k = z (h).

9.4. hk = lq hl = kq ,
, hl = kq hk = lq .
9.5. : hk lq = lq hk .
9.2. 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 9.5
.
9.6. hk lq , c1
c2 , O.
hk lq rp
c3 , O.
-. c1
c2 . c1 . h

9. . . .

117

k = hk (h). h k
c1 . ,
. z h k.
9.3 , hk
hk = z z .
:
hk lq = z z lq = z (z lq ) = z (ql z ).
c2 ,
9.3 z lq = ql z . ,
ql , ql = z z .
hk lq
hk lq = z (z z z ) = z z (z z ) = z z .
c1 , c2 .
, , c2 , c1 . , O.
c3 , . , O c3 .
z z
9.3 z z = rp , rp
c3 . hk lq = rp ,
. 
9.3 9.6.
.
9.7.
, O,
, O.

118

IV. . . .

10. .
.
, ,
.
: .
10.1. f : E E,
O, , f (O) = O, O.
f g
. f g . f g
O, f g .
10.1. f : E E O , O, . . f = hk ,
, c
O, . . f = z hk .
:
(. 9.2). 10.1
.
10.1. M , ABC. X
[XA]
= [M A], [XB]
= [M B] [XC]
=
[M C], X M .
-. , X 6= M ,
[XA]
= [M A], [XB]
= [M B] [XC]
= [M C] 2.1
, A, B C

10. .

119

[M X]. .
6.1 X = z (M ), z
. M
, z (M ) = M . X = M
X 6= M . . 
10.2. M ,
ABC.
X, M , [XA]
= [M A],
[XB]
= [M B] [XC]
= [M C]. M
ABC.
-. ABC
[M A],
X = z (M ). [XA] =

[XB] = [M B] [XC] = [M C] ,
z . X
.
X 6= M ,
[XA]
= [M A], [XB]
= [M B] [XC]
= [M C].
2.1 , A, B
C
[M X]. , 6.1 X = z (M ).
X . 
- 10.1. f ,
O, . , ,
Z, O.
X f (X), X 6= O.
X = f (X), .
X 6= f (X), [Xf (X)]. [OX]
= [f (O)f (X)]
O [OX]
= [Of (X)].
2.1 O [Xf (X)].
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

120

IV. . . .

[Xf (X)]
O. ,
. [Xf (X)] . f
f = z id.
.
, X Y ,

[Xf (X)] [Y f (Y )] .
O, ,
a. Z 6= O .
[ZX]
= [Zf (X)],

[ZY ]
= [Zf (Y )],

[ZO]
= [Zf (O)].

2.1, f (O) = O. ,
f
,
[ZX]
= [f (Z)f (X)],

[ZY ] = [f (Z)f (Y )],


[ZO]
= [f (Z)f (O)].
Z = f (Z) , ,
(X)],
[Zf (X)]
= [Zf
(Y )],
[Zf (Y )]
= [Zf

(10.1)

(O)].
[Zf (O)]
= [Zf
10.1
10.2, , X, Y
O . ,

10. .

121

, f (X), f (Y ) f (O)
(. 5.1), , 10.1.
X, Y , f (X), f (Y ) O .
[OX]
= [Of (X)] [OY ]
= [Of (Y )] ,
XOf (X) Y Of (Y ) .
[OM ] [ON ] ,
, .
, M N
[Xf (X)] [Y f (Y )], . O
XOf (X) Y Of (Y ).
M N , ( 3.1)
[Xf (X)] [Y f (Y )]. ,
[Xf (X)] [Y f (Y )]
. , X, Y
O , .
, , X, Y O , (10.1). 5.1
f (X), f (Y ) f (O) .
, f (X)f (Y )f (O). Z ,
(10.1), 10.1.
Z = Z = f (Z), Z 6= O
f . Z
/ , 10.2.
Z = Z Z Z
Z
. Z = Z,
Z f . Z 6= Z,
z f ,
O.
g = f g = z f .
g(O) = O g(Z) = Z 2.1
, OZ
g. h -

122

IV. . . .

, OZ
. k = g(h) 9.2.
g OZ,
h k, g ,
, h k. f
:
f = hk ,

f = z hk ,

f = z ,

f = z z .

, .
f = z id, . .
O, , = , b. = , f = z z = id.
6= , 9.3. f f = z z = lq , lq
b = . 10.1 . 
11.
.
10.1, ,
. ,
. ,
,
. , O
.
.
9.6
, O,

12. .

123

.
.
10.1
. ,
.
. , f = hk
f = z lq z = hk ql = rp , .
11.1. ,

, .
12. .
a . X, a,
X [XY ] a. ( Y )
X a. 6.5
X Y ,
a : E a.
Y a a (Y ) = Y . a
a.

. , X1 6= X2 a (X1 ) = a (X2 ).
, a. 1.1 a
A. a ,
,
a A.
,
a a A B.
. , -

124

IV. . . .

M , a (M ) = A a (M ) = B.
M a , = .
12.1. a
a. - A B
, AB
C = a (A) = a (B) a.
-. C = a (A) , C = A
C , A
a. , A
, C
a (. 1.2 1.4).
B . , AB
, C a. 
12.2. a
a b , a. b
:
(1) A 6= B a (A) 6= a (B);
(2) (A I B J C) (a (A) I a (B) J a (C)).
-.
12.1.
. (A I B J C).
A, B C:
A = a(A),

= a(B),
B

C = a (C).

a , B
a. (. . A 6= B

1.2). B B
, A, C, A C
C 6= B

13. .

125

. , , +
. + , X Y ,
X = Y , [XY ]

(. 6 ).
A
A , A a a.
. , , A 6= A,

A = A,

[AA]

. , A A.
(A I B J C)
C C.
, [AC] B.
A C . A A
C C , A C .
C]
B,

[A

(A I B J C). 
12.2 ,
a b ,
, b, ,
b .
13. .
X . X

126

IV. . . .

(X). , ,
(Y ) = Y . 3.4
: E , .

.
. Y
a ,
Y (. 1.3). a
Y .
13.1.
. - A
B , AB
C = a (A) = a (B)
, C.
-. C = (A) , C = A
C , A
. , A
a , C
(. 1.3). B
B a. , AB a,
C . 
13.2.
b , . b
a
:
(1) A 6= B a (A) 6= a (B);
(2) (A I B J C) (a (A) I a (B) J a (C)).
-. b ,
A B, .
= (B), AB
A = (A) B
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

13. .

127

m
a. A B
n . 3.2 ,
.
a, A B
.
A B m n, ,
.
b . X
, a.
X [X X]
a. 3.1 1.1

6.5 , [X X]
, X . ,
a,
: E , a : E a .
13.2 12.2. 
13.2 , , , a = .
.
13.3.
: E a , .
. .
13.4. b,
O, c, O, ,
a = (b) c.

128

IV. . . .

-. b , b = a.
.
b O,
. B 6= O
A = (B) a. AB , A.
O . d. 3.2
,
. O B , b .
, O A a .
d , d
, O.
, d c. , b c, c b c d
1.1 c , c a.
, c a, , c d,
c , c b. 
13.5.
, .
:
(1) A 6= B a (A) 6= a (B);
(2) A, B C , ;
(3) A, B C ,
, , (A I B J C),
( (A) I (B) J (C)).
(4) b A C
b, (A)
(C) a = (b).
-. , A B , AB, ,

13. .

129

. ,
,
(. 3.1). ,
. (1) .
A, B C ,
B
C :
. A,
A = (A),

= (B),
B

C = (C).

(1) A = B,

B = C A = C . A B
. 3.2
,

. AB.

, , A, B C
AB,
, ,
. ,
, C,
. , A, B C
, = . ,
.
.
. b , A, B C.
(1) b .
13.2.
A C
b. [AC] b B, (A I B J C).
B
C,
A,
,
, [AC],

130

IV. . . .


a = (b) B.

. 
13.5 .
, : E
b a , , ,
b ,
a .
13.1. 13.3.
14. .
a .
a+ a . =
b = a. b+ = a+ b = a , f : a a pc , c
a. pc ,
, 3
. 5.4
pc pac : ,
c a.
+ . = , + = + = ,
f : pac ,
5.5. pac : E E,
c a.
, a,
pac : E E.
.
14.1. pac : E E
, a,
c a.

14. .

131

-. pac : E E,
,
a. ,
a, X , .
,
. +
,
X.
b+ ,

, a X. b+ = + .
Y = pac (X).
(. 5),
Y X . = (X) [X X].

X pac :
Y
Y = pac (X).
[Y Y ]
= [X X],
, Y a+ .
Y = pac (X) .
pac :
pc : a a a . 13.5 b+
: E = (X) X
a+ .
a. a+ . X
Y = pac (X)
pc : a a (. 5.4,
5). a.
X

132

IV. . . .

A. B = pc (A).

AB c
a (. 3 4 ). B,

a, [B Y ]
= [AX],

, Y a+ .

Y = pac (X).
Y ,
Y = (Y ).
BY Y ,
AX X

[X X] = [Y Y ], [AX] = [B Y ]
B Y Y .
, AXX

, . X X,
. ,
= (X) AX

(. 3.1). X
AX.
(. 13.4 ).
a a AX.
AX

a AX a AX a . ,
, b+ a+
a = b, , a,

XAX,
.

. a . ,
b+ a+ .
BY Y Y B Y XAX.

AX X
4.1 , Y
+ , , Y B Y
,
b+ a+ . Y b+ . ,
[AX] [BY ]
b = a. a

14. .

133

BY Y .
AX X
X Y :
(1) X Y
a;
(2) [AX]
= [BY ] a;

(3) AB
c.
, Y X
pac : , c a.
. X Y
A B a, A = (X) B = (Y ),
pac : E E (2) (3). Y
[Y B] 3.1. ,
X Y a ,

pac : E E. , (1)
Y
pac : X. . 
a ,
3 4 .
d = c + e
pad = pac pae.
: pa0 = id.
. c 6= 0 pac
- O. .
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

134

IV. . . .

14.2. c 6= 0 pac : E E
.
c a. A, ,
A a . B = pac (A). 14.1 B
. b AB
BA. d b,

BA. , , A = pbd (B), A


f = pbd pac . 10.1
f ,
f . ,
, ,
f = pbd pac ,
A .
.
14.3. pac pbd
d a b.
f = pbd pac O, a
b , f
, O .
14.4. pam , pbn pck
m, n k a, b c.
f = pck pbn pam O,
,
O.
14.3 14.4,
. ,
A20 -

15. . . .

135

.
, A20, .
14.1. 14.2,
14.1.
14.2. 14.3 14.4
14.3 14.4, ,
. ,
. 9.6, 14.2
14.4, .
14.5. f = f1 . . . fn n ,

.
O,
, O.
15.
.
15.1. f : E E f = g pac , g
O, pac c
a.
-. f O,
f .
c = 0
a f = g. pac = id
f = g pac .
f . A O = f (A). O 6= A.
AO, a.

136

IV. . . .

c = AO. pac : E E A O.

OA = c
a. g = f p1
ac . ,
O g, g
O. g = f p1
ac
f = g pac f . 
10.1 15.1 ,
f : f = hk pac
f = z hk pac .
f ,
,
.
f g .
f ,
f 1 g 0 = f g f 1 .
g f . g 0 , ,
g.
15.2. f g g 0 = f g f 1 g
f .
(1) g = z ,
g 0 f ();
(2) g = hk a hk,
g 0 f (a) ,
hk;
(3) g = pac c a, g 0
f (c) f (a).
15.1. 15.2. , g A B,

15. . . .

137

g 0 = f g f 1 f (A)
f (B).
15.1. f , (. . f = hk pac ),
. f
(. . f = z hk pac ),
.

. , ,
11.
. . , f ,
:
f = gA pac ,

f = gB pbd .

(15.1)

gA A,
gB B.
(15.1) gA pac pbe = gB ,
e , d.
A = B. gA pac pbe = gA.
pac pbe A. 14.3, pac pbe = hk , hk
, A. gA ,
gA hk = gA gA.
(15.1) A = B.
A 6= B.

AB s = AB. prs .

138

IV. . . .

B = prs (A). , gB = prs gA p1


rs . gB , gA , B,
, gA . 15.2.
gB = prs gA p1
rs gA
1 1

gA = p1
prs gB ) prs .
rs gB prs = gB (gB
1

gB1 p1
rs gB prs gB1 . 15.2 v u.
gA gA = gB puv prs .
gA pac pbe = gB , (15.1),

puv prs pac pbe = gB1 gB .

(15.2)

(15.2)

B. 14.5 n = 4, ,
,
B. gB = gB hk ,
gB . , A 6= B
(15.1) .
15.2. f : E E ,
.

, .
.
,
. ,
.

15. . . .

139

15.3. 1 2
, f : E E,
.

.
15.4. 1 2
, , .
15.5. 1 2 ,
f : E E, .
15.2. ,
15.3, 15.4 15.5 5.1
.

1. .
1.1. [AB] [CD]
. , [AB] [CD],
[AB] < [CD], [CD]
E, , [AB]
= [CE].
1.1.
1.1 :
(1) [AB] < [CD] [AB]
= [CD];
(2) [AB] < [CD] [CD] < [AB];
(3) [AB] < [CD] [CD] < [EF ] [AB] < [EF ];


(4) [AB]
= [AB] [C D]
= [CD], [AB] < [CD]

[AB] < [C D];


(5) [AB] [CD]
[AB] < [CD]
[CD] < [AB].
-. A13. ,
[AB] < [CD] [AB]
= [CD]
[CDi D E, [AB]
= [CD]

[AB] = [CE], .
. , [AB] < [CD] [CD] < [AB]
. [CD] E,
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

1. .

141

[AB] F , ,
:
[AB]
= [CE],

[CD]
= [AF ].

[CD]
= [AF ],
f , CD AB, f (C) = A f (D) = F (. 2.1,
= f (E).
2.2 3 ). E

(C I E J D) (A I E J F ). [AE]
[CE] . [ABi
6= B, [AE]

E
= [CE] [AB]
= [CE],
A13.
[AB] < [CD] [CD] < [AB].
.
[AB] < [CD] [CD] < [EF ] , [CD]
[EF ] M N , ,
[AB]
= [CM ],

[CD]
= [EN ].

,
f , CD EF , f (C) = E f (D) = N . C
f K = f (M ),
[CN ]. [EK]
= [CM ].
[AB]
= [CM ] [AB]
= [EK]. (E I K J N )
(E I N J F ) (E I K J F ) (. 3.2
). , K [EF ]
[AB]
= [EF ]. [AB] < [EF ] .
. [AB] < [CD] [CD] E,
[AB]
= [CE]. [CD]
= [C D],

f CD C D,

142

V. .

f (C) = C f (D) = D.
f E,
= f (E), [C D],

E

[CE] = [C E]. [AB] = [AB] [AB]


= [CE],

[AB]
< [C D]
.
[AB]
= [C E].
, A13, [CDi E, ,
[AB] [CE]. D = E ,
[AB] [CD]. E [CD],
. [AB] < [CD]. [CD] < [CE]. [AB]
= [CE]
,
[CD] < [AB]. . 
(1)(3) (. 3
). ,
[AB] < [CD] [AB] = [CD] [AB] < [CD] [AB]
= [CD]. ,
, ,
. (4) (5) , .
[AB] < [CD]
[CD] > [AB] , [CD] [AB].
[AB] 6 [CD] [CD] > [AB]
: [AB] < [CD] [AB]
= [CD].
1.2. C D [AB],
[CD] < [AB].
-. AB ,
A B (. 4 ). C D

2. .

143

[AB], :
A C D B,

A D C B.

, . ,
, C D. A C D B
(A I C J D) (A I D J B).
[CD] < [AD], [AD] < [AB]. ,
1.1, [CD] < [AB].
. 
2. .
2.1. hk lq
. , hk lq
hk < lq, m,
lq , , hk
= lm.
2.1.
:
(1) hk < lq hk
= lq;
(2) hk < lq lq < hk;
(3) hk < lq lq < mn hk < mn;

(4)
hk
l
q
= hk
= lq, hk < lq

hk <
l
q;
(5) hk lq hk < lq lq < hk.
2.2. l q,
hk, , lq < hk.
2.1. 1.1
1.2, 2.1 2.2.

.

144

V. .

, .
, , . , ,
. , ,
. 2.1
.
2.2. , , .
2.3.
, .
-.
ABC. [CEi, [BC]
.
ACE,
ACB,
ABC.
CAB
. AC
ABC
, E B
. A16, ,
B [ADi , CAD ACE. , CAD
= CAB
CAD < CAB, [ADi [ABi
CAB.
[ADi [B] (. 6.2 ). CAD
ACE AC AD BC.
CAD
= ACE, 8.1
AD BC . CAB < ACE. 

2. .

145

2.4.
, ,
.
-.
ABC. , [AC] > [BC] ABC > BAC. [AC] > [BC]
, [AC] D, ,
[DC] [BC]. [BD] BCD. [DC]
= [BC] .
, BDC = DBC.
[BDi ABC.
ABC > DBC. , BDC ABD. 2.3,
BDC > BAC.
ABC > DBC,

BDC
= DBC,

BDC > BAC,

2.1 ABC > BAC. .


. , ABC > BAC , [AC] > [BC] . [AC]
= [BC]
[AC] < [BC]. [AC]
= [BC], ABC
, ABC
= BAC,
ABC > BAC. [AC] < [BC], ABC < BAC,
ABC > BAC. , ABC > BAC
[AC] > [BC]. . 
B [AC] A
C. [AC]

146

V. .

[AB] [BC] (. 3.1 3.2 ).


[AB] [BC]. [BC]
[AC] [AB].
[M N ] [P Q],

B:
[M N ]
= [AB],

[P Q]
= [BC].

[AC] [M N ] [P Q].
, , ,
[M N ] [P Q], .
[M N ] < [P Q].
[AC], [P Q]. [M N ] < [AC]
[AC] B, , [AB]
= [M N ].
B [BC] [P Q] [M N ].
2.5.
.
-. ABC. B AB .
, [BAi,

[B C],
[BC].
[CBi [AC],
AC C
(.
6.2 ).
AC C > BC C . , CB C BC C B C C

. , AC C > ACC.
2.4

AC C, [AC] > [AC].


[AB] [BC]. . 
[AC]

3. .

147

2.6.
.
-. ABC, ABC
. B AB. ,
AC C.

AB C,
,
A .
, , , .
:
, ,
. (. 8.2
). 
2.6 , .
, ,
.
,
, .
. 2.4 2.6 , .
3. .
, 1.1
2.1, , . c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

148

V. .


.
.
R,
.
R1R17.
.
R1. ,
a + b = b + a a b R.
R2. ,
(a + b) + = a + (b + c) a, b c R.
R3. (0 R), ,
a + 0 = a a R.
, 0 . ,

0,
0+0 =
0

0 + 0 = 0. R1,
:
0=
0+0 =0+
0 = 0.
R4. a R a0 R, , a + a0 = 0.
a R a0 .

a
0 , R1, R2 R3 :
a0 = a0 + 0 = a0 + (a +
a0 ) = (a0 + a) + a
0 = 0 +
a0 = a
0 .
3.1. a0 ,
a. , , a0
a, (a0 )0 = a.

3. .

149

3.2. , ,
, : 00 = 0.
: b a = b + a0 . ,
a0 = a .
3.3. :
a b = (b a),

(a b) + c = a + (c b),

(a + b) c = a + (b c),

(a b) c = a (b + c).

R5. , a b = b a a b R.
R6. , (a b) = a (b c) a, b c R.
R7. (1 R), ,
a 1 = a a R.
R8. a 6= 0
a R, , a a = 1.
3.4. 1, a a 6= 0.
: b : a = b a .
:
b : a = b/a =

b
= b a1 .
a

a = a1
, a 6= 0.
R9.
(a + b) c = a c + b c.

150

V. .

3.5. , : (ab)c = acbc.


:
bc+ad
b d
+ =
,
a
c
ac

b d
bd
=
.
a c
ac

R , (. 3 ).
R10. a b R
a < b, b < a, a = b.
R11. a < b a = b.
R12. a < b b < a.
R13. a < b b < c a < c.

.
R14. a < b a + < b + c.
R15. a < b 0 < c a c < b c.
3.6. ,
R :
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

a > b a < b;
a < b c < 0 a c > b c;
1 > 0;
a > b > 0 b1 > a1 > 0.

: 2 = 1 + 1, 3 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 2 + 1, . . N = {1, 2, 3, . . . }. N

3. .

151

, , Z = {. . . , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . . }. n/m,
n Z m N,
Q.
r=

n
, n Z m N.
2m

- . - , , ,
.
R16. R n N, , n > .
R16 . ,
. .
3.1.
n N, , n < < n.
-. = 0, n = 1. > 0,
n, R16,
n < < n. < 0,
. n
. 
3.2. > 0 m, , 2m < .
-. 1
R16.
m, , 1 < m. m <
2m , m N.
m. 1 < 2m
> 2m ,
. 

152

V. .

R17. {an }nN {bn }nN , ,


a1 6 . . . 6 an 6 an+1 6 . . . 6 bn+1 6 bn 6 . . . 6 b1 .
R, , , an 6 6 bn n N.
R17 .
.

( . [6]).
4. -
.
p, q . ,
p q ( ) ,

p 6 6 q.
p , q . q p .
. I(m, k)
:
I(m, k) =

k k+1
,
2m 2m


xR:

k
k+1
6x< m
2m
2

k Z ,
m N .

4. - . . .

153

4.1. m N I(m, k).


-. I(m, k1) I(m, k2) k1 6= k2 . ,
, .
3.1 , ,
n, , (n, n)
n n.
(n, n)

m
2[
n

I(m, k).

k=2m n

I(m, k), (n, n). 


,
m km -
am bm , ,
km
km + 1
= am 6 < b m =
.
2m
2m

(4.1)

am bm - m .
4.1. {am }mN {bm }mN - : am+1 > am bm+1 6 bm . {am }mN ,
-.
-. m
I(m, k) : I(m, k) = I(m + 1, 2k) I(m + 1, 2k + 1). -

154

V. .

m m + 1 km+1 = 2km
km+1 = 2km + 1. am+1 bm+1
am+1 = am ,

bm+1 = bm

am+1 = am +

1
2m+1

1
2m+1

bm+1 = bm .

am+1 > am
bm+1 6 bm .
, -.
=

q
q 2mn
=
.
2n
2m

(4.2)

(4.2) km m > n km = q 2mn .


am bm m > n
am = ,

bm = +

1
.
2m

{am }mN am = m > n.


, , , {am }mN
m > n. a ,
. (4.1)
a6 < a+

1
.
2m

(4.3)

(4.3)
1
> a > 0.
2m
6= a, a 6= 0 3.2. -
a. . 

c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.


CopyRight

4. - . . .

155

4.1. , {bm }mN


.
{am }mN {bm}mN . 4.1 R17. ,
.
am 6 < bm ,

am 6 6 bm ,

:
6 b m am = 1 .
| |
2m
, 6= ,

3.2. = .
: - (4.1).
4.2. <
am , bm , a
m bm -
. n, , bm < a
m
m > n.
-. (4.1). am bm
1
6+
2m
1
= bm m >
2

bm = am +
am

1
,
2m
1
.
2m

(4.4)

156

V. .

, (4.4), a
m bm .
bm a
m :
a
m >

1
,
2m

bm 6 +

1
.
2m

, a
m bm
a
m bm > ( )

1
2m1

(4.5)

3.2, n ,
1
> n1 .
(4.6)
2
(4.5) (4.6)
am bm
am bm >

1
1
m1 .
2n1
2

m > n bm <
am .
. 
5.
.
a [OE].

c = OE.
A(0) = O, A(1) = E = pc (A(0)) A(2) = pc (A(1)), A(3) = pc (A(2)) . .,
c. , O
c, : A(1) = pc (A(0)),

5. . . .

157

A(2) = pc (A(1)) . . (.
4 ):
. . . A(2) A(1) A(0) A(1) A(2) . . . .
, , :
[A(n)A(n + 1)]
= ...
= [OE]
= ...
= [A(n 1)A(n)]
. [A(0)A(2)]
[A(0)A(1)] [A(1)A(2)], [OE]. , [OE].
[A(0)A(3)] [OE], [A(0)A(4)] . .
:
[A(0)A(2)]
= 2 [OE], . . . , [A(0)A(n)]
= n [OE].
A18. [AB] [OE] n N, , [AB] < [CD]
= n[OE],
[CD] [OE] n .
A18 . R16
, 3.
[OE] a. 7.2
E1 , . [OE]
= 2 [OE1].
:
1
[OE1]
= [OE].
2

158

V. .

,
[OE1]. E2 . , ,
:
1
1
[OE1]
= [OE], . . . , [OEm ]
= m [OE].
2
2
3.2 .
5.1. [AB] [OE] m, ,
1
[AB] > [CD]
= m [OE],
2
[CD] [OE] m-
.
-. , , m n = 2m
1
[AB] < [CD]
= m [OE] [OE] > 2m [AB],
2
A18. . 
A19. {[An Bn ]}nN , ,
[An+1 Bn+1 ] [An Bn ] n N.
X, .
A19 .
R17 3.

6. .

159

6. .
a [OE] . 5
{A(n)}nZ , .
{A(n)}nZ , m < n
A(m) A(n). ( )
a.
A(n) A(n + 1) .
:
. . . A(1) A(1/2) A(0) A(1/2) A(1) . . . .

.
k/4, k/8, k/16
. . , , . A,
- D.
r D A(r)
A : D A.

(6.1)

(6.1) ,
p < q A(p) A(q).

(6.2)

(6.2) A. , p q ,
:
p=

k1
,
2m

q=

k2
.
2m

160

V. .

6.1. (6.1) A : R a
a = OE (6.2).
-. , (6.1), . R
. 5
am bm ,
. (6.1)
am bm , Am = A(am )
Bm = A(bm). 4.1 (6.2) A

[Am+1 Bm+1 ] [Am Bm ].
A19. X,
[Am Bm ].
X, [Am Bm ] , . , bm am = 2m
Am Bm
1
[Am Bm ]
= m [OE].
2

X,
[Am Bm ],
< [Am Bm ]
[X X]
=

1
[OE],
2m

5.1. X, , A :
R a, A() = X.

6. .

161

-, am : am = m > m0 . Am = X m > m0 ,
, A : R a (6.1).
< . am , bm ,
am bm - . 4.2 m,
,
am < bm < a
m < bm .
m = A(bm ).
Am = A(am ), Bm = A(bm), Am = A(
am ) B
(6.2) (6.1)
m .
Am Bm Am B

(6.3)

X = A()
m ]. [Am Bm ], Y = A() [Am B
(6.3):
m .
Am 4 A() 4 Bm Am 4 A() 4 B
A() A(). ,
A : R a :
< A() A().

(6.4)

(6.4) A : R a.
.
. 
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

162

V. .

6.2. X a = OE , , X = A().
-. I(m, k), 4 -
.
amk =

k
,
2m

bmk =

k+1
.
2m

a:
(m, k) = [A(amk )A(bmk )).

(6.5)

m k1 6= k2 ,
a. A18
( 4.1 ). , m (m, k),
X. km

am =

km
,
2m

bm =

km + 1
.
2m

(6.5) , (m, k)
:
(m, k) = (m + 1, 2k) (m + 1, 2k + 1).
km+1 = 2km km+1 = 2km + 1. am bm
am 6 am+1 < bm+1 6 bm . am bm R17,
,
am 6 6 bm . ,

6. .

163

am 6 6 bm , ,
3.2:
6 b m am = 1 .
| |
2m
, X a = OE, ,
a :
: a R.

(6.6)

, A() = X.
am 6 6 bm . = bm , 6 bm+1 6 bm
bm = b = m > m0 . X
a bm = b
X [A(b 2m )A(b)) m > m0 ,

(6.7)

, [A(b 2m )A(b)) (6.7) . ,


- am bm am 6 < bm . , I(m, km) am bm
-
, A(). X [A(am)A(bm )] m N
X = A(). 
6.1. , [A(b 2m )A(b)) (6.7) .
[A(b 2m )A(b)] ,
, ,
A(b).

164

V. .

6.2
A : R a 6.1, (6.6). A
O OE a.
6.1. O

e = OE a
. O ,
e .
6.2. (O, e) a. = (X)

X , OX, X, -
.
X a ,
, X .
A = A1 .
A
.
R,
.
7. .
[OE]. a = OE O

e = OE. a ,
[OE] . [P Q] . [OEi M , ,
[OM ]
= [P Q]. M (M ),
. O M

7. .

165

(6.4) = (M ). [P Q],
[OE]. :
[P Q]
= [OE] |P Q| = |OE|.
,
[P Q].
|P Q| = .
[AB] [CD] ,
[OEi a .
M M
|AB| = |CD|. ,
|AB| = |CD| [OM ]
= [AB] [OM ]
= [CD],
[AB]
[CD].

.
=
7.1. [AB] [CD]
, ,
[OE], .
7.2. [AB] < [CD] [AB]
[CD] |AB| < |CD| , [OE].
-. [AB] [CD]
[OBi, ,
M M

[OM ] = [AB] [OM] = [CD]. [AB] < [CD]



[OM ] < [OM]
.
OM M

(7.1)

, (6.4) A,
|AB| < |CD|.
(M ) < (M),

|AB| < |CD| (M ) < (M),

(7.1). (7.1) [OM ] = [AB]



[OM]
= [CD] [AB] < [CD]. 

166

V. .

7.3. B [AC]. [AB], [BC] [AC], [OE],


|AC| = |AB| + |BC|.
-. [AB]
[AC] [OE].
, , [OM ]

[OEi M M
= [AB] [OM]
= [AC].
],
M [OM
]
[AB] < [AC]. , [M M
= [BC],
A15.

= (M ) = (M).
< ,
[AB] [AC]
|AB| = ,

|AC| = .

(7.2)

am , bm ,
am
bm - .
4.2, bm <
am m > m0 .
,
am 6 < bm < am 6 < bm .
=M
,
, A() = M A()
(6.4) A.
A(bm ).
A(am ) 4 M A(bm ) A(
am ) 4 M
]
, [M M
[A(bm )A(
am )], [A(am )A(bm)]. 7.2,
| < |A(am )A(bm )|.
|A(bm)A(
am )| < |M M

(7.3)

7. .

167

- am , bm , a
m bm

km km (. (4.1)).
bm =

km + 1
,
2m

a
m =

m
k
2m

, [A(bm )A(
am )] , m [OE] .
km km 1.
|A(bm )A(
am )| =

m km 1
k
=a
m bm .
2m

[A(am )A(bm)]
m km + 1
k
|A(am )A(bm )| =
= bm am .
2m
]:
(7.3) [M M
M | < bm am .
a
m bm < |M
]
, [M M
= [BC],
am 6 < bm a
m 6 < bm .
|BC| < bm am (
am bm ) = 2m+1 ,
|BC| > a
m bm (bm am ) = 2m+1 .

(7.4)

(7.2), (7.4) :
2m+1 < |AC| |AB| |BC| < 2m+1 .
m > m0
|AC| = |AB| + |BC|. . 

168

V. .

7.1. , [P Q] ([P Q]),


, :
(1) ([OE]) = 1;
(2) [AB]
= [CD] ([AB]) = ([CD]);
(3) B [AC],
([AC]) = ([AB]) + ([BC]).
7.4. ,
(1)(3) 7.1,
[OE] .
-. , ,
(1)(3) 7.1, .
. . , (1)-(3). :
([P Q]) = ([P Q]). (2) [OM ], M ,
[OEi, [OE].
M = E, ([OE]) = ([OE]) = 1 (1). [AB] m-
[OE]
k-:
[AB]
=

k
[OE].
2m

, (3),
([AB]) =

k
,
2m

([AB]) =

k
,
2m

([AB]) = ([AB]) [OE].


c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

7. .

169

(3) , , [AB] < [AC] ([AB]) < ([AC]).


([BC])
([AC]) = ([AB]) + ([BC])
([OM ]) = ([OM ])
M [OEi. 6.2 M = A(),
.
am bm - .
am 6 < bm
A(am ) 4 M A(bm ).
[OA(am )] [OM ] [OA(bm )]
([OA(am)]) 6 ([OM ]) 6 ([OA(bm)]).
([OA(am)]) = am ([OA(bm)]) = bm
, -
[OE].

1
1
< am 6 ([OM ]) 6 bm 6 + m .
m
2
2

([OM ]) = = ([OM ])
m N. . 
7.5. [AB], [OE], , [OE]
E]
,
[O
E],
[AB], [O

= .
7.1. 7.5 7.4.

170

V. .

8. .
.
a

O e = OE.
b,
Q h = QH.
f : a b . X a
= (X)
Y .
f
: a R,

A : R b.

f = A .

k = |QH|/|OE|
. f : a b . f 1 : b a
,
k1 .
f : a b g : b c g f : a c.
f g.
8.1. a

O e = OE.

(1) AB OE , B A : (B) (A) > 0;


(2) [AB], [OE],
|AB| = |(B) (A)|.

8. . . .

171

8.1. A B O a , 7.3, 8.1.


8.1. a b ,

OE QH .
OE QH
f : a b, .

(1) , . . X Y
f (X) f (Y );
(2) k , k
: |f (X)f (Y )| = k |XY |.
8.2. f : a b .
A, B, C D a A0 = f (A), B 0 = f (B),

C 0 = f (C) D0 = f (D) b AB = CD

A0 B 0 = C 0 D0 .
8.2. 7.5 8.1, 8.1 8.2.


a = b. a OE OH.
O f : a a.
O. f X (X)
Y = f (X)
) = (X) . (Y
8.1, Y
:
(Y ) =


(|OH|/|OE|) (X) for OH  OE,

(|OH|/|OE|) (X) for OH OE.

172

V. .

,
:
(

|OH|/|OE| if OH  OE,
k=

|OH|/|OE| if OH OE.
f : a a , : X
Y = f (X) k .

8.1. a AB.

CD a, |CD| = |k| |AB|

AB k 6= 0

CD = k AB, AB k > 0

AB k < 0.
8.3. Y a X
O

k , - OY

- OX k.
8.3. 8.3,
a.
8.1

CD = k AB , CD
,
4.1 . GF = AB

k GF = k AB. ,

CD = k AB 8.1

c = CD,

b = AB k. k = 0 b = 0 k b
:
0 b = 0 b,
k 0 = 0 k R.

9. .

173

8.4.

:
(1) : a + b = b + a;
(2) : (a + b) + = a + (b + c);
(3) : a + 0 = a;
(4) a a0 , , a + a0 = 0;
(5)
: k (a + b) = k a + k b;
(6) : (k + q) a = k a + q a;
(7) :
(k q) a = k (q a);
(8) : 1 a = a.
8.4. 8.4,
.
9. .
,
. , , A18 A19
.
9.1. {hn kn }nN , O,
:
hn+1 kn+1 hn kn n N.
l, O
.
-. h1 A1 , k1
B1 . [A1 B1 ]. 6.2 -

174

V. .

hn kn [A1 B1 ].
An Bn .

A1 B1 :
[An+1 Bn+1 ] [An Bn ].
A19. X, [An Bn ].
X [OXi
l.
6.2
hn kn . . 
h0 hn O. , h0 hn h1 , . . . , hn1 ,

h0 h1 , . . . , hn1 hn
. , h0 hn
h0 h1 n :
h0 hn
= n h0 h1 .
h0 h1 , , ,
h0 hn n .

, h0 h1 h0 hn :
1
h0 h1
= h0 hn .
n

9. .

175

9.1. ABC AD. ABC > ACB [CD] > [BD].


-. ABC > ACB, 2.4, [AC] > [AB]. [ACi
[AE], [AB]. [AC] > [AB]
E [AC].
EAD
= BAD

[AE] = [AB] EAD


BAD. , [DE]
= [DB].
CED AED, ABC. CED

ABC B. 2.3
C B.
CED > ECD.
, 2.4 CED, [CD] > [ED],
[CD] > [BD]
[ED]
= [BD]. 
9.2.
hk lq
n, ,
hk < rp
= n lq,
rp
lq n .
-. lq
hk, n = 1 c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

176

V. .

hk < n lq. lq
= hk,
n = 2. , lq hk. , A
hk, k C
C , h.
h, hk .
B (. 9.4 ).

. h = h0 h , k, h1 , h2 , . . . , hn , ,
hs hs+1 lq. , hk < n lq
n N, h1 , h2 , . . . , hn , . . . ,
hk. B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn , . . . [BC] (
6.2 ). ABs1 Bs+1 . s > 1 ABs1 Bs+1
ABs1 B ABBs1 . .
s = 1 ABs1 Bs+1 .

ABs1 Bs+1 > ABs+1 Bs1 .
[ABs i Bs1 ABs+1 . 9.1,
[Bs1 Bs ] < [Bs Bs+1 ].
[Bs Bs+1 ] . [BBn ] [BBn ] > n [BB1 ]. ,
hk < n lq n, n [BB1 ] < [BC] n N.

9. .

177

A18.
. 

. (
), .
,

/4, = 3.14 . . . ,
.
9.3. hk
c 0 < 6 ,
(hk) = hk
, :
(1) ;
(2) hk
= lq, (hk) = (lq);
(3) l hk ,
(hk) = (hl) + (lk).

9.1. , , 9.3, .

VI

1.
.
A20. .
A20. O, a, , a.
A20 . ,
, .
, , .
, .

1. . . .

179

A1A19 , , .
, A20 . , , ,
. .
1.1. a b
c A B. a
b ,
, A B, .
-.
(. 8.1). .
a k b. c
.
, D,
, AB D

[B Di
= BAC.
8.1 b k a. b
b = B D,
b, ,
B a, A20. , b = b ABD
= BAC. . 
1.2. a 6= b , . c 6= b,
, b B,
a A.
-. , c a,
8.1 c k a. b c, B -

180

VI. .

a, A20. , c
a A 6= B. 
1.3. a b , . a,
, b.
1.3 1.1 1.2.
.
1.4. , ,
.
-. (. 8.1 ). . a k b b k
c. a = b,
b = c, c = a, a k c
. . a k b , a b . . , b c, .
b
B ,
b.
b, 1.2
a A. 1.3 AB a. b
, -

2. .

181

b. (. 3.1 ).
3.1
, A. a
a AB 6.3 .
, a .
. BC, ,
b c.
b c .
(. 3.3 ).
a c a k c.
, = .
AB BC. ,
.
. 
2. .
2.1. , a , a k , a ,
.
2.1. a
, b, .
-. , a . b = a,
( ) .
, a
. a k . A
. a A .
b.
b a,
, a. ,

182

VI. .

b , a. ,
b k a.
, , a b,
.
. = b. a
, b. a
b .
a k . 
, 2.1 2.1 . 2.1 A20. ,
.
2.2. a b
a k b b k a k .
2.1. 2.2 1.4 2.1.
2.3. a ,
, O .
, b O b k a,
b .
-. , a . O a, a b
O. b k a b = a (.
8.1 ), b .
a , O
/ a, a b .
a b 8.1
. .
a O, .
: = . b .
, , , a
. a k
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

2. .

183

. b O. a 6= b.
b k a a b (.
8.1 ),
. O.
b,
O a. b k a,
a b .
A20,
O ,
a. b = b b , b
. 
2.4. a b .
b , a.
-. . a b a 6= b. b
B, a, a
,
a. a
b
B, ( a
= b a k b).
. .
2.1
akaa
a k .
.
, b

a. B .
a
a B. 2.3
,
a .

B, a
b. ,
= . . 
2.5. a . a b, b k a.
-. b , .

184

VI. .

, a. b a, 2.4
.
, , b k a. 
3. .
3.1. , = ,
.

, . k .
3.1. .
a b
, a k b.
-. =
a k b a = b.
6= . k ,
. , a = b =
.
. . 
3.2. 6= ,
c A B. c c
k .
-. A = B 6= , A c
c. , 1.2
. A 6= B.
, ,
C - ,
[CB] [CA],

3. .

185

C
/ c c. 6.5
. , .
. 

. 3.1 3.2, A20, .

.
3.3. a b
a b

, k
.
-. =

(. 3.1).
, .
, a a k
(. 2.1). a k

a a
, a


(. 2.1). ,

, a.
, c, 2.5
a k c. b k c,
1.4 a k b. , ,
(.
8.1 ).
,
. ,
. . 
3.4. O, , , .
-. B
a b,
. O a
b,

186

VI. .

a b .
a
b A20.
O, a
b
,
3.3.
. O ,
.
. a b,

a k b k .

, O a
a 2.3,

a k a
a .
,
b .

a
b, . , = .
. 
3.5. 6= .
6= b,
a.
-. , ,
3.1 . B
b, . B ,
, 3.4. ,
a. 
3.6. 6= .
c , ,
.
-. B
c. C,
B, c C.

3. .

187

b = BC. 3.5
a. ,
3.1, a k b. a, b c
, 1.2. c, b
B, a A.
a , , A c
. 
3.7. a 6= b . b, ,
a.
3.1. 3.7 2.2.
3.8. 6= .
.
-. c
A. 3.7 c
B.
c . b, B. b
c .
b. a ,
. a A.
3.1 a k b. a, b c
, 1.3.
a c b c. , c b,
B.
c . 

188

VI. .

3.9. 6= .
, .
3.2. 3.9
3.5 3.8.
4. .
4.1. .
-.
ABC. B ,
AC.
D E
B. A C
ABC
DE,
[AC] , DE,
. 1.1
AB, AC DE.
DBA
= CAB. ,
1.1 CB EBC
= BCA.
DBA, ABC EBC DBE.

CAB + ABC + BCA
= DBE.
, ABC . 

5. .

189

5. .
ABC .
[AB] [BC] . M
N . [M N ]
ABC.
5.1. [M N ] ABC, [AB] [BC],
[AC] , [AC]
= 2 [M N ].
-. M [AB] ABC. M ,
[AC]. A12, , [BC]
N . M ,
[BC]. [AC]
K,
[AC]. N
K [N K]. M N
M K D E
.
M BN BM E
AB BC M K.
BM E AM K .
, 1.1, M BN
= AM K.
M AK DM A. AB
AC M N . , DM A BM N , M AK
= BM N .

[AM ]
= [M B],

AM K
= M BN,

c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.


CopyRight

M AK
= BM N

190

VI. .

AM K M BN (.
5.2 ).
[AK]
= [M N ],

[M K]
= [BN ].

(5.1)

(5.1) N M K
= M N B,

M N BC
M K. 5.1
M BN N KM .
N K BC
M K M KN
KN C, N K AC M N
CKN KN M .
[N K]
= [KN ],

M KN
= KN C,

CKN
= KN M

N KM KN C. ,
AM K, M BN , N KM KN C 5.1 .
[BN ]
= [N C],

[AK]
= [KC]
= [M N ].

, [M N ], , AC, ABC.
[AC]
= 2 [M N ]. . 
ABC
[M N ], [N K] [KM ], [AC], [BA]
[CB] . ABC
BM N , N KC, M AK
KN M , ABC,
ABC.

6. .

191

6. .
a 6= b
[AB] [CD]. A, B, C D
[DA], [DB], [CA] [CB]. A B
CD, [AB]
CD (. 5 ). [DAi [DBi
, [AB]
DA, CD. :
CDA CDB .
CDB < CDA,
6.1. 6.2
. , [DBi [AC]
O.
O [DBi,
D, B O DB:
(D I O J B),
(D I B J O).

(6.1)

O = B , [AB] AC,
CD. ,
B D O, AB [DO] DOC, [OC].
A12
, AB [CD] DOC, AB CD.
, D, B O (6.1). O
[AC] [BD].
, [DA] [CB] . DAO

192

VI. .

CB. CB [DO] [OA]


DAO. , A12
[DA] .
.
6.1. [AB] [CD], a 6= b
[DA] [DB] [CA]
[CB] O.
6.1 [AB] [CD],
, . ,
6.2, ABCD.
,
ABC ADC, [AC]. ,
,
.
.
[7].
, , .
. , , . .
6.1. ,
, . -

7. .

193

,
.
6.2. , , .
ABCD . [AC] [BD]
. 6.1
O,
(. 6.1).
6.2. [M K] ABCD [AB] [CD], 2 [M K]
= [AB] + [CD].
-. ABC CDA,
ABCD (. 6.2). [N K] [N M ].
5.1,
N K k AB,

N M k CD.

AB k CD , N M N K,
N , CD.
A20 .
M , N K M K,
.
2 [M K]
= [AB] + [CD] ,
[M K] [M N ] [N K],
5.1 2 [M N ]
= [CD] 2 [N K]
= [AB].
. 
7. .
7.1. , , .

194

VI. .

7.1.
, .
-. ABCD. [AC]
[BD] O,
(. 6.1). AB k CD
:
BAC
= ACD,

ABD
= BDC.


[AB]
= [CD], 5.2 AOB COD.
[AO]
= [CO],

[BO]
= [DO].

(7.1)

AOD BOC ,
. 5.1
(7.1) AOD COB.
ADB DBC ADB
= DBC,
AD k BC. , ABCD .
, , , ABCD .
AB k CD AD k BC :
BAC
= ACD,

BCA
= CAD.

[AC]
= [CA] 5.2 ,
ABC CDA. [AB]
= [CD]
[AD]
[BC].

.

=

8. . . .

195

7.1
:
(1)
, ABCD ,
[AB]
= [CD] [AD]
= [BC];
(2) .
7.2. ABCD , , [AB]
= [CD] [AD]
= [BC].
7.3. ABCD , [AC] [BD]
O
.
7.1. A C BD, 7.2 7.3.
8.
.

. ,
.
, (. mythedefinitionchapter4.22 4.1
).

8.1. AB CD,
, ,
(1) ;
(2) [BD], ,
[AC], .

196

VI. .


8.2. AB CD , [AB]
[CD].
8.1 8.2 . ,
A20, (. 1.4),
.
, ,
8.1 4.2 ,
. .
8.1. A0 A1 A2 A3
a. , M N ,

b 6= a, A1 A3 ,

A0 A3 A2 A3 .

-. M N A1 A3 , M N A3 A1 . ,
N A3
[M A1 ] M A1 A2 .
[A1 A2 ]
M A1 A2 .
A12, ,
N A3
[M A2 ] . , [M A2 ]
[N A3 ] ,

M N  A2 A3 .

M N  A0 A3
M A0 A1 . ,
. 
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

8. . . .

197

8.2. A1 A2 A3 A4
a. , M N ,

b 6= a, A1 A3 ,

A1 A2 A1 A4 .
8.1. 8.2, , 8.1.

8.3. M N b,

AB CD a 6= b. M N  AB


AB  CD M N  CD.
-. A, B, C D a
,
A1 A2 A3 A4 . A = Ai , B = Aj , C = Ap D = Aq

i < j. AB  CD p < q.
r = min{i, p} s = max{j, q}.

M N  Ai Aj

M N  Ar As


M N  Ar Aj

M N  Ar Aq


M N  Ar As ,

M N  Ap Aq .


8.1 8.2 r 6 i < j 6 s
r 6 p < q 6 s.

M N  CD. . 

8.4. M N b,

AB CD a 6= b. AB  M N


M N  CD AB  CD.
-. . ,

AB  M N M N  CD ,

AB  CD . CD

BA, AB.

M N  CD CD  BA, 8.3,

198

VI. .

M N  BA.

AB  M N M N  BA 6.1.
. 
8.1.
, AB  CD CD  EF
AB  EF .

-. , AB, CD EF
, 2 . ,
- ,
8.3 8.4.

, AB, CD EF
a, b c.

AB  CD CD  EF a k b b k c, 1.4
a k c.

AB, a.
A , a.
3.7 b c.
C 0 E 0 . , B a
b c D0
F 0 . 3.2 .
[AC 0 ] [BD0 ], [C 0 E 0 ] [D0 F 0 ], [AE 0] [BF 0 ].
:

AB  C 0 D0 ,

C 0 D0  E 0F 0 ,


AB  E 0 F 0 .

(8.1)

AB  CD (8.1)

, CD C 0 D0 b.

8.4 C 0 D0  CD.
(8.1) 8.3.

CD  E 0 F 0 , CD  EF

8. . . .

199

8.4 EF  E 0F 0 . ,

EF  E 0F 0 (8.1)
8.3.

AB  EF . . 
, , , ,
.
. 8.2 .
8.2.
, ,
.

. ,
, .
8.3. a
A AB
a A.
8.3 . ,
.

8.2. CD a. 8.3,

AB A.
8.3. a b a k b,
AB CD .

AB  AB, , a b . ,

200

VI. .

a b , , ,
.
8.3. 8.3, , a b

AB CD.
8.4. A, B, C D



AB = CD AC = BD , , AC = BD
AB = CD.
-. , A, B, C D
, 8.4 4.1 .
, A, B, C D

. AB = CD
AB k CD,

[AB]
= [CD],

[AC] [BD] .
7.1, ACDB
. 7.2

AC = BD. AB = CD AC = BD
. 
9. .
14 .
A20
, .
9.1. c a

AB ,
a, pac (C) = D

9. .

201


, AB CD
8.2.
-. C a, D
a. 9.1
4.2 .
, C a.
A, B, C D (. 14.1
). . ,
B = pac (A), a
F = pac (B).
AC BD
BD E
9.1.
pac (A) = B,
pac (C) = D,

(9.1)

pac (B) = F
, pac , CAB
= DBF
[AC]
= [BD]. ,
DBF ABE, CAB
= ABE.
CAB DBF , AC BD a. , CAB
= ABE
AC k BD. pac C D a (. 14 ).
[AB] [CD] , ACDB [AC]
[BD]. [AC]
= [BD], (9.1), 7.1.
ACDB .

AB = CD.

202

VI. .

, , , AB = CD. ACDB ,
[AC]
= [BD] CAB
= DBF . ,
pac pc : a a
(. 14 ).
a+ a+ a a .
[AC]
= [BD],
pac (A) = B,

CAB
= DBF,
pac (B) = F

, C D a,
pac (C) = D. . 

9.2. AB
c a CD d b. pac = pbd

, AB = CD.
9.2 9.1, .
, a
pac . b, a, c
c. pac pc
c.
9.3. A B
pc ,
A B.
-. pc c,

AB. , , pd (A) = B

10. .

203

CD, 9.1

AB = CD. , c = d,
pc . 
9.3 pAB pc , A

B. AB
c.
10. .
10.1. f : E E ,

X Y Xf (X) = Y f (Y ).
-. f = pc c, A B,

Xf (X) = Y f (Y )

Xf (X) = AB,


Y f (Y ) = AB,

, , 9.1.
, , f ,

X Y Xf (X) = Y f (Y ).
A B = f (A).

c = AB. X E

Xf (X) = AB,


Xpc(X) = AB.

(10.1)


(10.1) Xf (X) = Y f (Y )
Y = A, 9.1.

(10.1) Xf (X) = Xpc (X), f (X) = pc (X)


X E. f pc . 

c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.


CopyRight

204

VI. .

10.2.
.
-. a b ,
pa pb , X X 0
.

Y = pa (X),
0

Y = pa (X ),

Z = pb (Y ),
Z 0 = pb (Y 0 ).

, f = pb pa , Z = f (X)
Z 0 = f (X 0 ).
10.1 pa .
XY = X 0Y 0 . ,
10.1 pb Y Z = Y 0 Z 0 .
8.4. XY = X 0 Y 0
0

XX = Y Y 0 , Y Z = Y 0 Z 0 Y Y 0 = ZZ 0 .
,

XX 0 = ZZ 0 . 8.4 ,

XZ = X 0 Z 0 ,


Xf (X) = X 0 f (X 0).

(10.2)

X X 0 10.1 (10.2) ,
f = pb pa . 
10.3. : pa pb = pb pa .
-. A B = pb (A), D = pa (B) C = pa (A).
10.1 pa AC = BD, , ,

10. .

205

8.4.

AB = CD. pb (C) = D, 9.1.
pa pb pb pa
pa pb (A) = D,

pb pa (A) = D.

(10.3)

10.3 pa pb pb pa
, , (10.3),
A D. 9.3
: pa pb = pb pa . 
10.2 ,
.
(. 4.2 ).
id = p0 ,
. 10.3
.
9.1, 9.2 9.3, ,

pa pb = pa+b.
pa pb , a + b = b + a. b

a AB BD,

AB + BD = AD,

(10.4)

206

VI. .

AD c = a + b. (10.4)
. ABC 10.2
,

AB + AC = AD.

(10.5)

(10.5)
.
,
. 14.3, 14.4 14.5.
.
10.4. pc pd .
f = pc pd O,
: f = id.
10.5.
, .
, 14.3, 14.4 14.5

, .
10.4 10.5 , . ,
, . .
11. .

8 .
.
O, ,

11. .

207

k, . hkO : E E :
(1) O hkO (O) = O;
(2) X 6= O, OX,

OX, k OX

OY = k OX, Y = hkO (X).


, , , . ,
-
,
.
hkO O
k. k = 1 hkO = id, k = 1
hkO = iO . , k = p q,
hkO = hpO hqO . , k = q hkO = hqO iO ,
k > 0.
11.1. f = hkO O k. X Y
|f (X)f (Y )| = |k| |XY |, ,
f (X) f (Y ), , X Y .
-. , X, Y O
, 11.1 8.1
.
, X Y
. OX OY .
k X(k) Y (k),
:
X(k) = hkO (X),

Y (k) = hkO (Y ).

208

VI. .

X = X(1) Y = Y (1). k = 1, 2, 4, 8, . . . , ,
k = 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, . . ., . ,

[X(1/2)Y (1/2)] XOY , [XY ] X(2)OY (2), [X(2)Y (2)] X(4)OY (4) . . ,
[X(2q )Y (2q )] , |X(2q )Y (2q )| = 2q |XY |. ,
k = 2q , q Z.

- k.
k k = 2q n, n
. n
:
n = am 2m + am1 2m1 + . . . + a1 2 + a0 .
a0 = 1, a1 , . . . , am 0 1.
(n) n

(n). (n) = 1, n = 1.

11. .

209

k = 2q , .
,
k = 2q n, , (n) < s.
n, (n) = s.
n = 2p n
+1=

2p+1 n
+2
,
2

(11.1)

p > 0, a n
(
n) = s 1. k1 = 2q+1 1
k2 = 2q+p+1 n
. k (11.1)
k=

k1 + k2
.
2

(11.2)

k1 k2 . (11.2) ,
[X(k)Y (k)]
X(k1)X(k2)Y (k2 )Y (k1 ). X(k)Y (k)
XY , [X(k)Y (k)]
|X(k)Y (k)| =

|X(k1)Y (k1)| + |X(k2)Y (k2 )|


=
2

(11.3)

k1 |XY | + k2 |XY |
(k1 + k2 ) |XY |
=
=
.
2
2
(11.2) (11.3) |X(k)Y (k)| = k |XY |. , (n) < s (n) = s
- k.
k.
am bm k:
pm
pm + 1
= am 6 k < b m =
.
m
2
2m

(11.4)

210

VI. .

|X(k)Y (k)|
|X(k)Y (k)| < |X(k)X(bm)| + |X(bm)Y (bm)| + |Y (bm )Y (k)|
(. 2.5 ).
:
|X(k)X(bm)| = (bm k) |OX|,
|X(bm)Y (bm )| = bm |XY |,

(11.5)

|Y (bm )Y (k)| = (bm k) |OY |.


(11.4) bm k < 2m . (11.5)
|X(k)Y (k)|
|X(k)Y (k)| < k |XY | + 2m (|OX| + |XY | + |Y O|).

|X(am)Y (am )| 6 |X(am)X(k)| + |X(k)Y (k)| + |Y (k)Y (am )|,
:
|X(k)Y (k)| > k |XY | 2m (|OX| + |XY | + |Y O|).
m |X(k)Y (k)|.

|X(k)Y (k)| = k |XY |.
, X(k)Y (k) XY .
. ,
X(k)Y (k) XY .
c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.
CopyRight

11. .

211

Y (k) a, XY , a OX.
X

= X(q). X q, , X
(11.4) , X(k) Y (k) X(am)X(bm)Y (bm )Y (am ). a,
[Y (bm )Y (am )],
[X(am)X(bm)], A12, Y (am )X(bm)Y (bm )
X(am)Y (am )X(bm). , X(q) ,
X(k), [X(am)X(bm)].
|X(k)X(q)| 6 |X(am)X(bm)| = 2m |OX|.
, X(k) 6= X(q)
5.1 . X(q) = X(k),
X(k)Y (k) k XY .
, 11.1 k > 0.
k < 0 , k = q hkO k < 0 hqO
iO . 
11.2. f = hkO
O k.
(1) X, Y Z ,
f (X), f (Y ) f (Z) ,
(X I Y J Z) (f (X) I f (Y ) J f (Z));
(2) X, Y Z ,
f (X), f (Y ) f (Z) .
-. X, Y Z ,
(X I Y J Z).
|XY | + |Y Z| = |XZ|,

212

VI. .

7.3 . 11.1,
|f (X)f (Y )| + |f (Y )f (Z)| = |f (X)f (Z)|.
, f (X), f (Y ) f (Z)
, |f (X)f (Y )|+
|f (Y )f (Z)| > |f (X)f (Z)|,
|f (X)f (Y )| + |f (Y )f (Z)| = |f (X)f (Z)|.
, (X I Y J Z) (f (X) I f (Y ) J f (Z)). ,
:
(f (Y ) I f (X) J f (Z)),

(f (X) I f (Z) J f (Y )).

|f (X)f (Z)| < |f (Y )f (Z)|,


|f (X)f (Z)| < |f (X)f (Y )|. ,

|f (X)f (Y )| + |f (Y )f (Z)| = |f (X)f (Z)|, (X I Y J Z).
, (f (X) I f (Y ) J f (Z)).
, , X, Y Z
. , f (X), f (Y ) f (Z)
(f (X) I f (Y ) J f (Z)) . |f (X)f (Y )| + |f (Y )f (Z)| = |f (X)f (Z)|.
|f (X)f (Y )| = |k| |XY |, |f (Y )f (Z)| = |k| |Y Z|,
|f (X)f (Z)| = |k| |XZ|, 11.1, X, Y Z |XY | + |Y Z| = |XZ|. ,
X, Y Z ,
|XY | + |Y Z| > |XZ|,
|XY | + |Y Z| = |XZ|. , f (X), f (Y ) f (Z)
. 
11.3. f = hkO
O k. , X, Y Z
, XY Z
= f (X)f (Y )f (Z).

11. .

213

-. k > 0. h A, ,
[OA]
= [XY ]. O
q, , hq
= XY Z.
k B, [OB]
= [Y Z].
O, A B AOB,
XY Z (. 5.1 ).
:
|XY | = |OA|,

|Y Z| = |OB|,

|XZ| = |AB|.

(11.6)

f = hkO O,
A, B, X, Y Z. O ,
f (O) = O, A B f (A) f (B),
h k, A B.
:
f (A)Of (B) = hk = AOB
= XY Z.

(11.7)

X, Y Z f (X)f (Y )f (Z),

f (A)Of (B).
|f (X)f (Y )| = |f (A)O|,
|f (Y )f (Z)| = |f (B)O|,
|f (X)f (Z)| = |f (A)f (B)|,
, ,
11.1 (11.6). 5.5
f (X)f (Y )f (Z) f (A)Of (B),
f (X)f (Y )f (Z)
= f (A)Of (B). (11.7),
f (X)f (Y )f (Z)
= XY Z, .

214

VI. .

k < 0 k > 0, k = q
hkO = hqO iO , iO
, . 
11.1, 11.2 11.3 ,
( ),
.
. , . 1.5
,
, .
.
, f = hkO ,
f 1 hqO q = 1/k.
11.1. f : E E
, f =
hkO , , hkO k 6= 0. |k|
.
11.1. , .
11.2. , ,
, .
11.2. 1 2
,
f : E E,
.
C 11.4. ABC AB

AC,

|AB| : |AB| = |AC| : |AC| BAC = B
C.

ABC AB

12. .

215

11.5. - ABC
C,

AB
C.

ABC AB
C 11.6. ABC AB

|AB| : |AB| = |AC| : |AC| = |BC| : |B C|,

ABC AB C.
11.3. 11.4, 11.5 11.6
. , 5.1, 5.2 5.5 .
12. .
8.1 .
.

12.1. AB.

CD, |CD| = |k| |AB|

AB k 6= 0 CD = k AB,

AB k > 0

AB k < 0.

AB k ,
12.1

CD . , .

12.1. CD C 0 D0
AB k, 8.2.
-. , [CD] [C 0 D0 ] , |CD| = |k| |AB| |C 0 D0 | = |k| |AB|.
[CD]
= [C 0 D0 ].

k > 0 AB  CD AB  C 0 D0 ,



CD  C 0 D0 . k < 0 AB CD AB C 0 D0

216

VI. .


BA  CD BA  C 0 D0 ,

CD C 0 D0 . CD  C 0 D0

[CD]
= [C 0 D0 ] CD

C 0 D0 8.2. 

12.2. AB = A0 B 0


CD C 0 D0 , AB A0 B 0 k.

-. AB = A0 B 0


AB  A0 B 0 ,

|AB| = |A0 B 0 |.

(12.1)


CD = k AB C 0 D0 = k A0 B 0 k > 0

CD C 0 D0

CD  AB,

C 0 D0  A0 B 0 ,

|CD| = |k| |AB|,


(12.2)
0

|C D | = |k| |A B |.

(12.1) (12.2) CD


C 0 D0 , , CD = C 0 D0 .

k < 0 , AB

A0 B 0 (12.2) BA

B 0 A0 . . 
12.1 12.2 ,
. b k R,
c = k b. k = 0 b = 0 k b :
0 b = 0 b,
k 0 = 0 k R.

12. .

217

12.3.
:
(1) : a + b = b + a;
(2) : (a + b) + = a + (b + c);
(3) : a + 0 = a;
(4) a a0 , , a + a0 = 0;
(5)
: k (a + b) = k a + k b;
(6) : (k + q) a = k a + q a;
(7) :
(k q) a = k (q a);
(8) : 1 a = a.
12.1. 12.3,
.

c Sharipov R.A., 1998, 2007.


CopyRight

1. . ., , ,
, 1967.
2. . ., , - , , 1971.
3. . ., , - , , 1993.
4. ., ., ., - , , 1966.
5. . ., , - , , 1977.
6. . ., , . I, II, , , 1985.
7. . ., , - ,
, 1950.

:
,

,
. 32,
450074 ,
:
+7-(347)-273-67-18 ()
+7-(917)-476-93-48 ()
-:
http://www.geocities.com/r-sharipov
http://www.freetextbooks.boom.ru
http://sovlit2.narod.ru

:
,
. , 5,
450003 ,

:
r-sharipov@mail.ru
R Sharipov@ic.bashedu.ru


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1. .
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tests for High School students, math.GM/0006230 in Electronic archive
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RA/0009194 in Electronic archive http://arXiv.org (2000), 112.
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1. Lyuksyutov S. F. & Sharipov R. A., Note on kinematics, dynamics, and
thermodynamics of plastic glassy media, cond-mat/0304190 in Electronic
archive http://arXiv.org (2003), 119.
2. Lyuksyutov S. F. & Sharipov R. A. & Sigalov G. & Paramonov P. B.,
Exact analytical solution for electrostatic field produced by biased atomic
force microscope tip dwelling above dielectric-conductor bilayer, cond-mat
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3. Lyuksyutov S. F. & Sharipov R. A., Separation of plastic deformations in
polymers based on elements of general nonlinear theory, cond-mat /0408433
in Electronic archive http://arXiv.org (2004), 14.
4. Comer J. & Sharipov R. A., A note on the kinematics of dislocations
in crystals, math-ph/0410006 in Electronic archive http://arXiv.org
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5. Sharipov R. A., Gauge or not gauge? cond-mat/0410552 in Electronic archive http://arXiv.org (2004), 112.
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of dislocations, cond-mat/0411148 in Electronic archive http://arXiv.org
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9. Lyuksyutov S. F. & Paramonov P. B. & Sharipov R. A. & Sigalov G., Induced
nanoscale deformations in polymers using atomic force microscopy, Phys.
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relativity, math.DG/0601262 in Electronic archive http://arXiv.org (2006),
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4. Sharipov R. A., The electro-weak and color bundles for the Standard Model
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