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# TEMPERATUREAND HEAT Section 12.1 Common Temperature Scales Section 12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale Section 12.

3 Thermometers 1. Which one of the following temperatures is approximately equal to "room temperature?" (a) 0 K (c) 100 C (b) 0 C (d) 293 K Ans. (d) 2. Complete the following statement: A temperature decrease of 30 C is equal to a temperature decrease of (a) 30 F. (c) 17 F. (b) 30 K. (d) 26 F. Ans. (b) 3. Absolute zero on the Celsius temperature scale is 273.15 C. What is absolute zero on the Fahrenheit temperature scale? (a) 331.67 F (c) 395.67 F (b) 363.67 F (d) 459.67 F Ans. (d) 4. The digital sign outside a local bank reports that the temperature is 44 C. What is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit? (a) 56 F (c) 99 F (b) 79 F (d) 111 F Ans. (d) 5. Three thermometers are in the same water bath. After thermal equilibrium is established, it is found that the Celsius thermometer reads 100 C, the Fahrenheit thermometer reads 212 F, and the Kelvin thermometer reads 273 K. Which one of the following statements is the most reasonable conclusion? (a) The Kelvin thermometer is incorrect. (b) The Celsius thermometer is incorrect. (c) The Fahrenheit thermometer is incorrect.

(d) All three thermometers are incorrect. Ans. (a) 6. Three thermometers are placed in a closed, insulated box and are allowed to reach thermal equilibrium. One is calibrated in Fahrenheit degrees, one in Celsius degrees, and one in Kelvins. The Celsius thermometer reads 40 C and the Kelvin thermometer reads 233 K. Which one of the following statements is necessarily true? (a) The Kelvin thermometer should read 233 K. (b) The Kelvin thermometer should read 313 K. (c) The Fahrenheit thermometer must read 40 F. (d) If water were found within the box, it must be in the liquid state. Ans. (c) 7. During an evening news broadcast in Helsinki, Finland, the meteorologist indicated that the days lowest temperature was 4.0 C. What is the corresponding value of this temperature on the Fahrenheit scale? (a) 7.2 F (c) 17 F (b) 4.0 F (d) 25 F Ans. (d) 8. Which one of the following properties could not be used as a temperature sensitive property in the construction of a thermometer? (a) the change in mass of a solid (b) the change in volume of a liquid (c) the change in length of a metal rod (d) the change in electrical resistance of a wire Ans. (a) Section 12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion 9. Complete the following statement: Bimetallic strips used as adjustable switches in electric appliances consist of metallic strips that must have different (a) mass. (c) volume. (b) length. (d) expansion coefficients. Ans. (d)

10. Which one of the following statements is the best explanation for the fact that metal pipes that carry water often burst during cold winter months? (a) Water contracts upon freezing while the metal expands at lower temperatures. (b) The metal contracts to a greater extent than the water. (c) The interior of the pipe contracts less than the outside of the pipe. (d) Water expands upon freezing while the metal contracts at lower temperatures. Ans. (d) 11. The coefficient of linear expansion of steel is 12 106/C. A railroad track is made of individual rails of steel 1.0 km in length. By what length would these rails change between a cold day when the temperature is 10 C and a hot day at 30 C? (a) 0.62 cm (c) 48 cm (b) 24 cm (d) 480 cm Ans. (c) 12. The coefficient of linear expansion of aluminum is 23 106/C. A circular hole in an aluminum plate is 2.725 cm in diameter at 0 C. What is the diameter of the hole if the temperature of the plate is raised to 100 C? (a) 0.0063 cm (c) 2.731 cm (b) 2.728 cm (d) 2.757 cm Ans. (c) 13. A metal rod 40.0000-cm long at 40 C is heated to 60 C. The length of the rod is then measured to be 40.0105 cm. What is the coefficient of linear expansion of the metal? (a) 13 106/C (c) 44 106/C (b) 22 106/C (d) 53 106/C Ans. (a) 14. A copper plate has a length of 0.12 m and a width of 0.10 m at 25 C. The plate is uniformly heated to 175 C. If the linear expansion coefficient

for copper is 1.7 105/C, what is the change in the area of the plate as a result of the increase in temperature? (a) 2.6 105 m2 (c) 3.2 106 m2 (b) 6.1 105 m2 (d) 4.9 107 m2 Ans. (b) 15. A thin, circular disc is made of lead and has a radius of 0.0350 cm at 20.0 C. Determine the change in the area of the circle if the temperature is increased to 625.0 C. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion for lead is 29.0 106/C. (a) 4.33 105 cm2 (c) 1.89 104 cm2 (b) 1.36 104 cm2 (d) 3.19 104 cm2 Ans. (b) 122 Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat 16. At a certain temperature, a simple pendulum has a period of 1.500 seconds. The support wire is made of silver and has a coefficient of linear thermal expansion of 1.90 105/C. How much must the temperature be increased to increase the period to 1.506 seconds? (a) 118 C (c) 316 C (b) 221 C (d) 422 C Ans. (c) 17. A steel string guitar is strung so that there is negligible tension in the strings at a temperature of 24.9 C. The guitar is taken to an outdoor winter concert where the temperature of the strings decreases to 15.1 C. The cross-sectional area of a particular string is 5.5 106 m2. The distance between the points where the string is attached does not change. For steel, Youngs modulus is 2.0 1011 N/m2; and the coefficient of linear expansion is 1.2 105/C. Use your knowledge of linear thermal expansion and stress to calculate the tension in the string at the concert. (a) 530 N (c) 120 N (b) 240 N (d) 60 N Ans. (a) Section 12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion

18. The coefficient of linear expansion of a certain solid is 9 106/C. Assuming this solid behaves like most solids, what is its coefficient of volume expansion? (a) 9.1 106/C (c) 27 106/C (b) 27 1036/C (d) 729 106/C Ans. (c) 19. Which one of the following statements explains why it is difficult to measure the coefficient of volume expansion for a liquid? (a) Liquids are more compact than solids. (b) Liquids are more compact than gases. (c) Liquids tend to expand more slowly than solids. (d) The volume of the containing vessel will also increase. Ans. (d)

20. Zirconium tungstate is an unusual material because its volume shrinks with an increase in temperature for the temperature range 0.3 K to 1050 K (where it decomposes). In fact, the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion is 26.4 106/K. Determine the ratio V/V0 for the above mentioned temperature range. Express your answer in percent. (a) 5.28% (c) 2.77% (b) 3.59% (d) 1.90% Ans. (c) 21. A steel gas tank of volume 0.0700 m3 is filled to the top with gasoline at 20.0 C. The tank is placed inside a chamber with an interior temperature of 50.0 C. The coefficient of volume expansion for gasoline is 9.50 104/C; and the coefficient of linear expansion of steel is 12.0 106/C. After the tank and its contents reach thermal equilibrium with the interior of the chamber, how much gasoline has spilled? (a) 2.52 105 m3 (c) 1.69 103 m3 (b) 7.56 105 m3 (d) 1.92 103 m3

22. The coefficient of volumetric expansion for gold is 4.20 105/C. The density of gold is 19 300 kg/m3 at 0.0 C. What is the density of gold at 1050 C? (a) 20 200 kg/ m3 (c) 19 000 kg/m3 (b) 19 300 kg/m3 (d) 18 500 kg/m3 23. A tanker ship is filled with 2.25 105 m3 of gasoline at a refinery in southern Texas when the temperature is 17.2 C. When the ship arrives in New York City, the temperature is 1.3 C. If the coefficient of volumetric expansion for gasoline is 9.50 104/C, how much has the volume of the gasoline decreased when it is unloaded in New York? (a) 1.50 102 m3 (c) 1290 m3 (b) 66.2 m3 (d) 3400 m3 Ans. (d) Section 12.6 Heat and Internal Energy Section 12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity 24. Complete the following statement: The term heat most accurately describes (a) the internal energy of an object. (b) a measure of how hot an object is. (c) the absolute temperature of an object. (d) the flow of energy due to a temperature difference. Ans. (d) 25. The units of heat are equivalent to those of which one of the following quantities? (a) force/time (c) temperature (b) work (d) specific heat capacity Ans. (b) 26. The specific heat capacity of iron is approximately half that of aluminum. Two balls of equal mass, one made of iron and the other of aluminum, both at 80 C, are dropped into a thermally insulated jar that contains an equal mass of water at 20 C. Thermal equilibrium is

eventually reached. Which one of the following statements concerning the final temperatures is true? (a) Both balls will reach the same final temperature. (b) The iron ball will reach a higher final temperature than the aluminum ball. (c) The aluminum ball will reach a higher final temperature than the iron ball. (d) The difference in the final temperatures of the balls depends on the initial mass of the water. Ans. (a) 27. Two cubes, one silver and one iron, have the same mass and temperature. A quantity Q of heat is removed from each cube. Which one of the following properties causes the final temperatures of the cubes to be different? (a) density (c) specific heat capacity (b) latent heat of vaporization (d) coefficient of volume expansion Ans. (c) 28. A soft drink manufacturer claims that a new diet drink is low Joule. The label indicates the available energy is 6300 J. What is the equivalent of this energy in Calories (1 Calorie = 1000 cal)? (a) 0.015 Cal (c) 1.0 Cal (b) 0.48 Cal (d) 1.5 Cal Ans. (d) 29. Two spheres, labeled A and B, have identical masses, but are made of different substances. The specific heat capacity of sphere A is 440 J/(kg C) and that of sphere B is 160 J/(kg C). The spheres are initially at 21 C; and the same quantity of heat is added to each sphere. If the final temperature of sphere A is 72 C, what is the final temperature of sphere B? (a) 160 C (b) 140 C Ans. (a) (c) 111 C (d) 51 C

124 Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat 31. A 200.0-kg object is attached via an ideal pulley system to paddle wheels that are submerged in 0.480 kg of water at 20.0 C in an insulated container as shown in the drawing. Then, the object falls through a distance of 5.00 m causing the paddle wheel to turn. Assuming all of the mechanical energy lost by the falling object goes into the water, determine the final temperature of the water. (a) 4.90C (b) 20.5C (c) 24.9 C (d) 40.4 C Ans. (c) 32. A 0.20-kg lead ball is heated to 90.0 C and dropped into an ideal calorimeter containing 0.50 kg of water initially at 20.0 C. What is the final equilibrium temperature of the lead ball? The specific heat capacity of lead is 128 J/(kg C); and the specific heat of water is 4186 J/(kg C). (a) 4.8 C (c) 22.4 C (b) 20.8 C (d) 27.8 C Ans. (b) 33. A gold sphere has a radius of 1.000 cm at 25.0 C. If 7650 J of heat is added to the sphere, what will the final volume of the sphere be? Gold has a density of 19 300 kg/m3 at 25.0 C, a specific heat capacity of 129 J/(kg C), and a coefficient of volume expansion of 42.0 106/C. (a) 2.88 106 m3 (c) 3.33 106 m3 (b) 3.01 106 m3 (d) 4.32 106 m3 Ans. (d) Questions 34 and 35 pertain to the situation described below: A 2.00-kg metal block slides on a rough, horizontal surface inside an insulated pipe. After sliding a distance of 500.0 m, its temperature is increased by 2.00 C. Note: Assume that all of the heat generated by frictional heating goes into the metal block. For this metal, the specific heat capacity is 0.150 cal/(g C).

34. How much work does the force of friction do on the block? (a) zero joules (c) 300 J (b) 300 J (d) 2510 J Ans. (d) 35. What is the coefficient of sliding friction between the block and the surface? (a) zero (c) 0.100 (b) 0.061 (d) 0.256 Ans. (d)g Section 12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat 36. Complete the following statement: When a substance undergoes fusion it. (a) freezes. (c) condenses. (b) sublimes. (d) vaporizes. Ans. (d) 37. Which one of the following phrases is an example of sublimation? (a) the fumes produced by moth balls (b) the mist produced by liquid nitrogen (c) the formation of dew on blades of grass (d) the formation of raindrops in the atmosphere Ans. (a) 38. Complete the following statement: When solid NH3 passes directly to the gaseous state it is said to (a) melt. (c) condense. (b) sublime. (d) evaporate. Ans. (b) 39. A 1.0-g sample of steam at 100 C loses 560 calories of heat. What is the resulting temperature of the sample?

## (c) 88C (d) 96 C

40. Heat is added to a substance, but its temperature does not rise. Which one of the following statements provides the best explanation for this observation? (a) The substance must be a gas. (b) The substance must be a non-perfect solid. (c) The substance undergoes a change of phase. (d) The substance has unusual thermal properties. Ans. (c) 41. Which would cause a more serious burn: 30 g of steam or 30 g of liquid water, both at 100 C; and why is this so? (a) Water, because it is denser than steam. (b) Steam, because of its specific heat capacity. (c) Steam, because of its latent heat of vaporization. (d) Water, because its specific heat is greater than that of steam. Ans. (c) 42. Heat is added to a sample of water in an insulated container. Which one of the following statements is necessarily true? (a) The temperature of the water will rise. (b) The volume of the water must decrease. (c) The mass of the system must decrease. (d) The type of change that will occur depends on the original temperature of the water. Ans. (d) 43. A 5.0-g sample of ice at 0.0 C falls through a distance of 20.0 m and undergoes a completely inelastic collision with the earth. If all of the mechanical energy is absorbed by the ice, how much of it melts? (a) 2.9 103 g (c) 7.6 103 g

## (d) 1.8 102 g

126 Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat 44. What is the minimum amount of energy required to completely melt a 7.25-kg lead brick which has a starting temperature of 18.0 C? The melting point of lead is 328 C. The specific heat capacity of lead is 128 J/(kg C); and its latent heat of fusion is 23 200 J/kg. (a) 1.20 105 J (c) 2.88 105 J (b) 1.68 105 J (d) 4.56 105 J Ans. (d) 45. Using the data in the table, determine how many calories are needed to change 100 g of solid X at 10 C to a vapor at 210 C. Thermodynamics Constant for Substance X Heat of fusion 40.cal/g Hat of vaporization 150.0cal/g Melting point 10.0 C Boiling point 210.0 C Specific heat capacity (liquid X) 0.500 cal/(g.C) (a) 4000 cal (c) 15 000 cal (b) 10 000 cal (d) 29 000 cal Ans. (d) 46. A 0.030-kg ice cube at 0 C is placed in an insulated box that contains a fixed quantity of steam at 100 C. When thermal equilibrium of this closed system is established, its temperature is found to be 23 C. Determine the original mass of the steam at 100 C. (a) 0.17 g (c) 2.5 g (b) 1.7 g (d) 5.0 g Ans. (d) 47. A 0.040-kg ice cube at 0 C is placed in an insulated box that contains 0.0075 kg of steam at 100 C. What is the equilibrium

## temperature reached by this closed system?

Note: Assume that all of the ice melts. (a) 22.7 C (b) 33.6 C (c) 44.9 C (d) 50.7 C Ans. (b) 48. A thermos bottle contains 3.0 kg of water and 2.0 kg of ice in thermal equilibrium at 0 C. How much heat is required to bring the system to thermal equilibrium at 50 C? (a) 250 kcal (c) 410 kcal (b) 310 kcal (d) 540 kcal Ans. (c) 49. Judy places 0.150 kg of boiling water in a thermos bottle. How many kilograms of ice at 12.0 C must Judy add to the thermos so that the equilibrium temperature of the water is 75.0 C? (a) 0.0233 kg (c) 0.0436 kg (b) 0.0265 kg (d) 0.0713 kg Ans. (a) 50. Determine the latent heat of vaporization of unknown substance X in kcal/g if 3.0 g of boiling liquid X are completely vaporized in 1.5 hours by an input of 10 kcal/h into the system by an energy source. (a) 5 kcal/g (c) 27 kcal/g (b) 15 kcal/g (d) 30 kcal/g Ans. (a) 51. In an insulated container, 0.50 kg of steam, initially at 140 C, is mixed with 2.0 kg of ice, initially at 20.0 C. What is the final temperature inside the container if heat exchanges with the container are ignored? (a) 16C (c) 60C (b) 50 C (d) 64 C Ans. (c)

52. A household humidifier continuously takes water in at 20.0 C at a rate of 5.60 105 kg/s and heats it until it evaporates. If the cost of electricity is \$ 0.14/kWh, what is the daily cost of operating the humidifier? Notes: one kWh = 3.60 106 J; and for water, the specific heat capacity is 4186 J/(kg C); the latent heats of fusion and vaporization are 3.35 105 J/kg and 2.26 106 J/kg, respectively. (a) \$ 0.31 (c) \$ 0.58 (b) \$ 0.49 (d) \$ 0.65 Ans. (b) Questions 53 through 55 pertain to the situation described below: A 0.0500-kg lead bullet of volume 5.00 106 m3 at 20.0 C hits a block that is made of an ideal thermal insulator and comes to rest at its center. At that time, the temperature of the bullet is 327 C. Use the following information for lead: coefficient of linear expansion: specific heat capacity: latent heat of fusion: melting point: = 2.0 105/C c = 128 J/(kg C) Lf = 23 200 J/kg Tmelt = 327 C

53. How much heat was needed to raise the bullet to its final temperature? (a) 963 J (c) 3640 J (b) 1960 J (d) 3880 J Ans. (b) 54. What is the volume of the bullet when it comes to rest? (a) 5.00 106 m3 (c) 5.03 106 m3 (b) 5.01 106 m3 (d) 5.09 106 m3 55. What additional heat would be needed to melt the bullet? (a) 420 J (c) 837 J (b) 628 J (d) 1160 J

Ans. (d) *Section 12.9 Equilibrium between Phases of Matter 56. A liquid is in equilibrium with its vapor in a closed vessel. Which one of the following statements is necessarily true? (a) The rate of condensation is greater than the evaporation rate. (b) The rate of evaporation is greater than the condensation rate. (c) The temperature of the vapor is greater than that of the liquid. (d) The temperature of the vapor is the same as that of the liquid. Ans. (d) 128 Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat 57. The graph shows the equilibrium vapor pressure versus temperature for a certain liquid and its vapor within an open container. If the container is at sea level, at approximately what temperature will the liquid boil? (a) 50 C (b) 65 C (c) 75 C (d) 85 C Ans. (c)

58. Given the following information, determine the relative humidity at 15 C. partial pressure of water at 15 C = 1230 Pa partial pressure of water at the dew point, 15 C = 1710 Pa (a) 39.0 % (c) 50.8 % (b) 47.9 % (d) 71.9 % Ans. (d) 59. On a warm summer day, the relative humidity is 30 % when the temperature is 32 C. Which one of the following statements is true if the temperature suddenly decreases to 26 C and all other conditions remain the same? (a) The relative humidity will decrease. (b) The relative humidity will increase.

(c) The dew point will change. (d) The partial pressure of water vapor will decrease. Ans. (b) Additional Problems 60. An ordinary mercury thermometer at room temperature is quickly placed in a beaker of hot water. The mercury column is observed to drop slightly before it rises to the final equilibrium temperature. Which one of the following statements is the best explanation for this behavior? (a) The glass envelope expands before the heat reaches the mercury. (b) The expansion coefficient of glass is larger than that of mercury. (c) Both the mercury and the glass initially expand, but at different rates. (d) Initially, the mercury contracts. 61. After working a 0.55-kg iron horseshoe with a temperature of 460 C on an anvil, a ferrier drops it into a bucket that contains 11 kg of water with an initial temperature of 24 C. Assuming no heat is transferred to the environment, determine the final temperature of the horseshoe in the bucket of water when thermal equilibrium is achieved. The specific heat capacity of iron is 452 J/kg C. For water, the specific heat capacity is 4186 J/kg C. (a) 26 C (c) 41 C (b) 34 C (d) 49 C Ans. (a)

Questions 62 through 66 pertain to the situation described below: Heat is added to a 1.0-kg solid sample of a material at 200 C. The figure shows the temperature of the material as a function of the heat added.

62. Which one of the following statements concerning this substance is true? (a) It boils at 300 C. (b) It melts at 200 C. (c) It is a liquid at 200 C. (d) It can coexist as a solid and a liquid at 50 C. Ans. (d) 63. What is the latent heat of fusion of this material? (a) 50 cal/g (c) 150 cal/g (b) 100 cal/g (d) 300 cal/g Ans. (b) 64. What is the latent heat of vaporization of this material? (a) 50 cal/g (c) 150 cal/g (b) 100 cal/g (d) 300 cal/g Ans. (c) 65. What is the specific heat capacity of this substance in its solid state? (a) 0.33 cal/(g C) (c) 1.00 cal/(g C) (b) 0.75 cal/(g C) (d) 1.33 cal/(g C) Ans. (a) 66. What is the specific heat capacity of this substance in its liquid state? (a) 0.33 cal/(g C) (c) 1.00 cal/(g C) (b) 0.75 cal/(g C) (d) 1.33 cal/(g C)

Ans. (b)