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_____________________________________________________________________________

.. , .. , ..

_____________________________________________________________________________

2002

.., .. :
/ .-.,2002.-56.



,
.

., . .

..(?), ,

2002 .


.................................................................................................................................................................5
LAN........................................................................................................................5
WLAN .....................................................................................................................................6
..........................................................................................................................................................6
, .............................................................6
...................................................................................................................................7
......................................................................................................................7
WLAN .................................................................................................................................................8
.......................................................................................................................8
...................................................................................................................................................9
...........................................................................................................................9
...........................................................................................................................10
...............................................................................................................................................10
...........................................................................................................10
.............................................................................................................11
.............................................................................................................................11
.......................................................................................................................................11
.......................................................................................................................12
(Security Safeguards)........................................................................................................13
.....................................................................................................................................13
...............................................................................................................................................14
LAN .............................................................................15
( ) ...............................................................15
................................................................................................................16
.................................................................................................17
....................................................................................................................18
................................................................................................................................................................19
.........................................................................................................................................................20
LAN..................................................................................................................21
LAN ...............................................................................................................22
................................................................................................................22
- ............................................................................................................23
- ...........................................................................24
- ..............................................................................................25
LAN .........................................................................................................26
MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (MAC) ..........................................28
(PHYSICAL LAYER) ...........................................................................................................29
.........................................................................................................................29
LAN.................................................................................................................30
...................................................................................................................30
(FHSS) .....................................31
, (DSSS) ..............32
(OFDM)........................................................................33
ISM.........................................................................................................................37
.........................................................................38
HOMERF SWAP .....................................................................................................................................................39
BLUETOOTH ............................................................................................................................................................40
HIPERLAN ..............................................................................................................................................................40
IEEE 802.11............................................................................................................................................................40
BLUETOOTH ...........................................................................................................................................................42
HIPERLAN/2.............................................................................................................................................................51

IEEE 802.11 ...............................................................................................................................................................55


IEEE 802......................................................................................................................55
IEEE 802.2 LLC .....................................................................................................................................................55
IEEE 802.2 LLC ....................................................................................................................................56
IEEE 802.11..........................................................................................................................................57
IEEE 802.11 ....................................................................................................................................58
IEEE 802.11...........................................................................................................60
MAC IEEE 802.11.............................................................................................................60
IEEE 802.11 .......................................................................................................................61
IEEE 802.11 .............................................................................................................................................62
.......................................................................................................................................................67
1....................................................................................................................................................68
(CCK) ........................................................................................................................68
...........................................................................................................................................................69
.....................................................................................................................................71


LAN
. IEEE 802.11 WLAN,
,
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LAN.
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Ethernet. WLAN, ,
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LAN
Ethernet 2002 . ,

IEEE 802.11 LAN.

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NIC .
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11

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12

(Security Safeguards)

.
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(. 1.6).

1.6
.



, . TCP/IP, ,
Ethernet Token
Ring. , , TCP/IP ,
, .
, ,

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LAN.
.
IP ,
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13

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14

, 50 100 ,
600 3 . ,
.
, LAN,
(MAN). .
, Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH),
Food and Drug Administration,
. CDRH ,
, .
LAN
-
. IV ,
, .

, ,
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LAN
LAN : NIC
(local bridge), .
NIC ,
LAN. NIC

.

( )
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:


Palmtop


- ( -) (PDAs)

.
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.

15


,
. (NOS) Microsoft NT
Server, ,
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( 2.10). ,
TCP/IP
, NOS.

2.10

.
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(LAN) . ,
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, IBM, IBM AS/400,
UNIX,
. -,
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, , , Microsoft NT Server.

16


. , , , ,
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. :
RF.
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. Since the gateway proxies all the appliances, /
- .
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,
(DC), .
,
.
,
.
, .
WLAN NIC ,
.
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). ISA
.
PCMCIA , NIC
. PCMCIA : 1 (3.3 ), II (5.0
), III (10.5 ).
, RS-232
.
NIC
,
.
:
NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) ,
Microsoft.
ODI (Open Datalink Interface) ,
Novell.
PDS (Packet Driver Specification) DOS, FTP Software
Inc. TCP/IP-BASED .
WLAN
.

17


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LAN .
,
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" LAN," 1, " ",
, LAN.


- . LAN MAC
. MAC
IEEE, LAN.
MAC, (Logical Link Control) (LLC),
(Data Link layer) OSI ( ),
ISO. 3, " IEEE 802.11"("Overview of the IEEE
802.11 Standard"), LLC. LAN
: , Ethernet, Ethernet Token Ring,
, MAC .
.
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.
:
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LAN.
2.11
. , E1(T1) 56
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18

2.11
LAN ,
LAN .
, LAN
, .
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( , )
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) , .
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19


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2.12
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.

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.
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: ,
.
LAN
(smart) .

, LAN (not in
directions that end up bouncing off walls and other obstacles).
LAN .


, , ,
. Ethernet

20

.
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.
.
,
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, .
, .
,
FCC, ,
. ,
.

LAN

. LAN
NIC , ,
2.13. ,
, , .

2.13
LAN
, , ,
.
, , Basic Service
Area (BSA), 75 300
() ,
. , BSA, 6-25 ,
.
.

21

LAN
,
, , ,
(. 2.14).
, .
data collector NIC
.

2.14
LAN ,
LAN.
LAN ,
. ,
A, B, C (. 2.14) ,
,
( ) .
, , A
, B C
. , , A
, B C - .
LAN ,
, .
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22

-
, 56/
E1(T1) - . , ,
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-
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) , LAN. ,
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2.15
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23

-
-
.
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.
,
, ,
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Ethernet (10 /), Token Ring (4-16/) .
2.16 -.

2.16
-
Ethernet TokenRing .
,
. Center for Devices and
Radiological Health , , III.
.
, ,
.
.
,
. , , , , ,
. (3-4
), , 6 .

?
- . 20/
, CAD (Computer Assisted Drawing)
. , FCC. FCC
300; , ,
, .

24


.
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. .
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(. 2.17).
, ,
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,
.

2.17
-.

-
, ,
- ( -),
Internet . 2.18
. IEEE 802.11
.

25

2.18
- ( -)
.
(MAN) - MMDS (Multichannel
Multipoint Distribution Service) LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service). MMDS LMDS,
, Internet
. MMDS, ,
35-
. ,
. MMDS 2.1 2.7,
1 100 , 10/
35 . MMDS .
MMDS, ,
. ,
, MMDS ,
,
.
MMDS ,
. ,
.
LMDS ,
, . LMDS
24, 28, 31, 38, 40 , 1 100 .
155/, 2 . LMDS
. , ,
. ,
LMDS ,
, ATM, ( ).

LAN
LAN ,
Ethernet, ,
.

26

1,000
. , LAN
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
SNMP. 2.1
.

2.1

, .
,
Ethernet TokenRing.
:
1. ( ) .
2. .
3.
.
4.
.
5. , ,
, ,
.
2.2 LAN.

27

2.2
,
(Medium Access Control (MAC)) (Physical layers)
.

Medium Access Control (MAC)

MAC, Data Link layer


,
,
Ethernet.
. MAC LAN
, -
.
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, . 2.3
,
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)).

28

2.3
; ,
.

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(Physical Layer)
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(NIC)
.


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.

29

LAN
-
LAN. ( ) ,
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- , LAN
.


""
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: .

30

2.4

(FHSS)
(Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Radio)
, .
,
, (. 2.5). IEEE 802.11
, ,
2.4, 2.4 2.483.
,
. ,

. FCC 75
, (,
) 400 .
,
.

31

2.5

.

,
,
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.
,
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.
, .
, ,
. FCC

.

, (DSSS)
(Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Radio)
,

,
,
(chipping code (also known as a processing gain)). ( ?)
() .
() , FCC - 10,
20. IEEE 802.11 ,
() 11 .
2.6 .
, 1 0,
. ,

32

. , 1,
00010011100.

2.6

.

,
LAN,
2/ .

.

(OFDM)
(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
OFDM
,
. ,
, ,
, . (ISI)

OFDM . OFDM- ,
. . 4 OFDM
. ,
- ().
, . . 4,
,
.
,
. 4. - , OFDM
, . ,

33

OFDM-. -
, ,
. ,
(forward error correction).

4. OFDM-

OFDM
2. OFDM-

6, 9, 12, 18, 24,36,48, 54 /


BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM
1/2, 2/3, 3/4



OFDM

52
4
4



-3

800
312.5
16.56
20

2 OFDM . ,

800 . (RMS)
,
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.
,
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312.5 ,
. 48
12-72 / BPSK

34

64QAM. 4 , OFDM
,
,
.
,
(forward error correction) ,
6-54 /.
1/2, 7,
(generator polynomials) (133,171). 2/3
3/4 1/2.


200 UNII OFDM 20 . () 30
, FCC
. FCC UNII 5.725 - 5.825 ,
OFDM-. ,
- 20 ,
, UNII .
, UNII,
5.470-5.725 . , 100 5.15-5.25
2000 .. OFDM-
20 .

OFDM
- OFDM-
. 5.
1/2.
2/3 3/4, .
QAM. , 4
48 , 52 QAM / OFDM,
52 IFFT (
). ,
. , ( ,
), .
, 5
, .
OFDM, , , ,
.
, .
, 52 QAM -
.
. QAM-
, .
. 6 - OFDM - ,

35

. , 10
, 12 ,
, ,
. ,
16 , ,
, , .
,
. OFDM
[10].

5. - OFDM-

6. - OFDM.

IEEE 802.11 CCK


2.4 2 11 /. CCK-
- ,

, , . ,
,
1 2 /,
, - 1 11 /. ,

36

CCK, , Wireless
Ethernet Compatibility Alliance,
.
OFDM 5
, 2.4 .
1 54 / ,
(indoor) . ,
OFDM - , , Magic
WAND OFDM.
, , ,
OFDM 5 2000 ..

ISM
1985, , FCC
15 ,
.
, , Industrial, Scientific,
and Medical (ISM) . ISM 2.7.

2.7
, , (ISM)
.
FCC ,
FCC, , ,
1 .


, ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
LAN, ,
902 , . 2.4 , .
1980- 1995.
, 902,

37

. ,
,
, , 2.4. ,
LAN
5,
,
2.4.


90- ,
(ISM - , , ) 900 , 2, 4 5
. 1997 (IEEE)
IEEE 802.11 [1].
(MAC-) (PHY).
, 2.4 . PHY .
PHY 1 / 2 /.
2.4 , . 1
,
.

2.4 802.11. 1998
, (PHY),
11 / 5.5 /.
PHY ,
MAC-. ,
11 5.5 /, 1 2 /.
IEEE 802.11 PHY,
5.2 .
1997
15 . 300
5.2 ,

(unlicensed national information infrastructure - UNII). 1
.
1998, IEEE 802.11
(OFDM) [2]
5 , 6 54 /.
, OFDM , OFDM
, (DAB digital audio
broadcasting) (DVB digital video broadcasting).
IEEE 802.11 (High-Performance LAN
HIPERLAN) 2 - Multimedia Mobile Access

38

Communication (MMAC) OFDM PHY .


,
, ,
.
IEEE 802.11,
(ETSI) HIPERLAN type 1 [3] MAC PHY - . ,
IEEE 802.11, ,
HiperLan type 1. ETSI BRAN (Broadband
Access Networks )
Hiperlan: HIPERLAN type 2 (HiperLAN/2) -
(QoS); HiperLink ; HiperAccess - ,
, .
HIPERLAN 1 2 . -, HIPERLAN type 1
MAC- (QoS),
HIPERLAN type 2 QoS MAC.
, HIPERLAN type 1
(GMSK), HIPERLAN type 2 OFDM.
,
MMAC, - WLAN
, 156
/, 30-300 ;
25-30 / () (3-60 ).
.
IEEE 802.11
2.4 . , OFDM,
5 , 54 /.
PHY MAC- -,
Magic Wireless Access Network Demonstrator (WAND),
HIPERLAN type 2.
PHY. IEEE 802.11 MAC-
,
MAC, 1 2 /. MAC [1].

LAN,
LAN
LAN .
.

HomeRF SWAP
1998, HomeRF (HRFWG)
, -
Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP),
.
SWAP ,

39

1/ 2/,
2.4GHz. HRFWG 10/ -
SWAP,
.

.

Bluetooth
Bluetooth , Bluetooth Special Interest
Group (SIG), , 3Com, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft,
Motorola, Nokia, Toshiba. Bluetooth LAN,
(PAN - personal area network),
LAN. Bluetooth 1 /
,
2.4 .
.

HiperLAN
HiperLAN ( ) 300652
1996 . (BRAN Broadband Radio Access Network) (ETSI).
HiperLAN/1, , 24/
5 . Ethernet, HiperLAN/1 LAN

(connectionless protocol). HiperLAN/1 (QoS)
, , .
ETSI HiperLAN/2
HiperLAN/2 (H2GF). HiperLAN/2 5
54/
. HiperLAN/2 ,
Ethernet, ATM IP.

IEEE 802.11
1997 IEEE LAN: IEEE 802.11.
2.4 1/ 2/.
802.11 :
(802.11 DSSS).
1999, IEEE 802.11: 802.11 802.11b. IEEE 802.11b
802.11 DSSS,
2.4, 11/. LAN,
, 802.11b.
802.11 54/
(OFDM) 5 ,
. 802.11

40

: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54/;


, , 6,
12 24/.

.
.

41

Bluetooth
Bluetooth 1.0

10 (100 )
1 /

CVSD (Continuous Variable Slope Delta


Modulation)
3
/

8
2.4 ( )
79
1600



-
(FHSS)

(Standby Mode Listen Rate)
,


432.6 /
723.3 K/ / 57.6K

1.28
100


40- 64-

Bluetooth ,
/
,
Line of Sight - .. Bluetooth
: , ,
.
Ericsson
Nokia, IBM, Intel Toshiba 98 ,
- Harald Blutand (- Bluetooth),
. ,
,
, , , , PDA.
Merril Lynch "The Bluetooth Handbook 1.0" , 2005
Bluetooth , 1.7 .
(
, ), -
.
.
, .

42

Bluetooth
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ,
.
Bluetooth :
 -- 2,44 . -- ,
(ISM -- industry, science, medicine);
 FHSS -- .
,
. (TDD)
;

TCP/IP;
 ,
.
-, ;
 Bluetooth 721/.
Bluetooth 2.4 . GFSK (Gaussian
Frequency Shift Keying) BT = 0.5.
0.28 0.35.
, .
20 ppm (Part Per Million).
Bluetooth 48- ,
IEEE 802. - 3
721 /. - IEEE 802.11.
Bluetooth 10
( 100 ).
8 , PAN (Personal Access
Network - ).
"master",
"slaves". , ,
-.
. 8 ,
. , .
, ,
(Scatternet).
Bluetooth - Bluetooth -.
, , ,
. Bluetooth -
PC-.

2.4 GHz
Bluetooth
radio

Bluetooth
link
controller

Bluetooth
link
manager

host

. 1. Bluetooth -

43

,
. (link manager),
. , .
(piconet).
, .
(master), - (slave).
( ),
, ,
.
:
( AM_ADDR),
, ,
( ),
(broadcast) . ,
(locked) , (Park Mode).
, .
. Bluetooth
(scatternet,
). .
, , ,
. ..
(Time Division Multiplex),
.

. 2. (), (), ().


- 10 10 ,
100 . Bluetooth - (2,402-2,483,5
) ( , )
, ISM (Industry-Science-Medicine),
, . -
, Bluetooth.
, , ,
. ,
, Bluetooth,
IEEE 802.11b HomeRF, ,
.

Bluetooth (1600 /).

44

( )
( , ) ,
. ,
( 48-
IEEE 802) .
- 625 ( ),
.
TDD (Time-Division Duplex).
, - .
.
.
-, -.
Bluetooth
. - . Bluetooth
, 3
, .
(64 / ).
723.2 / ( 57.6 /
) 433.9 / .
Bluetooth
79 23 .
(Bluetooth device address)
, .
-, -
. - 1600 /. Bluetooth-,
, .
- 625 . -
. 0 227-1,
227. - .
TDD ( ),
.
-, . .
5 - .

. 3. (TDD)
.
- .

45

. 4. , -
.
,
( ). : ,
.
:
Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO) link
Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) link
( ).
-
. , .
.
- .
. 3
. SCO-
.
, . -
- : ,
, .
- .
.
ACL- , ,
. (),
.
, .
. 3 :
(access code), , (payload).
72 54 .
0 2745 . :
, .

46

.5. Bluetooth
, 72 ,
68 .
.
: , ,
.
.
.
.
, .
6 :
AM_ADDR: (active member address) 3- ;
TYPE: (type code) 4
FLOW: (flow control) 1
ARQN: (acknowledge indication) - 1
SEQN: (sequence number) - 1
HEC: (header error check) - 8
: voice field
data field .
80 240
.
: , ,
CRC ( ):
Bluetooth .
1/3 rate FEC
2/3 rate FEC
ARQ scheme for the data
FEC (Forward Error Correction)
. , ,
, ,
. ,
. 1/3 rate FEC.

.10.
ARQ (automatic repeat request)
(timeout).
(.. piggy-backing).
ARQ ( , CRC).
ARQ.

47

Bluetooth 5 :
LC control channel (Link Control)
LM control channel (Link Manager)
UA user channel (User Asynchronous/Isochronous Data)
UI user channel
US user channel (User Synchronous Data)
LC LM
.
UA, UI, and US
, , , (asynchronous, isochronous, and
synchronous), . LC ;
.
. Bluetooth
device address (BD_ADDR)
.
. , .. . ,
(master) ( (slave).
, ,
,
.
Bluetooth- : STANDBY
CONNECTION. : page, page
scan, inquiry, inquiry scan, master response, slave response, inquiry response.
.
, ,
, , ,
(timeout).

48

. 11. Bluetooth-
STANDBY Bluetooth-.
.
.
STANDBY
(inquiry) (page),
. STANDBY,
(CONNECTION) .
page, CONNECTION .
Bluetooth
CONNECTION: active mode, sniff mode, hold mode, park mode.
active mode Bluetooth- .
.
, .
-
. .. ,
.
sniff mode,
. sniff mode -,
, , ..
- (.. sniff slots).

49

hold mode,
, active member
address (AM_ADDR).
, ,
, park mode active member address
AM_ADDR. PM_ADDR.
Bluetooth-
.
Bluetooth 0,1 (8-30 ).
- 0,3 .
, , , , Bluetooth
. , 10
, , , "" Bluetooth.
Bluetooth :

1.

. .

(Pmax)
100 (20 )

1 (0 )

Pmin<+4 dBm
Pmax
:
Pmin Pmax

2.5 (4 )

1 (0 )

0.25 (-6 )

1 (0 )

:
Pmin Pmax
:
Pmin Pmax

1 .

. 2 ()
8 ().
,
Bluetooth . Bluetooth ,
FH, . ,
" " ,
.
.
,
, Bluetooth-, (..
). Bluetooth
, : ,
(
"", , ),
( 128- ,
, Bluetooth ).

50

HiperLan/2
HiperLAN/2 IEEE 802.11 (.)
IEEE 802.11 HiperLAN/2, ETSI BRAN,
MAC. IEEE 802.11 MAC,
(CSMA/CA),
HIPERLAN/2 (scheduled) MAC,
ATM. MMAC MAC.
(PHY), :
HIPERLAN , ,
OFDM 54- ;
16-QAM, HIPERLAN 9/16 1/2 -
27 24 / - OFDM
54 . 9/16 2 18
;
HIPERLAN .
, IEEE 802.11,
. 10
IEEE 802.11, , .
,
.
Magic WAND
Magic WAND
(ACTS). Magic WAND
ATM, OFDM.
5 . -, OFDM-, Magic
WAND OFDM
. , ATM- Magic WAND
HIPERLAN/2.
MagicWAND
Magic WAND 16 , 8-PSK.
,
. , (complementary codes),
.
, 8, 2.4 CCK
8-PSK , Magic WAND.
, ,
. OFDM- 2 8,
16 .
16 ,
50 .

51

Magic WAND,
,
.
OFDM- 1.2 , 400 . 16
, 8-PSK. 13.3 /,
40 /.
1/2 20 /. - 1.25
20 ( 3 ). PHY
. 27 . ,
54- ATM ( 52 ), 3
, PHY.
- ,
.
(transmission burst) PHY. ,
, ,
burst. 8.4
, OFDM-, .
, , , ,
.
. 7 Magic WAND 5 ,
Web Demo98 1998.

8. MAC- Magic WAND.


Magic WAND
MAC- (DLC) WAND
, Mobile Access Scheme Based on Contention and Reservation
for ATM (MASCARA) ,
ATM. :
, QoS ( ),



ATM
PHY ATM


(ARQ)
ATM
(QoS). ATM,

52

QoS.

QoS . , ,
, .

.
,
(uplink downlink), , .
, ,
. -
MAC,
, :
.
. QoS,
, .
, .
. ()
. MASCARA -,
.
ATM
, ATM. , -
.
(- MAC-). Wand, ,
, , - MAC
.
, 50
. , . ,
, QoS,
. , 64 /,
6 /,
. , ,
,
.
-,
. ,
. , ( ), ,
.
.
.

(CLR) QoS. QoS.
CLR QoS , DLC
ARQ. ARQ CLR
.
. 8 . (MT)
(AP) . ,

53

. AP ,
(FH) MT. FH
, MT AP. , AP
, . , AP . MT
. uplink ,
. 1 , 2
. ,
. .
, MT
.
QoS, ,
ATM-. WAND -PHY

(, ). , TCP/IP,
(> 10-2) , ARQ.
,
. , WAND, ,
ARQ .

54

IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802
IEEE 802 (Local and Metropolitan Area Network
Standards Committee) , IEEE ,
IEEE IEC/ISO.
1980 .
. IEEE 802 , IEEE 802.x,
JTC 1, ISO 8802-nnn.
IEEE 802 .3. MAC-
LLC -
, , .

3.3
IEEE 802 1 2 OSI.
802.11
LAN, .

IEEE 802.2 LLC


LLC - IEEE 802 -
: HDLC (
). LLC -
, 802- MAC . LLC
, ,
MAC.
, TCP/IP,
LLC, . LLC
, LLC(PDU protocol data
unit). LLC LLC (.
3.4). , PDU LLC MAC (SAP service
access point) MAC,
, MAC.
MAC.

55

3.4
LLC - (end-to-end) LAN 802.11.

IEEE 802.2 LLC

LLC :

,

LLC PDU,
(. 3.5). (Destination Service Access
Point (DSAP)) (Source Service Access Point (SSAP)),
7- ,
(peer) LLC. DSAP , PDU
. SSAP , PDU.
(Control) LLC HDLC, (7-)
. (Data)
, LLC .

3.5
LLC PDU

56

Control , ,
:
Information () .
Supervisory () -
.
Unnumbered () PDU

IEEE 802.11
802.11 , "...
LAN
, , ."
, "... -
, , ,
,
."
, IEEE Standard for Wireless LAN Medium
Access (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications" ,
. IEEE
802 ( 802.3 802.5), 802.11 MSDU
( MAC) LLC. ,
802.11 .
802.11 :
(asynchronous and
time-bounded delivery service).

, Ethernet.
1/ 2/ (802.11 802.11b
).
.
( ) (multicast broadcast).
.
.
:
, , , , , ,

, , ,

802.11 -
LAN:
(). NIC LAN
PCMCIA II,

57

. , .
NIC LAN
.
802.11
(standby) . MAC
, standby
. ,
, , standby .
, .
standby, .
. ISM
. 802.11
.
. LAN
, , ,
. 802.10,
LAN 802..
. ,
.
. ,
, TCP/IP, MobileIP.

IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11 ,
LAN, ,
, LLC. ,
802.11 ( , MAC, PHY,
). 802.11
-NIC, () NIC, . 802.11
:
(IBSS - Independent Basic Service Set)
(ESS - Extended Service Set)
, 802.11
BSS, BSS
. BSS,
BSS.

(IBSS- Independent BSS)


IBSS - BSS, ( - backbone)
(. 3.6).
,
.
, , ,
, .

58

(ESS-Extended Service Set)


, BSS ,
802.11 (ESS),
3.7.
.

3.6
(IBSS) - LAN
802.11.

3.7
LAN 802.11
(), Ethernet.

802.11 :
(No-transition). ,
, BSS.
BSS- (BSS-transition) ,
BSS ESS.
ESS (ESS-transition) ,
BSS ESS BSS ESS.

59

802.11 BSS-.
, , , ESS-.
802.11 , BSS
ESS .
802.11 ,
BSS. , ,
BSS. IBSS ESS LLC.
ESS 802.11 BSS:
BSS .
, ,
.
BSS .
. 802.11 BSS.
BSS .
-- .
802.11 ,
802- - . IEEE
802.11- LAN , 802.11
, (portal).
LAN 802.11 LAN.
802- , 802.3 (Ethernet) 802.5
(Token Ring), .

IEEE 802.11
,
. . 3.8,
802.11, , MAC-
PHY-.

LLC
MAC
PHY

PHY

PHY

3.8
802.11 MAC- PHY: FHSS (frequency hopping spread
spectrum ), DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum
- ), IR (Infra-Red) - .

MAC IEEE 802.11


60

MAC (,
, ,
(delimiting) (PDU) LLC) PHY
LLC. MAC
LLC. 802.11 CSMA/CA (
), Ethernet,
CSMA/CD ( ).

, , LAN 802.11
, .

IEEE 802.11
802.11 . ,
1997 ,
1 2 / 2.4 .
, 1 2 /
. 802.11, 1999,
DSSS, IEEE 802.11b. ,
, OFDM (
), 54/ 5.
IEEE 802.3, 802.11
PHY, .
IEEE 802.11 2.4
1998 ETSI 802.11b
() (Complementary Code Keying - CCK)
PHY 11 / [4].
,
1 2 /,
. 1, 2, 5.5 11 /.

802.11 DSSS 1--2 /


1 2 /
(direct sequence spread-spectrum - DSSS). ,
CCK 5.5 11 / DSSS - .
.
.
. 1. (PPDU) .
- , .
- , .
(MPDU) .
1 /, .
SYNC (sync field

61

delimiter - SFD). SYNC 128 .


SYNC , ,
, ,
().
DSSS- 1 2 /
(fixed spreading sequence), 11 ()
. ,
. 1 /,
BPSK-
1 /, 2 / (PSK) - QPSK. 1 11
/ 11 /.

1. 802.11 DSSS 1 / 2 / 5.5 11 /

IEEE 802.11
802.11 , , LLC
MAC (MSDU) .
, MAC, :
. , ,
(Authentication, Deauthentication, Privacy), MSDU.
. , , ,
(Association, Disassociation, Distribution, Integration, and
Reassociation).

(Station Services)
802.11 .
, ,
. ,
. ,

62

MSDU
.

LAN ,
, 802.11
, LAN ,
.
. , ,
(unicast management authentication frame)
.
IEEE 802.11 :
. 802.11 .
- , . ,
,
-. - , ,
-.
(Shared key authentication).
,
, 802.11.
.
(WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy
algorithm).

, .
, .
, (
) .
(Privacy)

, . IEEE 802.11
, ,
802.11 .
,
, WEP,
. , 3.9. WEP
.

63


, 802.11,
.
. ,
MSDU.
(Association)()
,
.
.
,
.
BSS.
(Disassociation)()
,
(). ,
.
.

(Distribution)
, MAC-
. 802.11 ,
.
, BSS
(Integration)
MAC-
, 802.11.

802.11.

- (Reassociation) -
.

BSS- .
.
,
.
.

64


(Station States and Corresponding Frame Types)
, (. 3.10) ,
IEEE 802.11 .

3.10
.

:
1
(Control frames)
(RTS - Request to send), (CTS - Clear to send),
(ACK - Acknowledgment), ( ?) (CF - Contentionfree)
(Management frames)
Probe request/response Beacon Authentication Deauthentication Announcement traffic indication
message (ATIM)
(Data frames)
2

/ Association request/response /Reassociation
request/response Disassociation
3
(Data frames)
(Management frames)
deauthentication
(Control frames)
(Power Save), (Poll)
, :

65

(Authentication state). :
.
(Association state). : .

IEEE 802.11e MAC


802.11, (QoS).
802.11.
, LAN IEEE 802.11
, ,
LAN. IEEE 802 - ,
. 802.11
IEEE, ,
IEEE 802.3 (ethernet) and IEEE 802.5 (token ring).

66


,
802.11a (, , 802.11).
, ,
,
, - , Bluetooth,
. ,
.
, ,
, , : HiperLAN,
802.11, Bluetooth, broadband DECT --.
802.16 802.15, ,
(fixed wireless) - PAN, Personal Area Networks,
( )
, , , . .,
. ,
.
- , .
, , Embedded Wireless Devices:
,
, - .
:
. IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth, HomeRF WDCT
( DECT, 2,4 ), HiperLAN 2 802.11 (, 5,7 ) - .
, - 2,4/5,7 ,
,
, .
USB 1.1, IrDA,
PCMCIA, ISA, G726 (, ,
) Ethernet-, 10 10/100 / - 0,2 ,
1,8 30 ( ,
) - .
- ,
(SDR, Software Defined Radio).
, , .
,
, :
, , 1980-, .

67

1
(CCK)
() M.J.L. Golay
[5].
, OFDM [6].
,
,
.
:
, .
CCK, 1998 ETSI 802.11 [6].
[7].
CCK,
, QPSK.
c = {ej(1+ 2+ 3+ 4), ej(1+ 3+ 4), ej(1+ 2 4), -ej(1+ 4), ej(1+ 2+ 3), e(1+ 3), -ej(1+ 2), ej(1)}
2, 3 4 64 8- , 1
( ) . ,
, 1 2 /
DSSS .
,
(carrier-tracking phase-locked loop (PLL)).
1 - 4 2 , 8- CCK
8 .
5.5 / : 4
8- CCK .
1.375 , - 11 /.
CCK . 2 -
() . CCK 64-
, 11 /. CCK
, , [8].

68


OFDM - (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)
ACH - access feedback control ( t )
ACK - cknowledgement ( )
ADC - Analog-digital converter - -
AGC - automatic gain control ( )
AP - access point ( )
ARQ - automatic repeat reguest ( )
ASIC - (applications specific integrated circuit)
ASK (amplitude-shift keying) - ,
ATM - asynchronous transfer mode ( )
BCH - broad-cast control ( )
BER (Bit Error Rate) -
BPSK - binary phase shift keying ( )
CCA - clear channel assessment ( )
cdf - cumulative distribution functions ( )
CPM (Continuous Phase Modulation) -
CP - cyclic prefix ( )
CSI - channel state information ( )
CSMA/CA - carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (
)
DAC - Digital to Analog Convertor - - .
DAPSK (Differential Amplitude Phase Modulation) -

DFS - Dinamic Frequence Select - .


DFT - discrete Fourier transform ( )
DL - downlink ( )
DLC - Data Link Control - .
DPSK (Differential Phase Shift Keying) -
DSP-Digital Signal Processor -
DTFT - - (discrete-time Fourier transforms)
EM - Expectation Maximization ( )
FCC - federal communication commission ( ()
FCH - frame control ( )
FEC (forward error correction) -
FIR - (finite impulse response)
FPGA - (Field Programmable
Gate Array)
FSK - frequency-shift keying ( )
HDL - High-level Data Link - .
HF - (high frequency)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) -

IEEE 802.11 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.11) - 802.11


ICI - (interchannel interference)
IDFT - DFT (inverse DFT)
i.i.d. - independent identical distributed ( )
ISI - (intersymbol interference)
IDFT - (inverse discrete Fourier Transform )
IF - Intermediate Frequency ( )
IFFT - Inverse Fast Fourier Transform ( )
IQ -

69

FFT - (fast Fourier transform)


FSK - frequency-shift keying ( )
LMS - Least Mean Squared algorithm ( )
MAC - (Media Access Control)
MCMC - Monte Carlo Markov Chain ( - )
MIB - Management Information Base ( )
MIMO - multiple-input, multiple-output system ( )
MMAC - mobile multimedia access communications ( )
MSE - Mean Squared Error ( )
MT - mobile terminal ( )
PAPR - Peak-To-Average Power Ratio ( )
PDF (probability distribution function) - ;
PDU - protocol data unit ( , )
PER (Packet Error Rate) -
PF - Peak Factor ( )
PHY - Physical Layer ( )
PLL - Phase Lock Loop techniques ( )
PSDU - physical layer service data unit ( )
PSK (phase-shift keying) - ,
PSDU - physical layer service data unit ( )
QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) -
QPSK - quaternary phase-shift keying ( ()
RAM - Random Access Memory -
RH - random access channel ( )
RCHS - Random Channels Select - .
RF - Raio-friquency
RFCH - Random access Feedback Channels - .
ROM - Read-Only Memory - .
RS odes Reed-Solomon ( - )
RSC Recursive systematic convolutional ( )
SCH - ( shorttransport channel )
SER - Symbol Error Rate ( )
SISO - single-input, single-output system ( )
SN - sequence number ( )
SNR - signal-to-noise ratio ( / )
SSTC - Spherical Space-Time Codes( - )
TCM Trellis Coded Modulation ( )
TDM - Time Division Multiplexing - .
TD - Total Degradation ( )
TDMA - Time Division Multiplexing Access - .
UDCH - User Data Channels - .
UBCH - User Broadcast Channels -
UMCH - User Multicast Channels - .
UL - uplink ( )
VHDL - Very High-level Data Link - .
.
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) -
XOR (Exclusive OR) -

70

1. IEEE 802.11. "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
specifications," Nov. 1 997.
2. IEEE 802.11, "Draft Supplement to Standard for Telecommunications and Information Exchange
Between Systems - LAN/MAN Specific Requirements Part 11: Wireless MAC and PHY
Specifications: High Speed Physical Layer in the 5 GHz Band," P802.11a/D6.0, May 1999.
3. ETSI, "Radio Equipment and Systems, High PErformanco Radio Local Area Network
(HIPERLAN) Typo 1," ETS 300-652, Oct. 1396.
4. M. Webster of a/., "Harris/Lucent TGb Compromise CCK (11 Mb/s) Proposal," doc.:IEEE
PS02.11-98/246, July 1998.
5. M. J. E. Golay, "Complementary Series," IRE Trans. Info. Theory, Apr. 1961, pp. 82-87.
6. R. van Nee, "OFDM Codes for Poak-to-Average Power Reduction and Error Correction," IEEE
Global Telecommun, Co/if., Nov. 18-22, 1996, pp. 740-44.
7. K. Halford et a/., "Complementary Code Keying for Rake-Based Indoor Wireless
Communication," to be published at IEEE ISCAS '99, Orlando, FL.
8. A. Grant and R. van Nee, "Efficient Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Q-ary Modulated ReedMuller Codes," /EEE Commun. Lett., vol. 2, no. 5, May 1998, pp. 134-36.
9. H. Hashemi, "The Indoor Propagation Channel," Proc, IEEE, vol. 81, no. 7, July 1993, pp. 94368.
10. R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Mobile Multimedia Communications, Boston: Artech
House, Dec. 1999.
11. ETSI BRAN, "HIPERLAN Type 2 Functional Specification Part 1 Physical Layer."
DTS/BRAN030003-1, June 1999. [121 J. Mikkoncn et at., "The Magic WAND Functional
Overview," IEEEJSAC, vol. 16. no. 6, Aug. 1998, pp. 953-72.

71

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72