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Question Answer

A mammography service examined 327 patients


during the third calendar quarter of 1996. 719 films
were exposed during this period, eight of which were
repeats. What is the repeat rate?
1.1%






A type of luminescence where the visible light is
emitted only during the stimulation of the phosphor.
Fluorescence
If a heart measures 12.5 cm from side to side at its
widest point, and its image on chest radiograph
measures 14.7 cm, what is the magnification factor?

1.18





Radiation doses in the range of approximately200 to
1000 rad produce the

Hematologic syndrome
Ratio of incident to transmitted radiation through a
grid ratio of patient dose with and without grid
Bucky factor
A radiographic single-phase unit installed in a private
office has a maximum capacity of 100 milliseconds of
120kVp and 500mA. What is the power rating?
42 kW





Who completes the development of first computed
tomographic (CT) scanner (EMI, Ltd.) in 1973?
Hounsfield
It is the study of the response of an image receptor to
x-rays
Sensitometry
Ratio of radiographic contrast with a grid to that
without a grid.
contrast improvement factor
Analysis of persons irradiated therapeutically with
superficial x-rays has shown that the skin erythema
dose required to affect 50% of persons so irradiated is
about

600 rad
ECG recording requires a bandwidth of 0.05 to ____
Hz
100
Find the potential generated if blood flowing in a
vessel with radius 0.9 cm cuts a magnetic field of 250
G. Assume a volume flow rate of 175 cubic cm per
second.

309 uV





Period during which heart contracts. Systole
Apparatus for measuring blood pressure Sphygmomanometer
Given the energy level of 6.624x10^-18 J imparted to
an electron stream by an X-ray device, calculate the
frequency in MHz.
10^10 MHz




10^10 MHz

It was first noted by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 and won
Albert Einstein the Nobel Prize in 1905. It refers to the
emission of electrons from a clean metallic surface
(phototube) when electromagnetic radiation (light
waves or X-rays) falls onto that surface.
Photoelectric effect
Unit of radiation exposure or amount of X-ray
radiation that will produce 2.08x10^9 ion pairs per
cubic centimetre of air at standard temperature and
pressure (STP).

Roentgen
An optical electronic device that measures the color
concentration of a substance in solution.
colorimeter
Recording of heart sounds phonocardiography
Recorder for measuring galvanic skin resistance

electrodermograph
It consists of 36 unique codes representing the 10
digits and 26 uppercase letters.
code 39
The first fixed- length character code developed for
machines rather than for people
Baudot Code
The early pioneer in the development of error-
detection and correction procedures
Richard W. Hamming
The most reliable convolutional coding scheme for
error detection
CRC
For the given parameters, determine the energy per
bit-to noise power density ratio
C = 10e-12 W fb = 60 kbps
N = 1.2 x 10e-14`W B = 120 kHz
22.2 dB

;


A signal at the input to a mu-law compressor is
positive with its voltage one-half the maximum value.
What proportion of the maximum output voltage is
produced?
0.876Vmax






Inaccuracies caused by the representation of a
continuously varying quantity as one of a number of
discrete values.



quantizing errors
Circuit for digitizing voice at a low data rate by using
knowledge of the way in which voice sounds are
produced
vocoder
A coding scheme that records the change in signal
level since the precious sample
delta modulation
Distortion created by using too low a sampling rate
when coding an analog signal for digital transmission
either a or b

a. aliasing b. foldover distortion
A network with bandwidth of 10 Mbps can pass only
an average of 12000 frames per minute with each
frame carrying an average of 10000 bits. What is the
throughput of this network?
2 Mbps

= 2 Mbps

A telephone subscriber line must have an SNR
dB

above 40. What is the minimum number of bits?
6.35

SNR
dB
= 6.02n
b
+ 1.76 = 40
n = 6.35

The thick coaxial cable implementation of standard
Ethernet
10 Base 5
A bit pattern or a character added to the beginning
and the end of a frame to separate the frames
Flag
An IPv4 has an address space of how many? 4294967296

2
32
= 4294967296

What is the bit rate of STS 1? 51.84 Mbps
A block coding technique in which four bits are
encoded into a five bit code
4B/5B Encoding
A national standards organization that defines
standards in the United States
ANSI
In asynchronous transmission, one or more bits to
indicate the end of transmission
stop bit
What is the overhead (number of extra bits) in the DS-
3 service?
1.368 Mbps
The minimum sampling rate according to Nyquist
Theorem
twice the highest frequency of a signal
It is used in wireless applications in which stations
must be able to share the medium without interception
by an eavesdropper and without being subject to
jamming from a malicious intruder
spread spectrum
An error detection method which uses ones
complement arithmetic
Checksum
It is a connecting device between two internetworks
that use different models
Gateway
It is an undesired shift or width change in digital bits of
data due to circuitry action which causes bits to arrive
at different times
Jitter
In PCM system, it is the ratio of the maximum input
voltage level to the smallest voltage level that can be
quantized
Dynamic range
A multiplexer combines four 100-kbps channels using
a time slot of 2 bits, determine the frame duration.
20s

The link carries 50,000 frames /sec
The frame duration = 1/50,000 = 20s

Determine the Hamming distance for the codewords
(10101, 11001)
Two

10101 XOR 11001 = 01100 ( presence of two 1)
An address space is the total number of addresses
used by the protocol, such as IPv4 and IPv6. What
is the address space of IPv6?

2
128


It is a standard designed by ITU to allow telephones in
the public telephone
network to talk to computers/terminals connected to
the internet
H.323
A computer monitor has a resolution of 1200 by 1000
pixels. If each pixel uses 1024 colors, how many bits
are needed to send the complete contents of a
screen?
12 Megabits


1,200 times 1000 pixels x 10 bits = 12 Mb

1024 colors requires 10 bits , 2
10
= 1024
Combination of compression at the transmitter and
expansion at the receiver of communications system.
Companding
A device launches or receives a wave in a
transmission line or waveguide in one direction only.
directional coupler
A type of linear-beam microwave tube that uses
velocity modulation of the electron beam
Klystron
A series of pulses in which the amplitude of each
pulse represents the amplitude of the information
signal at a given time.
PAM
_______________ is used to position samples of the
different message signals in non-overlapping time
slots.
TDM
A ___________ is similar to a phasor diagram except
that the entire phasor is not drawn.
constellation diagram
It was the first fixed length character code. Baudot Code
It involves transmitting each character twice. Redundancy
The __________ provides the mathematical
justification for using a Gaussian Process as a model
for a large number of different physical phenomena in
which the random variable, at a particular instant of
time, is the result of a large number of individual
random events.
Central Limit Theorem
A set of communication facilities allowing direct
access to 64kpbs data streams (or multiples of) for
drop and insert. A form of cell relay, supports B-ISDN.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
A series of pulses, in which the timing of each pulse
represents the ampltitude of the information signal at
a given time.
Pulse Position Modulation
A line of sight radio link operating at a frequency of
6GHz has a separation of 40km between antennas.
An obstacle in the path is located 10km form the
transmitting antenna. By how much must the beam
clear the obstacle?
11.6m



R = 11.6m

Variation in received field strength over time due to
changes in propagation conditions.
Fading

The atomic weight of an element is approximately
determined by
the number of protons
Of the following substances the worst conductor is Air
The volt is the standard unit of electromotive force
Which of the following antenna types is not designed
for transmitting at 10 Ghz
Zepp antenna
The type of radio wave responsible for long distance
communications by multiple skips is the:
Direct Wave
Line of sight communications is not a factor in which
frequency range?
HF
It refers to the rate of change of a signal on the
transmission medium after encoding and modulation
have occurred.
Baud
It was the first fixed-length character code developed
for machines rather than people.
Baudot Code
A receiver-transmitter station used to increase the
communications range of VHF, UHF and microwave
signals is called a(n):
Repeater
It represents the simplest whole number ratio of the
various types of atoms in a compound.
empirical formula
It is a term that is often misunderstood and commonly
confused with bit rate (bps)
Baud
Defined as the optimum level of a test tone on a
channel at same point in a communication system.
transmission level point
Duplicating each data unit for the purpose of detecting
errors is a form of error detection called ______.
Redundancy
Determine the wavelength of a 4 Ghz signal. 0.075m
What is the device that converts energy from one form
to another?
Transducer
It may be defined as any undesired voltages or
currents that ultimately end up appearing in the
receiver output.
Electrical noise
The channel capacity of a 5 kHz bandwidth binary
system is ____ bits/s. Assuming no noise.
10,000
Microwaves are frequencies above _____ GHz. 1
The government agencies that regulates radio
communications in the US is the ________.
FCC
A wave guide acts a/an _______ filter High-pass
Coax is not used beyond frequencies of about ______
GHz.
6
Data Communications refers to the transmission of
_______.
all of the above

a. voice b. video c. Computer data
Determine the peak frequency deviation for a binary
FSK signal with a mark frequency of 49 kHz, space
frequency of 51kHz and an input bit rate of 2kbps.
1 kHz





It is often used to compare the performance of one
digital modulation technique to another.
bandwidth efficiency
It is the process of converting an infinite number of
possibilities to a finite number of conditions.
Quantization
For a PCM system with a maximum analog frequency
of 4kHz, determine the minimum sample rate.
8 kHz






It is another relatively simple form of redundancy error
checking where each character has a numerical value
assigned to it.
Checksum
It is a modulation and multiplexing technique that
distributes the signal and its sidebands over a very
wide bandwidth.
Spread spectrum
The computers that hold shared files, programs and
the network operating system. They also provide
access to network resources to all the users of the
network.
Servers
It is defined by the ITU-T as a service that provides
transmission channels capable of supporting
transmission rates greater than the primary data rate.
Broadband ISDN
It is the only error-correction scheme that actually
detects and corrects transmission errors when they
are received without requiring a transmission..
Forward Error Correction
This OSI Layer is responsible for network availability,
data storage and processor capacity. It also
determines the type of dialogue available.
Session layer
It is often defined as the loss incurred by an
electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight
line through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection
of energy from nearby objects.
free space path loss
What do you call the accumulation of additional
sounds such as wind, street noise, other voices that
contribute to what the listener hear?
Ambience
It is a single transmission path from transmitter to
receiver with line of sight range.
Hop
It is defined by the average rate at which energy is
carried out per unit area.
Intensity
What happens to the frequency of the wave and to its
wavelength when a sound wave produced in one
medium enters another medium with a different
speed?
the frequency of the wave stays the same while
the wavelength changes.
The process of combining multiple audio signals into
one track is called?
audio mixing
The speed of sequence of musical notes is called? Tempo
If the frequency of a sound is increased, what will
happen to its pitch?
Increases
A type of microwave protection system where each
working channel has a dedicated back up or spare
channel.
Hot Standby
Also known as Pin 21 of the RS-232 interface on D
connector, this connection allows signals to be
transmitted from the DCE to the attached DTE
whenever there is a high probability of an error in the
received data due to the quality of the circuit falling
below a predefined level.

signal quality detector
______ which means that 2 or more bits in the data
unit have changed.?
burst error
It is a four-wire Gigabit Ethernet implementation. 1000 Base-T
It is a digital process that allows several connections
to share the high bandwidth of a link.
TDM
EEE 802.11 is define in which MAC sublayer? (b) and (c)

B. PCF C. DCF
It is the oldest microwave tube design which is
commonly used in radar transmitters where they can
generate peak power levels in the megawatt range.
Magnetron
A modulation process wherein both frequence and
phase remains constant while the amplitude changes.
ASK
It is the most powerful redundancy checking
technique which is based on binary division.
cyclic redundancy check
What do you call the element with electrical properties
between those of an insulator and a conductor?
Semiconductor
In pulse-code modulation, it translates the quantized
samples into digital code words.
Encoder
It is an error detection technique in which a redundant
bit is appended to every data unit so that the total
number of 1s in the unit (including the parity bit)
becomes even.
vertical redundancy check
A local area network topology in which the individual
terminal, microcomputers or workstations are
connected directly to a central computer.
Star
The only way to achieve high data rates with a
narrowband channel is to increase the number of bits
per symbol, the most reliable way to do this is to use a
combination of amplitude and phase modulation
known as
quadrature amplitude modulation
Find the maximum dynamic range for a linear PCM
system using 16-bit quantizing.
98.08 dB

DR = 1.76 + 6.02m; dB
DR = 1.76 + 6.02(16)
DR = 98.08 dB

Compute the baud rate for a 72000 bps 64-QAM
signal.
12000 baud

A 64-QAM signal means that there are 6 bits per
signal element since 2
6
= 64.
Therefore, baud rate

= 72000/6

baud rate

= 12000 baud


A telephone signal takes 2ms to reach its destination.
Calculate the via net loss required for an acceptable
amount of echo.
0.8 dB

VNL = 0.2t + 0.4dB
VNL = 0.2 (2ms) + 0.4 dB
VNL = 0.8 dB

Telephone switch that connects only to other
switches, and not to individual customers.


tandem office
It is a form of digital modulation similar to PSK except
the digital information is contained in both amplitude
and the phase of the transmitted carrier.
QAM
The most common circuit used for demodulating
binary FSK signals.
PLL
We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of
4KHz.What is the bandwidth needed if we modulate
the signal using AM? Ignore FCC regulations for now.
8 KHz

BW = 2 x 4 KHz
= 8 KHz

We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 4 MHz.
what is the bandwidth if we modulate the signal using
FM? Ignore FCC regulations.
40

BW=10x4
= 40 MHz

For PCM system with the following parameters
determine the minimum number of bits used.
Maximum analog frequency= 4 khz,
maximum decoded voltage=2.55,
Minimum dynamic range= 199.5
8


= 7.63

= 8

A network topology in which data circulates from one
computer to the next in sequence.
Ring
Find the maximum dynamic range for linear PCM
system using 8-bit quantizing
49.92 dB

DR = 1.76 + 6.02(m)
DR = 1.76 + 6.02(8)

What frequencies would be generated by a telephone
using DTMF signalling, when the number 8 is
pressed?
852 Hz and 1336 Hz
It is a means of transmitting data by shifting the phase
angle of the transmitted signal.
PSK
The name given for a set of standards for
communicating among computers in which the
primary purpose is to serve as a structural guideline
for exchanging information between computers,
workstations and networks.


OSI
Any transmission system which conveys more than
one signal simultaneously can experience this type of
interference due to the reception of portions of a
signal from one channel in another channel.
Crosstalk
What type of digital modulation scheme uses two or
more different output frequencies?
FSK
It is an error-correcting code used for correcting
transmission errors in synchronous data streams.
Hamming Code
A suite of protocols that allows a wide variety of
computers to share the same network.
TCP/IP
Noise that is primarily caused by lightning. Often
called as Static Noise.


atmospheric noise
A modulation technique in which the frequency of the
modulated signal varies with the amplitude of the
modulating signal
AM
Is a form of constant amplitude angle modulation
similar to standard frequency modulation except the
modulating signal is a binary signal that varies
between two discrete voltage levels rather than a
continuously changing analog waveform.
FSK
The highest layer in the hierarchy and is analogous to
the general manager of the network by providing
access to the OSI environment.
Application layer
What is the equation for Hartleys Law? I=ktB
Network topology wherein individual terminals,
microcomputers and workstations are connected
directly to a central computer.
Star
The loss of data that occurs when two stations
transmit at the same time on a network
Collision
A term used to describe a telephone instrument
whose handset is on its cradle, ready to receive a ring
signal.
On hook
The most commonly used digital modulation scheme. PCM
Simple form of redundancy error checking where each
character has a numerical value assigned to it. The
characters within a message are combined together
to produce an error checking character.
Checksum
Is an eight-bit fixed length character set developed in
1962 by the International Business Machines
Corporation.
EBCDIC code
An attempt is made to transmit base band frequency
of 30khz using a digital audio system with a sampling
rate of 44.1khz. What audible frequency would result.
14.1KHz

fa = fs fm
= 44.1KHz 30KHz
= 14.1 KHz

Calculate the capacity of a telephone channel that has
a S/N of 1023?
30,000 b/s

The telephone channel has a bandwidth of about
3KHz
C= BW log
2
(1+ S/N)
= 3 x 10
3
log
2
(1+ 1023)
=30000 b/s



Designed to send characters of the message with the
specified bit rate but without any fixed timing
relationship from one character to the next.
asynchronous
Token Ring Standard 802.5
It is the process of extracting a phase-coherent
reference carrier from a receiver signal.
Carrier Recovery
It is a potential problem whenever two metallic
conductors carrying different signals are located in
close proximity to each other.
Crosstalk
What is the termed refer as the rapid degradation of
output signal quality with channel induced errors?

threshold effect
What was the first fixed-length character code
developed for machines rather than for people?
Baudot code
A source whose output satisfies the condition of
statistical independence among letters in the
sequence is said to be_____.
Memoryless
Calculate the minimum data rate needed to transmit
audio with sampling rate of 30 Khz and 14 bits per
sample.
420 Kb/s

Handles error recovery, flow control (synchronization),
and sequencing (which terminals are sending and
which are receiving). It is considered the media
access control layer.
Data Link Layer
A MAC protocol for LANs, with stations connected
topologically or logically in a ring. Or the IEEE 802.5
LAN standard.
Token Ring
A network topology where each device is connected
to a centre point and all data is routed through that
point.
Star network
A lasers use organic dyes enclosed in a glass tube for
an active medium, dye is circulated into the tube with
a pump. A powerful pulse of light excites the organic
dye
Liquid Lasers
Codes that have a restriction on the number of
consecutive 1s or 0s in a sequence.
Run length limited code
Contains seven bytes (56 bits) of alternating 0s and
1s that alert the receiving system to the coming frame
and enable it to synchronize its input timing
Preamble
Every letter was encoded into fixed length of binary
code words of length 5.
Baudot Code
The composite signal that modulates the FM carrier. Baseband
It is a simple means of error detection. It involves the
addition of one extra bit to the bits that encode a
character.
Parity
A data compression scheme that uses fewer bits to
represent more frequently occurring characters or bit
patterns and more bits to represent those occur less
frequently.
Huffman coding
Speed at which symbols are transmitted in a digital
communication systems.
Baud rate
It is the process of converting an infinite number of
possibilities to a finite number of conditions.
Quantization
It is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the
smallest possible magnitude that can easily be
decoded by the digital to analog converter in the
receiver.
Dynamic Range
It is the institution that developed the ASCII (American
Standard Code for Information Intertchange).
ANSI
In early 1900s, he showed that any composite signal
is a sum of a set of sine waves of different
frequencies, phases and amplitudes.
Jean-Baptiste Fourier
Find the binary equivalent of x
8
+x
3
+x+1. 100001011

x
8
+x
7
+x
6
+x
5
+x
4
+x
3
+x
2
+x+k

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1

Given a bandwidth of 6000 Hz for an ASK signal,
what is the baud rate?
6000 Hz

baud rate = bandwidth
6000 Hz = 6000 Hz

Compute the bit rate for a 2000 baud 16-QAM signal. 8000 bps

bit rate = baud * 4
2000 * 4 = 8000 bps
It is an electronic device that is used for computer
communications through telephone lines.
Modem
A telephone line has a bandwidth of 4.5 kHz and a
signal-to-noise ratio of 40dB. A signal is transmitted
down this line using a four level code. What is the
maximum theoretical data rate
18 kbps

C = 2Blog
2
M = 2(4.5x10
3
)log
2
(4) = 18 kbps

Showed mathematically that it is posssible to
reconstruct a band-limited analog signal from periodic
samples, as long as the sampling rate is at least twice
the frequency of the highest frequency component of
the signal.
Harry Nyquist
Find the maximum dynamic range for a linear PCM
system using 8-bit quantizing.
49.92 dB

DR = 1.76 + 6.02m dB
= 1.76 + 6.02(8) dB
= 49.92 dB
In operation, many modern codecs achieved
compresion by first encoding the signals using a 12-
bit linear PCM code, then converting the 12-bit linear
code into an 8-bit compressed code by discarding
some of the bits. This is a simple example of:
Digital Signal Processing
Sampling of an analog signal using a sample-and-
hold circuit such that the sample has the same
amplitude for its whole duration.
Flat-topped Sampling
The basic building block of the FDM hierarchy. Message Channel
The GSM radio system uses GMSK in a
200kHzchannel, with a channel data rate of 270.883
kbps. Calculate the frequency shift between mark and
space.
135.4165kHz

fm-fs=0.5fb=0.5*270.833kHz=135.4165kHz

For Ethernet system with a length of 2.5km on coaxial
cable with a velocity factor of 0.66. What is the
propagation delay?
12.6s

T=d/(VfC)=2.5km/(0.66*300000000m/s)=12.6 s


A signal at the input to a -Law compressor is
positive, with its volatage one-half the maximum
value. What proportion of the maximum output voltage
is produced?
0.876 Vo

Vo=Vo(ln(1+(255*0.5)))/ln(1+255)=0.876 Vo
A telephone signal take 2ms to reach its destination.
Calculate the via net loss required for an acceptable
amount of echo.
0.8 dB

VNL=0.2t+0.4=(0.2*2)+0.4=0.8

Who invented the telegraph? Samuel F.B Morse
The simplest modulation technique, where a binary
information signal modulates the amplitude of an
analog carrier.

Amplitude-Shift Keying
Is the lowest Open System Interconnection hierarchy
and is responsible for the actual propagation of
unstructured data bits (1s and 0s) through a
transmission medium.
Physical Layer
Error-correction scheme that actually detect and
corrects transmission errors when they are received
without requiring a retransmission.
Forward Error Correction
It allows the overall complexity of the system to be
broken down into individual function layers- that
operate essentially by themselves.
Transparency
This are very useful pictorial representations that
clearly show the protocol operations such as words or
convetional drawings.
State Transition Diagram
Pair of wires that connects the central office to the
users phone
Local loop
How long does it take to dial the number 784-3745
using pulse dialing with .5s inter digit time?
6.8s

0.7 + 0.8 + 0.4 + 0.3 + 0.7 + 0.4 + 0.5 (6x0.5) = 6.8s

Network that connects users who are in the same
general location
LAN
In operation, many modern codecs achieved
compresion by first encoding the signals using a 12-
bit linear PCM code, then converting the 12-bit linear
code into an 8-bit compressed code by discarding
some of the bits. This is a simple example of:
Digital Signal Processing
A balanced modulator that will used in conjuction with
a microwave generator, power amplifier, and band-
pass filter, up-converts the IF carrier to an RF carrier
and amplifies the RF to the desired output power.
Transmit Modulator
What is the equation for Hartleys Law? I=ktB

The loss of data that occurs when two stations
transmit at the same time on a network
Collision

We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 5 HHz.
What is the bandwidth modulate the signal using FM?
Ignore FCC regulation.
50 MHz

BW= 10 x 5MHz
=50MHZ

Used to established a point to point connection across
a network.
TCP


An attempt is made to transmit a baseband frequency
of 25kHz using digital audio system with a sampling
rate of 44.1 kHz. What audible frequency would
result?
19.1kHz

f
a
=

f
s
- f
m
= 44.1kHz 25kHz
= 19.1kHz
Defines the rules of the conversation the message
passing among the network users
network protocol
Responsible for providing signals to the loop sensing
activity and sending phone signals at the end of the
loop
SLIC
The typical amount of voltage in dc use in the battery
of the central office with respect to ground


-48
A network that is composed of a smaller lan that are
closely link. It is needed for areas spread out
geographically
WAN
How many central office allotted for each exchange? 1
It is a method of switching that provides a separate
physical path for each symbol
space switching
The central office detects a request for service from a
telephone by:
a flow of loop current
The OSI Layer responsible for data tracking as it
moves through a network. It controls and ensures the
end to end integrity of the data message
propagated through the network between two devices.
Transport
It is used on long distance circuits, in an effort to
overcome echoes caused by circuit imbalances.
Echo Suppresors
The sensitivity of a radio receiver is given in terms of
dBm. If the receiver is receiving 200 mW, what is the
corresponding dBm of this signal?
23 dBm

dBm for 200 mW = 10 log (200mW/1mW) = 23 dBm
An antenna with a noise temperature of 75 Kelvin is
connected to a receiver input with a noise
temperature of 300 K. Given the reference
temperature T0 = 290 K, find the noise figure of the
system.
3.6 dB


modulation index of an AM radio station is 0.75. If the
carrier power is 500W, what is the total transmitted
power?
641 W

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
1
2
m
Pc Pt
An FM transmitter system is using a 1MHz crystal
oscillator to generate a very stable 108MHz final
carrier frequency. The output of the crystal oscillator
is fed to a x36 multiplier circuit then mixed with a 34.5
MHz signal. The sum output of the mixer is filtered
out, while the difference is fed to another multiplier in
order to generate the final carrier frequency. What is
the multiplier value?
72
A/an _______ is a range of frequency in which the
upper frequency is double the lower frequency.
Octave
Determine the worst-case output S/N for a
narrowband FM receiver with deviation maximum of
10 kHz and a maximum intelligence frequency of 3
kHz. The S/N input is 3:1.
10

= sin
-1
(1/3) = 19.5 or 0.34 rad
= x f
i

= 0.34 x 3 kHz = 1 kHz
The S/N will be
10 kHz/ 1 kHz = 10
A small variable capacitance in parallel with each
section of ganged capacitor is called _______.
Trimmer
How many wavelengths long are required for a pair of
conductors to be considered as a transmission line?
1/10
Determine the time taken for a signal to travel down a
10 m transmission line, if its velocity factor is 0.7.
47.6 ns

T= L/ (Vf x Vc)
T= 10 m/ (0.7)(3x10
8
m/s)
T= 47.6 ns



The maximum voltage standing wave of an RG-11/U
foam coaxial cable is 52 V and its minimum voltage is
17 V. How many percent of the incident power is the
reflected power?
26%


At exactly one-quarter wavelength, the short-circuited
transmission line behaves as a(an) ________ circuit.
parallel-resonant
Determine the phase-shift represented by a 75 ns
delay of a 4 MHz signal to a 75-ft cable with a
dielectric constant of 2.3.
108 degrees

= 360 td / T
T =1/f = 1 / 4MHz = 250 ns
= 360 (75) / 250 = 108 degrees

Which of the following is a flat conductor separated by
an insulating dielectric from a large ground plane that
is usually one-quarter or one-half wavelength long?
Microstrip
One complete revolution around a Smith Chart
represents _________ wavelengths.

A mismatched transmission line is also referred to as
a ___________ line.
Resonant
It is the ratio of the speed of propagation on a line to
that of light in free-space.
velocity factor
Which of the following is the most widely used UTP
cable that can carry baseband data at rates up to 100
Mbps at a range up to 100m?
CAT 5
The modulated peak value of a signal is 125V and the
unmodulated carrier value is 85V. What is the
modulation index?
0.47

m = Em/ Ec
Emax = Ec + Em ; Em = Emax Ec = 125 85 = 40 V
m = 40V/ 85V = 0.47
The total transmitted power of an AM broadcast
transmitter with a carrier power of 50kW when
modulated 80 percent is:
66kW

Pt = Pc ( 1 + m
2
/2)
Pt = 50,000 ( 1 + 0.8
2
/2)
Pt = 66,000 W
Pt = 66kW
One of the advantages of DSB is the savings of great
deal of power. Which of the following is the reason
why it is not widely used?
the signal is difficult to demodulate
If the input in a transmitter is collector-modulated, the
system is called a _______________________.
high-level modulator
The input to an FM receiver has a S/N of 2.8. What is
the frequency deviation caused by the noise if the
modulating frequency is 1.5KHz and the permitted
deviation is 4KHz?
547.8 Hz

o = | fm
| = sin
-1
N/S = sin
-1
1/2.8 = 0.3652
o = (0.3652)(1.5KHz) = 547.8 Hz

What circuit is used to return the frequency response
of a signal to its normal, flat level?
de-emphasis
It is the most common means of overcoming the
problems of quantizing error and noise.
Companding
____ means that the characteristics and performance
of an antenna are the same whether the antenna is
radiating or intercepting an electromagnetic signal.
antenna reciprocity
Which of the following methods is used to lower the
resonant frequency of a shortened vertical antenna?
top hat loading
Calculate the gain (isotropic) of a parabolic antenna
that has a diameter of 3 m, an efficiency of 60% and
operates at a frequency of 4 GHz.
39.8 dBi

G = q t
2
D
2
/
2

= 3x10
8
/ 4MHz = 0.075 m
G = 0.6t
2
(3)
2

0.075
2

G= 9474.8
G = 10 log 9474.8
G = 39.8 dBi

It is a phenomenon caused by any support insulators
used at the ends of the wire antenna.
end effect
Which of the following is not a reason why most half-
wave antennas are mounted horizontally at low
frequencies?
more cost-effective
The shape of the electromagnetic energy radiated
from or received by an antenna is called the
radiation pattern
Antennas that transmit an equal amount of energy in
the horizontal direction are called
Omnidirectional
The ability of an antenna to send or receive signals
over a narrow horizontal directional range is referred
to as
Directivity
A basic antenna connected to a transmission line plus
one or more additional conductors that are not
connected to the transmission line form a
parasitic array
An antenna made up of a driven element and one or
more parasitic elements is generally referred to as a
Yagi antenna
Which antennas usually consist of two or more half-
wave dipoles mounted end to end?
Collinear
A stacked collinear antenna consisting of half-wave
dipoles spaced from one another by one-half
wavelengths is the
broadside array
When the characteristic impedance of the
transmission line matches the output impedance of
the transmitter and the impedance of the antenna
itself,
maximum power transfer will take place
A one-quarter wavelength of coaxial or balanced
transmission line of a specific impedance connected
between a load and a source in order to match
impedances is


a Q section
By how much should two antennas be separated for
space diversity in the 11 GHz band?
5.5 m

m
s
x
s
m
x
f
c
d 5 . 5
10 11
10 3 200
200
200
9
8
=
|
.
|

\
|
= = =





What is the phase velocity of a rectangular waveguide
with a wall separation of 3 cm and a desired
frequency of operation of 6 GHz?
5.43 x 10
8
m/s



A transmitter and a receiver is 45 km apart. Suppose
that there is an obstacle midway between the
transmitter and receiver. By how much must the path
between the towers clear the obstacle in order to
avoid diffraction at a frequency of 11 GHz?
10.51 m







How far from the transmitter could a signal be
received if the transmitting and receiving antennas
where 40 m and 20 m, respectively, above level
terrain?

44.5 km



A signal propagated in a waveguide has a full wave of
electric intensity change between two further walls,
and no component of the electric field in the direction
of propagation. The mode is
TE
20

An isolator has a forward loss of 0.7 dB and a return
loss of 26 dB. A source provides 1 W to the isolator,
and the load is resistive with an SWR of 3. How much
power is dissipated in the load?
638 mW

( ) mW P P
SWR
SWR
mW
anti
W
P
out LOAD
out
35 . 638 1
5 . 0
1
1
14 . 851
10
7 . 0
log
1
2
= I =
=
+

= I
= =

An isolator has a forward loss of 0.7 dB and a return
loss of 26 dB. A source provides 1 W to the isolator,
and the load is resistive with an SWR of 3. How much
power returns to the source?
5.43 x 10
8
m/s

( )
W
anti
mW
P
mW P P
mW P P
SWR
SWR
mW
anti
W
P
re turne d
out re f le cte d
out LOAD
out
= =
= I =
= I =
=
+

= I
= =
49 . 534
10
26
log
78 . 212
78 . 212
35 . 638 1
5 . 0
1
1
14 . 851
10
7 . 0
log
1
2
2




It is a microwave device that allows RF energy to
pass through in one direction with very little loss, but
absorbs RF power in the opposite direction.
isolator
A metal wrapped around the parabolic antenna
aperture to eliminate sidelobes interfering nearby
stations is called
Shroud
The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide
_________.
is greater than in free space
Geostationary satellites are located at ____ with
respect to the equator.
0
0
latitude
The quality of a space-link is measured in terms of the
______ ratio.
G/T
Why does the downlink frequency appear to vary by
several kHz during a low earth orbit satellite pass?
The distance between the satellite and ground
station is changing, causing the Doppler effect
The most ambitious LEO constellation to date is
______.
Teledesic
A satellite-dish owner has a 3 meter dish designed for
C-band (4 GHz) operation. The owner wants to use
the same dish with a new feedhorn, for Ku-band (12
GHz) satellites. What effect will the change in
frequency have on the gain and beamwidth of the
antenna?
Gain increases by 9.54 dB, beamwidth decreases
to 1/3 of its former value.
The moon orbits the earth with a period of
approximately 28 days. How far away is it? Assume
circular orbit.
384 Mm





What is the length of the path to a geostationary
satellite from an Earth station if the angle of elevation
is 30
0
?
39000 km


What is the nominal uplink frequency for the Ku band? 14 GHz
To cover all inhabited regions of the earth, the number
of polar-orbit satellites required is
1
A dipole antenna has a radiation resistance of 67
ohms and a loss resistance of 5 ohms, measured at
the feedpoint. Calculate the efficiency.
93%

Efficiency = Rr / Rt = 67 / (67 + 5) = 93%
Two antennas have gains of 5.3 dBi and 4.5 dBd,
respectively. Which has a greater gain?
The second antenna has a higher gain.
A half-wave dipole is sometimes called: Hertz antenna
An antenna's beamwidth is measured between half-power points
"Ground Effects" refers to the effects on an antenna's
radiation pattern caused by
radio signals reflecting off the ground
An antenna can be matched to a feed line using all of the choices

a. a shorted stub
b. an LC network
c. a loading coil
As the length of a "long-wire" antenna is increased the number of lobes increases
LPDA stands for Log-Periodic Dipole Array
Field strength at a distance from an antenna is
measured with
a field-strength meter
A receiving antenna with a built-in preamplifier active antenna
The height above mean sea level of a satellite in a
geosynchronous orbit around Earth is:
35,786 km
The location of a satellite is generally specified in
terms of
latitude & longitude
A point in the orbit of an object orbiting the earth that
is located closest to Earth.
Perigee
Find the velocity of a satellite in a circular orbit 500 km
above the earths surface.
7.6 km/s

Formula :

v =
4x10
11
d + 6400
( )

Where : v = velocity in meters per second
d = distance above earths surface in km


v =
4x10
11
(500+ 6400)
= 7.6 km/s

Find the orbital period of a satellite in a circular orbit
36,000 km above the earths surface if the earths
radius is 6400 km.
1440 mins

Formula :

T =
C
v


Where : T = orbital period
C = circumference
v = orbital velocity
C = 2Hr
= 2H ( 6400 + 36,000 ) = 266.4 x 10
6
m


v =
4x10
11
(36,000+ 6400)
= 3.07km/s


T =
C
v
=
266.4x10
6
m
3.07x10
3
m/ s
= 24hrs or 1440 mins
The outline of a communications satellite antenna
pattern on the earth is known as:
Footprint
Calculate the length of the path to a geostationary
satellite from an earth station where the angle of
elevation is 30.(earths radius = 6400 km, height of
satellite above earth is 36 X 10
3
km)
39,000 km


d = (r + h)
2
(rcosu)
2
rsinu
A satellite access technique where each earth station
transmits a short burst of information during a specific
time slot.
TDMA ( Time Division Multiple Access)
An earth station antenna look angle is determined by :

azimuth & elevation
An ITU radiocommunication standards for satellite
services which provides information on the range of
frequencies that can be used by fixed satellite service
systems for emergency and disaster relief operations.

ITU-R S.1001-2
As per Philippine standard, frequency allocation of AM
Radio Broadcasting is from
526.5 to 1705 kHz


Part of broadcasting in a day that refers to that period
of time between 1000 UTC to 2200 UTC. UTC stands
for Universal Time Coordinates.
nighttime period
An AM broadcast service area in which groundwave
field of 1mV/m (60dBu) is not subject to objectionable
interference or objectionable fading.
primary service area
In antenna mast or tower construction, the required
obstruction painting and/or lighting must be imposed
on mast or tower more than from the ground level.
150 ft
Regarding the design of AM antenna, what should be
the polarization of the radiator?
Vertical
As per Phillipine standard, what is the minimum
frequency separation in any service area for adjacent
AM radio stations?
36 kHz
What is the maximum power allowable for remote
pick-up stations used as broadcast auxillary services
for AM and FM broadcast stations?
35 W
What is the classification of an FM station having an
ERP not exceeding 30kW?
Class B
What is the modulation used for the stereophonic
subcarrier of FM composite baseband signal?
AM DSB SC
What is the pilot subcarrier frequency used in FM
stereophonic transmission?
19 kHz
The output power of an FM transmitter is 5 kW. If the
power loss in transmission line is around 10 W and
the antenna has a power gain of 6 dB, what is the
ERP of the station in kW?
19.96 kW

G
ANT
= 6 dB = 4
ERP = (5000 10) x 4 = 4990 x 4 = 19,960 W or
19.96 kW
Frequency allocation of FM broadcast in the
Philippines
88 108 MHz
What is the color TV system adopted by the
Philippines?
NTSC
Exact value of color subcarrier frequency (MHz) is 3.579545 Mhz
Determine the visual carrier frequency of TV channel
9.
187.25 MHz

186 MHz, low band frequency of channel 9
186 + 1.25 = 187.25 Mhz
What is the maximum allowable ERPs for channels 7
13 in Metro Manila and Metro Cebu?
1 MW
At NTSC standard, the number of lines per frame =
________ lines/frame
525
At NTSC standard, line frequency = 15734.264 Hz.
What is the equivalent line period?
63.556 usec

f
H
= 15734.264 Hz
H = 1 / f
H
= 1 / 15734.264
H = 63.556 x 10
-6
= 63.556 usec
Nominal RF bandwidth of NTSC TV channel 6 MHz
A land mobile station used for the transmission of TV
program materials and related communications from
the scenes of events occuring at remote points from
TV broadcast station studios to TV broadcast station.
TV Pick-up station
For a total capacity of 36 Mbps and 64-QAM of digital
modulation, what is the ideal RF bandwidth?
6 MHz
What is the mode of radio wave propagation that
utilized ionosphere as a medium of transmission and /
or reception of radio signals?
sky wave
What is the wavelength of a radio signal travelling at a
frequency of 220 MHz in a coaxial line having Teflon
foam as its dielectric,
r
= 2?
0.96 m

V
p
= V
f
C
v
f
= 1 / sqrt (
r
)
= v
P
/ f = 0.96m
What is the angle of refraction in a Teflon (
r2
= 2)
medium of a radio wave from air (
r1
= 1.0) if its angle
of incidence is 45?
30

Using Snells Law
Sqrt (
r1
) sin
i
= Sqrt (
r2
) sin
r

Sqrt (1) sin 45 = Sqrt (2) sin
r

r
= sin
-1
[(Sqrt (1) sin 45) / Sqrt (2)] = sin
-1

(0.5) = 30
An ionosphere layer also termed as absorption layer
because it absorbs most of the frequencies above 100
kHz is known as the layer.
D
As per ITU-R Recc. V.431-6 Tables 1 & 2 Wavelength
Classifications, what is the classification of Super
High Frequency?
Centimetric
What is a diversity scheme that uses two (2) separate
antennas and receivers for each single transmitter?
space diversity
What is a diversity scheme that uses two (2) different
frequencies in a simplex path?
frequency diversity
What is the critical frequency of a layer if the
maximum value of electron density is 2 x 10
6
per cm
3
?
13 MHz

Nmax = 2 x 10
6
per cm
3
= 2 x 10
6
x 10
6
per m
3
= 2 x 10
12
per m
3

f
c
= 9 x sqrt (N
max
) = 9 x sqrt (2 x 10
12
)
f
c
= 12.73 MHz or 13 MHz approx.
A radio communication link is to be established via the
ionosphere. The maximum virtual height of the layer is
110 km. at the midpoint of the path and the critical
frequency is 4 MHz. If the distance between the radio
stations is 500 km, what is the suitable value for the
optimum working frequency? Use flat terrain analysis.
8.4 MHz

For flat terrain analysis, tan i = d/2h
v

i = tan
-1
[d/2h
v
] = tan
-1
[500/2(110)] = tan
-1
[2.273] =
66.25 angle of incidence
MUF = f
c
x sec i = fc / cos i = 4 / cos 66.25 = 4 /
0.40275 = 9.932 MHz via Secant Law
OWF = 0.85 x MUF = 0.85 (9.932) = 8.4422 MHz or
8.4 MHz approx.
The power density is inversely proportional to the
square of the distance from the source. This law is
known as
Inverse Square law
The lowest portion of the ionosphere that is useful for
long-distance communication by amateurs; about 100
to 115 km above the earth is known as the layer.
This is often termed as the Kennely-Heavyside layer.
E
A graph which shows the radiation in actual field
strength of electromagnetic fields at all points which
are at equal distance from the antenna is known as



Radiation Pattern
The efficiency of an antenna is 82 %. Its radiation
resistance is 30 . What is the value of its loss
resistance?
6.58

= R
d
/(R
d
+ R
loss
)
0.82 = 30/(30 + R
loss
)
0.82 (30 + R
loss
) = 30 = 24.6 + 0.82 R
loss
R
loss
= (30 24.6) / 0.82 = 6.5854 or 6.58 approx.
A phenomenon on the surface of the sun with
appearance and disappearance of dark irregularly
shaped areas.
11-year sunspot
What should be done to increase the transmission
distance at frequencies higher than HF bands?
increase antenna height
Which of the following factors must be considered in
the transmission of a surface wave to reduce
attenuation?
All of the choices

a. electrical properties of the terrain
b. frequency
c. antenna polarization
A radio station operates at 11 meter wavelength.
What is the designated band of stations frequency?
HF

c = 3 x 10
8
m/sec
= 11 m = c / f
f = 3 x 10
8
/ 11 = 27 MHz approx., which is within
3 30 MHz range designated as HF band
What is the total radio horizon distance between an
80 ft transmitting station and a 20 ft receiving station?
18.97 mi

d
RH (TOT)
= sqrt (2 x h
T
) + sqrt (2 x h
R
)
d
RH (TOT)
= sqrt (2 x 80) + sqrt (2 x 20)
d
RH (TOT)
= 18.97 mi
A power density of 1.57 x 10
-4
W/m
2
is measured 50
meters from a test antenna whose directive gain is
2.15 dB. How much power was fed into the test
antenna?
3 W

P
R
= P
D
x 4d
2
= 1.57 x 10
-4
x 4(50)
2
= 4.93 W
approx. is the radiated power
G
ANT
= log
-1
[2.15 dB/10] = 1.64
P
R
= P
FED
x G
ANT
P
FED
= P
R
/ G
ANT
= 4.93 / 1.64 = 3.007 W or
3 W approx.

Identical telephone numbers in different parts of a
country are distinguished by their ___.

area codes
Telephone traffic is measured ____.

in erlangs
In a cellular telephone system, each cell site contains
a ____.

Repeater
When the signal from a mobile cellular unit drops
below a certain level, what action occurs?

the unit is handed off to a closer cell
In a cellular telephone system, group of cells is called
___.

Cluster
In Celluar Telephone Systems, these are
transmissions from base stations to mobile units
(Downlink)

forward links
A CDMA mobile measures the signal strength from
the base as -100 dBm. What should the mobile
transmitter power be set to as a first approximation,
considering - 76 dB at mobile power contol?
250 mW

P
T
= -76 dB - P
R
Where:
P
T
= transmitted power in dBm
P
R
= received power in dBm
P
T
= -76 dB - P
R
= -76 dB (-100dBm)
= 24 dBm
= 250 mW
A telephone signal takes 2ms to reach its destination.
Calculate the via net loss required for an acceptable
amount of echo.
0.8 dB

VNL = 0.2t + 0.4 dB
= 0.2 X 2 + 0.4
= 0.8 dB

The typical voltage across a telephone when on-hook
is:
48 volts DC
Central offices are connected by:

trunk lines
In telephony, call blocking is: occurs when the central office capacity is
exceeded

The cable used for local loops in telephone system is
mainly:
twisted-pair copper wire
In DTMF, the four vertical frequencies are ____.

697Hz,770Hz,852Hz,941Hz
In DTMF, the Horizontal frequencies are

1209Hz, 1336Hz,1477Hz,1633Hz
In Celluar Telephone Systems, these are
transmissions from mobile units to base stations
(Uplink)
reverse links
In DTMF, the horizontal frequencies is also known as

high group frequencies
In DTMF, the Vertical frequencies is also known as

low group frequencies
The bandwidth of voice-grade signals on a telephone
system is restricted in order to:
allow signals to be multiplexed
This is the highest-ranking office in the DDD network
in telephony in terms of the size of the geographical
area served and the trunking options available.
regional center
In Cellular Radio, AMPS stand for:

Advanced Mobile Phone Service
In Cellular Radio, BSC stands for:

Base Station Controller
In Cellular Radio, MSC stands for:

Mobile Switching Center
In GSM, voice channels are called:

traffic channels
In Mobile Communications, GSM uses:

frequency hopping
In Mobile Communications, IMSI stands for:

International Mobile Subscriber Identification
An acoustical phenomenon wherein the sound
continues to persist after the cause of sound has
stopped resulting in repeated reflections is called
Reverberation
A group of filters has 1/3 octave of spacing. If the
initial frequency is 25 Hz, what is the next frequency
available for the filter?
31.5 Hz

f
2
= 2
x
f
1
where x = 1/3, fraction of an octave
f
2
= 2
1/3
x 25 = 31.5 Hz
+ 26 dBu is how many volts? 15.5 V

V (dBu) = 20 log [ voltage in Volts / 0.775 Volts ]
26 = 20 log [ voltage in Volts / 0.775 V ]
26 / 20 = log [ voltage in Volts / 0.775 V ] = 1.3
Voltage = log
-1
(1.3) x 0.775 V
Voltage = 15.5 V
A type of microphone that uses the principle of a
capacitor as a means of transduction. It uses a
polarizing voltage of between 9 and 48 V of DC
supply applied to its diaphragm by an external power
supply
Condenser
Determine the sound power in Watts produced by the
banks alarm if a by-stander heard the alarm at a
sound pressure level of 100 dB-SPL. The by-stander
is 100 ft away from the bank.
58.65 W

PWL = SPL + 20 log D(m) + 8
PWL = 100 + 20 log (100/3.28) + 8 = 137.68 dB-PWL
137.68 = 10 log W + 120
W = log-1 [(137.68 120)/10]
W = 58.65 Watts
A loudspeaker produces an SPL of 85dB-SPL at 1
meter distance and input electrical power of 1 W. How
loud is the SPL at distance of 20 meters if this
speaker is driven to 10 W of electrical power?
69 dB-SPL

SPL@1m/1W = 85 dB-SPL (given)
SPL@20m/1W = 85 - 20 log (20m/1m) = 59 dB-SPL
SPL@20m/10W = 59 + 10 log (10W/1W) = 69 dB-
SPL
A number from 0 to 1 representing the ability of a
surface material to absorb sound energy is known
as
Absorption Coefficient
The difference in dB between the loudest level of
sound and the softest passage of sound is known as
_
dynamic range
The highest frequency that can be used for skywave
propagation between two specific points on earths
surface.
Critical Frequency
Variation in signal loss caused by natural weather
disturbances.
Fading
Determine the radio horizon for a transmit antenna
that is 200 m high and a receiving antenna that is 100
m high
99.5 km

D = 17ht + 17hr
= 17(200) + 17(100)
= 99.5 km
The height above the earths surface from which a
refracted wave appears to have been reflected
virtual height
Electromagnetic waves that are directed above the
horizon level.
sky waves
The most common light used in fiber-optic links is Infrared
In the telecommunications industry, the most
commonly used fiber(s) are
50 and 62.5 micron
The abrupt change in refractive index from core to
cladding of fiber-optic cable is called the
Step index
A technique that is used to minimize the pulse
dispersion effect is to
Minimize the core diameter
Which is not an important characteristic of a light
detector?
Power consumption
The dispersion of light in fiber-optic cable caused by a
portion of the light energy traveling in the cladding is
called
Waveguide dispersion
Recent laser developments for fiber-optic
communication include
Distributed feedback (DFB) and vertical cavity
surface emitting (VCSEL)
Which of the following considerations is important
when deciding between using a diode laser or an
LED?
Response time
In 1815, the correct explanation of diffraction was
given by
Fresnel
It is the central part of the optical communication
system
Optical Fiber
The light energy that is always emitted or absorbed in
discrete units
Quanta
Which of the following Ethernet fiber optic standard
uses synchronous, Centralized Clock?
10 Base-FB (Backbone)
It is a mixed, multiple-service standard to allow the
transmission of voice and video over an FDDJ
network.
FDDI II
It is a layer of plastic that surrounds a fiber or group of
fibers
Buffer Tube
The angular separation between the two half-power
points on the power density radiation pattern.
Beamwidth
Refers to the direction in space of electric vector of
the electromagnetic wave radiated from an antenna
and is parallel to the antenna itself.
Polarization
Placing a metallic array on the antenna effects to
increase the current at the base of the antenna, and
also to make the current distribution more uniform.
What is this called?
Top loading
What principle that states that the properties of an
antenna are independent of whether it is used for
transmission or reception.
Principle of reciprocity
Calculate the beam width between nulls of a 2-m
paraboloid reflector used at 6GHz. Note: such
reflectors are often used at that frequency as
antennas outside broadcast television microwave
links.
3.5
0

0
=

0
=3.5
0
This is often used to cure the problem of great
thickness required of lenses used at lower microwave
frequencies or for strong curved wavefronts.
Zoning

A structure-generally metallic and sometimes very
complex-designed to provide an efficient coupling
between space and the output of a transmitter or input
to a receiver.
Antenna
The ratio comparing the power density generated by a
practical antenna in some direction, with that due to
an isotopic antenna radiating the same total power.
Directive gain
Any array that is directional at right angles to the
plane of the array is said, by inference, to have ____.
Broadside action
The ratio of the focal length to the mouth diameter is
called __________ of the parabola, just as in camera
lenses.

Aperture
Corresponds to a resonant transmission line, and the
dipole antennas describe so far have been resonant.
Resonant antenna
An optic fiber is made of glass with a refractive index
of 1.55 and is clad with another glass with a refractive
index of 1.51. Launching takes place from air. What
numerical aperture does the fiber have?
0.352

=(n
1
-n
2
)/n
1

=(1.55-1.51)/1.55
=0.0258
NA=n
1
(2)
=1.55[(2)(0.0258)]
= 0.352
An optic fiber is made of glass with a refractive index
of 1.55 and is clad with another glass with a refractive
index of 1.51. Launching takes place from air. What is
the acceptance angle?
20.6


=(n
1
-n
2
)/n
1

=(1.55-1.51)/1.55
=0.0258
NA=n
1
(2)
=1.55[(2)(0.0258)]
= 0.352

0
(max)=sin
-1
NA= sin
-1
0.352=20.6


For a single-mode optical cable with 0.25-dB/km loss,
determine the optical power 100km from a 0.1-mW
light source.
-35dBm

P =0.1mW x 10
-{[(0.25)(100)]/(10)}
=1 x 10
-4
x 10
{[(0.25)(100)]/(10)]
=(1 x 10
-4
)(1 x 10
-25
)
=0.316W
P(dBm)= 10log
= -35dBm
For an optical fiber 10km long with a pulse-spreading
constant of 5ns/km, determine the maximum digital
transmission rates for return-to-zero.
20Mbps

F
b
= =20Mbps

In fiber optics, it is a measure of the conversion
efficiency of a photodetector. It is the ratio of the
output current of a photodiode to the input optical
power and has the unit of amperes per watt
Responsivity
A phenomenon also called stress corrosion resulting if
the glass fiber is exposed to long periods of high
humidity?
Static fatigue
The theory which states that when visible light or high-
frequency electromagnetic radiation illuminates a
metallic surface, electrons are emitted.
Plancks law
The science of measuring only light waves that are
visible to the human eye
Photometry
The process of constructing an ILD that is similar to
LED except that the ends are highly polished.
Lasing
A phenomenon in optical fibers communication
system that is caused by the difference in the
propagation times of light rays that take different
paths down the fiber.
Pulse spreading
For an electronic device operating at a temperature of
17C with a bandwidth of 10 kHz, determine the
thermal noise power in dBm .
-134dBm

N = KTB
N
(dBm)
= 10log (4 x 10
-17
) = -134 dBm
0.001
A 300 resistor is connected across the 300
antenna input of a television receiver. The bandwidth
of the receiver is 6MHz, and the resistor is at room
temperature .Find the noise voltage applied to the
receiver input.
5.4 V

VN =
= 4(1.38 x 10
-23
J/K)(293 K)(6 x 10
6
Hz)(300 )
= 5.4 x 10
-6
V
= 5.4 V
The signal power at the input to an amplifier is 100W
and the noise power is 1 W. At the output, the signal
power is 1W and the noise power is 30mW. What is
the amplifier noise figure, as a ratio?
3

(S/N)
p
= 100W = 100
1W
(S/N)
o
= 1W = 33.3
0.03W
NF (ratio) = 100 = 3
33.5
It is desired to operate a receiver with NF = 8dB at
S/N = 15 dB over a 200-KHz bandwidth at ambient
temperature. Calculate the receivers sensitivity.
-98dBm

S = Sensitivity = -74dBm + NF + 10logf + desired
S/N
S = -174 + 8 + 10log(200,000) + 15
S = -98 dBm

A Satellite receiving system includes a dish antenna (
T
eq
= 35 K) connected via a coupling network (T
eq
= 40
K) to a microwave receiver (T
eq
=52 K referred to its
input). What is the noise power to the receivers input
over a 1-MHz frequency range?
1.75 x 10
-15

P
N
= KTf
= 1.38 x 10
-23
J/K (35 + 40 + 52)K (1MHz)
= 1.75 x 10
-15
W
Equivalent temperature of a passive system having
the same noise power output of a given system.
noise temperature
The noise voltage produced across a 50 is input
resistance at a temperature of 302C with a
bandwidth of 6 MHz is ______.
2.24V

VN =
= 4(1.38 x 10
-23
)(302)(6 x 10
6
)(50)
= 2.24V
Determine the worst-case output S/N for a broadcast
FM program that has a maximum intelligence
frequency of 5 kHz. The input S/N is 2
30

= x f
i

= 0.5 x 5 kHz = 2.5 kHz

75 kHz = 30
2.5 kHz
The technique that uses the BPSK vector relationship
to generate an output with logical 0s and 1s
determined by comparing the phase of two
successive data bits is
DPSK
A special digital modulation technique that achieves
high data rates in limited-bandwidth channels is called
Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)
FSK systems are much superior to two-tone
amplitude-modulation systems with respect to
Ionospheric fading characteristics
Using an oscilloscope to display overlayed received
data bits that provide information on noise, jitter, and
linearity is called a(n)
Eye pattern
The type of radio transmission that uses
pseudorandomly switched transmissions is known as
Spread spectrum
The acronym CDMA refers to ________. Code-division multiple-access systems

The acronym OFDM refers to ________. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Using radio to transmit gathered data on some
particular phenomenon without human monitors is
known as
Radio telemetry
The acronym for the form of data transmission in
which the modulating wave shifts the output between
two predetermined frequencies is _____.
FSK
Pseudorandom implies a sequence that can be _____
but has the properties of randomness.
re-created
______ implies that both analog and digital signals
share the same channel bandwidth.
Hybrid
Telemetry may be defined as _____ metering. Remote

Which is not a type of pulse modulation? Pulse-frequency modulation (PFM)

PPM and PWM are superior to PAM systems in Noise characteristics

A procedure that decides which device has
permission to transmit at a given time is called
Line control
The major difficulty faced by delta modulators is Slope overload

The AT&T T1 lines Use 8-bit PCM code and include 24 voice channels

The ground wire in a USB cable is ______. Brown

A(n) ________ is used to allow a digital signal to be
transmitted on an analog channel.

Modem
The bit ________ is the amount of power in a digital
bit for a given amount of time.
Energy
The relationship for bit rate to ________ bandwidth is
defined by the Shannon-Hartley theorem.
Channel
In an S/H circuit, the time that it must hold the
sampled voltage is
Aperture time
Error signals associated with the sampling process
are called
Foldover distortion and aliasing
A(n) ________ is a single LSI chip containing both the
ADC and DAC circuitry.
Codec
The NRZ digital signal-encoding format has a
________ component in the waveform.
Dc
ReedSolomon codes utilize a technique called
________ to rearrange the data into a nonlinear
ordering scheme to improve the chance of data
correction.
Interleaving
The electric field intensity is measured in: V/m

It is a result of an increase in the charge density in
dielectric materials.
Polarization
It refers to the maximum antenna gain. Directivity

The maximum horizontal distance between the
transmitter and the receiver for line of sight
propagation is known as:
radio horizon
Typical mode of radiation of helical antenna is: end fire
The electric field is perpendicular to the earths
surface, the polarization is:
Vertical
In what major RF band is ground wave basically
applied?
MF (Medium Frequency)
A measure of mismatch in a transmission line standing wave ratio

The highest frequency that can be set back to earth
by the ionosphere, if wave is sent vertically upward.
critical frequency
Travel in a straight line from the transmitting antenna
to the receiving antenna.
space wave
VLF waves are for some types of services because they are very reliable

It is the distance between two wave fronts having the
same phase at any given instant.
Wavelength
It is a piece of transmission line which is normally
short-circuited at the far end.
Stub
A 50 ohms transmission line is connected to a 30 ohm
resistive load. Calculate the reflection coefficient.
0.25

Ref Coeff = (30 50)/(30 + 50) = 0.25
The characteristic impedance of a transmission line
does not depend upon its
Length
Characteristic impedance of a transmission line is the
impedance measured at the _______ when its length
is infinite.
Input
Which region of the ionosphere is mainly responsible
for long-distance night time communications?
F layer
Which is properly terminated antenna? Rhombic

Occurs when the radio beam is at point of grazing
over an obstacle.
diffraction
A microwave communications system, space loss
calculation formula is

92.4 + 20log F + 20 log D
Is an OSI Layer which is responsible for providing
error-free communications across the physical link
connecting primary and secondary stations (nodes)

Data Link layer
Is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the
smallest possible magnitude that can be decoded by
the digital-to-analog converter.
Dynamic range
Is a PCM system which uses a single bit PCM code to
achieve digital transmission of analog signals.
Delta modulation
Is a redundancy error detection scheme that uses
parity to determine if a transmission error has
occurred within a message and is sometimes called
message parity.
Longitudinal redundancy check
Is an n-bit data register inside the UART that keeps
track of the UARTs transmit and receive buffer
registers.
Status Word register
Is an access method used primarily with LANs
configured in a bus topology.
CSMA/CD
IP version 4 address length is 32 bits

Is a multiport bridge that provides bridging function. Switch

Is a device which operates in the Network layer and it
makes forwarding decisions on the basis of network
addresses.
Router
OC-1 (STS-1) line rate is 51.84 Mbps

Is one in which all computers share their resources
with all the other computers on the network.

Peer-to-peer client/server network
Is used to interface DTEs to digital transmission
channels

Channel service unit
Modulation which combines encoding and modulation
to reduce the probability of error.

TCM
Is an empirical record of a systems actual bit error
performance

BER
Is an error-correcting code used for correcting
transmission errors in synchronous data streams.
Hamming code