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REVISED EDITION

USEFll. REf1NC
fOR!



.

fiRCHITECTORfiL
THEORIES OF DESIGN
BY: CiORGE: S. Slll.\JIIN INTERIOR. DESIGNEJ!S
ARCHITECTURAL
THEORY
OF DESIGN
THE NEW LADDER
TYPE CURRICULUM
GEORGE SALINDA SALVAN ... fuap
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
College of Engineering and Architecture
Baguio Colleges Foundation 1980-1988
First and lone graduate of B.S. Architecture, 1963
North of Manila, St. Louis University Baguio City
Former instructor 1965-1969 at St. louis University
Recipient of various ACE certificates, Architects Continuing
Education Program
A licensed Architect, active practitioner and
a licensed building constructor, inventor and a board topnotcher.
Past president of United Architects Phils. Baguio Chapter 1982 and 1983
Elected National Director; UAP, Regional District. I for the year 1987.
Conferred the title of " FELLOW" United Architects Phils.
College of Fellows, October, 1988
JMC PRESS INC.
388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City
Philippine Copyright 1999 by:
JMC PRESS, INC.
and
GEORGES. SALVAN
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be in any
manner without permission of the publisher.
FIRST EDITION, 1986
SECOND EDITION, 1993
THIRD EDITION, 1999
ISBN: 971 -11 -1 027-X
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Dedicated to all future
Architects
The hope for a functional, comfortable
and convenient designs for better living.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The completion of this book was made into reality through the patient and hardworking
artist and graduate of architecture, Mr. Jerry Jun Suyat who spent sleepless nights with the
illustrations and all of the layouts of the dummy.
Special thanks and mention is also acknowledged to the artists who made all the illustrations
notably, Clamor Lecitona from NU, who also prepared the cover, Johnny Camsol, Fermin
Balangcod, Roy Pagador, Rey Puno, all from BCF and Reesa Angela Palaganas of SLU.
To those who lent unselfishly their books, like Architect Mike Caluza, Fe Oespabil aderas,
Dean Avelino Cruz of BCF, and to the BCF library through Ms. Macabiog for understanding
my late returns of borrowed books.
To Mr. Luis V. Canave who guided me on the complete process of publishing and printing of
books and to Mr. Francisco C. Malicsi, Teresita G. Espinoza, Eduardo C. Villanueva and
Enrico P. Gomez for t heir untiring cooperation in preparing the manuscripts typewritten by
Thelma i. Villareal, in computerized typesetting. The many students of architecture whose
curiosity about and interest in the Theory of Design and its realization in book form have
been a source of inspiration.
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PREFACE
The practice of Architecture invol ves both the conception of an idea and its ultimate expres-
sion in building materials. The process of developing this idea to a point at which a sol ution
of the problem at hand is reached is known as "Architectural Design". Design must concern
itself with both the practical and the aesthetic. if the resulting structure is to be satisfactory
to an individual or a community, the two must always be combined and not separated.
For some time, students of architecture throughout the country have felt the need for a book
dealing with general ideas concerning the Theory of Design, a book that would be in every
sense introductory, defining the various approaches. outlining the different technical prob-
lems-and relating these two types of material to the creative side of art as well as to its uses
in everyday life.
Contemporary principles are concerned with planning for human needs and are not confined
to the field of architecture alone. Science, Sociology, and Economics also contribute to be
successful design of a building. The Architect of Today must be conscious of the character
of present-day culture and its effects upon the building which house the activities of this
civilization. He must design in terms of his physical and social environment.
Since.this author has been teaching the Theory of Design subject. way back in 1965, there
has oeen so many changes, notably new products in plastics and glass which gave us new
conceptions of the extent of space, while the abili ty to heat and light our interiors more effi -
ciently has imparted a different quality to the shelters in which we work. play and rest. All
these innovations taken together have made possible the open, flexible plan, and thus
architecture has changed in character.
Realizing this fast growing changes in Architectural Design as seen in the forms, shapes and
images which respond to project needs, the Ministry of Education in cooperation with the
United Architects Philippines met sometime in 1979 to revise the Architectural Curriculum to
a 5-year step ladder course, and came up with a more relevant syllabus for The Theory of
Architectural Design. Scanning the subject matters, the authors realized that not less than
30 books and different topics is needed for references. This is the reason that led to the
author's compiling of notes to suit this new curriculum and infuse the new topics involved.
Majority of the topics on architectural design are behavioral relations between man and
building, ecological interactions between building and nature and the role of building in
man's perception of and orientation to the cityscape.
VII
viii
Briefly, the aims of this book are as follows: To outline a number of approaches to Design
(Physical, religious, symbolic, historical, etc.). To describe and characterize the
different techniques or media in design with their respective limitations and advantages; to
convey an idea of planning and designing of the art object and of the building. Other pur-
poses of this book is to provide practitioners and students of designing and planning with a
review of the new design methods and with examples of each. It may also be of interest to
anyone outside the design professions who is concerned with creative behaviour and with
technological change.
The chapters are arranged in sequence, Part I is for the first semester which deals mostly
with forms and Part II is for the second semester which deals with spaces. Each topic is sum-
marized in such a manner as to guide the instructor to finish and discuss all topics in the
alloted time of more than 40 hours per semester.
LIST OF CONTENTS
-PART ONE-
(FORMS- TWO-DIMENSION)
Chapter 1 INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ................. ..... ..... 1
General Influence, 2
Influence of Nature, 3
Essentials of the Structure, 18
Invisible St ructure, 18
Visible Structure, 19
Form, Surface, Texture, Tone and Color, 61
Chapter 2 CHROMATIC ENERGY OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Psychological Effects of Color, 70
Color as an Expression Element of Design, 74
69
Chapter 3 PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION ..... .. .............................. .. ...... 79
Chapter
Chapter
Contrast, 86
Proportion and Antrhopometrics, 94
Scale, 125
Balance and Gravitational Curves, 129
Rhythm, 138
Unity and Hierarchy, 142
Character, 151
4 PLAN COMPOSITION ... ...... ........ .................................... ...... . 159
Scheme, 160
Secondary Principles, 162
5 VISUAL AOUITY AND PERCEPTION
Spatial Perception, 160
Visual or Optical Illusions. 180
Monocular Cues to Depth, 189
165
Chapter 6 CONCEPTUALIZATION TECHNIQUES OF DESIGN ............... 197
Architectural Concepts, 198
Creativity, 205
Methodology' 210
Chapter 7 FUNCTIONAL GROUPING AND ZONING ... .......... ........... ..... 215
Horizontal Disposition, 216
Activity Analysis .and Linkages, 2Z7
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-PARTTWO-
(SPACES -THREE-DIMENSION)
Chapter 8 SPACE ARTICULA nON ...... ...... . ....... .. .. .. ...... ..................... .... 233
The Concept of Space, 234
The Process of Space Organization, 242
Spatial Qualities, 243
Space to Space Relationships, 245
Spatial Organization, 251
Space Articulation, 265
Kinesthetic Qualities of Space, 275
Chapter 9 GEOMETRY.............................................. .... .. ........ .. ..... .......... 28
Appearance of the Structure, 282
Forms and Image, 284
Circulation-Movement Through Space, 286
Stairs, 299
Semantics, 300
Signs, Signals and Symbols, 301
Visual Expression of Function, 314
Visual expression of Material Production, 322
Chapter 1 0 RESPONSE TO CONTEXT ........ ..... . . . . . . . . . .... .. .. . . ...... .... .. ... .. .. .. . 327
The Building Envelope, 328
Energy and Architectural Design, 336
Energy Consumption in Buildings, 336
Building Process, 337
Environmental Planning, 341
Site Selection, 342
Elements of Site Control, 343
Passive Solar Planning, 348
Building Design, Configuration, 359
Chapter 11 ENCLOSURE ..... ........................ ............ .......... .. ...................... 371
Qualities of Architectural Space, -372
Openings, Structure and Enclosing Planes, 373
Degree of Enclosure, Light and Views, 373
Chapter 12 SYSTEMS .. . .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 387
X
Environmental Concepts and the Interior, 388
Mechanical and Electrical Systems, 388
User Requirement Architectural System, 392
Handicapped Users, 399
Structural and Engeneering Concepts, 400
Construction Methods and Structures as
expression of Architectura I Design, 411
Chapter 13 ECONOMIC . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .............. ... . . . . . . . ......... .... 435
The Cost of the Building Structures, 436
First Costs, 436
Maintenance Related Design, 437
Architectural Safety, 437
Building Materials as Expression of Design, 438
Honesty of Expression, 438
Economy of Materials in Design, 439
Visual Expression of Material, 440
New Materials, 447
Biotechture and the Nature of Materials, 450
Indigenous Materials, 451
Chapter 14 HUMAN FACTORS .................................................................. 457
Socio-cultural Variables, 458
Psychological Considerations, 458
Personal Space, 460
Psychological and Social Space, 460
Territoriality, 464
Perceptual Quality of the Designed Environment, 465
Human -Architectural Interfaces, 466
Human Needs, 466
Value, Aspiration and Culture, 468
How Value Influence The Environment, 472
How Environment Influence Value, 473
Folk Beliefs in Architecture, 475
Vernacular Architecture and lndiginous Technology, 478
Feng Shui, 479
Bibliography, 496
Index, 497
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INFLUENCES ON
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
2
I. GENERAL INFLUENCES
NEEDS OF MAN
1. PHYSICAL NEEDS
a. Self preservation . . . .
Food, shelter, clothing-basic
add to this basic needs:
power, water, transportation, ecological balance,
education, sports, medical, livel ihood
b. Reproduction-for the population to increase and continue in existence.
SHEL TEA . .. is something that covers, protects, or defends as a roof that shields
one from the elements and changes.
The modern man's shelter shalf have:
1. Necessiti es-warm, dry house with glazed doors, windows, sanitation and
permanency.
2. Conveniences- rooms shall be arranged economically. Circulations are
studied according to functions, such as t he kitchen for food preparation,
bedroom for sleep and bathroom for cleanliness.
3. Comforts - this must contain the labor-saving devices which provide heat,
ventilation, and instant communication. The furnishings are designed for
comfort.
2. EMOTIONAL NEEDS
The emotional reactions of man have to do with ~ h e instincts stirred by the forces
of religion and art and with the desire to indulge in recreation. Art in its broadest
interpretation, assumes the various familiar forms painti ng, sculpture, music, lite-
rature.
3. INTELLECTUAL NEEDS
Educat ion, science and government , demand a proper architectural setting. In-
tellect or reason alone may erect a utilitarian building; emotion will endow it with
beauty and interest.
ACTIVITIES OF MAN
If life is to exist and civilization is to develop, there are f undamental or desires'
which must be satisfied. These forces may be called the action. Their effect
upon life and architecture, may be designated as Resulting Manifestations: RM
1 . Desire for Preservation -in obtaining food, shelter, clothing and security, civilized rna n
must have commerce, government and religion. These activities call for their accom-
panying structures, or architecture.
2. Desire for Recognition -this is a desire for prestige, pride and ambition, social status,
physical supremacy, intellectual attainment, personal or civic, result in the-struggle
for position.
As a result, man build palaces, skyscrapers, or communities may erect cathedrals
or public buildings and monuments.
3. Desire for Response- This arises from the gregarious nature of man, from his wish for
love, friendship, and sociability.
In seeking the companionship of his fellow creatures, man congregates. His social
instincts call for fraternal buildi f)QS and city clubs. His semi -public buildings must
contain banquet halls and ball rooms; his home must have a living room to make
human association possible.
4. Desire for Self-Expression-This is the urge of man to as,sert himself as an individual.
To do things in his own parti cular way.
This is responsibl e for aesthotic expression; f or architecture in its highest forrn,
whicfi result in building of theatres, museums, etc. To show that he is the in
sports or recreation, encouraged the building of stadia, bowling alleys, gymnasiums,
etc.
II. INFLUENCES OF NATURE
Climate and topography influence the life and habits of a nation. They decide what foods
shall be grown and what occupations shall be followed. They determine what regions will
develop farmers, 88ilors or merchants. Climate aids in giving to races their own particular
traits. These races in turn create architecture with local or national characteristics.
A. CLIMATE
This affect the habits and temperaments of people. Those near the sea are quiet, taCiturn
and bold people. They are easy going and care-free and produce an architecture different
from people in the cold and forested areas, whose .people plan in advance. This requires in-
itiative, patience and energy.
In the arctic, regions, civilization is less advanced as climatic conditions are so unprotective
and absorb so much energy that the natives have little surplus with which to devek>p civiliza-
tion or art.
In the temperate zones, people are energetic and progress is assured. Here, man may plan
and may realize his ambitions without interference from droughts, blizzards, or
tropical f evers.
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EFFECT ON ARCHITECTURE
WARMER CLIMATES
The buildings rnay be more flamboyant in
their conception and usually a closer rela-
tions exists between the works of man and
nature where vegetation is more luxuriant,
more attention is paid to the color and tex-
ture of surface treatment.
Plain wall areas give an opportunity for
contrast with the colors of the foliage.
1. PLANS
WARMER CLIMATES
The plans are more open and often include
courts or patios.


oPEN COURT


! [ ~ \ \
BREt:ZE
2. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
f
COLDER CLIMATES
The architecture is more severe and the de-
signer depend less upon the landscape tor
final effect. Colors are usually more sub
dued.
COLDER CLIMATES
More compact in arrangement. The severe
cold winds is avoided by providing a cover
from portion of the building to the other.
Ill!
In the past, walls were load bearing, wall thickness were thick, to carry the load of
the floors and the roof and also to resist the extremes of temperature and to protect
man from his enemies.
Today, modern man erects structures to protect his investment from depreciation
and himself from the curiosity of his neighbors. Walls are no longer bearing walls.
They no longer carry loads as thin as the material will permit. The development of in-
sulation makes it possible to keep out the heat and the cold in a highly satisfactory
manner.
Load is di!?triMed to the beam
1 1 1 l
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...
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1-ttload
carried by columns
Thirt wall
thin ~ N a i l 1 '7 ' Insulation
3. PROTECTIVE ELEMENTS
The roof protects the interior from the elements of climate like typhoon, heat of the
sun, etc.
WARMER CLIMATE
COLDER CLIMATES
- In the Past-
The roofs are usually rather flat and colour-
ful. As in the rich red and brown tile roof of
Italy.
The roofs become steeper and less colour-
ful. The necessity of shedding the rai n and
snow makes the greater pitch to the roofs
more practical .
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Entrance porches are the result of the desire for protection. The driving rains and
cold winds made these porches a de.sirable adjunct to the entrances.
0 0 u 0 0
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-Modern Developments-
However, with new inventions and innovations, steel and concrete construction. in-
sulation, and modern drainage make almost any kind of utilitarian roof possible.
The roof may be flat even in cold countries and invisible from the ground. The roof
has now become a terrace, and the accompanying fresh air and sunshine contribute
to the health of a nation.
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4. CIRCULATORY ELEMENTS
Windows- permit the entrance of light and circulation of air
Doors, 9tairs, corridor-circulation of human traffic and materials
- In the Past -
WARMER CLIMATES
Windows are usually small in order not to
admit too muct light, which produces ex-
cessive heat and glare.
warm
COLDER Cll MATES
Windows are usually large in order to cap-
ture the greatest amount of light, and heat
the interior.
----J
\ \ ~
cold
-Modern-
In the architecture of the 20th Century, there has ceased to be the relation between windows
and climate that existed in the past. We can now heat or cool our houses in a satisfactory
manner with less reference to the sizes of openings and windows often simply contribute to
the cheerfulness of the interior.
In the last few years, there has come a new conception of hygienic and therapeutic possibili-
ties of the window. A type of glass has been devek>ped which does not filter out the ultra-
violet rays of the sunshine; as does ordinary window glass.
Man also invented machines for air conditioning, heating, ventilating and this machine age
brought about the suggestion of windowless buildings.
5. DECORATIVE ELEMENTS
WARMER CLIMATES
With brilliant sunshine, pronounced mould-
ings are unnecessary and undesirable. When
mouldings are used, the curves should be
f latter and more subtle.
COLDER CLIMATES
Sculpture and mouldings are usually deep-
ly curved and undercut to catch the max-
imum amount of light.
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Color is a decorative element which in warm countries assumes an importance rivaling that
of carvings. Plain wall surfaces in white or light pastel tones, with their various textures
catch the sunlight and allow an interesting play of shadows from projecting roots and adjoin-
ing trees. Colored tiles are also conspicuous in the architecture in the mediterranean coun-
tries.
B. TOPOGRAPHY
In the earliest periods of civili zation, the elements of topography-mountains, deserts and
seas-constituted barriers to migration. This retarded the intermingling of people and the
cross-fertilization of cultures. Ideas traveled slowly, and the customs and atts of different
countries assumed definite national patterns.
However, as navigation became more of a science, the sea that had been a barrier became
an aid to travel and communic_ation.
Topography, in its broadest sense, may mean the general terrain or contour of the surface of
the entire country. If the country is small and the topography is uniform, there tends to be a
similarity of character in the architecture. It may be nationalistic and may assume traits com-
mon to the entire area .
MOUNTAIN REGIONS
In a setting of rocks and cliffs with violent
changes in the direction of the contour of
the site, the building should appear to grow
out of its surroundings. The buildings
should be 'informal'. The floor levels of the
major parts should follow as far as is con-
venient, the slope of the ground. If it
crowns an eminence. its steep roofs with
vertical effects may serve as a fitting term-
ination to a commanding height.
LEVEL COUN-TRY
While an unsymmetrical or informal plan is
possible on such a site. 'Formal' or balanced
scheme is more satisfactory.
sJopiHg site in for-rna lity
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Level Site Formality
C. MATERIALS
The gifts of nature for the structures of man are limestone, marble, pine and mahogany, etc.
(timber) clay for brick and ore for metals.
In the past, certain materials have had a local use and have influenced the development of an
indigenous architecture. Since there was lack of methods of conveyance.
However, they have changed as new contacts were made and as new developments came
into existence. Ideas were borrowed, commerce and industry grew and now modern
transportation has made building materials international in distribution and use.
Ill. INFLUENCE OF MAN
1. SOCIAL CONDITIONS:
Architecture, because it is the most permanent and cumulative-reflects the social structure
of the period in which it is developed. The interests of the people dictate the type and ap-
pearance of its buildings.
Stable government and improved social condition eliminate the necessity of many protective
features such as high fences, shutters, wrought iron or steel railings tor doors aRd windows,
broken glass and barbed wire on top of fences. Comfort and convenience now control archi-
tecture.
Example:
1. Periods ... The different architectural characters in the different periods of ar-
chitecture is shown in the interests of man at that time as shown in their build
ings.
In this 20th Century, our social structure has become so complex that confusion
rather than simplicity is its chief characteristic. The automobile has made it pos-
sible for us to live many miles from our work but has created a traffic problem.
The movies, radio, t.v. and transportation have brought us knowledge of
foreign countries. Standardization is more prevalent than individualism.
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Congestion, economic pressure requires proximity of allied f ields of endeavor
and adds to the problems of the architect and city planner. This complexity of
our social system is reflected in our architecture.
2. Man's Personality.
By his appearance, something is known of his interests from t he type of house
in which he lives. In a similar manner, it is possible to trace a comparison bet
ween the personality of a nation as reflected in its clothing and its attitude
toward architecture dS seen in its buildings. Clothes give an indication of the
simplicity or complexity of the existence of its inhabitants which in turn controls
the development of its architecture.
GREEK ... .. .. .... ....... ...... ...... ...... .... .. . ... ........ ...... .................. DIGNITY
Scholarly and philosophical refinement was characteristic of the lives of people,
we find the costume consisted of a simple, flowing robe. Much attention was
paid to the body and to physical health. The existence of the Greeks was reduc-
ed to the essentials, and this was reflected in their dress and architecture. They
did not build on a grand scale, but rather sought for purity of detail and develop-
ment of technical skill. Ornateness in dress had no place in their simple here ac-
tivities.
FRENCH RENAISSANCE
This was a period of multiplicity of detail in court life, in dress and in archi-
tecture. Social etiquette was so complicated that all naturalness was aban-
doned. Life was artificial and theatrical. and likewise the costumes of the
period. Powdered wigs and brocaded coats made congruous the jeweled
canes and lace frills. The furniture was colorful, but the chairs were often
straight and uncomfortable. All this splendor would have been inappropri
ate in a simple setting. The architecture had to be ornate in order to har-
monize with the activities which it housed. Buildings were crowded with
rococo details wl;lich hid structural lines and often prevented truth of ex-
pression.
This elaborate architecture lined wide avenues lavishly decorated with
fountains and gardens-all designed for the purpose of being ostentatious.
VICTORIAN
The flowing whiskers, beribboned bonnets, mutton- leg sleeves, and
bustles were simply a reflection of the jig-saw ornament and sheet-metal
cornices of the buildings of that period. Again, it was an ugly and drab
variety, without the color of the French Renaissance.
CONTEMPORARY
Although present-day civilization is complex, we have been blessed with
simple attire for both men and women. The dress of today is probably due
to the fact that the science of medicine and health has kept step with other
developments, and our people have been impressed with the necessity of
fresh air, sunshine, and exercise. These were difficult to obtain under the
restrictions of the 19th C.
The desire for freedom of movement and an interest in athletics is reflected
in the contemporary movement in architecture, which, in seeking to inter-
pret buildings in terms of the needs of the people, is placing the emphasis
upon plain wall surfaces.
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CONTEMPOAAAV
St. &Js1Is . Moscow, 10TH 0e11tury
Alc::a zar, Gegovia. 15TH
12
Ta.) Mal1al, Agr.a. 11TH amtury
6o111ic CatHedral. Reint?,
17TH cenrury
Alr force C l 1 a ~
Colorado ~ ~ ~ l90Z
3. Man's Interests.
It has been pointed out that the activities and .interests of man are directly
responsible for the type of architecture which he develops. This is showl'l in the
typical structures like the
house-which provides shelter for man during his hours of rest.
factory -offers a place in whi ch to work and to produce a commodity of
exchange.
church- affords spiritual relaxation and opportunity for worship.
1. HOUSE - in the past, houses were small and compact, the hall was used as a
workroom and dining room. When the scene changed from the farm to the
city, wealth and servants, and large houses were easily maintained. This was
the age of pretense and show. Plans were complicated and of various sizes,
shapes, disorganized and unrelated to human needs. This was the Victorian
House
The Contemporary house-is called a functional type and one of comfort, There
is a desire to take full advantage of sunlight .and air. The walls are opened as
much as possible, and the interior is related to the exterior terraces and
gardens in a pleasing manner. Thus, the principle of comfort prevails In the
20th Century designs.
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2. FACTORY -in the early days, man often worked at home, it was the age of
craftsmanship, the period of individual effort. Those who created products
required by their fellow men took pride in each article. Business was personal
rather than impersonaL
When the industrial period arrived, with the last lialf of the 19 century, the
small shops grew into factories, and little thought was given to efficient ar-
rangements or pleasant working conditions. Labor was unorganized with
few windows, light and air was insufficient and the result was gloom and in-
effeciency.
The present century-an age of competition and mass production. There must be
efficient operation in order to compare favorably in price and quality. Proper
working conditions have been outgrowth of this kind of business life, and as
a result, well-planned factories and pleasant surroundings are often typical of
portions of our industrial cities.
3. CHURCH-in the past, people worshipped different gods and only the priests
enter the temples. The exterior then received more attention. Then the chris-
tian religion built churches to hold congregation to participate in the wor-
shipping of God. For that reason the interior is in many respects more impor-
tant than the exterior.
The medieaval churches was not only a place for worship but also a center of
education for the masses who could not read or write. The carvings and
sculpture of the exterior and interior furnished a chronology of biblical
events.
When the people learned socially to read and write, especially with the inven-
tion of the printing press,-sculpture became, instead of the pictorial, a
stressed decorative quality. The preaching type of church was developed,
causing an auditorium, to be included. This was a participation of mental
rather than a physical one.
Modern churches now are designed to provide mental, physical, as well as
spiritual relaxation. The modem church has now classrooms for educational
work, halls and parlors for social gatherings and a gymnasium for the exer-
cise of the body.
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cont-emporary church forms
20th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
The present century has brought countless inventions and discoveries. Old standards of
thought and living have been modified or abandoned. New activities have called for struc-
tures to house them, and new materials and types of construction have made these build-
ings possible.
a. TRANSPORTATION-made possible the carrying of all kind of building materials
from one end of the earth to the other and has created structures unknown a
few generations ago. The automobile has made necessary the garages, filling
stations, and bus terminals. It has rendered almost obsolete our narrow streets
designed for the horse and buggy. The airplane has brought about the develop-
ment of airports, while new types of steamships with increased tonnage have
given added importance to docks and warehouse. The expansion of the
railroads has created the magnificent passenger and freight terminals and has
made possible our large in.distrial centers.
b. COMMERCE- large, complex and taller buildings are constructed to house the
new business activities like banking, finance, etc.
c. EDUCATION -with mass education, schools and colleges are scientifically
planned, and their functions are numerous and involved.
The newspaper is also a powerful agency in the attempt to keep people inform-
ed upon the current affairs of the nations, and libraries and museums offer
unlimited facilities to those who would read and study.
In the past, museums were designed to resemble palaces with little thought to
the education and comfort of the public. The modern museum is designed to
display the art of the past and the present in order that it may be studied and ap-
plied to contemporary needs. Simplicity of arrangement, satisfactory lighting,
and ease of ci rculation are primary requirements.
d. REHABILITATION-labor-saving devices have brought about time for leisure and
the need for recreation. There is a universal interest in sports and entertain-
ment, both by spectators and participants. As a result, we have theatres and
dance halls, arenas, ballparks, golf and city clubs.
15
16
ECONOMIC CONDITIONS:
The social life of a nation and the resulting architecture are linked closely with the economic
conditions under which people live. The nature of trade, commerce, industry and agriculture
determines to a large extent the occupations and standards of living within a particular coun-
try. These factors influence the types of buildings erected and the materials used.
As nations modify their basic economic institutions through changes in manufacture, trans-
portation, and communication, new modes of living come into existence, and new architec-
ture must be developed to conform to these customs. We are interested, therefore, in the
economic status of individuals as they constitute a nation, and not in their private finances.
We are also interested in economy in architecture. Buildings may be so designed that thete
is economy of space, of movement, and of materials. These factors control to a large extent
the cost of an architectural project.
During the present century the concentration of wealth in our cities has been responsible for
our attitude toward certain types of architecture. Investments rule our lives, and the process
of building must lend an attentive ear to the caprices of finance. We erect structures many
stories in height, but mechanical devices render them obsolete in a few years and they must
make way for those with later developments. True economy in architecture is not using inte-
rior materials but the omission of useless decoration and the inclusion of sensible planning.
Man's economic system remained unchanged for centuries-until the present industrial age.
Previous to this age of machinery, power and energy were supplied by the hands of man or
the backs to animals. Production was relatively slow, and the hours of labor were long. Now
electrical or steam power is furnished in almost unlimited quantities, releasing man from the
machine and creating new economic and social problems. Man can now work less and pro-
duce more.
The future promises shorter hours of labor and longer hours of leisure. This increase in lei-
sure suggests a changed mode of living, It will promote the erection of those buildings which
have to do with recreation. relaxation and education. More time will be devoted to the reha-
bilitation of the mind and body. This possible change in our economic structure may thus,
have a profound effect upon our social life and our architecture.
A PREVIEW OF THE COMING OF THE 21st CENTURY
At this time, man has already reached the moon, our transportation a s brought us to space.
Man has developed computers to solve in an instant what has been solved in the past for
hours, days or even months. New an.d synthetic materials are being discovered and deve-
loped in a fast pace. Thereby making the designs of our building more comfortable, and now
comes skyscrapers that are built higher and higher.
In the initial stages of the computers, man feeds information based from the clients needs,
and a schematic sketch comes out of the computer. This can then be fed back to form a
massing or a perspective. It can even be manipulated to show the shades and shadows at
selected different times of the day. In another proble!T', for a subdivision planning, showing
the contours of the lot, the computer can show the. different views.altogether. Other func-
tions which it can do are showing the weak spots in a design for structural parts .of a building
for the structural designer's guidance. The computer can also store with its software all data
on materials, specifications, management, schedulings and so many other information that
can aid the designer to produce a better, faster and more accurate solutions to designs.
FUTUREHOME by Elizabeth Pennisi
For Portia Isaacson, a computer scientist, futurehome is a fantasy come true. The white,
two storey, stucco, suburban Dallas home, will be an electronic showcase, but with spiral
staircase, hot tub, art gallery and style. A quick call to-or from-a computer ensures that her
hot tub will be warm when she arrives or informs her when her teenaged children have got-
ten home from school. If a business meeting keeps her from getting home in time for her
husband's birthday, a computer controlled scenario, complete with loving messages, ro-
mantic lighting, favorite music and appropriate videos, will let him know he hasn't been for-
gotten.
Answering the door is obsolete. A camera shows who it is by sending a close-up view of
newcomers to wherever Isaacson is in the house. Then she can open the door remotely.
Can't find the keys or the husband? Vi a video cameras she can scan shelftops and table sur-
faces. Motion censors track each person's room-to-room movements.
It will take 13 computers, 14 telephones, 26 tv monitors, 8 miles (13 kml of wiring, several
video casette recorders for this fut ure home. Isaacson has robots for pets, a sculpture of
stereo and video components that seem to float in space, futuristic plant stands that are real-
ly computer terminals, and a media " command center", that includes four (4) 25-inch (60
em.) tv's, a 40-inch (100 em.) tv projection screen, 2 VCFS, and compact and laser disc
players.
At futurehome, a master computer is in charge. It receives data from the rest of the house
and sends out commands, dimming lights, changing thermostat setting, and switching tv
channels and volumes. Using a text-to-speech converter, the computer can answer and
make telephone calls. When someone- a housekeeper or tardy teenager, for instance pun-
ches in their individualized codes to get into the front door, the computer can be cued to let
Isaacson know, either where she is in the home or at work.
It can tell the condition of the house, not only can lights or favorite music be turned on as a
person enters a room, a synthesized voice can welcome guests, remind a son to keep his
feet off furniture or wake a husband in time for dinner.
Heating and airconditioning are regul ated electronically, and the computer tracks tempera-
tures in each room so that the new occupants can assess airflow throughout the house.
Once computerized, the entire house can be run from any one of 10 personal computers by
pointing with .a light pen to a particular room pictured on the screen, and designating a task
to be completed: lights on or off, specific music to be played, tv show to be recorded.
Or "scripts" can be written that coordinate activities for emergencies, normal household
maintenance, even family tends to take care of intruders, a security script: If a security sen-
sor detects a break-in, the computer could be programmed to flash all the lights, blast the
stereos, wake up and tell the residents where the stranger is lurking, perhaps even inform
the burglars that they are being filmed.
The Interior looks like the tv series Star Trek. Instead of a wall-sized painting, an elec-
tronic sculpture welcome visitors. THe black components of an audio ahd video systems are
set into a glosSy, black metal wall on shelves not visible to viewers. Recessed lighting along
the wall edges adds to the effect.
'SMART HOUSES' OF THE FUTURE
(Turn to page456)
17
18
THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
ESSENTIALS OF THE STRUCTURE
The various periods of historic developments have left to this age buildings which may be
identified as temples, cathedrals, factories and bungalows. These have been built to house
the activities of man, and to these structures has been given the name of architecture.
Architecture may be a group of buildings or a profession. The term "architecture" is an in
elusive one. lt may refer to the process of designing a building and supervising its erection. It
may also be regarded as the procedure assisted with the conception of an idea and its realiza-
tion in terms of building materials.
Architecture is represented by a building which meets in a satisfactory manner the require
ments of logical function, sound construction. and beautiful composition. It is only when all
of these qualities are present that good architecture can be said to exist. In its broader
aspects, architecture is shelter, not only for man during the various hours of his daily exist-
ence-work, recreation and sleep-but also to protect all the activities of human race.
Man begins to create shelter by surrounding space with the materials provided by nature and
made usable by the ingenuity of civilized peopl es. Space, in itself is indefinable and intangi-
ble and has no limits. Yet when it is enclosed with stone and steel according to accepted
rules of composition. the result may be called " architecture".
In providing shelter it is to be observed that buildings have walls and roofs, doors and wind-
ows, and that these elements are assembled in a simple or complex manner. Whatever the
type or character of the building, parts of it are more evident to the observer than others-
the exterior is more readily seen and understood than is the arrangement of the rooms,
which is called the plan. Thus, there exist the invisible and visible structures, or the plan pat-
tern and the apparent volume.
THE INVISIBLE STRUCTURE
The plan is the b e ~ i n n i n g of a building. It is the foundation upon which the scheme of the
structure rests. It relates the various units to each other. It is the most important element of
volume and should receive early consideration. whenever the solution of a problem is at-
tempted. "We should proceed from within to without" from a satisfactory arrangement
of the plan units to the enclosing of these units by the shell which is called the exterior.
fi"ott1 Within to Wiii1out
THE VISIBLE STRUCTURE
By enclosing space, volume or mass is created. If this space has. no relation to the activities
of man, there exist only the simple geometric forms of the cube, the pyramid or the sphere.
If the surfaces of these vol umes and the enclosed interiors are treated so that the forms are
related to human needs, then they may be regarded as architecture. Visible structure is com-
posed of form and surface as follows:
1. FORM
MASS or volume or evidence of the 3 dimension
direction -vertical or horizontal axis of the mass
shape- geometric qualities
2. SURFACE
AREA - surface with two dimensions as in a facade of a building
texture- surface treatment identified with materials whether rough or smooth
tone - light and shade caused by openings, projections
color - inherent or applied color caused by spectrum hues
FORM
In an architectural discussion the accepted definition of form deals with shape and when the
figure is three dimensional, it becomes mass.
In architectural composition, mass is more important than surface. In the design of a build-
ing, "we should proceed from the general to the particular". from mass to detail. The
approach to design should not be through the details of a style but rather through a consi-
deration of the mass of the building whi ch grows out of the function for which it is planned.
Ge11eral
(Ma%}
part-iculai
roof
wlrtdows
doors
walls
detai ls
MASS can be vigorous or weak; it can have vitality and strength, or it may be indecisive
and faltering. If it is correctly composed in an arresting manner, mass alone will arouse a de-
finite emotional reaction. It will stimulate the observer with the sense of its completeness.
Ornament should simply enhance a building .
tn order that mass may be decisive, it should be directional. It should be either'horizontal or
vertical. !
\
In architecture mass is usually volume, and the surfaces which enclose space have area.
19
Horizot1ta\
'lertical
Simple rectsngular tnaS$
Ma JOI a11d two 111i11or horizo11tal$
011 tl1e ce11tre ut1it)
20
Domirtat1t vertical with l1orJzo11taiG
Major Horizontal , Two major 'lerticats
Two t11i11or horizontals. (ThiS t?reaks up
t11e purely horizontal quali-ty of the
compositiott)
Major and rt1it1or hori-zontalS comt:Jined
with a dominant ver-tical
Major and mittor ve::.tjcals
VOLUME;
A plane extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a volume. Con-
ceptually, a volume has three dimensions: length, width and depth. All volumes can be ana-
lyzed and understood to consist of:
21
22
- solid
l vertices) where several
plat1es come together:
~ - ~ - - - - planes (surfaces) ttte limits or
-lines
bour1daries of a volume.
(edges) where two planes
meeT.
a v o l ~ m e can either be solid, space displaced by mass,
or VOJd, space contained or enclosed by planes.
(void space)
FORM is the primary identifying characteristic of a volume, it is determined by the shapes
and interrelationships of the planes that describe the boundaries of the volume.
1. VISUAL PROPERTIES OF FORM
a. Shape: The principal identifying characteristic of form; shape results from
the specific configuration of a form's surfaces and edges.
form of .a tree
circular lt1 shape
~
~
b. Size:
c. Color :
light
0
D
0
Since our perception of a plane's shape is distorted in perspective,
we see the true shape of a plane only when we view if frontally.
The real dimensions of form, its length, width and depth; while
these dimensions determine the proportions of a form, its scale is
determined by its size relative to other forms in its context.
The hue, intensity, and total value of a form's surface; color is the
attribute that most clearly distinguishes a form from its environ-
ment. It also affects the visual weight of a form.
darker
dark
23
D
d. Texture:
e. Position:
The surface characteristic of a form; texture affects both tattile and
light-reflective qualities of a form's surfaces.
A form's location relative to its environment or visual field.
left side of a river, left side of t+te road. rtgl1t side of a tree.
front oF a hotel. Back of a warehouse.
24
at the tJac k cf
the warehouse
TREIOS
f. Orientation:
OBJECT
.left side of the road, 20 ttl away
in Front of the hotel
left side or the rNer
or right side of tHe trees
or t'efore the building or welcome sigt1
A form's position relative to the ground plane, the compass points
or to the person viewing the form.
The cardinal points NESW have since remote times been given
prime importance among the factors determining the structure of
the world. The word orientation comes from "orient" the direction
of sunrise. Christian churches were always oriented by the altar to-
wards the East. The East as the origin of light is also the source of
life. The west as the place Qf the setting sun is filled with all the ter-
rors of the earth.
NORm
AMIANAN - I ~ O C A N O
HllA6A - TA6AL06
WEST EAST
~ - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - -
LAUD- ILOCAHO C\4YA- lLOCANO
I<ANLURAN TA6Al.Q:; 51LAN6AN- TA6A1.06
SOUTH
AEW;ATAN- I LOCANO
TIMOS - TA6AL06
25
J - 1_ -- Q_ ---- ------ Q_ __
,.LANE . FRONT t..EFT SlOE RIGHT SIDE
,.[
' \
\
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26
WORMS EYE
person viewing -+he form
N
I
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'). :,/ .. ,
W --
.
I
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s
RELATI\IE TO 5ROUND Pl.At-JE
/
BIRDS EYE

. 90 atx>ve groo11d
le\lel.
g. Visual Inertia: The degree of concentration and stability of a form; the visual iner-
tia of a form depends on its geometry as well as its orientation rela-
tive to the ground plane and our l ine of sight.

I
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.....
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All of these visual properties of form are in reality affected
by the conditions under which we view them:
1. our perspective or angle of view
<0

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l
\ I I
'
. '
\ If
' '' \ 'I

2. our distance from the form
3. lighting conditions
4. the visual field surrounding the form
SHAPE
Shape is a plane's primary identifying characteristic. If refers to the edge contour of a plane
or the silhouette of a volume. It is the primary means by whi ch we recognize and identity the
form of an object. Since it is seen as the line that separates a form from its background, our
perception of a form's shape will depend on the degree of visual contrast between the form
and its background.
SILHOUETTE
27
In Architecture, we are concerned with the shapes of:
1. planes (floor, walls, ceiling} that enclose space
2. openings (windows, doors) within a spatial enclosure
3. the silhouettes of building forms
PRIMARY SHAPES
should be viewed as it is distorted in perspective.
a. t/Je circle: a series of points arranged equally and balanced about a point .
....... --......
/ '
I \
1 \
I
\ I
' /
........ __ ..,.
b. the triangle: a plane bounded by three sides, and having three angles.
c. the square: a plane figure having four equal sides and four right angles.
D D
28
CIRCLE:
the circle is a centralized, introverted figure that is normally stable and self-
centering in its environment, Placing a circle in the center of a field will rein-
force its natural centrality.
0 0
0 \ , ~
~
0
" 0
I:('
a ~ o +-O
,;" ~
a J't'\ o
0 0 0
Placing an element along its circumference, can induce in it an apparent
rotary motion.
' .
I I
\ I
\ I
' /
.......... /
..... ___ .....
0000
stable

fixed in
place

self-centered
dynamic
29
TRIANGLE:
30
Composition of circles and circular segments
... signifies stability When resting on one of its sides, the triangle is an ex-
tremely stable figure. When tipped.to stand on one of its vertices, however, it
can either be balanced in a precarious state of equilibrium or be unstable and
tend to fall over onto one of its sides.
PLAN
SECTION OF AN ART MUSEUM
SQUARE: ... represents the pure and the national. It is a static and neutral figure
having no preferred direction. All other rectangles can be considered varia-
tions of the square, deviations from the norm by the addition of height or
width. Like the triangle, the square is stable when resting on one of its sides,
and dynamic when standing on one of its corners.
stable
31
32
PLATONIC SOLIDS
The primary shapes can be extended or rotated to generate volumes whose forms are dis-
tinct, regular and easily recognizable. These forms are referred to as the platonic solids.
Circles generate spheres and cylinders; triangles generate cones and pyramids; squares
generate cubes.
The SPHERE is a centralized and highly concentrated form. It is, like the circle from which is
generated, self-centering and normally stable in its environment. It can be inclined toward a
rotary motion when placed on a sloping plane. From any viewpoint, it retains its circular
shape.
. .... ,
Project fOr a11 agriculture looge
by : C. IedouX

chapel : Institute of
'rJy : Eero saant1e11
The CYLINDER is a centralized about the axis defined by the centers of its two circular
faces. It can be extended easily along this axis. The cyl inder is a stable form, if it rests on one
of its circular f aces; it becomes unstable when its central axis is inclined.


Ut1stable "'-
The CONE is generated by rotating an equilateral triangle about its vertical axis. Like the cy-
linder, the cone is a highly stable form when resting on its circular base, and unstable when
its vertical axis is tipped or overturned. It can also be stood on its apex in a precarious state
of balance.
UI1Stabfe
coHical ce11otaph by: E. f!outee
33
34
The PYRAMID . .. has properties similar to those of the cone. Because all of its surfaces
are flat planes, however, the pyramid can rest in a stable manner on any of its faces. While
the cone is a soft form, the pyramid is relatively hard and angular.
pyramid Of c h e o ~
The CUBE ... is a prismatic form that has six square faces of equal size, and twelve edges
of equal length. Because of the equality of its dimensions, the cube is a static form that lacks
apparent movement on direction. It is a stable form except when it stands on one of its
edges or corners. Even through its angular profile is affected by our viewpoint, the cube re-
mains a highly recognizable form.
e;table
a 110U5B
REGULAR FORMS
Regular forms refer to those whose pa_rts are related to one another in a consistent and or-
derly manner. They are generally .stable in nature and symmetrical about one or more axes.
The platonic soli"s are prime examples of regular forms
OLD
Forms can retain their regularity even when transformed dimensionally, or by and the addi-
tion or subtraction of elements.
A
~ ' /J
0
IRREGULAR FORMS
Irregular forms are those whose parts are dissimilar in nature and rel ated to one another in an
inconsistent manner. They are generally asymmetrical and more dynamic than regular
forms. They can be regular forms from which irregular elements have been subtracted or an
irregular composition of regular forms.
r---..-- ..._
' --
\ --7
\ /
\ /
\
35
36
Since we deal with both solids and voids in architecture, regular forms can be contained
within irregular forms. Similarly, irregular forms can be enclosed by regular forms.
irregulzsr composi'tion oF
fbr-ms .
..---
L
regul2!r composrriot1 of regular fbnt1s

4

d
Irregular forms withiH a
regular field
THE TRANSFORMATION OF FORM
All other forms can be understood to be transformations of the platonic solids, variations
that are generated by the manipulation of thei r dimensions, or by the subtraction or addition
of elements.
1. DIMENSIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS:
A form can be transformed by altering one or more of its dimensions and still retain
its family identity. A cube for example, can be transformed into other prismatic forms by
altering its height, width, or length. It can be compressed into a planar form, or stretched
Into a linear one.
: : - : : ~ ~
I cr:.---1
I I I
t I I
t I I
I t I
...... _ I _ _.,
- .... -- .... , ......... ,.,.,..-
A spherical form can be transformed into any number of ovoid or ellipsoid forms by
elongating it along an axis.
A pyramidal form can be transformed by altering the dimensions of its base, modifying
the height of its apex, or by moving the apex off of its normal vertical axis.
I
I
/
I
---- -

A cube can be transformed into other rectangular prismatic forms by shortening or
elongating its height, width or depth.
37
38
--, ...... _-_-_-: .. -.-....... --- ,. __ -- .. _._ _ .... _ ,. _.,_--:
'
'
' ~ ~ \
;(' \
\ 0
' 0
' I
' I
' ' I
0
0
0
l
r
2. SUBTRACTIVE TRANSFORMATlONS:
.
0
.
.
'
r
A form can be transformed by subtracting a portion of its volume. Depending on the
extent of the subtractive process, the form can retain its initial identity, or be transformed
into a form of another family. For example, a cube can retain its identity as a cube even
though a portion of it is removed, or be transformed slowly into a polyhedron approx-
imating a sphere.
SUBTRACTIVE FORMS:
We search for regularity and continuity in the forms we see within our field of vision.
If a platonic solid is partially hidden from our view, we tend to complete its form in a regu-
lar manner, and visualize it as if it were whole. Similarly, when regular forms have frag-
ments missing from their volumes, they can retain their formal identities if we perceive
them as if they were whole and complete. We refer to these mutilated forms as sub-
tractive forms.
\ I / ' I
' / I \ I I
__ .... ...__!' _ _/ ____ _ .L-J--...J--..1
Because they are highly recognizable, forms that are simple and geometrically regu-
lar, such as the platonic solids, adapt readily to subtractive treatment. These forms will
retain their formal identities if portions of their volumes are removed without deteriorating
their edges, corners and overall profile.
Ambiguity regarding a form's original identity will result if the portion removed from
its volume erodes its edges and drastically alters its profile.
In the series of figures below, at what point does the square figure with a corner portion
removed become an "l" configuration of two rectangular planes
..-----.--,
'
.
....----,---.,
l \
- - ~ - - - - , ----; ---- --1
l
I
I
I
I
I
I
l
J
Volumes may be subtracted from a form to create recessed entrances, well-defined, pri-
vate courtyard spaces, or window openings shaded by the vertical and horizontal sur-
faces of the recesses.
39
I
I
I
40
3. ADDITIVE TRANSFORMATIONS:
A form can be transformed by the additi on of elements to its volume. The nature of
the additive process will determine whether the identity of the initial form is retained or
altered.
IL REDE.NTORE vetrice 1577 -92 A11drea falladio
ADDITIVE FORMS:
While a subtractive form results from the removal of a portion of its original volume,
an additive form is produced by the addition of another form of its volume.
+
FOUR {4) BASIC possibilities for two forms to group together are:
1. by SPATIAL TENSION -this type of relatiooship requires t hat the two forms be
relatively close to each other, or share a common visual trait such as shape,
material of col or.
2. by EDGE to EDGE CONTACT -in this type of relationship, two forms share a
comn1on edge, and can pivot about that edge.
3. by FACE to FACE CONTACT -this type of relationship requires the tw,o forms
to have flat, planar surfaces that are parallel to each other.
4. by INTERLOCKING VOLUMES-in this type of relationship, two forms interpe-
netrate each other's space. These forms need not share any visual traits.
t< !>
41
.--
1
I
I
I
I
'-- -
42
Additive fOfms, resulting from the accretion of elements to one another, can be charac-
terized generally by their ability to grow and merge with other forms. For us to perceive
additive groupings as unified compositions of form, as figures in our visual field, the com-
ponent forms must be .related to one another in a coherent and close-knit manner.
In order to categorize additive forms according to the nature of the relationship that
exist among the component forms as well as their overall configurations.
THERE ARE FIVE (51 DIAGRAMS as shown below.
1 .. CENTRALIZED FORMS- - -
r------,
I I
I I

: I
Consist of a number of secondary forms clustered about dominant, central,
parent forms.
l
- ~ ) . ~ < - -
T
t I
--r ----- -.,
I I
I I
I I I
I I
_ ...! _ ___ ..._ -r--'
I I
1 I
I
I I
1--- - --1
Centralized forms require the visual dominance of a geometrically regular, cen-
trally located form, such as the sphere, cylinder or polyhedron. Because of their
centrality, these forms share the self centering properties of the point and ci r.cle.
They are ideal as freestanding structures, isolated within their context, dominat-
ing a point in space, or occupying .the center of a defined field. They can embody
sacred or honorific places, or commemorate significant persons or events.
TEWAETTO,S IH
-- aattrmtts
2. LINEAR FORMS-- -
Consist of forms arranged sequentially in a row.
A linear form can result from a proportional change in a form's dimensions, or the
arrangement of a series of forms along a line. In the latter case, the series of
forms may be repetitive, or they may be dissimilar in nature and organized by a
separate and distinct element such as a wall or path.

DDDDDDDDD
.._....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
44
A linear form can be segmented or curvilinear to res-
pond to conditions of its site such as topography, view,
or vegetation.
a linear form can be used to front or define an edge of an exterior space, or de-
fine a plane of entry to the spaces behind it.
A linear form can be manipulated to enclose space.
u
A linear form can be oriented vertically as a tower element to fix a point in
space.
A linear form can act as an organizing element to which a vari ety of f orms can
be attached.
examples: row houses,
- - - - - - - - - - - -+-
3. RADIAL FORMS-- -
Are compositions of linear forms that extend out ward from central f orms in
a radial manner.
45
46
A radial form. consists of linear forms that extend outward from a centrally
located .core element in a radiating manner . It combines the aspects of centrality
and linearity into a single composition.
The core is either the symbolic or functional of the organization. Its
central position can be articulated with a visually dominant form, or it can merge
with and become subservent to the radiating arms.
The radiating arms, having properties similar to those of linear forms, give a
radial form its extroverted nature. They can reach-out and relate or attach them-
selves to specific features of their site. They can expose thei r long surfaces to
desirable conditions of sun, wind, view, or space.
Radial forms can grow into a network where several centers are linked by
linear forms.
The organization of a radial form can best be seen and understood from an
aeiral view. When it is viewed from ground level, its central core element may not
be clearly visible, and the radiating of its linear arms may be obscured or
distorted through perspective.
4."CLUSTEREO FORMS- - -
Consist of forms that are grouped together by proximity or the sharing of a
common visual trait.
co&
0 00
While a centrali.ted organization has a strong geometrical basis for the order-
ing of its forms, a clustered organization groups its forms according to functional
requirements of size, shape or proximity. Lacking the introverted nature and geo-
metrical regularity of centralized forms, a clustered organization is flexible enough
to incorporate forms of various shapes, sizes, and orientations into its structure.
Considering the flexibility of clustered organizations, their forms may be or-
ganized in the following ways:
1. They can be attached as appendages to a larger parent form or space.
2. They can be related by proximity alone to articulate and express their
volumes as individual entities.
r.n
~
3. They can interlock their volumes and merge into a single form that has a
variety of faces.
47
48
G.N. BLACI< HOtJ5E, Mat1cHeGter-by-
1eez-93 ?Gatn:1y at1d :;tearHc;
5. GRI D FORMS- - -
Are modular forms whose relat ionships are regulated by three-dimensional
grids.
A grid may be defined as two or more intersecting sets of regularly spaced
parallel lines. It generates a geometric pattern of regularly spaced points (where
the grid line intersect) and regularly shaped fields.
The most common grid is based on the geometry of the square. Because of
the equality of its dimensions e:md its bilateral symmetry, a square grid is essential-
ly neutral, non-hierarchical, and non-directional. It can be used to break the scale
of a surface down into measurable units and give it an even texture. It can be
used to wrap several surfaces of a form and unify them with its repetitive and per-
vasive geometry.
The square grid, when projected into the third dimension, generates a spatial
network of reference points and lines, within this modular frame work, any num-
ber of forms and spaces can be visually organized.
ROTATED GRIDS
ARTICULATION OF FORM
Articulation refers to the manner in which the surfaces of a form come together to define its
shape and volume. An articulated form clearly reveals the edges of its surfaces and the cor-
ners at which they meet. Its surfaces appear as planes with distinct shapes; their overall con-
figuration is legible and easily perceived. Similarly, an articulated gmup of forms accen-
tuates the joints between its constituent forms to visually express their individuality.
A form and its surface planes can be articulated by: FOUR WAYS
1. differentiating adjacent surfaces with a change in material, color. texture or pattern.
rougl1
49
50
2. developing the corner as a distinct linear element independent of the surfaces.
3. removing the corner to physically separate adjacent ptanes.
4. lighti ng the form to create sharp distinctions of light and dark at its corners.
In contrast to the above, the corners of a form can be rounded and smoothed over to em-
phasize the continuity of its surfaces or a material , color, texture or pattern can be carried
across a corner and the adjoining surfaces to de-emphasize the individuality of the surface
planes and emphasize instead the volume of a form.
EDGES & CORNERS
For a comer to be formally active in our visual field, there must be more than a slight devia-
tion in the geometry of the adjoining planes. We search for regularity and continuity in the
forms within our visual field, and we will tend, therefore, to regularize or smooth out slight ir-
regularities in the forms we see. For example, a wall plane that is bent only slightly will ap-
pear to be a single, f lat plane, perhaps with a surface imperfection. A corner could not be
perceived.
... .... --
-.... .... .
'":."
At what point do these formal deviations become an acute angle? A right angle?
LLL
a segmented line 00 ........ .. ........ . . 00 ......... .... ....... 00 oo ... oo a straight line?
a circular segment? a change in lines contour?
t::::==---
CORNERS define the meeting of two planes. If the two planes sil'(lply touch, and the corner
remains unadorned, the appearance of the corner will depend on the visual treatment of the
adjoining surfaces. This corner condition emphasizes the volume of a form.
51
52
FOUR WAYS A corner condition can be VISUALLY Reinforced
1. by introducing a separate and distinct element that is independent of the surfaces it
joins. This element articulates the corner as a linear condition, defines the edges of
the adjoining planes, and becomes a positive feature of the form.
2. if an opening is introduced at the corner. one of the plane will appear to bypass the
other. This opening de-emphasizes the corner, weakens the definition of the volume
within the form, and emphasizes the planar qualities of the surfaces.
3. if neither plane is extended to define the corner, a volume of space is tore-
place the corner. This corner condition deteriorates the form's volume, allows the in-
terior space to leak outward and clearly reveals the surfaces as planes In space.

,
I
I
I
I
I
1
1
I
I
I
----
4. Rounding off the corner emphasizes the continuity of a form's surfaces, the com-
pactness of its volume, and softness of its contour. The scale of the radius is impor-
tant . If too small , it becomes usually insignificant; if large, it affects the interior space
it encloses and the exterior form it describes .
. \i i
,i I l
Tke cort1er co11ditio11 detailed ( defiHil1g ~ e')(pressi119
the rneefi11g of elemet1+5.
53
museum cor11er unadort1ed
(volume of form rG empka-5i-zed)
ARTICULATED CORNERS-
independent of the
adjoining planes-
strengthening the
edges of a form.
54
I l 1 ]I
! ! II !
I I ; I
i I i
J I l
. l i
I
I !
t I
I
l
Ei11steht Tower
Rounded corners emphasizing continuity of
surface, COMPACTNESS OF VOLUME
AND SOFTNESS OF FORM.
PLAN CONFIGURATIONS
lshaped configuration of planes generates a field
of space from its corner outward.
55
r
0
[]0
56
one of the corner can be articulated as an independ
erit element that joins two linear forms together.
one of the arms can be a linear form that incor-
porates the comer within its boundaries while the
other arm is seen as an appendage to it.
a building can have an L-configuration to establish a
corner of its site.
or enclose a field of outdoor space to which its interi-
or spaces relate, or to shelter a portion of outdoor
space.
L-configurations of planes are stable and self-sup-
porting, and can stand alone in space. Because they
are open-ended, they are flexible space-defining ele-
ments. They can be used in combination with one
another or with other elements of form to define a
rich variety of spaces.


r,
c::JL

r

}(ingo Housing Unit
by: Jom Utx011 Dmurl'
I
GAROI:N
A BASIC UNIT
/..._
'
' /'
' ',..--- ' /
/ ' <- ' / .
/ -- '
-- '
' ,.t
An L-configuratioo of rooms around an
outdoor living space. Typically, one
wing contains the group living spaces
while the other contains private, indivi -
dual spaces. Usually occupy a corner
position, or is string along the backside
of one of the wings.
The advantage of this type of layout is
its provision of a private outdoor
space, sheltered by the building form,
and to which interior spaces can be di-
rectly related.
57
SASE PLANE
cr::
58
parallel planes define a volume of space between
them that is axially orienteo toward the open ends of the
configuration.
To visually reinf orce the spatial field,
along the open ends of the configura-
tion, the base plane is manipulated or
overhead elements are added to the
composition.
The spatial field can be visually expanded by ex-
tending the base plane beyond the open ends of
the configuration.
Openings in one or both of the planes will also in-
troduce secondary axes to the field and modulate
the directional quality of the space.
U-shaped configuration defines a field of space that has an in-
ward focus as well as an outward orientation.
et1closed J
and well-
defitted ;V ---q ; ; ~
rear- .._ ___ _,J ex: troverted
irt rtature
.! -------view
I ----...
Secondary zones are created when openings are introduced.
I
L5
The open end will remain
the "primary face" and
the plane oppposite will
be the " principal element"
pri11cipal
I
\primary
the corners of the configurations can be seen to consist of linear forms. The corners can be
articulated as independent elements. This U -configuration can be used iri building forms
and organizations.
~ ~
,..
,..
OL JO
_II __ _.J,._
AU-shaped building can define a forecourt for a building's approach as well as a recessed
entrance within the volume of the building form itself.

59
60
Four planes-closure- since the field is completely -enclosed, its space is introverted.
-m
1
If openings are introduced at the corners of the space, t he individual identity of the planes
will be reinforced and encourage movement.
Openings provide continuity with adjacent space, they can begin to weaken the enclosure of
the space, depending on t heir size, number and location .
..
.l ..
I 1
I
l
l
u
I
u I
I
I
.--- - --
-----
I I
lb
I
c:==Jl
I 1
I
I
I
I
I l
..,
1
I
l
l
1
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+
..
To achieve visual dominance within the space, or become its primary face, one of the en-
cl osing planes can be differentiated f rom the others by its size, form, surface, articulation, or
the nature of the openings within it.
pro-nary
SURFACE ..... .
Architectural surface are Areas of materials which enclose a building and are of secondary
importance to the masses which they create. But in order that a building may be wholly sa-
tisfactory in its appeal, the necessary attention must be given to the Treatment and articula-
tion of the exterior. The surfaces of a structure must have texture, tone, and color.
A. TEXTURE
Refers to the quality of surface treatment. Texture is usually associated with materials. Lime-
stone may be polished and reflect light in sparkling manner,
folished black graHite a5.
cmrtra5titf.9 color at1d wath
limestot1e wan.
The tex11Jre Of a t)rJcl< wall;
ttre diaper pattert1 with cort1ice,
belt an;:;Hes.
61
HorizOtJtal crea-ted l:7y
siding . Whlfe wall$ witk
Wood. brick, metal, al1d
or it may be rough and coarse
comparisot1 of of fietf
stoHe, 5hi11Qle5. at1d lead dawf1-
spout. lt1formality
and give to the building a_feeling of strength and simplicity. Stucco, with its various texture
Of treatments to catch the sunlight, has played an important part in the design of homes
which are mediterranean in character.
62
,
.,

\J"oo
stucco walf6, ca# crete and tile floor,
RoPt1Gt
Surface covered with brick have a different character from those in which wood is emloyed.
Thus, texture depends largely upon the choice and use of materials. The selection of a
definite material fixes, to some extent, the character of the f inal effect , but the treatment
which is given to that material often produces startling results.
There should be a consistency in the selection of the texture of materials-a harmonious re-
lationship between the various surfaces. Contrast and the variety must be present but the
character and the quality of different textures should agree.
.... :: :;.- . : =
.. --. __ ;_: .. .. ::c, .. ..,:..::._;::_::::.
. . . .. ; ' . ,. ..-
.' '.--:;.: : ..
Simplicit-y of arcf1i1ecture
tone. Restricted ro sfladowg of c:a11opy, mcised .,.,
and opettinqs. ,
63
64
Polished marble and bright chromium are symphathetic with each other but usually do not
combine well with rough field stone or brick. The character of each particular type of room
or building calls for a corresponding type of texture.
Texture can be used to destroy a form perception. The figure below showing the different
texture on different sides of the cube cause the experience of form to be disturbed. We do
not perceive a unit from here, but a fragment of a larger now destroyed form. The percep-
tion of a room can also be destroyed in the same way.
Two ways in which the attributes of a sensation of grain may vary hard-soft, smooth-
rough. Material examples of four extreme is shown in the figure below:
HARD
smooth
(glass)
SOFT
smooth
(silk)
HARD
rough
brick, hollow block
SOFT
rough
(wool)
c&.; Building : NtNf York City
19'Z- 64- Eero Saarmew al'fd

Linear patterns reinforcing the
height or, length of a form, UNI-
FYING its SURFACES and DE-
FINING its TEXTURAL QUALITY.
\,
I
JbdbdbJL
II
Openings and cavities creating tex-
tile with shadow patterns and inter-
rupting the continuity of a form's
surfaces.
The texture of a plane's surface, together with its color, will affect its visual weight., scale
and light-reflective qualities.
D
simple surface of opening
articulated surface and opening
B. TONE
Is a variety in the use of the gradations from black to white. Tone comes from the change
of impressions carried to the eye as a result of the juxtaposition of dark and light areas.
Tone, or the creation of light and shade, may be secured by the use of doors and windows,
or by shadows cast by projecting parts of the building, or by mouldings.
65
Tone by surfaces and by
contrast1119 matenals of walls aHd roof
ResideY!ce , Pasade11a.
8rilliat1cy a11d sparkle;
accent by use of opet1ing
Ca' .:f Oro, Venice.
66
JUXTA POSITION
To put side by side or
close together (to juxta-
pose for a
painting or picture tak-
ing, to put in position.
I
.. .
Tone gives interest to an exterior and if the results are to be entil"ely satisfactory, requires the
same careful study that was devoted to the general massing. Poor arrangement of windows,
plasters, and cornices can mar a powerful composition.
C. COLOR
The warmer climates have usually produced the most colorful architecture, as in Spain and
Italy with their walls o.f delicate hues, tile fountains and wainscots, and richly contrasting
roofs, Color as distinguished from tone, results from the hues of the spectrum. It may be in-
herent as in marble which is colored by nature, black or gray stones, white or cream stone,
red clay bricks. It may use colored tiles or metals. It may also apply colored wallpapers.
Or it may apply or rather be applied, as in the case of surfaces which are painted or decor-
ated by man.
l \
/
Color requires intelligent handling and a thorough knowledge of harmonies and values: The
color scheme .of a building should be carefully studied, with an understand,ing of the
character of the materials which are to produce the colors. Simple conventionalized ar-
rangements in subdued tones are preferable to garish and bizarre effects.
The relationship between color and the character of a building results from the combining of
warm and cool colors in the proper amounts.
67
68
the warm colors, the reds and the yellows, tend to advance toward the observer (usual-
ly for wide roo.ms)
the cool colors. the blues and the greens, appear to recede, showing infinity, immensi-
ty of space (usually for small compact rooms)
Also the more neutral colors should be used for the larger areas, reserving for the more
brilliant accents those bright colors which overpower the composition unless sparingly used.
The visual weight of a plane can be increased or decreased by manipulating the tonal blue of
its surface color.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
OF COLOR
70
Various colors have a strongly emotional effect on people. It ref lects the spirit of the people
who create it Color is definitely related to the lives of the individuals and the material things
with which they are associated. Spanish art which is gay and sparkling for example are pro-
duced by a dashing, vibrant people.
RED - tends to produce rage or passion; it is exciting and stimulates the brain.
It has an aggressive quality and is frequently associ ated with violence
and excitement.
(medium red) suggests health and vitality
(bright red) often has amorous connotations.
YELLOW - denotes gayety; stimulating cheering- to the lazy, upsetting to the ner-
vous. It is the most luminous color. Yellow also demands attention, and
so it is used in dangerous locations, such as the edge of a subway plat-
form to mark the hazard, while red used to be the color for firetrucks,
yellow is now preferred.
ORANGE - has a stimulating effect and should usually be used in relatively small
amounts. The occupant of an orange office, for instance will become ill
at ease after a short time and will leave it at every opportunity.
BROWN - is restful and warming but should be combined with orange, yellow or
gold because it could be depressing if used alone.
GRAY - suggests cold and is also depressing unless combined with at least one
livelier color.
WHITE - is cheerful, particularly when used with warm colors like red, yellow and
PURPLE
BLUE
GREEN
orange.
- is sedative and soothing. It suggests a stately or melancholy atmos-
phere. Cheerfulness or cowardice, cheapness.
- is peaceful and tranquil. It reduces excitability and therefore helps one
to concentrate.
- has a cooling quality and it acts as a sedative.
This psychological use of color has been related to architecture for centuries. Theatres and
circuses are gay and brilliant with banners, decorations and pageants. Bright colors
stimulate the imagination and excite the senses to produce a feeling of joy and pleasure.
While the funeral chapel is sombre in its color appeal. Garish hues would be an offense to
those who come in a mood of respectful worship, whereas, subdued colors lend themselves
to the spirit of the occasion. The color scheme of a restaurant for dining and dancing should
be quite different from that of a library for reading and meditation.
Color can be used functionally. We can make it maximize or minimize the size of objects.
Color can be used to help express architectural forms - and -if carelessly used, it can
destroy architectural form. Color on walls, floor, and ceiling is modified by other colors pre-
sent in the same area. For instance, if three walls of a room are a warm gray and the fourth
wall is a shade of yellow, the yellow will be reflected in the gray walls and will modify their
appearance. Again, the pate green may look good in a room until a bright shade of green is
used next to it. Suddenly the gray green looks gray and quite inadequate.
An enclosed room which is painted with warm colors makes those who work in it feel warm.
Similarly, if a large, open, windowed space with a great deal of glass painted with coot col-
ors, people who work in it .sometimes feel chilly.
One is ' prepared' "for a room' s color if the entrance is painted a complimenta.y color. Deep
colors always seem to make the walls of a room seem heavy, while pale pastel colors seem
to make the walls light. If a room is long and narrow, its appearance can be modified by
painting the end walls with warm colors-red, yellow, orange. Similarly in a small room, the
walls can be made to recede by painting them with cool colors such as green and blue.
COLOR USAGE . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . varies according to
1. RESIDENTIAL
Colors used within the home must be tolerated by the whole family. If members of a fami-
ly have tastes which differ widely, they may be satisfied by sel ecting the colors of their
own rooms.
The plan of living of a household group should be studied before any color selections are
made. Someone engaged in a business which uses a great deal of energy shl"luld have a
retreat at home-a room with a quietly harmonious color scheme. A person whose day is
spent in a monotonous business, on the other hand, will probably enjoy color contrasts
and bright colors.at t.ome.
2. COMMERCIAL
The commercial institution is a home away from home for many people, and the inclina-
tion to introduce some of the principles used in residential work is always present. But all
the colors in such an installation must relate to each other and to a central scheme. and
personal choice which conflicts with the appearance of the general scheme cannot be
tolerated.
There are a number of reasons for such color the main one being that there is
usually a certain amount of circulation of personnel ; and everyone may have different col -
or opinions.
In most cases the walls of the lobby of a commercial building should be stimulating and
exciting, and the corridors should be neutral, so that when the doors of the offices are
open, harmony will be apparent. Individual offices may vary in color, texture and
materials, but they must have a basic similarity.
The main objectives in determining the color scheme of a commercial installation are to
provide colors which are rich, definite, and harmonious which will be easyto live with,
and which will contribute to the efficiency and well-being of all who tenant the building.
Colors should be subtle; for example, no brash greens or blues should be used unless
compensating colors are used with them. Where offices are located upon an uninterest-
ing interior court, the colors of such offices should be ''sunny" and brilliant.
3. INDUSTRIAL
The kind of artif icial light must be taken into consideration in the design of industrial inte-
riors. It will depend, to a large extent, upon the type of operation performed. It is equally
important that the proper kind of light be used to avoid shadows and glare. For ease of
seeing, it is generally wise to keep the wall color darker than the machines or work
benches. If the space is small, the walls can be warm in color (yellow, orange, etc.)
71
\: , ,, i\ p.t:pg!fc.

walls

0
color. the sjze, Qf th;SPaqer to
assiSt the workers to bear the he,al. -.t .. ,.. ....
Qeo<1 'lt-J -'ft"f\ _ !tttJ walla.
t .. 1'4 qeAdY. ,11, pairltfld ,IIJ ;Y'?Jiew or ver-
'ld b to POint the,n put OJ*8toi'S qf trucksr forklifts;.etc.
91h , 9r\f
.at. SAFJi.TGO.LOA GUID.ES
RED - " Stop"
basis color for identification.
no rn:lol oJ
0
n,h1iJ:J , a, fV protectfo.n equipment and :apparatUs,
Sprinkler piplngs.
b. dangerous caria of inflammable liquid, barrk-.ades nr tamoorary obs
. .J/'Tl'1r -.l"''
tructions.
met G c.;' oh maentt"fMM;' or switches
J J indlcat$s pfohibltion. '' -
to
ORANGE - "Danqer"
Dangeroua perts-1if machihe or energizelr equfpmeM.
. ('
- "Caution"' or Rjsk,
1 .. Jailing, trip-
ping, striking against something, "caygt\t
1
ln In-
dicates dangers such as fire, exr>JOiSioA, radiation, and Solid
yellow, yellow and black stripes sl"!ould be em-
ploying the combination whicl"! will attraCt the rriost attention iri the par-
tfcular,sitvation:
zt ... "s f ' ftl" 1
- a e.,
1
'l r,., .. " '(l ..r ...a !:t C k'ts ...a::..a h
810 Of I
1
stretC'IVJ'"! _,, __ tJ UGJUg8 etC.
escape routes.
Action"
n- ll , ,, , ,..t ,, <t _J.-
'fl ()t out or or being
repair&d. Also an obligation to wear p8raonal
rl.- .,
tMt 4,ed .. WiUl1 "marka such n
and floor . b
BLACK, WHIT6, or corltblnetlon' ot ... and th:ru'aekeeping

Information concerning
safety condition: First aid
4. INSTITUTIONAL
Warning:
If :>U
Are risk
The interiors of institutions such as hospitals, youth detention centers, child care
facilities, nursing homes, and mel)tal health facilities-are carefully studied in order to pro-
vide the most favorable environment for patients, visitors and staff. The aim should be to
provide an atmosphere that is friendly and inviting.
Color and illumination are probably the most important of the visual elements. While
pastel colors are most often emplo')(ed in patient rooms, variety can be obtained by deep-
ening the tone of the bed wall, painting the window wall plus an adjacent wall a deeper
tone, or perhaps using a contrasting color on one or two of the other walls. If the room is
an odd shape, the judicious use of the two tones of color can help visually improve its
proportions. A dado of wood or other material is an additional tool for providing color
variation. The use of pattern to provide visual relief should be taken Into consideration in
the overall scheme of patient rooms as well on other areas.
Reception areas, dining rooms, day rooms, libraries, and chapels can provide patients,
staff and visitorS with welcome relief from the functional areas. Colors, furnishings, and
illumination can be varied to provide relaxing atmosphere.
Laboratories and specific examination areas such as X-ray, operating and other treament
rooms may be attractively designed with cheerful coJors. The use of wall graph_jcs is often
a good solution. There is no reason why an X-ray or radiology room cannot be treated in a
decorative manner, despite the seriousness of the activity therO quite abstract graphic
design on a wall, complementary to the color scheme, may provide just the right balance
to the awesome equipment to remind both the patient and professional that they are not
isolated from the real world. The use of colorful utility cabinets and other accessories can
also be considered.
73
74
In rooms with plaster ceilings. perhaps decorative ceiling lighting fixtures can add the
needed note of interest, or it the ceilings are high, they can be painted a color or other
than white. Vinyl wall coverings should also be considered.
As with any other group of spaces, there shouldbe a basic scheme to unify the whole,
but the individual areas should each reflect their own personality.
Long corridors can be used as a tool to unify; the tack ot interest can be countered with art
work and with colorful accents- unusual treatment of the ends of the corridors, of doors
and frames, or periodical spaces, or of handrails, for examples. The flooring in corridors
should also r.eceive careful attention, as it can be employed to good advantage to create
areas of interest.
5. EDUCATIONAL
Very young children prefer strQng colors, but when they grow older, their taste becomes
more sophisticated and subtle. In most contemporary schools almost anything that can
be colored is treated in a bright and brilliant way. Corridor walls, for instance, are
sometimes yellow; rooms facing cool north light are given warm tones, and those facing
warm south light are given cool tones. The front wall of each classroom is often painted
darker than the other walls of the room. Every effort should be made to select a color that
will be of approximately the same value as the color of the chalkboard so as to minimize
eye fatigue.
It colors are pastels. bright accents are employed for furniture and accessories- say
bright blue, yellow, chinese red, or blue green. Doors and trim are usually darker than the
walls in which. they are located, and painted doors can be given variation and additional
interest by the use of various colors.
However, while a stimulating atmosphere is desirable in a teaching situation, care should
be exercised to prevent overstimulation, which may produce restlessness, tension and
fatigue. .
NOTE
Establishments such as department stores and retail or specialty shops require special color
treatments. By careful observation, one can be able to formulate guidelines similar to those
given above. Each type of building has its own needs, and these must be analyzed before
any color scheme is designed for a specifi c proj ect .
COLOR AS AN EXPRESSION ELEMENT OF DESIGN
The uniform colour of the wall of a room.
When four {4) sides of wall was painted with four grey colours say c, e, g and i, c was almost
white, i was dark grey while the other two colours were inserted between these extremes at
similar intervals.
When the room was finished, it was impossible to distinQuish any difference in colour bet-
ween the walls painted c and e, and the same was true forthe walls painted q and i. In the
corner where e and i met, however, a distinct difference in colour could be seen and this was
also the case in the corner c, q.
The explanations is that the two sides of a corner form part of a room. As a result of this
pressure, we try to perceive a uniform colour and this is easier when the.colours are 'shadow
colours' of each other. They are then perceived as the satne local colours in different il-
lumination. This perception is impossible if the difference in lightness is too great, and then
lhe two wall colours are perceived at different local colours.
One special result of the influence of form on col our is the "spread1ng effect". In this figure,
divide into halves by a finger or pencil placed between the black and wh1te gnlles. Where the
red meets the black parts of the grill, it becomes darker tllan where it meets the white, an ef-
fect directly opposed to contrast induction.
75
76
The effect of the visible size on colour
A colour covering a sma11 surface is less intense in colour than the same local colour spread
over a large surface. This may be called the "area effect". It is well known to architects and
interior decorat ors that a wall painted in accordance with a given colour sample has a much
stronger colour than the sample itself .
The colour on a figure may change at times according to the distance from which it is
observed. The deep blue and pale yellow bands change to black, and nearly white when
looked at from a distance. Thjs is apparently caused by the diminution in size of the retinal
image.
Colours on a non-uniform background
Such colours are subject to many unexpected changes. The blue areas in the pattern below
are printed with exactly the same colour ink. Note their different appearance, a hightened ef-
fect can be seen if the design is tilted or looked at from a distance.
The blue areas in the pattern are printed with exactly the same Ink. Note that the left s1de
blue seems darker than the blue at the right. Now look at it from a distance, the effect is
heightened.
The effect of colour on form
If the form are able to change the colour, then the colour is also able to change the form.
THe figure sliows what is called al" !radiation phenomenon-a small, light-coloured object,
seen against a dark background appears larger than the same object, darker coloured, seen
against a white background. !radiation is considered to be physiological phenomenon met
frequently in neurology.
Fields of different colours whose breadth is geometrically equal may, at times, be perceived
as having different breadths.
77
When the widths of red, white and blue are
all equal, the blue band looked wider than
the red one.
When blue band became bigger geometric
ally, when seen fron afar, RWB seems to
be all the same breadth.
The iradiation effect-the white figure looks larger in size than the black one. They are
geometrically equal.
78
80
THE PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITION
Architecture has the same basic principles which are common to painting, sculpture, music
and literature. It deals with unity, balance, rhythm, and composition. It is organized around a
central plot, as in a novel. It has design, as has a sonata. It can be rhythmic as the dance. A
painting has contrast of color, and a fine piece of sculpture has beauty of form and line.
Good architecture attains pleasing composition through the relation of contrasting masses
and tones.
It is difficult to isolate a singl e quality and consider it alone. A synthesis of all the principles is
necessary in order to insure a unified and satisfactory composition, but for the sake of
study, it will be to analyze separately these qualities and their application to archi-
tectural problems. Mere recognition of these principles does not, however, insure a success-
ful design. An individual may be a good critic but still be unable to write a poem, paint a
landscape, or design a building.
Creative ability, in addition to a knowledge of application of the elements of design, is neces-
sary for the production of distinguished results. Ability to discern between what is fine and
what is mediocre that quality which we call TASTE-must be developed.
GOOD TASTE is that discerning judgment which one exercises in connection with the bet-
ter things of life. Good taste steers an individual through the seas of social adjustments and
aesthetic decisions. It enables him to choose correctly in accordance with cultural or artistic
standards. Popular taste, however, is so often a matter concerned with group action and
changes so with the times, that it is not a reliable guide. Taste must, therefore, be based
upon a knowledge of the rules of proper conduct with respect to our actions and of the prin-
ciples of good composition in regard to our artistic endeavors. Good taste and creative abili-
ty together should produce buildings which merit the name architecture.
HOW GOOD IS YOUR TASTE7
by Maitland Graves
To determine to what degree you are gifted with good taste, study each pair carefully and
check the one, A or B that appeals to you as more unified, better balanced, more satisfying.
In each pair, one design is definitely more unified, better balanced or more interesting than
the other.
if you get 12 - you possess extraordinarily good taste ranking with professional
painters, interior decorators, commercial designers.
if you get 9 to 11 - this indicate superior taste, occasionally you make errors, but usually
you choose pleasing designs and colors.
if you get 7 to 8 - this indicate taste above average.
less than 7 correct - you will do well to listen to expert advise when buying clothes or de-
Answers on page 500 corating interiors.
(devised by Art authority, Maitland Graves)
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. . ....
I A 1-8

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2 -A
3-A
4 -A

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81

10-A
82
7-A
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12-A
12-B
14-A
Answers on page 500.
HOW ARTISTIC ARE YOU?
by M11itland Graves
I
13- A
13-B
14-B
Here is a test that may help you find out just how artistic you really are. On these pages are
eight pairs of designs; they are not intended to depict or represent anything or look like any
familiar object.
Study each pair as long as you wish and check the one, A or B. that you consider be the bet
ter design.
If all selections correct - you should have faith in your taste or innate artistic sense, how-
ever, there is a great difference between appreciati ng art and
creating art. In addition to appreciation, the creation of fine art
requires talent, study, training and indefatigable effort.
if 6 or 7 for a man - you have no hesitation in choosing your own neckties and shirts
no matter how loud you like them, or in selecting gifts.
for a woman - regardless of what the children say, paint the room any color you
like or buy any ki nd of hat .
if only 4 right - study up a bit on the elements of art - color harmony, unified
and balanced design.
83
1- A
1- B
2-A
2-B
~ . .. : .. : ......
: ... .. ; : =
. . .. .... .
I
....
3-A
3-B
Lt-A
4-B
5- A
5-B
84
G- A
6-8
~
7-A
8- A
.
.
' .
7-B
8-B
The following di scussions is concerned with the application of the BASIC principles of
composition to space - enclosing elements.
DIMENSION
GRAVITATIONAL
CURVES
HIERARCHY
I. CONTRAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . variety
II. PROPORTION . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . relationships
Ill. SCALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . size, magnitude
IV. BALANCE
equilibrium
V. RHYTHM .. .. . .. . ... .......... .. .... repetition
VI. UNITY .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. harmony
VII. CHARACTER .. .. . .. .. . .... .. .. . .. expressiveness
85
86
CONTRAST ............. .. variety
Our physical impressions are made possible through contrast. We can hear because of the
contrast between silence and sound, because of the difference between the lengths of the
sound We can feel because of the contrast between the quality of objects. The
nerves in our finger tips tells us that some things are cold and smooth whereas others are
warm and rough. We can see a building because of the contrast in the shapes and textures
of the surfaces which enclose space to make architecture.
Not only is it possible for us to see a building through the element of contrast but also the
building is given beauty and interest by t he difference between the types of treatment which
are introduced. It is essential that certain areas, directions, and colors vary or differ from
others so that by contrast the qualities of each are emphasized. It is t hrough contrast that we
secure proper scale, proportion, and unity and consequently, a satisfactory design.
TYPICAL CONTRAST:
1. CONTRAST OF FORM
shape
mass
2. CONTRAST OF LINE
direction
type
3. CONTRAST OF SIZE
4. CONTRAST OF TONE
1. CONTRAST OF FORM
In order for a shape to be interesting there must be variety or contrast . Square and
circular areas may create a diversified interest.
If form is more properly conceived in three dimensions, the architectural result is
mass If bulks are combined, it is possible that the resulting
composttton may be rnterestmg and satisfying.
an arc11 "pleasing
cot1trast tq t11e opet1ir1g
on eri11er Side.
T\"!0 DIMENSIONAL
mass of the lower p3rt of
tne baEe COI1trasts with
i11e elongated Heck
i11e ivi.J..r of the tuildthg giveE
variety i11 tf1e arraygement of t11e
parts.
2. CONTRAST OF LJNE
z
curved
Lines may vary with reference to direction. It is possible to have a horizontal line op-
posing a vertical or diagonal lines may form a composition.
01 RECTIONAL
A line may also offer contrast on account of its change in type or character. It may be
curved or straight, regular or irregular, broken, or continuous.
In an architectural example, contrast of type of line gives an interesting contour or
silhouette to a building.
I
straight
/VV'NVvV\!V



broken
CQtf(tl\OlS
3. CONTRAST OF SIZE
Deals with objects which may have the same shape and direction but may vary in
size. If this change in size is gradual and uniform, the result is called gradation.
87
88
In the architectural example below, the rectangular windows and door contrast with
each other in the matter of size.
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4. CONTRAST OF TONE
Tone may be secured by contrast of texture, openings, or planes.
The exterior of the building is given interest on account of the contrast between the
dark roof and the light walls. This feeling is strenghtened by the introduction of the
darks of the openings and by the shadows cast by the projecting wings of the build-
ing. Contrast of tone is secured in the examples below of abstract design, by the use
of black and white, or gray and white, areas.
COMBINATIONS ... . .. .
An architectural composition is presented which illustrates in a combined way some of the
various types ot contrast. There is, first of all, contrast of mass - not only with references
to whether it is cylindrical or rectangular , but also wi th reference to the direction of the mass
or volume. The entire composition is decidedly horizontal ; but variety is secured by the ver-
tical direction of the tower, of the end wings, and the chi mneys. Contrast of shape is also
present in the rectangular and arched openings of the building, and contrast of tone is
secured by the darks and lights of the roots, walls, and windows.
CONTRAST is the opposite of SIMILARITY. If similarity exists to a marked degree, the ef-
fect is monotony. The facade of a building may consist of a si mple, unadorned wall pierced
with many uninteresting windows, and the effect may be very monotonous. On the other
hand, it is--possible to go to the other extreme and to have contrast which is too violent. Pi -
laster, belt courses, and decoration may be used too profusely. The resul t will.be a restless
disorganized design which lacks repose. It is thus, necessary that contrast be present in and
just the correct amount: enough to give variety but not an excess; which will cause confu-
sion.
89

CONTRAST IN ARCHITECTURAL SUBJECT:
1. CONTRAST OF MASS
D0tt1it1at1t element
volu111e
,Tower
This figure show an interesting combination of rectangular masses based upon con-
temporary practice. Here there is contrast of vertical and horizontal volumes giving a
composition in abstract form which becomes capable of housing human interests
through the introduction of windows, doors, and floor levels. A pleasing composi-
tion is secured chiefly by the relationship which exists between the various block-like
units of the buildings and by the disposition of the windows which give interest to
the surfaces of the masses.
In this figure, attention should be called to the manner in which the eye is carried
along to the tower by means of a series of minor vertical units which prepare one for
the climax of the dominant element near the centre. Consideration should also be
given to the horizontal treatment of the windows on the left, which emphasizes the
direction of that portion of the building and opposes the vertical feeling of the forms
near the main entrances.
It is well to remember that contrast is opposition. If verticals did not oppose horizon-
tals, if openings did not differ from wall, and if accents did not successfully compete
for the interest of the observer, contrast would not exist.
There is also here a transition in the relationship between masses. This situation is
shown where the adjacent volumes prepare the observer for the dominant vertical
near the centre of the composition.
2. CONTRAST OF DIRECTION
Here again is an interesting contrast between the horizontal direction of the compo-
sition and the dominant vertical accent of the tower, which is called the major con-
trasting element, while a minor vertical is to be seen at the left. The termination of
the tower gives additional emphasis and contrast to that part of the structure.
There is also present in this connection contrast of tone, which is seen in the deco-
rative treatment of the upper and lower portions of the tower. Interest in other parts
of the facade is secured by the contrast of the windows with the wall surfaces. In the
wing at the right, the upper windows are pointed and are larger than the rectangular
ones below, while at the left the arched openings with balconies are surrounded by
large areas of wall space which again give variety and contrast.
of wiHdJW a11d wall
of Tun:;jliiti&ii:il
Minor vertr'cal
It is also necessary that the various units in plan should vary in size and projection in
order that a monotonous exterior effect may be avoided. The different elements
must be wide or narrow. long or short. so that some may be more important than
others. In addition, there should be a variation in the projections of the various parts
of the plan, in order that the proper emphasis may be secured.
3. CONTRAST OF CHARACTER
DOME7iiC
liar eKtr.attc.e
wmdow;
The church and the parish house must be similar in general feeling, but the use of the
various architectural details must express the different function of each particular
structure. The church must have ecclesiastical character and the parish house must
harmonize with the former, but not to such an extent that it might be mistaken for a
place of worship. This calls for a subtle balance of contrast and similarity- the con-
trast of character.
Here the spire of the church which we associate with ecclesiasti cal buildings gives a
suggestion of function, and the import ant entrance indicates the public character of
the structure. The house has smaller windows than the church, their size being regu-
lated by the interior which they are to light. Tt,e shutters and chimneys impart a
touch of domesticity and intimacy which would not be desirabl e in the church and
which is lacking therein. Contrast of direction is also present . The church is vertical,
whereas the parish house is horizontal. Contrast of size is evident - the large church
over the smaller dwelling.
91
4. CONTRAST OF TREATMENT
a. same material used in different treatment
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This face is based upon old Persian brickwork
and shows contrast of tone secured by the al-
ternating pattems of brick and stone. Ac-
cents are also obtained by the change in di-
rection of the voussoirs of the lower arches.
92
In this drawing, there is found contrast based, not
on direction or mass, but upon the handling of the
various surface. Interest is secured by changing the
character of the treatment of the upper and lower
portion of the facade. The rustication of the lower
fl oor is heavy in character and horizontal in direc-
tion_ The treatment of the upper floors is more re-
fined in its use of detail, and a vertical feeling is se-
cured by the use of columns and pilasters. The arch
entrance also offers the quality of variety when
used with the rectangular door and windows, while
contrast or opposition is secured by the upward
thrust of the columns against the inert weight of
the entablature.
b. contrast of pattern different materials
rs
c. contrast of area
The general direction of the building is horizontal, but the treatment of the exterior is given
variety by the introduction of vertical piers. In the roof, the lines of the tile oppose the horizon-
tal direction of the roof itself. A satisfactory contrasting relation exists between the width of
the windows and that of the piers. The piers are wider than the windows and provide for dissi-
milarity of surface, or an interesting proportion of parts.
It is evident that contrast result from dissimilarity, or the association of unlike masses, areas
or tones. Contrast is also opposition -opposition by which one element wages a successful
battle against competing elements. One shape or color clearly dominates the others. This con-
dition may also be called emphasis, but this emphasis must be present in just the proper
amount. If a doorway, a window, or a panel seems to detach itself from the wall or appears
to be unrelated to the rest of the composition, it may be too emphatic in its appeal. The ele-
ment of contrast is too strong.
There is not a satisfactory transition between the surrounding wall surface and the dominant
architectural motif. Therefore, although contrast is essential to a unified composition, transi-
tion shoul d always tend to alleviate the burden imposed by excessive and sudden changes in
treatment. Mouldings and decorative details should have structural or circulatory elements,
and belt courses, cornices, and quoins should help one surface to member gracefully wit h
the next and assist in tying t he entire arrangement together in a pleasing and interesting
manner.
93
PROPORTION . ..


relationships
94
PROPORTION
Proportion is largely a matter of relationships. It is evident by a comparison which the eye
makes between the size, shape, and tone of various objects or parts of a composition. These
are certain geometrical forms which have very definite proportions. These are the:
circle, Triangle and the square
The eye judge them quickly and classifies them with no difficultly.
Just as a circle is more evident and less intriguing than a freehand curve, so is a square less
interesting t han a rectangle. However a rectangle should very definitely take on the propor-
tions of that particular shape. It should not approach a square in its dimensions, because a
state of doubt will exist in the mind of the observer as to its classifi cation.
l
DRECTANGLE
too short
too long
The eye will be unable to decide whether it is a square or a rectangle. On the other hand of
the roctangle becomes too long, it approaches the area of two squares, and there is an un-
conscious tendency for the eye to divide it into two equal space. Thus there is competition
b ~ t w e e n the two parts. To get the most pleasing rectangular porportion. The golden section
or (Goden mean} was introduced.
THE GOLDEN SECTION
Defined geometrically as a line that is divided such that the lesser portion is to the greater as
the greater is to be the whole.
~
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. "
a square first t ake t l1e center then take the diapna!
of t he half square .
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....., &.
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11ext trat1sfer the diagonal
to the 11orizontal or construct
811 arc.
to check:
. v square
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A
a B
a
-c
draw a vertical line , tl1is is
11ow The Golden Mean Recfcmgle
<f. ,
1
/ ;;.quare
.' 'v'
the over all diagonal i9 90 irJ the
Ylew diagonal. This IS called
INCLUSIVE .
this 15 Exclusive
95
96
SOME PRINCIPLES OF PROPORTION USED
IN CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE
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Tl1e Equilateral
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The equilateral triangle, or one with equal sides and angles, has long been accepted as a
form with good proportions. It is static and stable. It's centre of gravity is low, and it tapers
in a regular manner from the base of the composition. a triangular arrangement in a painting,
in a sculptural group, or in an architectural massing offers a satisfactory disposition of parts.
It goes so far in insuring good results that the privelege of using it has been abused, and it is
regarded as the easiest way out of a difficult situation.
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Gotf1i c wi11dOW using Equilateral Triangle
If the f acade of a buidling is developed in such a manner that areas of si milar shaped are
repeated through the composition it may lead to a unity of treatment. A sense of harmony
will be the results of use is made of a rythmic repetition of moti fs whi ch have a common geo
met ric shape as a base.
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classical zmd re11aissa11ce buildit1gs snow
that a;cl1ed at1d rectat1gular openit1gs arB
iwo diameters
97
98
Classical and renaissance buildings show that arched and rectangular opening are two dia-
meters high.
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The Circle
----
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Circie and Sguare
The ci rcle and square have been found to possess certain properties which recommend
them as a base upon which to begin a design. See figure above. It will be noticed that the
diagonals pass through important parts in the composition.
RELATIONS:
One of the most important phases of proportion and one which should be considered in the
development of a facade is the relat ion of the solids to the voids, of the wall surfaces to the
openings. It is necessary that one clearly dominate the other that the element of a contrast
will be present. If there is a similarity between the width of the windc;,ws and the spaces bet-
ween, indecision or competition will exist.
In classical , Romanesque, and Renaissance buildings, where heavy stone constructi on pre-
dominates. The windows and doors usuall y occupy a minor portion of the facade and the
wall surfaces are quite dominant.
When the Gothic builders learned the art and science of transmitting t he thrust or weight of
the vaults to isolated buttresses. the walls of the cathedrais became unimportant. Large areas
of stained glass took the place of these walls, and regularly spaced piers carried the load of
the roof and vaul ts.
In contemporary architecture, the cantil ever of concrete and steel f rees the designer from
many restrictions of masonry and construction and there is a tendency to use openings free-
ly.
This 15 a
Thts IS a more.
c..ommon
.

99

100
Example of Lack of correct proportiol1
too high
same dista11ce c
more it1teresti11g relatiot1 t?etweett ? o l i d ~ artd v o i d ~
'
a
bigger
lower
==;=. Grnaller
Proportions May be Based on the Following Factors:
1. Natural Material Proportions
All building materials in architecture have distinct properties of stiffness, hardness
and durability. And they all have an ultimate strength beyond which they cannot ex-
tend themselves without fracturing, breaking or coll apsing .
stone used aG a ftx* bridge
.... _
---
when oig artd lot1g iltis stone
will ul1der- it9 owt1
weight.


""'-...... .,. .... .,.
-- ,...,-
____
wad plank

c
when lortg will Saj
t
)
All materials have rational proportions
that are dictated by their inherent
strengths and weakness. Masonry
units like brick, are strong m compres-
sion and depend on their mass for
strength, and are volumetric in form
logs are also volumetric in element and
is used in log cabin construction.
Wood is flexible and is used as beams
and posts steel are strong both in com
pression and tension.
101
/
/"-- -
~ ........ /
. - , ~
Hollow blocks IS statt:iard i11
.size;; of .10 x. zo x -40 ( 4''xe'')( 1a,")
at1d . 15 X .zo X.40 ( t/' X 8" ~ " )
102
2. Manufactured Porportions
Many architectural elements are sized
and proportioned not only according
to their structural properties and func-
tion, but also by the process through
which they are manufactured. Be-
cause these elements are mass-
- produced in factories, they have
standard sizes and proportions im-
posed on them by the individual manu-
factures.
While plywood is common in 1.20 .!C
2.40 or 4' x 8' so that the spacing of
wood nailers are fitted into this sizes.
1.20 L .eo
.!+
tJ
siael
woodet1 P'5t
po5t bigger
T
:@

Iaiiy column
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-
0 oo
bigger co/umHs
OH f1igher
w
COHcrete
.?ma/ler columns
OH tower
deptk iG
alwayG bigger
them widtk
.()5
woo:ijoist
Doors and window units are sized and
proportioned to fit into modular ma-
sonry openings.
3. Mode of Construction or Structural
Proportions
The size and proportions of structural
elements such as beams, columns, are
directly related to the structural tasks
they perform and can be, therefore;
visual indicators of the size and scale
of the spaces they help enClose.
Since beams transmit their loads nori-
zontally across space to their vertical
supports, its depth, therefore is the
critical dimension. and its depth to
span ratio, is a good indicator of its
structural role.
The proportion of a column may de-
pend upon the spacing or its height.
103
The proportion of a truss may depend
upon its type.
CHB w a l l ~ are tHicker tha11 reil1forced
concrete wafl.
I
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~ -
.... --
.-""'
104
It
4. Requirements of the Program, Function or Govern-
ment Ordinances
Lobby

a. The proportion of the height of a room is controlled by
local building ordinances, logic and artistic sense.
b. Auditorium proportions are influenced by visual and
acoustical considerations.
.... .-.,

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e diameter
l
0
classical order
higher heigHt o( door
c. Proportions between heights and areas of rooms are
controlled by the capacity and lighting requirements of
the room.
5. Traditions and Generally A ccepted Taste
a. At the exterior, the height of an edifice should be in
proportion to the character th;H the edifice demanc1s.
b. Buildings of worship such as : hurches and temples
usually have traditional proportions.
c. Classical buildings usually have proportions based
upon traditional rules.
h i g ~ e r height
of ceili11g
105
WliotE
DOOR
WHOLE
~ P A R T
106
WHOLE'
Distinction between 'Relative' and 'Ab-
solute' Proportion.
i i
P A R T ~
WINDOW
1. Relative Proportion -deals with the re
lationship between the parts of an object
and the whole e)(ample ratro between the
diameter of a Classical col umn and its
height or the relation of the panels of the
door and the whole door.
WKOL.E
2. Absolute - deals with the relationship
between the different parts of an object
or the whole to the various parts.
Example-ratio between the sizes of
H WHOLE windows and the blank walls.
Proportion of a cabinet or appliance to
the room.
PLYWOOD
RJ
t---
The ' KEN' modular grid is a Japanese
way of proportioning the size of rooms
where one MAT is 3.15 x 6.30 or 1 x 2 ken
in Kyo-man method. The standard Tata-
cni floor mat is 3 x 6 shaku or 1/ 2 x 1 1<en
This uses 6 shaku = 1 ken gri d in the
lnaka-Ma Method.
0
MAT TILE
Proportions of Room Designs by Using
the KEN METHOD (Applicable in Mat,
Tiles or Standard Plywood Sizes).
ITO
3 - Mat Room
4 - Mat Room
4 ~
1
/2 Mat Room
6- Mat Room
107
108
l
8- Mat Room
10- Mat Room
ANTHROPOMORPHIC PROPORTIONS
1--
I
l
r---
These systems are based on the dimensions and proportions of the human body. Anthropo-
morphic proportioning methods seek not abstract or symbolic rat ios, but functional ones.
They are predicated on the theory that forms and spaces in archite<:ture are either containers
or extensions of the human body and should, therefore, be determined by its dimensions.
The dimensions and proportions of the human body affect the proportion of things we
handle, the height and distance of things we must reach, the dimensions of the furniture we
use to sitting, working, eating, and sleeping.
In addition to these elements that we used in a building, the dimensions of the human body
also affect the volume of space we require for movement. activity and rest.
Le Corbusier.S ' MODULOR '' . . . . . . . osrng the Goldett Se:tiot1
In 1942 , Le corbUs,er begat1 his study and publis11ed the ' Modular "
a Harmo11ious Measure iD the 11umaM scale u11ivers21lly applicable
+o Architecture at1d Mecha11.1CS. He tkerefore t:ased his measuri11g
-tool , the Modt.Jior. or both mathematics (The aesthetic di111e11siotts
of tHe 6oldet1 Sectiot1 a11d the Fitx:mace1 Series ) .. and the pruFXJrtiol1s
Of tl1e f1uma11 oody ( FU11ctiot1al dimel15i011S ). These sysiEm of
meDsurement governs leHgtl1, surfaces. at1d volumes , a11d '' Mairrtai11
-the huma11 scz:tle everywhere ." It coo!d lend itself to a11 infj11ity of


First step
con5truct a square
5ecot1d step
take the ce111ter
a11d draw a diago11al
The ooldet1
Section
(perfect rec
.
Third step
1ransfer tl1e diagonal
to the b:15e
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temgle)

[
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Fourth step
complete the rectat1gie
-70
Note: This is a formull! using 1-93m Fi ft11 step : from the center
or average Height of a per5011 line draw a 90Jit1e
for any neigl1t Of a use his
"avel 11eigl1t to s-tart tt1e sqJare.
109
0
110
2.26 -1.83= .4'5
1.83 - 1.40 : .43
1.40 -1.13 =.2.7
1.1'3 - .96::.27
.80 -.70:::.16
. 70 - .54 = .16
. 54 -.4'5:: .II
. 4'?> - .1'>2::; .II
. '32 - .27= .OS
.2.7 - . 2 2 ~ .OS
--- - ---
.22 - .19: .03
_ __ I ~ J ~ =. 0'3
The " MODU LOR " ( le corbus1ers)
. 16 +.II : .'27
.27t.l6 =--43
.4'3 t.'Z7::. .70
.?ot.\6 =-.86
OO+.'Z7"' 1.1:3
1./3 tzr: r.-.o
1.40 t .27 t .16:: I. 93
I. 83 t .4'?l -:?28
BASED ON
1.11:5 HEIGHT

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ANTHROPOMETRJCS (Human Dimensicwr)
"IFURNICUBe" A Formula Discovered by tHe Auttlor as based from
Le corbuslers MODULOR
a height of any il1 Meter-5 divided by Ho. 7.8'5
will give tl1e of +11e 11ead or H.
111

SAL VANS FURN ICUBE ......... .. using Head Dimet1sio11
(as resed on Le corbusiers MODULOR)
This autl1or coi.-1ed tHe word Fur11icube from " a11d cube. which
is formed by perfect squares. The .9Jidet1 sectio11 is based 011 SQUARE.
As the modulor uses LS3 ( r!eight of a pgrso11, mostly all
furl1iture it1 tke market is ba6ed 011 th.,s standards. 1l1e author deems
it nece5sary tnen io 5eek a For-mula 1o produce a com fortatJie HEIGHTS
for a11 irtdividual person, from midget to gia11t5. attd t1ot nece55arily t:>e
forced io use 'Hte staHdard nelghts fbr 6 Footers.
After a serie5 of mathematical co11versio11s, trials at1d measurementG.
It is found out that huma11 is composed of 7.85 t imes hi511ead srze.
At1d so iu get your f1ead aime11sior1, measure your height it1
meters next divide your height by 7.8'5 this will give your head si1B
or"H:" by usi11q tl1e table below, multi ply your H'' witl1 tHe
fOrmula givet1 for eacl1 Fur11iture de5ired this is your most comfortable
11eigl1ts.
I HEIGHTSOF!NDIVIDUAL
J 6'-6'-' l6'-o'' s'-e" Is'- 6''
l I
1
.. - . f.72M p.67M 1.62M_ l.SZM 1.42M
Comfortable r-- SIZE or' H" itt meter
Heights Formula 0.252 0.233 0.219 0.213 0.200 0.193 Q.IM
- - .--1- - t--- - - . --!--
' Foot stool i o.70{H) DIS 0-16 0.15 o.1s 0.14 0.13 0.12
1
low I 1. 158 (H) .. :o 29 <J25 o .24 o 23 o. 22 0.20
1
Bedattcfckair- - 1. ss (H) --- - o 46 o.43 o.40 o.::e o.ze o.:;s a.:;;
table--- _3 .. (H) - -. 0.7? '?-70 !0.6S . .a.s7 0.54
Office table 3.1S(H) .0.79 o.733!0.69 o.67 o.04 o.ro
Coffee taole .. j__ - ro.54 047- OAS. 0.44
. c.art:J-fable : 2.95(H) 71 0.66 0.62 OW 0-=8 0.'::5
yar .. _3.!0(H} ---==-- 0.90 o.e1 0.78 0.70 o.2!_
; Bar stool 2.53fH) 0.64 o.sg o.ss o.s3 0.43 0.45
1--- -- - - +-- ......:,...-::---- -- . r- - +---t-- -+--=->'---=.-t---i
lavaiory --- 3.22(H) 0.91 .0.75 0.70 O.GB O.f.G jO.ef 0/57
Kitchef1 cabinet - -3.8S1H) 0.97 0.90 o.84 0.82 0.73 0.74 0.09
Railit1 - --- -- . - 3.-io(H) 0.93 0.86 0.91 0.78 O.?fi> 0.11
Shoulder- 4.Ss (H) 1.22 l.f3 l.cxo 1.03 o.gg 0.93 o.B7
Anttpit ___ . 6.0(H) 1.51 1.40 1.31 lt.z71.23iJ.J5 lOS
Height of persot1 7.8S(H) 1.98 1.83 I.B:J l!iJ7 1.61 LSI 1.41
-
Vertical
1
9.70(H) 244 2.26 2.12 1.99 !.97 1.74 ,
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A recta11gie wl1ose ide.5 are proportionoo
accordi11g to the 6oJde11 k11owt1 .?JG a
Go!de11 rectangle
', d-1 ' , d- .2 2
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',, ',, draw a diagonal d-1
........ '
", ', at1d d-2 to
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FOit1t o. tHe itttef13eeti011
of dl witl1 tke vertical
d1 d2. d3 edge of tl1e is
I point 1 . draw a
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: horizontal line to
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114
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ihe p?itrt 2 draw a
vertical line.
2
from 1, draw a horizontal li11e to
at point 2. from PJittt 2.con5truct a vertical line
1o at ?Jil1t c<Jt145truct a horizontal
10 it1ter5eet at poitrt -'f, from p:?il1t 4- , a
115
116
as diagonal c. repeat tne u11til you create a
of 6q{JareG getti119 smaller proporti011ate!y
;
frott1 this ?quare draw the goldet1 5a:;tiol1 io give ?Ji11tC
A B C D E F GH
1. witl1 8 at a a11d AS as the radiu5,
a semi- circle to give tl1e p:>il1t D.
2. with C aG a ce11ter a11d BC aG tne radius, conEtruct
a semi- circle io give tHe poi11t E.
3. witl1 D as a ce11ter a11d CD tne radius, c011struct
a semi - circle to give tHe poi11t F, at1d 01'1
AB:: BC +CD
BC =CD t DE
DE t EF
DE= EF t FG
EF = FG + 6H
FG = GH t HI
GH = HI + IJ
PROPORTIONING StST&MS
cp beyOHd tke fuHctiOf1a/ attd technical determit1aHts oF
z:m:;J-trtec,tural form at1d 5pace io pruvide at1 ailCPthetJC, rcrl'io11i3le
for iiieir They am uHi fY tke mul tiplic.lty
of in 8rf architectural deGign l?y navirtg arl of it.G part;
belottg to #1e family of prq:xJrtioHG.
They caH provide a of order i11, at1d heignte11 the
COt1tinuity of a s-equet1ce of They caH efabf
refatio11ships t:Jet"\M9en -Hie extericr at1d inrenor elemeHts of a
buildil1q.
r--------------- -----------------------
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D'fNAMIC AND HARMONIC SERIES
a. DYNAMIC RECTANGLES- Wk811 GP atd AP are combit1ed ro
cot1ceive a myria::i They cat1 comtJit18d to
117
118
sit 0t1e a top tHe attfer, tkey ca11 be so
that 0t1e diverges tke other cotfYerge:;. They can
alternate at1d they cart . A cammot1 difr!u1:mce
or rafu cat1 be programmed oo that it i5 no longer carrmon, or
eot1$ta11t, but at1 AP or 6P it1 rts OWM rigtft:
Exampte 1
fr()tf a 1, Y2 of tke diago11al ig tke widtn cf -tHe 11ext
square 2. Then Y2 of -Hie diag1Hal of 2 will the
widtH of tke next 3 and t;O ott


square-2.
b. SQUARE SYSTEM
square-1
a square of side 1 kas a dia_gonal let1gff1 = ji
-two para /lei sides cf the are extended
il1definitely. Rota+i0t1 of diagot1al$
formG a dyttattnc GerieG of rect311gles
front a datum.
C. This dyHamic , projected itt two eJ
witH of .... $quare
5ubdivisiot1
Office
Manager

r
Toilet-
1
t.
T
L
... Security office
L
"'t
,J
5ecunty
is the fir5t diagottal with o as i+fs ceHter draw at1 arc uM+il it
the diaQQ1al 1 with 1tte iJ1tersectiol1 draw a horizontal litte.
COmpleting tke Gecmd usi11g tHe -tke diag::Jtfal d-z draw c3f
an:: till it readteG line e at1d complete o witk tke
of 3 as draw a11 an: till rt diag:mal complete
ttte GqUal!' .
D AI tert1atit1g <md rotatiotf, to t11e x attd y
produce:; a1 1t1term1 ttef1t of dyt1amic
1?earra11gement t7.rittg5 tke of energy to c.eHtre of
pattern.
119
/
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I
rotatiHg ect;/1 diaq;nal itfe rtext quadrant pnxtuetJS a
g Gerit* of dy11arnrc.
g
+
1
5
7
3
z
6
e. Diago11al $y#em giviHg a dimi11ishing 9radation of tl1e
'7GUARE
120
A ftom a regular pentagott.
-ceilil1
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floor
0
121
122
a vertical liHe am be divided to equal (or example into 10
by a diagol1.31 equaling 10, ju5t con;truct a
horizontal line. is done for of
parallel will make the equ:al /CMger but agaiH i11 equal
i5 c.31lea AritHmetic or AP. The oF
numl/er7 l.i?,3,4,S,G.7.8.9,IO IG art AP witk of1 and a
commort differeYice of
II
At1 AP tJy il1tere?t. It-s rate of
t11ro0311out the 5erie;;. AP for ae7111etic a11d
ecettomy i11 the duplildtion of moaule7 frum their
t imber?, COl'lcrete forrnwork etc. Arithmetic mean tht Wtal
?Um divided by 2, therefore ?.7 and .3= E -= IS the aritHmetic
mean and thu5 AP 1s, at1d 27
2
111e arc diviMd into (more or equal an4
tne to 1oucl1 tne vertical line, It will
prOOllce a proFtJrtianate diStance;; -so that tHe 11igher
portiat1 IS biggsr- ifa1 tfte lower portiOH. t:>y -Hte
Greeks wnere1n +he ItT tke Higl1er fOr are bigger
fJ(J that it appear? t1te when from below.
NATURE tends 1n grow oy compound interest or 6eometric
Progression or GP. lt explai11ed as a
-GaY frot11 1 I t I = Z
at.go from 1
2i2:"4
4+4 =a

ICP t l(j: 7J2
3Z al1d fortff


9
27 9l
01 ')C' ..- at't:t [t>rtk
z

18 X 3:: _?f
$4 Jf>Z.

mul+ipliarti0t1
A GP c.att t:7e produced frvm an AP by from a p:1i11t. tke angle
the AP at1d GP at1d -H18 of 1ke (l'int contn:JI
1118 c.ommon ratio in the 6P
123
Whirling triangles
Whirling triangle help our understanding of spirals.
Considering similar triangles, programmed so that the longest side of
one triangle becomes the shortest side of the next, they subtend
similar angles at the origin, the centre of rotation.
The whirling equilateral triangle is the simplest, completing a regular
hexagon in one revolution.
In any two similar triangles, the ratio of areas equals the square of the
ratios of corresponding sides. Therefore, when whirling a 3, 4, 5
triangle, the correspondidng sides of adjacent triangles are in ratio of
5:3. Their areas are in ration of 25:9.
Whirling a right angled triangle so that the medium side of one
becomes the shortest side of the next produces a spiral sitting neatly
on the x andy axes.
A whirling isosceles triangle generates a
logarithmic spiral. An approx.imation is
described by using circular arcs, triangle by
triangle.
124
SCALE ........... size
~
Scale is a fixed proportion used in determining measurements and dimensions.
Scale has reference to proportions which are good for humans. Scale deals with the relation
of architectural motifs, such as doors, windows or mouldings, to each other and the human
figure. Architecture must be adapted to human needs. Doors should be large enough to
walk through in comfort but not so gigantic that they require an almost impossible physical
effort to close them.
Steps should be of such a size as to permit easy ascent and descent. Ceiling heights must be
properly proportioned to the size and function of the room. In order to prevent one from fall-
ing from one level to the next, a balustrade should be related to the human figure in such a
way that safety is secured. Thus, design is a matter of the adjustment of architectural ele-
ments to meet the needs of the human race, and proper scale should be present when this
adaptation is made.
While proportion refers to the mathematical relationships among the real dimensions of a
form or space, scale refers to how we perceive the size of a building element or space rela-
tive to other forms. In visually measuring the size of an element we tend to use other ele-
ments of known-size in their context as measuring devices. These are known as scale-giving
elements, and tall into two general categories.
a. building elements whose size and characteristics are familiar to us through experi-
ence like doors, windows, tables, chairs, stairs, etc.
b. human figure.
In architecture, therefore, we are concerned with two types of scale:
1. GENERIC SCALE- the size of a building element relative to other forms in its context;
(three windows indicate three stories, the small window indicate a small room
inside).
[[[]
~
110 scale
-

~ ......__
-
125
2. HUMAN SCALE- the size of a building element or space relative to the dimensions and
proportionl) of the human body.
In this figure, there is an area which represents the facade of a building but it has no
scale. There are no details of any kind which might tell whether the building is thirty or
one hundred fifty meters long. The structure lacks doors, windows. and steps-all of
those elements which might give some hint as to its size-the human element is
missing, the figure of a man.
,n)
lli
a orte s t o r e y buildil1g
a model of a building
a two- storey !Mldittg
126
In the above figures, a man has been introduced and immediately we are in a posi-
tion to estimate the size of the structure,whether it is a one or a two storey building.
Scale is thereby established.
1111
II II
II II
One must always remember that a small building must necessarily contain few win-
dows, but t hat of a large structure may have many openings. The above figures
show how the number of doors and windows give a definite clue to the comprative
sizes of the other . If the top figure is about 15 meters long then the figure below
is about 30 meters long.
Correct scale is then to bring all parts of the building and landscape into proper rela
tion with each other. The various elements should be correctly related to human
uses. A door should be of such a size that they may be entered without fear of dis-
comfort. While, the windows should have a better relationship to the floor levels,
wall areas and functions of the interior.
Factors that effect SCALE:
1. Normal requirements of human beings.
s1ze of doors
height of
window sill
Oi
height of stair risers
a11d S.ze of stair
127
128
2. Sizes of fami liar materials and those of nature. Example, the size of bricks or hol-
low blocks which is usually 0.20 height and 0.40 length or the common plywood
which is four feet (1.20 m} wide and eight feet long (2.40 m).
0
f
() ~
Normal
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E
~
()
6ft.
tl/
1.som.
0
C)
io
3. Beauty or appearance.
Scale is so subtle that it affects even the smallest things that its mastery
must be acquired through cultivation of good taste and an instinct for har-
mony in Archi tecture.
4. Character
whether it is monumental, residential, rustic or formal.
5. Functi on or purpose
usually, classroom areas or theatre areas affect the design of a room.
6. Location or visual distance
mouldings, bas reliefs and statues outside the building should be bigger than
that is viewed from the inside.
- ----m{
7. Economics
depends upon the budget of the owner. A limited budget will provide a
smaller building, a lower ceiling height.
A building maybe in proper scale but is entirely out of proportion. Proportions are
only referrable to one another, and therefore, a building may have good proportions
and yet be enti rely out of scale or vise versa.
Ex. A well-proportioned door for a residence may be out of scale
for" a huge cathedral.
SCALE TYPES
SCALAR SEQUENCE
Simple A'ug"ession
Prsparati<M - Surprise
COifstriction --Relief
129
BALANCE and
GRAVITATIONAL CURVES
Gravitational-natural tendency toward some point or object of influence. The gravitation
of people towards suburbs.
BALANCE or equalization ......... equilibrium
130
In the temperate zone, the climatic changes tend to balance each other. However, nature is
variable. If there is marked lack of rain, a drought results. If there are too many people for the
food supply, there is famine. The proper balance between supply and demand has not been
maintained. A person should also have a balanced diet in order not to be thin or stout or get
sick. Furthermore, the books of accounts of an office or business establishment is balanced
so as to have a clear view of the assets and li abilities.
If balance does not exist, there must necessarily be lack of balance or inequality. Balance is
equality. It is composition. It is the foundation upon which arrangement, harmony and
adjustment of weights, tones, values, etc. are developed. Proper balance satisfies the eye
with reference to the relative importance of the various parts of the desig'1.
AXIS
The most elementary means of organizing forms and spaces in architecture. It is a line estab-
lished by two points in space and about which forms and spaces can be arranged in a regular
or irregular manner.
Although imaginary and not visible, an axis is a powerful, dominating, regulating device.
Although it implies symmetry. It demands BALANCE.
The specific disposition of elements about an axis will determine whether the v.isual force of
an axial organization is subtle or overpowering, loosely structured or formal, picturesque Of
monotonous.
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An axis has qualities of length and direction, and induces movement and views along its
path. An axis must be terminated at both of its ends and can be reinforced by defining edges
along its length.
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The terminating elements of an axis serve to both send and receive its visual thrust. These
terminating elements can be any of the following:
Inequality, balance is equality. It is composi tion. It is the foundation upon which arrange-
ment harmony and adjustment of weights, tones, values etc. are developed. Proper balance
satisfies the eye with reference to the relative importance of the various parts of the design.
The notion of an axis can be reinforced by defining edges along its length. Tbose edges can
be simply lines on the ground plan, or vertical planes that define a linear space coincidental
with the axis.
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131
132
There are three {3) types of BALANCE in the study of composition.
1. SYMMETRICAL BALANCE .. . . .. .... . .. ....... .. ... .... ..... .. .. ... .. . ... . monumental effect
centralized
formal
radial
2. UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE ......... . informal
3. GRAVITATIONAL BALANCE picturesqueness of
surroundings.
1. SYMMETRlCAL
a. Central axis-the easiest and simplest kind of balance in which the elements are
arranged in precisely the same manner on either side of a central axis or line.
Not only is the arrangement similar but each object is exactly like the one occupy
ing the corresponding position on the opposite side. In this kind of balance the
eye catches at a glance the equality of attraction on each side of the centre of the
composition.
All elements are duplicated -shape for shape, size for size, and tone for tone.
The left half of the composition is identical with the right half. This type of
balance gives a feeling of repose and order. It is straight forward and direct. The
effect of monumentality is more readily secured by the use of a symmetrical com-
position than by an informal grouping of units.
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b. Formal
There is another type of balance which approaches absolute symmetry but which
lacks some of the essentials of this kind of composition. At first glance the
elements on one side of the central axis appear to be identical with those on the
opposite side, but upon closer examination it is found that such is Aot the case.
The general mass and grouping of parts may be similar, but there are dissimilar-
ities in plan, elevation, or details. The volumes of the balancing units may corres-
pond, but there may exist a difference in their shapes and surface treatments.
This type of composition is called 'Formal Balance.'
Formal Bnlance
133
134
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different in texture
Here the two uni ts are located at equal distances from the central shaft and are
similar in mass or bulk. However, they are unlike in plan and in elevation, though
the general eff ect is still one of simple balance.
c. Radial
Is characterized by an arrangement where all the parts radiate from a center like
the spokes in a wheel.
2. UNSYMMETRICAL (Informal)
Unsymmetrical or occult balance is more subtle and elusive, and is more difficult to attain. It
attempts to satisfy the eye without any effort to place equal masses at similar distances from
the center of the composition. It is the grouping, in an informal manner, of elements of vary-
ing sizes and shapes.
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The eye must be satisfied when one is working for unsymmetrical balance. But the eye must
be trained to perceive the accomplishment of this result. A see-saw is used as an example
wherein a lighter weight is farther from the fulcrum and a heavier one nearer. In an informal
arrangement the larger and heavier masses should be nearer the centre of the group, while
the lighter, lower and more horizontal elements may constitute the long arm.
l0t1ger- dista11ce
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In this unsymmetrical diagram, the room on the left carries up higher and thus forms a more
important exterior mass. The centre of gravity of the composition is near the main entrance,
and one feels that the long, low mass to the right is balanced about this fulcrum by the
heavier, more compact portion at the left.
135
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136
3. GRAVITATIONAl or PICTURESQUE
This kind of composition is the complete adaptation to its surroundings. This type of com-
position is often far removed from conscious composition. Picturesqueness is the opposite
of symmetrical composition. Essentially, it is a quality which is not composed but freely
results from time and the forces of nature.
One sense. rather than sees, a state of equil ibrium. The gravitational is typi cal arrangement
of nature, in which a landscape is informal in its disposition of parts. Its arrangement is ac-
cidental, and it may be good in its composition or it may be lacking in this quality. Nature
works in an unconscious manner with no attempt to meet man-made rules.
The artist puts upon canvas his interpretation of the scene before him, modifyi ng it t o suit
his own particular fancy. He moved trees, houses and even mountains about so that they
will conform to a pattern which embodies the principles of good design. He secures informal
balance in a number of ways. He n:-ilY use small areas of bright colors on one side of the
painting to balance a large area of neutral tone on the other, or he may creat e a feeling of
movement in order to equalize a static quality in another part of the composition.
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Balance suggests a gravitational equilibrium of a single unit in space, or of pairs symmetrical-
ly arranged with respect to a central axis or point.
In picture-making, balance refers to a "felt" optical equilibrium between all parts of the
work. The artist balances forces horizontally, vertically, radially, diagonally in all directions
and positions.
00
There are several factors which, when combined wi th the ele-
ments to balance in a work of art. These factors or variables
are position or placement, size, proportion, quality and direc-
tion of the elements of these factors, position plays the lead
role. If two shapes of equal physical qualities are placed near
the bottom of a picture frame, the work will appear bottom
heavy or out of balance with the large upper space. Such
shapes should be placed in positions which wi ll contribute to
the total balance of all the involved picture parts.
In seeking balance, it should be recognized that the elements of art represent " moments of
force". The eye, as it travels over the picture surface, pauses momentarily for significant pic-
ture parts which are contrasting in character. These contrast represent moving and direc-
tional forces which must count erbalance one another sc that a controlled tensi on results.
137
RHYTHM movement repetition

spac1ng
138
Music is an art that is heard. It is a combination of sounds arranged in such a manner as to
arouse various reactions of pleasure, interest or excitement. Architecture is an art which is
seen. It is a composition of elements so arranged as to serve a utilitarian purpose and, in
addition, to have an emotional appeal. The music of the western world is based upon
rhythm, melody and harmony. Rhythm is the foundation of music. Although it is necessary
that there be tones of pleasing quality, still these tones must first be organized into some
kind of time or spacing.
Unorganized sounds result in discord or dissonance; unorganized architectural forms cause
confusion. Movement is the basis of rhythm. The movement in music may consist of the
time, which may be fast or slow, or it may be the Tempo or repetition of the theme through
the composition, regular or irregular.
There is the same feeling of movement in architecture. A building is, of course, static. It re-
mains indefinitely upon its foundations. But there is a movement of the theme as it travels
across the facade of the building- the eye pausing here to look at this detail and then going
on to the next.
An unbroken wall has no rhythm. There is nothing except texture to arrest the attention;
nothing to be seen beyond the shape and contour of the surface.
TWO KINDS OF RHYTHM
1. UNACCENTED RHYTHM -if equally spaeed windows are introduced on the un-
broken wall, then regular repetition is present.
L-::._-_-=.-_- __ --_-_- --- t---- ~ - - ::=-
.-- - --- --- ,_ __
2. ACCENTED RHYTHM -if the openings or details are arranged in such a manner
that some are more important than others, then the eye grasps the significance of
this relationship and pauses longer in cbntemplating the larger elements.

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Rhythm refers to the regul ar or harmoni ous recurrence of lines, shapes, forms, or colors. It
incorporates the fundamental notion of repetition as a device to organize forms and spaces
in architecture. Almost all building types incorporate elements that are, by their nature, repe-
titive. Beams and columns repeat themselves to form repetitive structural bays and modules
of space.
Windows and doors repeatedly puncture a building's surface to allow light, air, views, and
people to enter its interiors. Spaces often recur to accomodate similar or repetitive function-
al requirements in the building program. This section c;liscusses the patterns of repet iti on
that can be utilized to organize a series of recurring elements, and the resultant visual
rhythms these patterns create.
- - -
---=- -=.:...=- _-
- --- - - -
ARCADE FRONTING TOWN OF GARROVIL-LAS,
139
140
Rhythm is ORGANIZED MOVEMENT. It must be directed and controlled. If unrelated
noises occur, such as the din of the factory, there is no organization and hence no rhythm. If
windows and doors are thrown into the facade of a building in a haphazard manner, there is
no scheme or sense to the arrangement and again no rhythm.
Rhythm may be one of the following :
a. Rhythmic use of color - movement of the eye across a painting from spot to spot of
similar color.
b. Rhythmic use of line-repetition of a similar type of line in a piece of sculpture.
c. Rhythm of motion-the movement of dancers.
d. Rhythm of direction -continuity of a series of arches forming an arcade.
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UNITY ... and

HIERARCHY harmony
Unity suggests harmony. If a structure has unity, it must have contrast, rhythm and scale.
To have harmony, all the unrelated parts of an architectural arrangement are brought into
proper relation to each other so that a satisfactory composition is obtained. If unity prevails,
all the unimportant parts must be kept in their places and be made simply to assist the major
units in the roles which they are to play in the development of the structure. This is similar to
a well-organized business group or a disciplined army. There must be the leaders and those
who assist the leaders, each with his own particular function to pertorm.
The simplest kind of unity dealing with motifs of more than one member is to be found in or-
dinary REPETITION. Like repetition of sound or beads of the same size and spacing. To
give emphasis and interest, an accent is then introduced.
In an architectural composition, the elements must be arranged in such a way as to insure
the domination of the less important parts by the major masses of the building.
COt1ti t1Uity
There are at least seven (7) ways of producing an effect of UNITY in a design.
1. There must be a central motif, a theme, or a center of interest. The attention of the
observer must be drawn to this focal point.
2. The major masses of the building should dominate the less important ones.
3. All the units should together form a compact and coherent ensemble:
4. The element of emphasis must be introduced. It may be secured by the size, posi-
tion, or r ~ t m e n t of a particular motif whi ch is to give the desired importance to that
particular part of the building.
5. By limiting the amount of treatment seen at one time.
6. -By selecting details, materials, colors, etc. in harmony with the basic idea.
7. By selecting styles, furnitures and furnishings in harmony with the surroundings.
COMPETITION
When elements compete with each other for the place of importance. There is competition.
This causes ' DUALITY' or the presence of two strong conflicting personalities or masses re-
sulting in c;liscord and redundancy. The towers appear attenuated and unstable. The shared
element is too weak to counteract the overturning force acting on the towers.
53me height
dua1 ity
I t/ cett+er of interest
143
Jack of u11ity
competit1cm between first anq
seCOttd stori$ : Heither more
Important, tack of unity
144
duality created by prese11ce of
two equally dom(nartt t o w e r ~
5al11e heignt give5 competitbt1
be1Wee11 first a11d 9econd storie5
lack of U11ity.
CONFUSION
Another kind of competition where dissimilarity is too pronounced. There is no harmonious
treatment and dissimilarities in architectural elements such as door, windows are combined.
There is no definite architectural character and no central the"me .

C011fusiol1 of two towers. dormers, wi11dows, tree
In this figure, the pointed arches and the half-timber-the semi-ecclesiastical and the domes-
tic qualities-are not in symphathy with each other, and confusion prevails.
In the figure below an attempt has been made to correct the faults which are apparent in the
confusing figure above. There is simplicity. The two towers have been reduced to a single.
important unit, and emphasis has been increased by the placing of the two trees so that the
eye is more easily led to this dominant part of the composition.
narmoHIOU5
at1d Elimirar
of treament
... emphasis-
tHrough

145
The principle of HIERARCHY impli es that in most architectural compositions, real differ-
ences exist among their forms and spaces. These differences reflect in a sense, the degree of
importance of these forms and spaces, and the functional, formal, and symbolic roles they
play in their organization. The value system by which their relative importance is measured
will, of course, depend on the specific situation, the needs and desires of the users and the
decisions of the designer. The values expressed may be individual or collective, personal or
cultural.
In any case, the manner is which these functional or symbolic differences among a building's
elements are revealed as critical to the establishment of a visible, hierachical order among its
forms and spaces.
For a form or space to be articulated as being important or significant to an organization, it
must be made visibly unique. This can be achieved by endowing a form or shape with the
following:
1. Exceptional SIZE
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ODD
ODD
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DOD
DOD
A form or space may dominate an architectural composi-
tion by being significantly different in size than all other
elements in the composition. Normally, the dominance is
made visible by the sheer size of an element. In some
cases, an element can also dominate by being significantly
smaller than the other elements in the organization and
placed in a well -defined setting.
146 View of FI<Jrm1C6 ike of #te catttedral over t11e
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2. Unique SHAPE
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DDDDD
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DO DOD
Forms and spaces can be made visually dominant, and
thus, important by clearly differentiating their shape from
that of. the other elements in the composition. A discerni-
ble contrast in shape is critical , whether the diffe'rentiation
is based out a change in geometry or regularity. It is im-
portant that the shape selected for the hierarchically im-
portant e_lement be compatible with its function and use to
have unity.
3. A STRATEGIC LOCATION: Forms and spaces may be:
DO
DD
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DDDDD
DDDDD
strategically placed to call attention to themselves
as being the important elements in a composition.
Hierarchically important locati ons for a form or
space include the following:
147
148
CHINESE COURTYARD I-lOUSE:
PEKING, CHINA
(a) the termination of a linear sequence or axial
organization
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(b} the centerpiece of a symmetrical organization.
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DOD
{c) the focus of a centralized or radial organization.
(d) offset, above, below or in the foreground of a com-
position .

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149
150
NOTRE- 00, HAUT. Ronckamp . Fra11ce, 1 9 3 J - ~ Le Cbusier
The erogenous ZO!Ies of a kou5e aro a:z8>1"t>.;ated - TUJ{;doo"'. window,
plawtinq. statue, light - in tki6 C<JttvertioYt of a White 51tJcco bungalow
111 West Holtywrod ,
CHARACTER.


. expressiveness
Buildings have points of similarity, like walls, doors and roofs but have different purposes
and appearances. In any architecture which is worthy of the name, the exterior of a building
expresses the intemal function and so MANIFESTED CHARACTER is the External Expres-
sion of Internal Qualities. The element of character grows out of the function of the building
and the consideration of all the creative principles of composition.
Character in architecture is derived from three (3) types. They are characters from:
1. FUNCTION, Of use of the building.
2. ASSOCIATION, or influence of traditional types.
3. PERSONALITY, or the human quality or emotional appeal.
1. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTER
The most important kind of character in architecture is that which results from the purpose
of the building or the reason for its erection. The use of a structure naturally calls for a cer-
tain disposition of parts, and this arrangement affects the appearance of the exterior, by
which we largely judge character.
Examples:
a. Museum-must have galleries with ample wall space and top light, which elimi-
nates windows and necessitates the use of skylights.
b. A school building- must contain many windows to admit the necessary side light
and to offer an interesting contrast with the possible monotony of the classroom
walls.
c. Shop - a structure with large show windows is usually a shop for the display and
sale of merchandise.
d. Factory- readily seen from the exterior to express the efficient operation of the
manufacturing within. The exterior shows often only the structural mem-
bers- which are stripped of all unnecessary decoration together with the enclosing
expanses of the glass to light the interior. The building has little architectural show,
it is simple since it is to raise revenue.
e. Monument-serves to perpetuate a memory of a person or an important event. It
does not produce any revenue. It must be impressive and should have dignity and
command respect. Its function, then, is to be monumental, usually symmetrical. in
arrangement and uses permanent materials like stone, steel, concrete, or some du-
rable and heavy materials to produce a feeling of lasting effect.
f. A Bank-should have dignity-it is a building designed to house an activity which
is very near to the heart and mind of the average citizen-that of caring for his
money. The building should Inspire confidence in its integrity. This building houses
an activity which is work.
g. Movie- Cinema House -a place of relaxation or recreation after a hectic day of
discharging one's obligations of the day. In this building psychological use of color
and decoration is important. Bright colors and unusual or unique architectural ef-
fects quicken the imagination and cater to the holiday spirit. This building houses
an activity of man-that of relaxation.
h. House- should reflect the informal intimacy of home life.
151
2. ASSOCIATED CHARACTER
152
This comes from the influence of ideas and impressions related to or growing out of past ex-
periences. We know by association anq experience that the various races have different phy-
sical characteristics and we are thus able to distinguish between an Oriental, a Negro, a Cau-
cacian, and an Indian. We often associate such features as color, eyes, height, nose and
others.
In a similar manner, we have come to recognize buildings by features which have long been
associated with that particular structure. A spire atop a building with stained glass windows
has always told us that the edifice was a church. The use of the classical orders often indi-
cates the presence of a bank, and Collegiate Gothic frequently discloses the identity of an
educational institution.
However, when a mode of construction or type of design is found to be antiquated, it may
be discarded, provided that a worthy successor has been developed to take its place. The
ultra-modernists would eliminate all association with the past. They would allow the func
tion of the building to control the exterior regardless of the effect.
The contemporary movement in architecture has, however, caused many revisions in our as-
sociation of ideas. It has been necessary to adjust our points of view to the many influences
which are now changing the character of our modern buildings. New method of construct-
ion have grown out of new materials, and it is now possible to use openings in ways which
were not practicable according to our former conceptions of the limitations of btick and
stone. Our attitude toward physical comfort has been revolutionalized.
The home must be more efficient in operation and more pleasant in its interior treatment.
The museum is no longer a place in which to contract museum fatigue by climbing monu-
mefltal stairways, and factories are now airy and cheerful.
If a building functions properly and is composed according to the rules of good design, it
then follows that the character shall or rather should be satisfactory. A bank for example,
need no longer be heavy and semi-fortified. Our bank architecture was borrowed from the
temples of Greece. The massive walls inspired the depositors with confidence. Changing
conditions have brought about a realizat ion that there is a little relation between thick
stones, barred windows, and the security of investments and savings. Only the conspicuous
vault doors remain to advertise the safety of the deposits. Our banks have now become effi-
cient places in which to work, and they present cheerful and dignified interiors in which to
transact business.
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UNIVERSITY OF . SANTO TOMAS
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BANK
MODERN CHURCH
153
154
MODERN BANK
3. PERSONAL CHARACTER
Personal character in architecture bears a certain relation to the same attribute in the life of
an individual. It is found .that the element of personality plays an important part in the reveal-
ing of character both with man and with architecture. Members of thevarious races have
different traits-some common to several groops, some peculiar to a particular group. The
plantation Negro is often happy. and carefree. The oriental is a mystery to the Caucasian; the
Indian is stoical and taciturn. Individuals are gay or gloomy, sparkling or stupid, graceful or
gawking.
Buildings have qualities which are directly related to their functions, but in addition, they
may possess characteristics which have to do rather with the emotional reaction set up in
the mind of the observer. Like members of the human race, buildings may be sterri and for-
bidding, light and playful, or sedate and dignified, with reference to the impressions which
they are capable of giving.
It is to these qualities of vitality, repose, grace, restraint, festivity, dignity, etc. that we give
the name of personal character. If the building is designed. in the proper spirit, this type of
character will grow naturally from the structure itself. It is quite essential that this intangible
quality agrees with the function of the building. Nothing could be more disastrous than to
have a power plant look like an entertainment pavilion -a substitution of festivity for effi
ciency.
Example:
A dilapidated warehouse has a feeling of humility. A magnificent city hall can take pride
in its size and position.
Personality in a building has more to do with the spirit of the building than its pur-
pose-They are abstract rather that concrete. A building may display the quality of
strength. It may be simple or ornate, picturesque or formal.
A building in itself may be of good design but out of place when transplanted to a set-
ting for which it is not intended. A mountainous summer home would appear in-
congruous in Makati, and a magnificent cathedral would look ridiculous on the lonely
long superhighway. Character is thus also a matter of location.
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An exposition building designed and intended to convey the spirit of gayety and festivi-
ty. This is built for entertainment. The personal character is given through its lightness
and spontaniety of the decoration and the use of vertical accents, banners, etc. The
walls are light in thickness, indicating perhaps, a temporary structure. It also has a feel-
ing of openness which relates the interior to the surrounding landscape treatment.
155
156
A custom-house - here a sense of strength and solidity is required. Strong walls are
deemed necessary, ana heavy masonry with few openings is used to give the de-
sired character. Here all is business all is ;seriousness.
A large house- for those who want to display evidence of his wealth.
A simple designed house-for the quiet and unassuming people.
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Personality of character in a building can be attained by the ingenious application of masses,
lines and color treatment,
1 . heavy masses .... sedate (composed)
{dignified)
2 . straight lines .... sturdiness (masculine effect)
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3 . horizontal lines -repose I rest, peace) stability, comfort, and widening effect.
4. verticallines-strength (power, vitality, dignity, inspirational emphasize height
and monumentality dynamic).
5. diagonal lines-action (movement, vigor and speed).
/
157
158
6 . irregular lines-informality (excitement).
7. curved lines-grace (refinement, feminine emotional, continuity, flexibility).
8. bright colors-Ired, yellow, orange, et.) conspicuous, cheerful, stimulating,
attractive, advancing effect.

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9. cool colors-blue green, violet, etc. lunconspicuous, restful receding effect,
suggests distance) .
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Character then maybe expressed in Architecture by the following:
1. Scale ... when increased, it gives a feeling of grandeur, dignity and monumentali-
ty. However, when scale is reduced, these characteristics are lessened if notre-
versed.
2. Proportion ... regarded to produce formality in character when applied. Example
is triangular massing. The huge proportions applied in the parts of the classical
buildings give them the formal character.
3. Style ... many architects believe that style is character expressive of definite con-
ceptions as for example-grandeur, gaiety or solemnity. On account of tradi-
tions, certain styles of Architecture were adapted for specific types of buildings.
This give the proper or good "Ambience" say, for example, a neat and orderly
modern design of a beergarden as compared to a beergarden with indigenous,
all local materials used.
AMBIENCE -surrounding on all sides, an environment or its distinct atmosphere; or milieu.
MILIEU -environment,social or cultural setting.
PLAN COMPOSITION
SCHEME
160
Good planning is not the placing of areas together in an aimless way. A logical plan must
have a reason behind it - " a parti", or scheme. If an exterior which tends toward symmetry,
or monumentality, is desired, the plan elements may.be arranged in a balanced manner
about a central axis.
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If a more informal massing is required, the beginning of the development-the plan - should
assume this desired character.
A plan may be simple or complex, depending upon the use to which the building is to be put
and upon the number of units or rooms required. Regardless of the complexity which plans
may assume. They may all be reduced to the simple geometrical shapes which form the
basis for all architecture. Plans and also elevations consist of areas which are recognized as
the square, circl e, rectangle, etc. selected for their suitability to the function of the building.
-
AXIAL ARRANGEMENTS
Wrth the exception of the most elementary forms, plans have direction. This direction is
related to the shape and to the relative importance of the sides which bound the plan. This
development of direction leads to the establishment of axis or !iRes about which the com-
position is organized.
As one approaches a building and faces the principal facade, the major axis usually carries
through the centre of the mass in a line directly away from the observer and at right angles to
the main elevation.
/ Major Axis
go
The principal minor axis usually extends at right angles to the major axis through the centre
of the important element which tends to parallel the main elevation. In a complex plan the
various parts may be grouped around minor axis which show the direction of these units.
The simple rectangle has its long sides perpendicular to the line of sight of the observer
(sfnce in a represented plar-t the principal entrance side parallel to the street usually focus the
bottom of the sheet).
maJOr axis ( LottgitudiHal)
~ 1 ! 1 l ! J o r - !!>cis (Tra"s""""')
:
1------t-----
f-
1 i I
J ! l
c\-street
,.
It will be noticed that the major axis is at right angles to the directional quality of the area, in-
dicating that the shape of a plan is not so important on an analysis of this kind as the location
of the entrance and the arrangement of the internal units.
It will also be found that the axis are sometimes called "Transverse" which cuts the plan in
its shortest direction and "Longitudinal" which extends through the length of the composi-
tion.
PRINCtPLES
A plan, to be worthy of the name, must be "organic". All parts must fit together in such
a way that the composition wilt be disturbed if one element is moved. The axial arrangement
of the plan should connect to various units so that one feels the complete organization of all
the component parts. A plan is developed which will take care of the practical requirements
of the building.
A plan should have contrast of size, shape, character, direction, balance and " emphasis".
161
162
EMPHASIS
It is often desirable to direct a structure which will house a single important object or to have
one unit of the plan give emphasis to one particular phase of the activity which is to be car-
ried on within. It is necessary that the architecture frame and accent this important object or
activity.
In this illustration. This condition is secured by the use of the semicircular element with in-
ches which i m p a ~ a decorative rhythm and point to the monument in the centre of the com-
position. This arrangement also illustrates the principle of radiation from a single point. The
centre of interest, the focal point-which contributes much to the quality of emphasis. _The
variety secured by the change of direction from the curved element to the straight line which
forms the axis, for the buildings on either side adds to the appeal of the design.
SECONDARY PRINCIPLES
a. Repitition may be present when a number of room of equal size and shape occur side by
side, or when windows, columns, or arches are spaced in a regular manner to give unac-
cented rhythm.
b. Alternation -a synonym for contrast. There may be alternating sizes of re<:tangular ele-
ments or alternation of shapes.
alternation of shape
alternation of shape
c. Transition -a satisfactory progression from one unit to another. Small vestibules pro-
tect and act as buffers for the lobbies which follow, and the lobbies allow the visitor to
become adjusted to the situation which confronts him upon entering the building. These
minor elements also give the observer some preparatory indication of the general charac-
ter and use of the interior before introducing him to the more important units.
'
.3
2.
1
vesti bule
In a complex plan it is offer desirable not to tell the whole story at once but to allow the
beauty and interest of the interior gradually to unfold itself, reserving for the climax some
definitely predetermined accent. The most important thing to remember in plan analysis
is that a good plan must have organization. The presence of absence of this organic qua-
lity can be seen at a glance, but needs much thought and study. A beautiful plan based
on sound reasoning is the first prerequisite for a successful building.
d . Transformation
The principle of transformation allows a designer to
select a prototypical architectural model whose formal
structure and ordering of elements might be appropri-
ate and reasonable, and to transform it through a series
of discrete manipulations to respond to the specific
conditions and context of the design task at hand.
Transformation requires f irst that the ordering system
of the prior or prototypal model be perceived and un-
derstood so that, through a series of finite changes and
permutations, the original design concept can be classi-
fied, strengthened and built upon rather than des-
troyed.
A series of finite changes and permutations, the original design concept can be clarified,
strengthened and built upon, rather t han destroyed.
,-------...,
I I
I I
.1
I
r - -
----.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
L ___ ___,_ __ J
I
I
I
L_
_ _ _J
I
I
L
_..J
164
VISUAL ACUITY
AND PERCEPTION
166
Perception is the process by which we organize and interpret the patterns of stimuli in our
environment, the immediate intuitive recognition, as of an aesthetic quality.
The separation of two lines placed end to end can be perceived more readily than the separa-
tion of 2 lines placed side by side.
Ac,uity increases with increase in intensity of illumination.
SPATIAL PERCEPTION
All spatial implications are mentally conditi oned by the environmental and experience of the
viewer. Vision is experienced through the eyes, but interpreted with the mind. Perception in-
volves the whole pattern of nerve and brain response as well as the visual 'stimulus'.
Man uses two eyes for the perception of objects in nature and continually shifts his focus of
attention. In so doing, two different types of vision are used STEREOSCOPIC and KINES-
THETIC. Having two eyes set slightly apart for each other, man sees two different views of
the object world at the same time.
The term STEREOSCOPIC is applied to his abilitv to overlap these views, which are slightly
different, into one image. This visual process created an illusion of three-dimensional depth,
making it possible to judge distances.
One of the most frequently employed types of information especially over short distances,
arises from 'Retinal Disparity' or unlikeness of the retinal images in the eys, which are in dif-
ferent spatial positions, thus, if we hold up a cube in front of the eyes, the right eye will see
slightly more of the side face on the right, the left eye slightly more of the side on the left.
\
\
\ I
\ I

If you focus your two eyes on a pencil held close to the face, while at the same time con-
sciously observing an object further away, the farther object will appear doubled and if we
shift the eyes to concentrate on the object while the pencil is in f,ront, the pencil will be
doubled and the object just one.
In KINESTHETIC vision, man experiences space in the movements of the eye from one part
of a whole work of art to another. Space is experienced while viewing a two-dimensional
surface because we unconsciously attempt to organize its separate parts so that they can be
seen as a whole. In addition, man explores objec.ts surmental recognit ion of them. Objects
close to the eye require more. Ocular movement then those more distant, and this factor
adds spatch illusion to man's Kinesthetic vision.
THE PERCEPTION OF OBJECTS:
Objects can be perceived not only visually but by the sound of familiar voices, people can be
recognized. In identifying objects, they may be touched and weighed in the hand. If they are
food objects, they may be smelt and tasted. Thus the observer may continue examining the
object and placing together the various sensory impressions until he has made up his mind
what it is.
Our behaviour through experiences has become habitual, automatic and effective. An ex-
ample is when we walk leisurely, or run hurriedly when a vehicle is approaching. We also
have an internal sense of position, by reacting automatically, shifting the body to one side
when riding a bicycle. We perceive visually whether the bicycle is upright in relation to the
road.
THE PERCEPTION OF SHAPE
The most important feature of a shape or object is its general outline or contour. Whenever
we look at objects, they seem to be clearly outlined and demarcated from their background.
With a sotid object the particular contour exhibited to us at any one moment varies with its
position in space. The visual shape of a square-topped table is square only when we look at
it from above.
167
168
0
~
li11e
b a t - ~ d
"FIGUREGROUND" - a phenomenon wherein drawings consisting of black lines, any line
which surrounds an area, and which is recognized as representing an object is quickly picked
out by the observer, and it then seems to him to stand out from the background in an ob-
vious manner. No field of view is perceived all at one dead level. Some part of it will always
tend to become "figural" and to be differentiated from the rest of the field which forms the
"ground" to this figure. This figure then stands out, is readily perceived and attended to and
its appearance and details are noted.
Example: If you look at the object, you will see a cross figure on a dark, background.
With a fixed gaze closely on the field, a switch is made and the white cross
becomes a background for the dark X figure.
Reversible Figure:
If a drawing is presented wherein two parts are equally meaningful, there may be
an alternation of "fi gure'' and "ground" between them.
a goblet
Reversible figure al1d groortd
The Rever-sible goblet i?
den1ol15tr-atiol1 of a
grout1d r-eversal. Nate "H1af two people
eitner the li.g11t fXJrtiort ( Tke
goblet) ar fhe d:irk por-tion
(two cat1 be perceived
as a ffgure a
background
...
: . .
. Ambig;us fJ9ure gmul1d eftects
.. at1 draWl'!_g that cart
be eitker as a pretty
young wmat1 an
unattractive old woma11
The old UXJrnan eye5 i5 the
ear of the young woman.
169
170
Vanity
When you look at this figure from afar it looks so much like a skull but when near, it clearly
shows a lady in front of a mirror.
This is a reversible
Figure.
Sometimes it is perceived as a
stair.
But sometimes perceived as a
ceiling.
or
171
172
Artistic use of reversible
figure cmd grout1d
Circle litttrr Nc (Heavetf a"d Hell)
a wood cut by Nf.C. Esl1e5. The
angels an4 evil alter11ate but neither
seemG 1o domittare the other lookitt_g
~ t flfe black bat -tl1611 swift io
looking at itle white dove.
The slave market with disappearing bust of Voltaire by Salvador Oali.
In the Center of this painting is an archway reverse to form a bust of Voltaire.
"Ccmcavt and C o n v ~ ~ " shows can "tna(rr view of the left-hand howe, an intenQ-r
view of the '<ight-IUJnd howe and f!l"the-r an e.xterior or interior view
of the howe in the middk, depending upon o n e ~ choice. 19.U
173
174
FLUCTUATION
Instances of fluctuation are given by the phenomena of the alternating 'Figure' and 'Ground'
alternating perspective and retinal rivalry. In the following figures showing alternating pers-
pective, one part of the figure appears to stand out in front of the rest of the figure; but there
is alternation, first one pan standing out and then ! ~ e remainder.
NECKER CUBE
An illusion devised in 1832 by the Swiss naturalist LA. Necker.
When you look at one square the figure will look either of the following.
v
This figure may be perceived as either depressed or concave. But sometimes it is perceived
as convex or protruding outwards.
or
175
176
Stare at the dot and
it will give you two
fluctuating Figures.
IMPOSSIBLE FIGURES
When three dimensional forms are illustrated on two-dimensional surface.
When you cover the three prongs at the left with your palms it will show a U-shaped figure at
the right. However if you cover the U-shaped Figure at the right, it will appear as three
prongs.
An impossible Figure
the Corrected Figure
177
178
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
AFFECTING ACCURACY OF
SHAPE PERCEPTION
The simpler the actual shape which is viewed like squares, triangles, circles, the more likely it
is to be perceived accurately, even though in a very short period of time.
There is a tendency of an observer to perceive for example a square when actually it is a rec-
tangle meaning a square and say it is circle although it is an ellipse.
This tendency to perceive shapes not exactly as they are but in somewhat modified form, is
given great importance by a German School of psychologists, known as the GESTALT s y ~
chologist. The world means "FORM". According to them our percepts always possess
some kind of form or arrangement, and we tend to group together shapes close to each
other.
A form of simplication may be through continuity. A shape with a broi<en, disc<;mtinuous or
dotted outline may be perceived as a whole continuous figure. Dotted lines as shown below
are perceived as a Triangle and a Square.
In some complex Figure, a smaller Figure may become swallowed up in a larger whole and
an observer will have difficulty in noticing the simple figures in the complex ones.
a simple
rectangular
in perspective
it is lost
somewhere
in this Figure
The Accuracy and the amount of detail with which shapes can be perceived depends on the
length of time available for viewing them. A period of about a second is necessary for
VISUAL ACUITY to reach its maximum. The length of time taken to perceive a simple
shape is related to its size and brightness.
179
180
VISUAL OR OPTICAL ILLUSIONS
There are further difficulties in perceiving complex forms accurately in detail resulting from
the inability to perceive the parts of the shape independently of the whole. Many of the so
called Visual Illusions.
'VISUAL ILLUSIONS' make their effect because the observer's perception is influenced by
the inclusion of their parts in the whole pattern. In the figure below so-called Muller-Lyer illu-
sion, the upper horizontal line tends to look shorter than the lower, because it is difficult if
riot impossible to estimate the lengths of the two lines independently of the arrow heads
which form part of the same figure.
<
)>
looks shorter
) actually
itre same
lettgffl
lod<5
bgger
Another example below shows two horizontal Lines, actually straight and parallel, but be
cause they are combined with the oblique lines, they look curved.
>
------
_______...
>
.....______
-----
_....
>
----

....-----..
A shape may be altered even by the background on which it is super_imposed. The two hori-
zontal lines are in fact straight and parallel although they appear stouter at the middle.
The mirror or water reflection of the word RIGHT becomes WRONG try it with a small mir-
ror.
If a contour divides_ a Figure into an upper and lower part, There is a greater tendency for the
lower part to appear as the figure.
When two homogenous, differently coloured fields are shown with one considerably larger
than the other and enclosed it, then there is greater probability that the small enclosed field
will be perceived as the figure.
181
When two homogenous, differently coloured fields are shown with one considerably larger
than the other and encloses it, then there is r ~ t e r probability that the small enclosed field
will be percieved as the f igure.
White figures against black backgrounds on black figures with holes in them.
(The white figure appear more readily than the black one with a hole in it.)
I \
I \
I \
I \
I \
I \
I \
/ \\ b cl
I \
I \
I \
J ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~
Which is longer distance "ab" or distance "de"?
182
Which is longer distance "ab"
or distance "de"
measure too see if you are
Hgtrt with your
Looks concave
Two lines actually
parallel
183
This is perfect square -however-when the square is inscribed it looks distorted
This is a perfect circle-however-when in!;cribed by lines it looks distorted
0
When a square was preceded by a series of radiating lines the square distorted in the same
way as if they were expressed simultaneously.
184
PERCEPTION OF SPACE
DEPTH AND DISTANCE
An important feature of our perception of depth and solidity of objects is constituted by the
shadows which are casts upon parts of them by the general illumination. Normally, shadows
appear on the receding parts of objects and indicates recession and hence solidity. Changes
in the appearance of depth can be produced by altering the of the incident light.
Parts of a surface in relief may be made to appear as if they protruded by directing light on to
it from below instead if from above as normal.
The perception of depth depends upon the direction of the light perceived, not on the physi-
cal direction of light. A concave relief (matrix) can reverse its depth and is then perceived as
a convex (patrix).
Spet]f,f
d/1/l )(aAI.fro s.p.Jad
....

""'
...

\.. l
..


"'
185
186
FILED AND EMPTY DISTANCE
A depth fi lled with details appears to be greater than one of the same physical distance which
is empty.
I
llllllltlllll
PROXIMITY ...
The proximity of the lines that appears to be in pairs ieads us to see three pairs and an
extra line at the right.
The sa,me lines ~ s above, . but with, extensions, lead to the o p p o s i t ~ pairi ng: Three
broken squares and an extra line at the left.
][ ][ ][ J
CONTRADICTORY DEPTH FACTORS
in this figure, it is perceived that the bigger square is
nearer. However, due to the factor of height location,
the bigger square can be farther away.
Small square is nearer due to height location'
it shows both are resting on a plane surface.
VISUAL DEPTH
0
In this figure, when both squares are floating
in air. the bigger square is nearer.
Despite the fact that the observer 'sees' and 'knows' in reality and feels with his feet that the
floor is composed of plane mosaic stones, it is impossible to avoid a perception of depth.
lrf f&is it is ifffposible
to wlftrHtm- the
Sprite '' llfllrer or (Urt1fer
away
A house seen from aR7\e
can be lin open booJ<..
187
ILLUSIONS OF DEPTH
The illusion, the Transformation of what is real into what is believed to be real, has been a stand-
ard architectural technique since the renaissance.
In France it developed into what we term as trompe L' Oeil, walls or ceilings were painted with
scenery and backdrops in perspective which one would consider as real, adding dimensions to
small areas and widening the visual coverage to even outdoor spaces. Today, wall papers of
sceneries like mountains, forests, rivers, from floor to ceiling and from wall to vvall are available in
the market .


An example is the ceiling treatment of San Agustin
Church in lntramuros which look like a coffered ceiling
in the architectural sense of the word, but a representa-
tioh of the Italian coffered ceiling of the renaissance
period in the form of intricate painting on Tin. In other
words, it is an illusion.
painted
fac-tual sectio11
-
The use of illusions in a room can be achieved by de-
signing a modern mural of columns, combined with
abstract color wash, and placing it on wall facing strate-
gic places such as entrances and hallways. The color
gives that extra lift, and the illusion of space gives
depth.
This moden1 mural of columns at the loooy of ViVa Films offlC8
c ~ tke i /IUGIOM Of !:ipace PY ~ t f miguel
188
MONOCULAR CUES TO DEPTH
Artists are able to give depth to a picture because they can make use of the many monocular
cues that tell us the distance of objects.
Four types of cues that are used in depth perception.
1. SUPERPOSITION-
If one object appears to cut off the view of another, we usually perceive the first ob-
ject as nearer.
but cat1 be
However it can be concluded that both playing cards are the same size and that the six of
hearts is further away.
189
190
2. APPARENT MAGNITUDE and RELATIVE SIZE-
If there is an array of like objects of different sizes, the smaller ones are perceived as
being farther away.
Side Viev.J
0
0
These spheres are viewed as spheres of the same sizes but the smaller ones are far-
ther away such as. the planets.
Which has bigger area, the smaller plain square at the left or the square at the right?
answer: they have the same
area.
The example below shows that the inner circles are perceived to be different. The
small circle 'b' looks bigger than the small circle 'a'.
actually 'a' and 'b'
small circle have the
same diameter.
@
b
The experience of apparent magnitude also depends on the total field of perception if the
surroundings are smaller the object looks bigger, if the surrounding objects are bigger, the
object looks smaller.
oo
Ooo
oo
D
a
00
ooo
0 0
oQo
p
Circle 'a' and square 'a' both looks smaller than circle 'b' and square 'b' at the right. Actually
they all have the same sizes.
191
Below is an example of Apparent Magnitude.
When the hand holding the stick is covered the first appears to be a large one. If the body is
covered it becomes a small fish.
Apparent magnitude is experienced in relation to a known object. Particularly in comparison
with human beings. This is of particular interest to architects when planning room interiors.
-
These 2 rectangular
lines are of the same
length.
3. HEIGHT IN PLACE-
However if you place
two tapering lines ttie
upper one looks bigger.
In fact, rr the rectangles were
real objects lying between
the tracks, we would cor-
rectly Judge the more dis-
tant one to be larger.
As we look along a flat plane, objects farther away appear to be higher, so that we
can create the impression of depth for objects of the same size by placing them at
different heights.
-
192.
The nearer an object is to the horizon. The greater the distance to it is perceived to
be. For objects on the ground, 'nearer the horizon' implies that they are situated
higher in the field of vision.
- 0 a ~ f\ 'b '
L------;: _ __....;..__ 0 __, :] c
c
a
Q
21 a ttY
0
1
b
~
--+
b
l;j
r
c
-+
-+
c
4. TEXTURE-
For irregular surfaces such as rocks or waving surface of the ocean, there is a gra-
dient of texture with distance so that the 'grain' becomes finer as distance becomes
greater.
. . .
.. . . . .. . . ..
. . . . .. . . . ....
193
194
PARADOX OF DEPTH
Engraving by the Dutch Artist M . C. Escher 'Waterfall'. The artists "false
use" of depth cues makes the water appear to move uphill through a series of
"level" channels.
T h ~ false depth cues makes the person going down the stairs appear to be
go1ng up from where he came from.
CONTEXT:
The hypotheses tested and the percepts formed depend not only on the features of the ob-
ject, but also the context within which the object is viewed. In the example below the center
figure can be seen either as the letter B or the number 13, depending on the context in which
it appears.
12
1-\ 13 c
14
195
ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS
198
Traditionally architectural concepts have been the designer's way of responding to the
design situation presented in the program. They have been the means for translating the
non-physical problem statement into the physical building product. Every project has within
it what might be described as prime organizers, central themes, critical issues or problem
essences. These all exist within the project situation or within the designer's perception of
the problem situation. The designer must establish what they are, and then out of them, or
in response to them, create concepts for dealing with them architecturally. The designer's
concepts are sometimes called the "BIG IDEA," " BASIC FRAMEWORK" or "PRIMARY
ORGANIZER".
Concepts may be process or product oriented, take place at any stage in the design process
occur at any scale, be generated from several sources, have a hierarchical nature, possess in
trinsic problems and be plural in number and concern within any single building.
As the designer, we are presented with project situations. They come to us from program-
mers or clients and they require a building to satisfy the needs. Often, we think of a
building design as consisting of one concept or overall idea. Although it is true that the
design of the project may begin with a single overall direction of how to respond to the pro-
blem, any building design is in fact composed of many concepts. The designer must divide
the project situation into a manageable number of parts, deal with them individually and
then synthesize them into one whole "simultaneous" building.
Some general categories under which the concerns and issues of a building may be listed
and addressed in design are:
1. Functional zoning
2. Architectural space
3. Circulation and building form
4. Response to Context
5. Building Envelope
Economy applies to all of these. The issues of most building types fit conveniently under
these Five categories and taken together, the categories seem to describe most of the impor-
tant concerns about building design.
Depending upon the designer's personality and individual design method he may address
conceptual issues in a rigid sequence or skip among them in some order or at random until
the mosaic of the building solution is finally complete. This sequence of attention to the
respective problem issues and the assignment of emphasis to them by the designer will have
a profound effect upon the nature of the solution. Those issues addressed first in design are
usually the most important in the designer's mind and tend to be solved first. Also, because
they are solved first, they tend to be formalized early and so become the context for solving
the other issues. The remaining issues must adapt themselves to the ones solved first.
CONTEXTS FOR CONCEPT GETTING
Before addressing considerations dealing directly with building projects, there are some
broader concerns which form a context for understanding architectural concept getting.
1} General philosophy and life values of the Designer some psychological categories
that combine to influence the formation of a design philosophy and which affect the
making of design decisions are:
a. Motivation and interest
b. Enhancement of self-image
c. Dependence on or independence of outside reinforcement of self-worth
d. Expansion of one's sphere of influence
e. Concern for fellow man
f. Immediate and deferred goals
g. Conservation of what is scarce and valued.
h. Quest for simplification
i. The material and the spiritual
The designer' s posture with respect to these and other issues combine to form his general
life view. (see Chapter on VALUES) p. 468.
2) Design Philosophy of the Designer.
The designer, through his training and experience, has usually developed a design
phi losophy, a set of postures or values about design which he relies upon for making
form in building design. Whether articulated on a conscious level or not, these views
of design which the designer possesses profoundly affect his work. His design activi
ty takes place within and is, in a sense, governed by these basic values about design.
Within a design philosophy there is usually room for many design methods, pro-
cesses and building solutions, all of which. are consistent with the desi gner's context
of values. Because of his basic tendencies, however, the designer often gravitates
toward some of these more than others.
The designer's general posture about design almost always includes attitudes and
,..
values about a ranQe of issues that are closer to design activity. These notions that
are held by the designer have a direct impact on specific projects. The values of the
designer regarding these sub-categories of design philosophy provide a mosaic of
him as a maker of buildings. The more sub-categories he uses to describe his view of
design, the more complete the mosaic. Listed here are some of the issues about
which the designer may hold values:
a. artistic scientific
b. conscious subconscious
c. rational irrational
d. sequential nonsequential
e. evaluate as you go evaluate when you're done
f . knowns unknowns
g. individual
society
h. personal universal
i. verbal visual
j . needs wants
k. ordered random
I. structured
unstructured
m. beginning point important
point unimportant
n. objective
subjective
o. one answer multiple solutions
p. creative
common place
q. your needs
client needs
r . specific general
s. man nature
t . critical issues
minor issues
u. complexity simplicity
v. parts
whole
w. patterned process random process
X. preconceptions
response to facts
y. indeterminate mechanistic
z. design f or now design for future
199
200
1. Busy
- Empty space
2. Dynamic
- Serene
3. Filled with distractions - Organized and peaceful
4. Matte - Shiny
5. Sophisticated - Rustic
6. Natural - Man-made
7. Worthless - Precious
As a designer accumulates experience, test his ideas and reflects on his basic inten-
tions, his postures about design surely evolve. At any given point in time however
his philosophy in its present form is brought to bear on the project at hand.
3) View of the problem by the designer presented with a specific design project.
The way that the designer perceives, understands and describes that project occurs
within the framework of his life values and design views. Different designers will
"see the problem" differently. The designers perceptions about the project at those
early stages before planning formally begins, will be some of the most important
thinking that he does in the entire planning processes. This is the area of entire plan-
ning process. This is the area of architectural concept getting at the most general
level. The designing that comes later will be done within the context of this early
thinking.
There are several judgements that the. designer makes about the project that, toge-
ther, constitute his view of it.
a. Whether the project calls for an architectural solution {whether it is in his
province to satisfy the needs). The client may need a new managerial system
rather than a new building.
b. What the limits of the project are: What are the project edges in terms of the
designer's responsibility? (The designer may not be involved in site design).
c. What the categories of concern are within the project that the designer will
use as a checklist this include:
1. FUNCTION
2. SPACE
3. GEOMETRY
4. CONTEXT
5. ENCLOSURE
6. SYSTEMS
(Activity Grouping and Zoning), p. 216
(Volume Required by Activities), p. 234
(Circulation, Form and Image). p. 282
{Site and Climate), p. 328
: (Structure. Enclosing Planes and
Openings}, p. 372
(Mechanical, electrical, etc.), p. 384
7. ECONOMIC (First Costs, Maintenance Costs), p. 436
8. HUMAN FACTORS: (Perception, Behaviour), p. 454
d. Where the designer should concentrate his design efforts on his perceptions
of the problems essence and its unique characteristics.
e. What the physical elements to be manipulated are within each of the issue
categories.

1!1'1' -----
..
The architectural concept for Saint Andrew' Parish Church 1968 was a symbolic one, based
on the Apostle's crucifixion on an Xshaped cross. The free form interior was designed to
take advantage of its corner-lot site (Archt. Leandro Locsin)
:- .... ..... '1: ...... .. ::
..
Dining room
Coffee shop
Swimming pool
Locker roorns
f ....

:;:.. .. _

This unique Golf Clubhouse (Valley Golf Club by Gabriel Formoso) is shaped to resemble a
golf ball on a tee.
201
BAGUIO HYA TI TERRACES Hotel was evolved from a design concept which projected the
rugged character of the mountainous region in its exterior and invoke an intimate commu-
nion with nature in its interior. The north facade has been slanted at approximately the same
gradient as the famous Banaue rice terraces thereby opening the guest room balconies to a
maximum of sunlight and mountain air.
EXAMPLES OF ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS
PRISM SCULPTURE
202
Constraint-confinement or restri ction,
repression if natural feelings or behavior
(to hold back, draw together).
"PRISM SCULPTURE" - growing from
the ground - This prismatic form of the new
Academy for performing arts on Wanchai's
waterfront, Hongkong is the result of the Ar-
chitect's desire to refl ect the art and of con-
straints of the site. (The site also presented
problems at the foundations stage as the
building straddles a mass transit railway tun-
nel).
This design concept by Simon Kwan and associates was the winner of the Royal HK jokey
club architectural competition and the design was a natural result of the shape and the site
and the art involved since performing arts require an artistics theme and the result - a sculp-
tural building.
Original design concept envisaged the prism in metal cladding, reflecting light and embody-
ing the idea of movement. As often happens when art meets reality, the concept was
modified to meet the client's financial requirements. The final designs showed a prism clad
in ganulite strips which give a different, more scul ptured expression to the concept.
From outside the building is monolithic being taller than the architects originally intended
because of the impracticalities of creating a basement. The mass is broken however, the
organic form of the prism and by triangular windows on the administrati on block that reflect
the reticulation of triangular space frames.
Inside the atrium, the external granolite finish is used to provide visual continuity. The
theatre block will use different wi th out schemes to denote the different walls, using mainly
acrylic coating on the walls, and carpeted floors with some PVC or rubber tiled areas. The
outdoor area is hard landscaped, but in soft curves to contrast with the geometric buildings.
A 70-storey, stepped profile on Honkong's
Bank of China, uniquely designed by Ar-
chitect IM PEl . The sleek lines of the
building look modern, b ~ t the inspiration
for its design came from classical
Chinese philosophy and iconography. The
design is an integrate piece of geometry,
a mass of t riangles in steel and glass.
The building seems to be propelled higher
with each new segment or growth. Pei
relates these measured segments as sym-
bolizing the Bank of Chi na's quest for
strength and excellence, and architec-
turally signifying the modernization ef-
forts now being undertaken by the PRC.
203
The structure's tiered construction is set on a solid two-storey granite base from which four
triangular towers emerge- The highest shaft rising 315m. capable of withstanding wind
loads as high as 615 kg./m2. The tower is designed to wave almost like bamboo during HK's
typhoon winds. The design strength is contained in the building's framework where struc-
tural steel members are bonded with reinforced concrete for stiffness and strength. A new
concept in bracing is employed by using diagonal beams to brace the structure and this
reducing the number of columns and composite reinforcement. This allows higher floor
loadings and reduces the steel required by approximately 40% .
. .. ......... _ ... __ .. ___ ..... - ... ------.-
A new and Innovative solarium architectural design concept that allows customers to enjoy
the sun in a cool and garden-like ambience is featured in the third Wendy's outlet at EDSA.
LIVING
IN
CAPSULES
204
Looking like toy bricks stacked together, the Nakagin Capsule tower Building just off Ginza,
Tokyo, is actually made of Capsules-self. Contained living units with bed, toilet bath, tele-
phone, colour tv set, heating and air conditioning. The deluxe capsules also contain desk-
top calculators, stereo sets, digital clocks and tape decks.
These factory-produced units were attached to two square towers with the aid of a steel
framework whose perpendicular accuracy was kept within 140 mm. There are 140 capsules
attached to the towers, which house lifts, prefabricated stairways and service pipes. The
two towers are connected by corridors on the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th flooring. The capsules
are one-man units.
CREATIVITY ...
Some people are more creative than others. However there are ways in which you can in-
crease your idea production, which is the basis of creativity. In short creativity is the process
of coining up with new ideas.

to r-emove

0 !Z/
3 Essentials to Development of Creative Skills
1. Ideation-refers to the mental process itself. To ideate
means "to think" and that is of course, how to train one's
self; think in new and unique ways.
2. Idea Quantity-means that the person who is capable of
producing the largest number of ideas per unit of time has
the greatest chance of producing the trully significant one.
In other words, the odds of your coming up with a really
creative idea are best if you have a lot of ideas from which
to select.
3. lmagineering -letting your imagination soar and then
engineering it back to reality.
Be careful to proceed in this order. In other words, don't
confine yourself to reality and all of its constrain before
you begin thinking of ideas. Think outlandishly, origif}ally,
and recklessly at first. The longer you spend thinking of
ideas, the more apt you are to produce a really wild one.
new cottcept
self 9PeniMQ
'lite
Example, before, a zoo is where you cage animals and
people roam around to them, now in some coun-
tries it is the reverse. The people are caged inside their cars
and the animals roam free.
cat:t opeHer
205
STAGES IN DESIGNING
206
I. DESIGN ANALYSIS
Bionics:
How did nature. Solve the prob-
lem? Spider webs-stronger ten-
sile strength as steel, anthills
and the honeycomb which gives
a good housing shape.
II. TENTATIVE 'SOLUTIONS'
Example To design a chair.
Solution (Morphological
synthesis)
Write several characteristics
that describe the chair, such as:
Materials : (wood, canvas)
(aluminum, rubber)
Shape (round, square, angular)
Features (folding, stacking)
Ill. CRITICISM

problem
@.
so1ut1011
Why do we think of so many great ideas? Because
Design involves problem solving and solving
demands idea production. What then is the
PROBLEM?
Creativity need a "positive attitude". So don't dis-
miss your own or another's ideas too quickly. Ar-
ticulate them, listen to them fully, and if possible
add other ideas to them. Talking through ideas
with another person or a group can help in their
development. An example is:
'BRAINSTORMING'-a group process in which
several people, for a given amount of time, gather
together and discuss a particular problem. During
this time, they all contribute positive thoughts to
the discussion and try to produce a workable solu-
tion. Also keep an open mind.
"Patience" should be practiced. Don't be too
anxious to come up with the perfect solution.
Your well-aimed arrow might end up hitting the
wrong target.
Above all have "faith and confidence" in your
self. Say what you feel. Question what you do not
understand. Speak out when you disagree with
something. Let your thoughts be known: maybe
someone ~ l s e will hear them and will help you to
develop them into a successful venture. Don't be
afraid to have some criticism thrown at you. Con-
structive criticism can be very helpful and you
should seek it. Don't be afraid to try something
new.
If your design is criticized by others, we may find
that they are applying further objectives or dif-
ferent priorities from our own. The problem is
changing and the information and objectives tend
to increase. Thus the spiral can be used to illust-
cri-tic i slt15
rate the process to indicate that our knowledge of
the problem increases as we attempt solution after
solution.
Another important trait is "TENACITY". Put ef-
fort in what you think and do. Stick with it. Force
yourself to work at your ideas. Have goals and
work toward them with conviction. Take them se-
riously but don't take yourself too seriously. You
can always do better than you have done in the
past, but work on yourself in the present.
Ptay down your mistakes. Don't dismiss them, and don' t deny them; Just play down
their significance if the situation appears to be wearing dowri your confidence. Spend
your time evaluating the situation: What you did right, what you did wrong, and what
can be done to improve things. Don't second-guess! Accept what you have done, what
has happened, and make the best of the situation.
Recognize the value of criticism, and when you give it, be sure it is constructive. Con-
structive criticism tends to be positive and usually elicits a better human response from
the person who is on the receiving end of it.
PSYCHOLOGICAL BLOCKS ...
These are ideas that society has ingrained in us, consciously or unconsciously. Values
imposed upon us can influence our thinking;_ our hopes, wants needs and eventually
our, mine or your values. They can prohibit us from being free in our thought, not to
mention our actions. Let's concern ourselves with thinking.
In order to design objectively, you have to be able to think freely, uninhibited by your
deep, dark past. Don't let people tell you that something can't be done or that you can't
do something. The key to coming up with creative, innovative ideas is to think without
being inhibited. Think unconventionally! Just because an idea seems strange or weird or
just different, don't throw it out. With a little help and confidence, it could turn out to be
your best idea of the day!
You must also use ingenuity to detect what the real problem is. Otherwise, you are
finished before you have begun. You might as well forget the whole deal.

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i : . .
L_ ____ _
soluti011
You have a problem, but let us assume that you have been through the process of
analysis, synthesis, and examination; and decided that the concept produced is general
ly acceptable.
207
208
Now, think about these:
1. Have you solved the problem?
2. What was the real problem?
a. You are a designer / draftsman and is behind in your schedule.
b. You had to make as many sketcht!s, or schemes as possible.
c. You had to select only one final scheme.
Actually the problem is solved, because of the f inal schemes, you now translate the
sketch design into the building process information and calt this "working Drawings".
But you created another problem: What will you do with all the sketches you made?
The flaw in this solution to the problem is the conventionality of thought that precluded
looking at the case holistically. The investigation considered ~ n l y one aspect of the pro-
blem: How to make the building safe, and beautiful.
What about tommorrow? No thought was given to the manufacturing later, what would
happen to the construction if the design concepts and details cannot be manufactured?
The holistic approach to a problem, commonly known as "systems approach", allows
us to look at problems from many different angles and disciplines. In the field of housing
and interior design particularly, influences from art, technology, psychology, sociology,
medicine, and physical education, are strongly influential and must include them in the
study.
Since much more information is needed to co-ordinate the building work and to allow
the prediction, measurement and ordering of the many materials and increasing number
of factory-made components. The result is that the initial, tentative solution re-
mains tentative for a considerable time while the details of the design are investigated
and coordinated.
IV. OPERATIONAL PROCESS
It is therefore more reasonable to use the terms 'conceptual design' to describe the
sketch, and 'operat;o.nal design' instead of working drawings. The conceptual arrange-
ment is largely a statement-ofintent for the guidance of structural and service engineer-
ing consultants and for use in obtaining information from the many manufactures and
suppliers who will be involved in the work.
With experience. skill and good fortune, it is possible for the architect to produce a con-
ceptual design which will require very little modification in the process of developing the
detailed drawings and specifications of the operational design. In most cases there will
be constant modification. Often the operational design will reveal problems that have
not been considered at the earlier stage. The result of this process is for the concept to
bE! changed in many ways, usually for practical purposes, before the operational design
reaches the stage of being final working drawings.
The more complex the building, the greater the
number of specialists, the greater the need for an
agreed conceptual stage. Otherwise, major
changes introduced after this stage by one mem-
ber of the design team will lead to the work of
others being frustrated. The economics of design
work will not allow this kind of duplication of ef-
fort. The smooth working of the team will be des-
troyed if one member upsets the work of others.
In this sense the operational stage may be consi-
dered as the work done by architect and special-
ists in t he investigation of their own area of work,
but within the framework of the Basic concept.
The operational stage is, by its very nature, much more a development of stability. Struc-
tural systems and construction. It is thus very easy to lose sight of the conceptual objectives
during the operational process for this reason, it is sometimes helpful to introduce another
design phase.
V. GEOMETRIC
The detailed visual inter-relationships between all the parts of the building as the opera-
tional stage develops. The visual objectives should be kept in mind at all stages but, be-
cause of the inherent difficulties of design team working, there is an increasing need to
consider detailed enginearing decisions in. geometric terms. A heating or a structural unit
may be perfectly practical, in accordance with the conceptual intentions and yet its
visual relationship to other elements of composition may be quite terrible. This will make
the unity or expressiveness of the design. Specialists and Engineers involved should in-
form the architect therefore when the visual design is likely to be affected.
The greatest need is for a closer integration of all objectives in design. With more people
involved this means better communication . The design process is a synthesis of many
objectives and everyone involved contributes to the total design. Each is capable of
damaging the whole entity. Architecture is the complete design, not a special ization
among other specializations.
MARLBORO BOX TO BOX DESIGN CONTEST


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Sometime in May, 1965, the local magazines and newspapers advertised in the papers
the first Box-to-Box contest using empty marlboro flip top boxes with a minimum of 30
boxes with a maximum of 200 boxes. This shall be connected to other only by
scotch tape and glue without using any other materials like sticks, cardboards, etc. This
contest was a brain child of Mr. Ronnie Pasola of PAC.
This attracted about 2, 500 entries from north to south and as .a preliminary selection 1 00
entries were selected from photographs sent earlier. This author was one of them. The
100 selected entries were required to be shown in its actual form during the interview
session and of these, 10 were selected to comprise the first 10 winners, out of these 10,
the first. second, third and so on were picked out and the author is proud to say that his
entry, entitled tour of Luzon won the Grand price of P10,000.00 presented at Philamlife
Bldg., Sept. 7, 1965. The presentation of awards was accompanied by the Box-to-Box
pop art show with an exhibit of hundred thrilling designs like the sphinx, eiffel tower,
tower of Pisa, Tinikling, Philippine Eagle, space walk and others. The show was biHed
as " proof of Rllpino Artistry and Ingenuity". The author's entry has the following
features which made it win. It used exactly 200 boxes, the maximum. The wheats of the
209
Bicycle moves when it is guided, and when you leave it alone, it is balanced by the two
wheels through the flat boxes. One side of the red marlboro box was used as the riders'
uniform which make it easily visible an,d outstanding.
METHODOLOGY
In order to Identify a problem. solving it through analysis, and then evaluating the solution;
there should be an 0 R GA N I ZA Tl 0 N. This process can he I p you save time, make better use
of your time and know what you do with your time ... It can also tell you what you should
be doing.
Methodology or the systematic method of problem solving, builds upon the concept by
helping to make the best use of the design tools acquired in creativity.
Interior design and housing has usually been associated with art, which is at the creative or
intuitive, the spectrum. It is, to a high degree, a creative vocation, as it concern,
themselves with the improvement of life. This is best achieved by developing new
ideas .... then developing it to its fullest, most complete extent.
After training yoursel f to think freely and unconventionally, to be creative. It is now time to
control and direct the thought process. You must not be purely methodical or purely in-
tuitive. In the design professions, you must be a combination of the two.
"Methodology involves the systematic breakdown of a body of knowledge into its workable
parts," When faced with a complex, multifaceted problem, a methodical person will solve
that problem methodically, or in steps. He or she will dissect and attack the problem in a
logical order. This is simi lar to eating food one piece at a time and not swallowing the whole
piece at once.
DESIGN METHODS AND DESIGN TOOLS
2.10
The Design fields thrive on problems. It takes many forms and pervades many professions,
and it is from some of these professions, particularly science and engineering that designers
have adopted much of thei r systematic methodology. But why use a method when solvi ng a
design problem, especially since people in design are supposed to be creative and uncon-
fined in their thought.
In the important concept of crea'tivity, there was a word "lmagineering" which means that
you let your imaginatiOn soar and then engineer it back to reality, and achieve a balance. (In
the past people used to imagine themselves flying, towards the sky, now after the invention
of the airplane, they can go to the sky, it is now a reality).
The organization of a problem from its discovery through its solution can spell the difference
between success and failure. To Brainstorm without recording your thoughts can be a waste
of time. You may forget some valuabl e ideas. Challenges that you undertake are complex,
no matter how simple they at first may appear to be. It is worthwhile to investigate all
aspects of them so that you know their scope and your actual goals.
At first glance, solving a problem methodically appears to be a Tedious, complicated
Success requires tenacity. But there are some hidden benefits to adopting a problem-solving
method. Perhaps the most important benefits is that it forces you to identify the real prob-
lem. Next, it compels you to record your findings in an organized fashion so that you won't
be tempted, literally, to jump to conclusions. Last it provides as efficient mechanism for you
to thoroughly think through your problem before you begin to produce a physical setting. In
short a "Design Method" is the vehicle you use to get a project from its beginning to its
end destination.
A DESIGN PARADIGM ... (a pattern, example, or model)

DESIGN TOOLS ... ... .
1. Prestatement- This is a statement of the problem that you, the designer will have to
resolve. It may take the form of your initial contact with the client, in which you learn
what he or she thinks should be done. However, sometimes what the client perceives as
being the problem, in fact, may not really be the problem.
Example: Client says "we don't have enough room for all of our good students." All we
need from you is a regular room for the kids to learn in- 30 desks, chairs, and a
blackboard. Just tell us where to put this room, order the furniture for it, and
we'll do it.
2. Problem Statement
Although this is the second item on the list, you don't write the problem statement until
after you have determined the problem. First proceed to step 3 and gather "information"
and then you can state the true problem.
Exampl e: The school needs a space in which low-achieving students will feel motivated
to learn and investigate. It should be away from unnecessary environmental
distractions but near the other classrooms and students. The area should sup-
port a vari ety of classroom activities, including lectures, group discussions,
and physical activity. Fl exibility is highly desirable.
3. Information-
This is the exhaustible stage at which you uncover all of the details that relate to your
problem. This is the point at which you do the research: reading, observing and scrutiniz-
ing. At the stage you meet the peopl e involved in the project, observe them, talk to them,
and sometimes, get to know them.
Record all of the information you will eventually use from:
a. Literature: record, document. and preserve all information that you discover
from written materials books, magazines, etc.
b. Experienced persons: ask verbally or unite anyone who can provide informa-
tion to help your cause.
c. Observation: Your own personal observation of the present situation is essential
in personalizing and validating your data. It provides you with intimate views of
what your problem entails. Personally observing individuals, corporations and the
subtle differences in projects, will enrich your information data.
Examples:
1. Good colors for concentration are pastel yellow, pink, green and blue.
2. Small group discussions and lectures will occur in the space.
3. Outside distractions, such as noise, are undesirable.
4. Twenty-six students will be accomodated.
5. Carpeting will help cut down on noise.
6. Strong contrasts of colors will enliven the space.
7. Free space will add flexibility for furnishings and cJassroom activities.
8. The atmosphere must be conducive to learning.
9. The students are usually unmotivated toward learning.
10. Special Teaching aids are necessary to attain student interest.
211
212
4. ANALYSIS ...
After completion of information search. You can begin to analyze your data. This is a
'Think Stage" and so do not conceptualize the total solution here. You should be think-
ing about the situation-in parts (Methodically), which you can later arrange into the order
that you determine to be best.
Getting back to the solution of the problem, remember to approach it in stages, a little at
a time. Begin by looking back at the information you collected. Pull out several items that
are relafed and form them into a group. This will become a "partial solution", which is
actually the solution to one part of your problem.
After itemizing all information, search for all commonalities. Find several it.ems in the list
that seem to be similar in some way. Then compose a unifying statement that incor-
porates these individual statements to form the partial solution. Continue this process un-
til you feel you have formulated a solution for every aspect of your problem.
Next, on the partial solutions, look again for commodities and call them "combined
solut;ons", which are actually verbal description of the final decision you have made for a
major aspect of that problem, if the problem entails more than one part. If it does not,
then the combined solution will be the final project solution but only verbally.
Example:
Partial Solutions
1. Carpeting should be placed where lec-
tures occur so that the space will be
quieter.
2. Strong color contrasts should be used
where discussions will occur.
3. Audiovisual aids should be placed where
the entire ciass can benefit from them.
4. Audiovisual aids that can be operated
individually by each student should be
provided.
5. SYNTHESIS ....
Combined Solutions
1. Two classroom sections will be created:
one for small group discussions will uti-
lize contrasting color schemes; a lecture
space will be painted a pastel color. For
acoustical purposes, the entire space
will be carpeted. Venetian blinds, allow-
ing for light and visual control of the
outside surroundi ngs, will be installed at
the windows. Audiovisual aids and other
teaching aids will be available through-
out the space for individual and group
use.
The conceptualization of your project's solution in a graphic manner. Now you can make
your visual materials and show what the final product will be. This is the point at which
you actually layout spaces, select furnishings, finishing and construction materials.
Examples: All drawings, sketches, verbal descriptions, models, or other visuals that
relate to the project belong here.
6. EVALUATION .. ..
The evaluation of a project may take place at different times. You may do it after the pro-
ject has been finished and has been in use for a while. By visiting the space then, you can
very effectively judge your res.ult and make whatever changes are necessary. This techni-
que is a good one, because it allows you to change unsatisfactory aspects of the design.
However there is an extra expense to you.
The alternative is to check your design before the actual construction of the project. This
type of evaluation consists of a series of questions that you ask yourself, based on what
you set out to accomplish. In each project, there are specific objectives that you must
satisfy. Ask yourself questions based upon these objects. Should you answer " NO" to
any of the questions, go back and see what you can do to change your answer to a
"YES". All yes answers will more than likely mean that your solution will basically work.
You should aim to minimize the number of major changes that could occur due to over-
sight .
To evaluate a project before it is constructed, ask yourself questions si milar in style to
those examples listed below:
1. Does the space accomodate twenty six students in both physically active and
sedentary activi ties?
2. Is the space flexible?
3. Does the space contain a variety of teaching aids and areas?
4. Are outside destructions minimal?
In any given locality the height of buildings/ structures shall be governed by the
following factors:
a. Population density:
Consider both the present and projected density in the area.
b. Building bulk:
For a given volume of buildings/structures, that which has.alesser area of
ground coverage may be bui.lt higher than that of greater area of ground
coverage.
c. Widths of streets:
Provide for adequate light and ventilation and accessibility.
d. Traffic conditions and parking/loadi ng requirements:
Provide effective control of traffic and adequate parking/loading facilities.
e. Provisions of land use plans and zoning ordinances.
f . Geological conditions:
Consider soil characteristics, location in relation to fault lines and earth-
quake belts and proximity of volcanoes.
g. Hydrological conditions:
Consider the water table at the site and distance to waterways and
shorelines.
h. Meteorological Conditions:
Consider the frequency and instensity of destructive prevailing
wind direction, relative humidity, amount of precipitation and the prevailing
ambient.
i. Environmental conditions:
Provide effective control of air, noise and thermal pollution. Promote growth
of vegetati on. Optimize natural light and ventilation.
j. Availability and capacity of public utility/service systems:
Consider the availability and adequacy of electric power, potable and non-
potable water supply, drainage and sewerage, transportation and com-
munications facilities.
213
FUNCTIONAL GROUPING AND
ZONING
HORIZONTAL DISPOSITION
Solving problems in Architectural Design begins with the familiar study of plan elements,
which develops into consideration of interior and exterior areas and detail s.
The various units of plan are first arranged in a horizontal manner in order to s"cure a work-
able relationship between the different areas. This pattern is dictated by the function of the
building and the desirable size and shape of the units themselves. The rooms of a house, the
galleries of a museum, or the units of a factory must be laid out to facilitate movemen_t
through the building, quickly and easily. There should thus be economy and directness of
circulation.
This is called Planning For Potential Circulation. Structures are built to be used, and the
purpose is defeated unless people can go easily and directly from one area to another, and
unless the related areas are adjacent to each other. Architecture thus, begins with a two-di-
mensional plan which is translated into foundations for vertical development.
THE PRINCIPLES RELATED TO FUNCTION
1. Under this category, we study the need for adjacency.
DINING
KITCHEN
t.ET
2 16
2. Simil arity in general rule .
0
Cl-UBHOUSE I Et-ITERTAlNMENT,
HEALTH !ift'f?T'G
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RECREATION
3. Relatedness to departments. Gqals and Systems.
Example: Hospitals
Example: Delivery Suite
Nurses
NUR!3'1NG'
J Pediatrics
J
Ero11ary care ]
[ Ortl1opedics J

j

ADMINIST'RATION



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---- ........
217
This is also called the "BUBBLE DIAGRAM" of SCHEMATIC relationship of units- This
allows the organization of the tasks in a space according to their relationship to each other.
4. Sequence in Time
Example: Parking Garage
H
CHECKING IN
EMtei


Garage
THEN
''CHECl<IN6 OUT"
car
Returl1
Mal<e
_..
for
TicKet
-
Payment

Car
5. Required Environments
a. Furniture Types
b. Need for view
Get
1icket
Get
Reciept
c. Need for ceiling Height or shape
218
Exit

by
Foot
Wait Get
for

Car
.........
Depart-
L:;Jr
No v1ew
d. Access to ground or roof
e. Need for vents or exhausts
f. Relative Security
g. Need for visual and sound privacy

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MECKANlCAI-
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h. Need for Acoustic Control
i. Need for noise Control
j. Relative Maintenance
219
220
k. Plumbing involvement
( S""ROOM
)

EINING )
( Bf:DROOM
(
LI VING
I. Relative Visual Access
CoH g regati 011
6. Types of Effects Produced
a. Radiation Produced
b. Chemicals
c. Smoke & Fumes
d. Relative heat produced (kiln, welding, kitchen)
e. Observation intensity
Jtttettsive care
unit
J
visual pri18cy
[ AdmiHi5'ficrliltt J
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ttursery

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)
)
f. Potential for contamination
g. Asset to public image
h. Revenue produced
i. Relative Weight
j. Noise produced - by Gymnasiums, Music,
mechanical rooms.
k. Vibration - machinery
I. Wet dry wet -laboratories, toilets, kitchen
dry-offices
m. Trash production (Food preparation, Dishwashing)
n. Relative visual clutter
o. Odor production
8
[tra5h J
non-
seattttg
7. Relative Proximity to Building

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221
I Waiti ng

Sequence
8: Relatedness to Core Activities
I House Keep i n9 I I Janitors Closet I
Clean C!rd
St erile
Uti lit_y
Offices
Cbctors
Lockers
& Sleep
I Nurse Station
Nurses
Lockers
Medical
PreFBrdf
Depart
INNOVATIONS IN AIRPORT DESIGN
222
To relieve congestion, several designs isolate passenger terminals from ai rplane boarding
gates. In airports with gates confined to remote satellites, passengers are carried by moving
sidewalks or fixed-rail vehicles. At others, passengers board small buses that link directly
with the aircraft.
SIX lNNOVATlONS IN AIRPORT DESIGN
a. Central Terminal with remote satellite.
CATWICK, LOt1dot1
b. Central Terminal with remote concourses.
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c. Central Terminal with Pier Concourses.
cars
d. Linear Unit Terminal.
DE GAULLE II
~ Paris
lf:t 1'-t-t \ ~
223.
e. Multiple Unit Terminal.
KIN6 J<HALID, Riyadl1
f. Central Terminal with Remote Aircraft.
DULLES, Wa5hi119ton DC.
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9. Characteristics of People Involved.
224
10. Volume of People Involved.
(1
5iHgle House
rfl
Duplex co11domi11iums
Apart111e11t!;
11. Extent of Man or Machine Involvement.
Sales peope
craCts tools
rnad1itte
Storage
Forkl ifts
U111oadi ttg
Delivery
Truc1<5
FUNCTIONAL DESIGN
This deals with the development of a plan arrangement to serve in a purely mechanical way
the functions of the building. It discovers the proper sizes of rooms and their relations to
each other . It furnishes the elements of comfort: Light , heat and ventilation.
It determines the correct size and location of the structural members which give the building
strength . However, even when all these requirements are satisfied, architecture does not ne-
cessarily exist. The building may remain only an engineering structure without the spirit of
architecture which is called logical beauty.
225
226
FUNCTIONAl- DIAGRAM
{abstract forms)
p
PRELIMINARY PLAN
(scaled proportiOtts )
0
SCHEMATIC PLAN
(spatial boundaries
articulations, circufati011-
siU? <( skapeG )
FINAL PLAN
(fully drawi11q 4 fittalized
fUtiCtiOtfat relatiOH5Hip.;)
ACTIVITY ANALYSIS AND LINKAGES FOR EFFICIENCY IN SHELTER
Design from linked Requirements in a Housing Problem
We can only grasp design problems fragmentedly. That is, there are practical limits to the
number of notions that can be thought of simultaneously when trying to solve complex
problems. The way that we overcome this inherent difficulty is to break a complex situation
down into smaller parts, dealing with these parts separately, and then bringing this new
ideas together to understand the situation.
When the problems of the physical environment are broken down into concepts like " ser-
vices", " heating", "community", '!structure". "safety", etc. and ideas about how these
needs or properties are best dealt with are formed. It is highly probable that any particular
way in which they function together will be forgotten. This breakdown of usefully inter-
related thought, (not encountered in small problems) suggests that some other way of find-
ing the component parts of the environment may be useful, and preferably parts that are de-
pendent on as many of the physical properties of the environment as are necessary.
Except in very rare circumstances we do not design a new object to satisfy environmental
needs from scratch. In the case of a house, library, town or piece of furniture, for example
we have the knowledge of what is happening in the use of these objects or complexes at the
moment. The concept of the failure of a specific piece of the environment to work with the
rest of the environment is well known. A simple case involves doors with pull handles which
can only be opened by pushing. A more serious example is when a window which must be
opened to achieve adequate room ventilation overlooks a noisy street. Both of these exam-
ples illustrate functional connections between different parts of the environment, in the first
case between door handles and door hinges or stops and the second between ventilation
and noise sources. Both are situations which are outsi de the range of normal human adapta-
tion, but in the second case there is no simple way at all for both parts to be compatible. In
the example of ventilation and noise it is perfectly possible to introduce a long acoustically
absorbent ventilation duct, but clearly the problem is one of separating rooms that need
quiet and heavily trafficked roads. Buildings close to noisy streets cannot be ventilated by
opening windows without also letting in disturbing noise. The way in which the physical en-
vironment fails at the moment is taken as the pointer to a basic requirement.
A requirement is a situation that must be present otherwise an observable human or social
need would go unsatisfied. Most requirements are dependent in t h ~ i r solutions on other re-
quirements. Any two requirements that would either help or hinder one another in solution
therefore interact and need to be thought of together if a satisfactory solution is to be found
for both. For example the requirements that visitors need to be able to park near thei r.desti-
nation and residents need to be able to control the noise that enters their dwelling will not
both be fulf illed by simple organization of thought of in isolation, as in the suburban street,
where next door's visitors awaken a neighbor by car doors or engine noise outside a
bedroom wall.
A collection of requirements and interactions {or links) in pairs of this form have inherent in
them a structure, which if understood makes it very much more probable that a solution will
be found. The problem of finding this inherent structure in a set of pair-linked requirements
is purely mathematical once it is accepted that any requirement is a requirement and that any
link is a link. That is, there either is a requirement or there is not, and similarly for links {either
it would be useful to think of the two requirements together or it will not) . This seems to be a
concept that is hard to accept, but after spending a large amount of time trying to find what
is act ually a requirement, it is pointless then to go on and say it is less important or more im-
portant than others, and again similarly with links.
227
228
Requirements are thought of as points and links as lines between them. Once these groups
of heavily interlink requirements have been found we have the necessary size of problem,
without it being limited to a single recognizable conceptual classification. It should be possi
ble therefore to design a schematic solution to this group of requirements. A diagram is the
most useful description of the solution and memory aid at this stage.
When all groups of requiremenrs have been solved conceptually they can then be combined
together, according to the ~ o u p s that are most interl inked and a new higher, set of schema-
tic diagrams formed, involving the principles of the groups that have already been resolved.
And so on until either one final organizational diagram is produced or a small set of com-
pletely disjoint diagrams. This diagram or these diagrams are then used as the basic organi-
zation of a concrete scheme.
The method involves f inding a set of requirements and their natural links, which toge-
ther define an abstract structure, analyzing the set, that is finding the abstract structure, and
synthesizing diagrams, which is to build on the abstract structure.
Use in the Housing Project
Concerning the boundary between an individual dwelling and the rest of the site and not
the Layout of the spaces or rooms within an individual dwelling, or type of construction.
LIST OF REQUIREMENTS
1. People should be able to dispose of refuse without having to store it in their dwell-
ing and without having to leave their dwelling.
2. Refuse which is capable of being disposed directly into a soil system should not
have to be collected.
3. All stored refuse should have barriers to prevent germs and smells polluting the sur-
rounding air.
4. Refuse for collection should be stored in such a way as to facilitate ease of transfer
to a disposal unit.
5. For a heating system to be efficient there should be minimum heat loss from the
dwelling.
6. For a ventilation system to be efficient there should be provision for a through flow
of air in the dwelling.
7. All dwellings should have some sunlight in day living areas.
8. The people in each dwelling should have access to a sunlit space which is visually
private.
9. People should be able to leave a baby in a pram in the open air where they know it
will be safe.
10. Delivery men need well defined routes for delivery which do not involve unnecessa-
ry retracing of steps.
11 . Delivery men should be able to leave their deliveries in a secure place, those in
recei pt of goods should feel that thei r goods are secure.
12. People should be able to collect deliveries {milk, bread, etc.) protected f rom the
weather.
13. Visitors should be able to park their cars near their destination.
14. Visitors should be able to find an address they want easily.
15. A parked car should be able to move off the site without the necessity of moving
other vehicles or interfering with the flow of traffic.
16. Pedestrians should feel that they are entirely safe from traffic.
17. People should feel that their car is part of their possessions and that their parking
space is their own.
18. Each person should be able to maintain (e.g. wash his car without causing annoy-
ance to other people.
19. Children need supervision when away. from the dwelling.
20. Children should be discouraged from playing in places where they might come to
harm (near refuse, etc.}.
21. Children should be discouraged from playing in places where they might cause a
nuisance (access ways, etc.J.
22. People should feel secure against intruders into their dwellings.
23. People should not be able to see directly into any other dwellings.
24. People need and arrival point to their dwelling which is protected from the weather.
25. People should have off site noise reduced to a minimum level below that of discom-
fort.
26. People should be able to control the noise that enters their dwelling.
27. People should be able to control the noise between spaces within their dwelling.
28. People should be able to stop too much dirt coming into their dwelling.
29. Peope should be able to get large objects (pianos, prams, etc. I in and out of their
dwelling easily.
30. People should feel that their dwelling is not forcing them into a state of loneliness or
isolation.
31. People need the opportunity to meet their neighbours without feeling committed to
their company.
32. People should feel that their dwelling is uniquely identifiable as their own.
33. People should be able to get to the shops and the city centre easily.
34. People should be able to get to a point of safety from any part of the site without
having to go through any part which might be on fire.
35. There should be a control on the spread of fire should it arise on any part of the
site.
36. Water for fire fighting should be available so that a hose can reach any part of the
site should a fire break out there.
37. People should not have to climb more than three flights of stairs to reach their
dwelling.
38. People of any one social group should not feel that they are m any way differen-
tiated from any other social group (e.g. research students).
39. Children and animals should be prevented from interfering with or scattering
refuse.
40. Each family needs a storage space related to its dWelling for bicycles, .canoes. etc.
41 . .People should not be inconvenienced by the noise and dirt of subsequent building
operations after they have taken up residence in their dwelling.
42. Invalids should be able to reach their dwelling without physical help from anyone
else.
43. People should be able to bring large objects (prams, pianos. etc. } to their dwelling.
44. Service maintenance men should not have to enter dwelling to carry out their work
unless absolutely necessary (i.e., to read meters, etc.).
229
230
2
3
4
9
10
II
12
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
4 4
INTERACTION MATRI X
The requirements a b o v ~ are only numbered for later reference; they are in no particular
order. Some are straight-forward physical failures like visual privacy in outdoor spaces,
some are physical failures that lead to communal breakdown and some are physical failures
to give the right feelings within the community, and all are concerned with site organization
(except 27 which was subsequently omitted) and all pointed to some specific kind of organi -
zation that must be present. Requirement writing took about 3 weeks once we had decided
what kind we wanted.
It was often possible to find a distant isolated case where the possible solution to two
requirements might conceivably affect one another. The diagram shows pairs of require-
ments considered interacted. The numbers refer to the requirement numbers and a blob on
the matrix to an interaction. So, 14, visitors should be able to find an address they want easi-
ly interacts with '32, people should feel that their dwelling is uniquely identifiable as their
own' since both deal with the distinction between dwellings, the size of groupings of dwell-
ings and how far apart they are; and does not interact at all with ' 9, people should be able to
leave a baby in a pram in the open air where they know it will be safe' which needs a small
private space adjacent to an overlooked by each dwelling.
The first problem is to find a measure of just how "good" any particular groupings of re-
quirements are in terms of most links inside groups and least links between groups. This
measure can then be used to compare any divisions of the whole set until the best one is
found. The mathematics to drive such a measure is complex and demands that all require-
ments have an equal probability of finding a total solution whether links are positive !i.e. the
two requirements help one another in solution) or negative (i.e. they hinder one another).
In this particular case the procedure used was to compare all possible groupings of just
a single requirements together with all the rest left as groups of just a single requirement.
When the best pair had been found it was called a single unit and then the best pair again
found of this new set. And so on until no further combination of a pair of units (i.e. either a
group of requirements or a single requirement) produces a better division into groups. In this
way the groups of heavily interlinked requirements were 'built up' from the set of single re-
quirements.
In the real life hill-climbing programmed it is necessary to repeat the procedure a number of
times with, say, the requirements in a different order since in the initial stages of the process
any pair is as good as any other. The more sophisticated programmes have in practi ce, how-
ever, been found to give essentially similar results for even low number of tries.
So there was no reason why the small groups should not be dealt with in the best way that
we could think of at the time, but now with a great deal more knowledge about which part of
the problem they were most likely to fit with. These changes, with one requirement rejected,
brought the number of groups down to eight, most of which were dealing with a recogniz-
able scale of problem. The final groups are shown in the diagram.
A schematic diagram for each of the groups was then produced as the result of further dis-
cussion of what we originally intended by the requirements. It was also possible to state the
basic idea behind each diagram, which necessarily left out the details.
231
1. THE CONCEPT OF SPACE
A. The System of Spacas
Man orients to 'Objects' that is, he adapts physiologically and Technologically to physical
things, he interacts with otl"ter people, and he grasps tbe abstract realities, or 'Meaning'
which are transmitted through the various languages created for the purpose of commu-
nication.
Spatial of Most of man's actions comprise a spatial aspect, in the sense that the
a certain objects of orientation are distributed according to such relations as inside
dimension and outside, far away and close by; separated and united; and con-
tinuous and discontinuous space therefore is not a particular category of
orientation, but an aspect of any orientation. Man, therefore has to understand spatial
relations and unify them in a 'Space Concept'.
Man has created space to express the structure of his world. We may call this creation,
Expressive or Artistic Space, and finds its place next to the top, together with cogni-
tive space. Expressive space needs a space concept which systematizes its possible pro-
perties. We may call this Aesthetic Spece.
The creation of expressive space has always been. the task of specialized persons, that is,
builders, architects, planners, while aesthetic space has been studied by architectural
theorists and philosphers.
Architectural Space is defined as a concretization of man's existential space. It has to
adopt itself to the needs of organic action as well as facilitating orientati on through per-
ception. It could also illustrate 'certain cognitive theories of space as when building a
cartesian co-ordinate system with concrete materials. But above a11 it is related to the
space schemata of man's individual and public world-which is created through interac-
tion with existing Architectual spaces.
B. The Concept of Space in Architectural Theory
Architectural space is divided into two classes:
1. This which are based on Euclidean Space and study it's grammar - The Euclidean
approach has recently been.stimulated by the importance of three - dimensional geo-
metry.
In Connection with 'SPACE FRAMES'
Prefabricated Building Systems
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Interior Dividers
and Certain Utopian City-Planning Schemes
235
2. Those which try to develop a Theory of a Space on the basis of perception pyschology.
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eoOY' OEP'TH
Fig. A
Fig. c
.BOD'i EI.U PSE.
Fig. B
236
Figure A (left) . Illustration of Fruin's "touch zone" based on a "body ellipse' buffer zone
with a minor axis related to body depth and a major axis related to shoulder breadth, allow-
ing a queuing area of 3 sq. ft. or 0.29 sq. m. per person. Below this boundary the frequency
of body contact between pedestrians is increased. Rgure B adapted from Fruin, Pe-
destrian Planning and Design, 1971 . Figura C :{right). Illustration of Fruin's "no touch
zone," based on an expanded interperson spacing of 36 in., 91.4 em. and a 7 sq. ft. or 0.65
SQ. m. area per person. Fruin contends that body contact can be avoided between 3 and 7
sq. ft. or 0.29 to 0.65 sq. m. per person.
Fig.E
Fig.D
Ftgure 0 {lett). Illustration of Fruin's " personal comfort zone, " expanding the body buffer
zone to a 42 in. or 106.7 em. diameter and a 10 sq. ft. or 0.93 sq. m. area. A full body depth
separates standees, allowing for limited lateral circulation by moving sideways. Figure E
{right). Illustration for Fruin's '"circulation zone, " expanding the body buffer zone to a 48 in.
or 121.9 em. diameter and 13 sq. ft. or in 1.21 sq. m. area. Fruin contends that 10 to 13 sq.
ft., or 0.93 to 1.21 sq. m. per person would allow circulation wit hout disturbing others.
SPACE
SPACE, in every sense of the word, is one of the most infl uential aspect of the "analysis"
stage in design problem solving. Before you actually design a space for people to behave in,
it makes a great deal of sense for you to be aware of how they behave to begin with. Know-
ing what activities, conditions, and people you are planning for, you should be able to use
your time and pffort constructively and in a worthwhile fashion.
PHYSICAL SPACE
It is easier to design for people's physical needs than to provide for their social and psycholo-
gical needs. Because physical characteristics are a measurable commodity. You can
measure, for example, how high storage can be placed in a kitchen by finding out how high
a person of average height can comfortably reach. You can measure the furnishings that are
being put in a space, add in the area needed for easy human movement, and learn the ap-
propriate size for that space. Everything is concrete: You don't have to analyze peopl e's feel-
ings about the proper kitchen counter top height, for example. Most of these standards for
building are already determined for you.
Objects are designed for people's convenience and comfort. We Iake into consideration the
manner in which that object will be_ used. Then we obtain the appropriate average
measurements for reference.
237
238
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Specific human measurements
are important in the production
of objects for them.
As an example, consider a chair.
What measurement do you think
determines the height of the-
seat? What about the backrest?
What about the width of the
seat?
The basic answers for all of these
questions involve measurements.
But in design we talk about "AN-
THROPOMETRICS" or the mea-
surement of the size and propor-
tions of the human body. (See
Chapter 3)
Anthropometries is a pure discipline. Measurements are objectively and scientifically obtain-
ed. Applying these measurements to produce a desired effect we call " ERGONOMICS or the
measurements of man implemented to accomodate him to machines. Anthropometries is
the tangible basis for producing optimum man-machine relationships. Clothing, furniture,
accessories: all are designed specificallv for people as the users. The physical space needs of
people are most critical in the drawing of floor plans. These needs are measurable, and so,
Aoor plans show physical spatial relationships.
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There are other forms of physical space
too. In addition to the need of a certain
amount of area around each person,
everyone requires "VISUAL SPACE": a
place to rest the People prefer to
rest their eyes away from other people.
Indeed, it is a form of obtaining privacy
for which you do not need to be alone.
Just as you would not want a stranger to
stare at you, neither would you want to
stare at him for any length of time. For
both people, the feelings this activity can
create may be undesirable, for reasons we
are not always aware.
We must consider another form of per-
ceptual space here. Even if the space an
individual has is physically large enough
and visually accomodating, noise can dis-
turb peopleand give them a feeling of ina-
dequate space. Excessive noise is a com-
mon occurence. It can cause extreme psy-
chological illness, insomnia, ulcers, heart
trouble and sundry other disorders. In
addition, it dimishes the auditory sense it-
self. At a less severe level, it can provoke
anxiety and feelings of insecurity in peo-
ple who are continually subjected, to this
uncontrollable aspect of the environment.
SENSORY PERCEPTIONS
1. Nose-"smell" olfactory (Air pollution,
carbon monoxide, factory nuisances,
smogs)
* SEALED BUILDINGS
are used to control thermal environmental.
2. EAR-"HEAR,.
(Noise, sonic boom)
+ Acoustical Refinement.
3. EYE-"SEE"
* Judicious proper colors of light.
Example of Physical space needs:
.76
Certain types of noise are all right. People
can habituate themselves to sounds that
are regular and of low intensity. For ex-
ample, the indistinguishable background
noise, called 'White sound" that we so
often hear in stores and large gathering of
people, usually causes no problems and,
in fact, is necessary. But exposure to in-
termittent, high-intensity sounds, such as
police and ambulance sirens and screams,
sonic boom from runways, for a long
period of time may cause either physical
or psychological damage.
--
--
239
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SINGLE BED I CLEARANCES AND DIMENSIONS
241
242
THE PROCESS OF SPACE ORGANIZATION
The difference between the architecture of today and that of yesterday is profound and sig-
nificant. It is the result of a new approach made possible by changing social conditions and
advances in Technological contributions. Architecture no longer belongs to the past, but in-
stead to the present and future.
In the past, there was no freedom in planning since the designers only think of superficial
details. The inflexibility say, of the Renaissance exterior exerted a definite influence on inte-
rior arrangements. The regular spacing of symmetrical windows dictated the location of
walls which separated important rooms.
'!1!1
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a moderH way of WIHOOw
de5ign irregularity
In the past, the designers began and ended with a study of the external style, columns.
doors, windows. It proceeded from the particular to the general and not as first discussed in
Chapter 1, from the general to the particular, thus reversing the process of design. Today,
training in design begins with a study of the fundamental principles of planning based upon
the needs of people and the resultant architectural forms. Such training is possible because
architecture is no longer bound to tradition or style.
t
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simple plaHning
Past Architecture-is static, heavy, inflexible, unreal
Now, architecture is dynamic, light, flexible, real , articulated planning.
In developing a set of basic principles for the production of a living architecture, the .architec-
tural designer should think of "space within a space", and not of solids in space.
Formerly we regarded buildings as piles of masonry for the purpose of separating man from
space. Now, architecture is space, conditioned to suit human needs. It is enc:osed with opa-
que, translucent and transparent materials in such a manner that man may exist comfortably
in it but may be spared the oppressiveness of heavy, confining walls.
The principles of space organization for architectural purposes are concerned with:
1. The use of space (utility, function) servi ce to occupants.
2. The collaboration of materials (strength) permanence and security.
3. The contributions of aesthetics !beauty) architecture as distinguished from the first
two mere buildings.
The decision as to what type of organization to use in a specific situation will depend on.
1. The demands of the building program such as:
Functi onal proximities
Hierarchical classification of the spaces
Requirements for access, light or view.
2. Exterior Conditions of the site that might limit the organization's form or growth, or
that might encourage the organization to address certain features of its site and turn
away from others.
After knowing the 3 principles of space organization utility, strength and beauty. The archi-
tectural desi gner is ready to proceed with the organization and conditioning process. The
trained designer can think directly in terms of spatial relationships and can arrange in his
mind. The various three-dimensional volumes which produce architecture.
Those who possess the ability may go directly from a statement of the requirements of a
client to a picture of the various spaces or volumes combined in such a way that the needs of
the occupants will be served. This may be called " Design from Spatial Composition" in-
volving planning directly with three-dimensional volumes and the ability to comprehend
cubic contents anj proportions.
SPATIAL QUALITIES
y for fux::tion5,
c;:Joqed
[II. If
D[jlJ
cowt p;;rtrne11tal ized
243
l11tegrated
SCALAR FLEXIBILITY
Segr-egated
MultipiB ceiling
Multiple floor
"WARM" - " BRIGHT" - " MECHANICAL" - "COOL" - "DARK"
"INTIMATE" - "ORGANIC" - "INVITING" - " ELEGANT"
(See, Scale Chapter 3) - "HOME-LIKE"
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stairs
TAILORED SPACE
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SPACE TO SPACE RELATIONSHIPS
1. SPACE WITHIN A SPACE
A large space can envelop, and
contain within its volume, a smaller
space. Visual and spatial continuity
between the two spaces can be
easily accomodated, but the small-
er, " contained" space depends on
the larger, enveloping space for its
relationship to outdoor space.
0
LOBBY.. $n'TING AREA
245
The contained space should not be
too large as there will be no differ-
entiation in size and the original no-
t ion would be destroyed.
better
The contained space may have a
higher attention-value by:
a. Taking the form of the envelop-
ing shape, but be oriented in a
different manner. This would
create a secondary grid and a set
of dynamic, residual spaces
within the larger space.
b. The contained space may also
differ in form from the envelop-
ing space, and strengthen its im-
age as a freestandi ng object.
This contrast in form may indi-
cate a functional difference bet-
ween the two spaces, or the
symbol ic importance of the con-
tained space.
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246


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Moore House
Ori 11da. Cal if0rt1 ia. 1961
2. INTERLOCKING SPACE
In interlocking spatial relationships
consists of two spaces whose fields
overlap to form a zone of shared
space. When two spaces interlock
their volumes in this manner, each
retains its identity and definition as
a space. But the result ing configu-
ration of the two interlocking
spaces will be subject to a number
of interpretations.
v '\
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Three possibilites of the Interlock-
ing portion.
a. The interlocking portion of the
two volumes can be shared by
each space.
b. The interlocking portion can
merge with one of the spaces
and become an integral part of
its volume.
Moore House
Orit1do. California . 196t
247
c. The interlocking portion can de-
velop its own integrity as a space
that serves to link the two origin-
al spaces.
Villa at Cartl1age : Tuni5ia. 1928 Le Cortusier
248
3. ADJACENT SPACES
This allow each space to be clearly
defined and to respond, each its
own way, to its functional or sym-
bolic requirements.
Four possibilities of Separating
Plane
a. Limit visual and physical access
between two adjacent spaces
reinforce the individuality of
each space. and accomodate
their differences.
b. Appear as a Free standing plane
in a single volume of space.
c. Be defined with a row of Col-
umns that allows a high degree
of visual and spatial continuity
between the two spaces.
d. Be merely implied with a change
in level or surface articulation
between the two spaces.
0
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0
Mait1 Level: Three- .spa:es- tke livi11g, fireplace aKd di11i11g areas
are detaiHed by dfa11ges it1 floor level, ceitif1g
height, and q..mlity of light a11d view, ratker tha11
by wall planes.
249
4. SPACES LINKED BY A
COMMON SPACE
Two spaces that are separated by
distance can be linked, or related to
each other, by a third, intermediate
space. The relationship between
the two spaces will depend on the
nature of the third space to which
they share a common relationship.
WAYS OF LINKING COMMON
SPACE
a. The intermediate space can dif-
fer in form and orientation from
the two spaces to express its
linking function.
b. The two spaces as well as the
intermediate space, can be
equivalent in shape and size
and form a linear sequence of
space.
I
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ircular Intermediate Sfa:e
b
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c. The intermediate.space can itself
become linear in form to link two
spaces that are distant (far)
from each other, or join a whole
series of spaces that have no
direct reJationship to one ano-
ther.
-:_-_ ---+--_ -_-_-_._. _._.--_---_-_-: _._. _._. _._. :_ = = =
250
\ ___ / 111termediate sp:xe liHkiHg a [ar disti:!Hced
d. The intermediate space can, if
large enough, become the domi-
nant space in the relationship
and be capable of organizing a
number of spaces about itself.
e. The form of the intermediate
space may be determined solely
by the forms and orientations of
the two spaces being linked or
related.
EXAMPLES OF SPACE TO SPACE RELATIONSHIPS
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SPATIAl ORGANIZATIONS
A building's spaces can be arranged and organized in Five ways. However there are usually
requirements for various kinds of spaces, such as:
1. Specific Functions, or requirement for specific
forms.
251
2. Spaces that are flexible in use and can be freely
manipulated.
3. Spaces that are singular and unique in their
function or significance to the building organi-
zation.
4. Spaces that have similar functions and can be
grouped into a functional cluster or repeated in
a linear sequence.
5. Spaces that require exterior exposure for light,
ventilation, view or access to outdoor spaces.
6. Spaces that must be segregated for privacy.
7. Spaces that must be easily accessible.
The manner in which these spaces are ananged can clarify their relative importance and
functional or symbolic role in a building's organization. The decision as to what type of or-
ganization to use in a specific situation will depend on:
1. Demands of the building program. such as:
Functions proximities, dimensional require-
ments, hierarchical classification of spaces, re-
quirements for access, light or view:
2. Exterior conditions of the site that might limit
the organization's form or growth, or that
might encourage the organization to address
certain features of its site and turn away from
others.
FIVE CATEGORIES OF SPATIAL ORGANIZATION STUDIED IN TERMS OF:
Configuration - to form after an
arrangement of parts or a form or
figures determine by the arrange-
ment of parts.
Context -a joining together . The
whole situation, background or en-
vironment relevant to a particular
event. personalrty, creation.
252
What kinds of spaces are accomodated and
where? How are they defined?
* What relationships are established among the
spaces, one to another, and to the exterior?
Where is the organization entered and what
configuration?
What is the exterior form of the organization
and how might it respond to its context?
FIVE WAYS TO ARRANGE AND ORGANIZE SPACE
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1. CENTRALIZED
A central. dominant space about which a number of second-
ary spaces are grouped.
2. LINEAR
A linear sequence of repititive spaces.
3. RADIAL
A central space f rom which linear organizations of space ex-
tend in a radial manner.
4. CLUSTERED
Spaces grouped by proximity or the sharing of a common
visual trait or relationship.
5. GRID
Spaces organized within the field of a structural or other three-
dimensional grid.
253
254
CENTRALIZED ORGANIZATIONS
A Centralized organization is a stable, concentrated composi-
tion that consists of a number of secondary spaces grouped
arounu a large, dominant, central space.
ltttroverted scheme that
focuses i11ward 011 it<3 cerrtral ~
The Central unifying space of the organization is generally re-
gular in form, and large enough in size to gather a number of
secondary space about its form.
The secondary spaces of the organization may be equivalent
to one another in function, form, and size. and create an
overall configuration that is geometrically regular and symme-
trical about two or more axis.
The secondary spaces may differ from
one another in their form or size as a
response to their individual require-
ments of function, relative importance,
or context. This differentiation among
the secondary spaces allows the form
of a centralized organization to res-
pond to varying conditions of its site.
DODD ODD
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256
Do
Their significance can also be empha-
sized by their location: at the end of the
Linear sequence, offset from the linear
organization, or at the pivotal points of
a segmented linear form.
Because of their characteristic length,
linear organizations express a direc-
tion, and signify movement, extension,
and growth. To limit their growth,
.linear organizations can be terminated
by a dominant space or form, by an
elaborated or articulated entrance.
Or by merging with another building
form or the topography of its site.
The form of a linear organization is in-
herently flexible and can respond readi-
ly to various conditions of its site. It
can adopt to changes in Topography,
maneuver around a body of water or a
stand of trees, or turn to orient its
spaces to capture sunlight and views.
It can be straight, segmented, or curvi-
linear. In can run horizontally accross
its site, or diagonally up a slope, or
stand vertically as a Tower .
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The form of a linear organization can
relate to other forms in its context by:
Linking and organizing them along its
length.
Serving as wall or barrier to separate
them into two different fields.
Surrounding and enclosing them
within a field of space.
Curved and segmented forms of Linear
organizations enclose a field of exterior
space on their concave sides and orient
their spaces toward the center of the
field.
RADIAL ORGANIZATION

A radial organization of space com-
bmes elements of both centralized and
linear organizations. It consists of a do-
minant central space from which a
number of linear organizations extend
in a radial manner. It is an extroverted
scheme that reaches out to its context.
With its Linear arms, it can extend and
attach itself to specific elements or fea-
tures of its site.
257
258
The Central space of a radial organiza-
tion is generally regular in form. The
Linear arms, for which the Central
space is the hub, may be similar to one
another in form and length and main-
tain the regularity of the organizations
overall form.
The radiating arms can also differ from
one another to respond to their indivi-
dual requirements of function and con-
text.
A specific variation of a radial organiza-
tion is the pinwheel pattern wherein
the linear arms of the organization ex-
tend from the sides of a square or rec-
tangular central space. This arrange-
ment results in a dynamic pattern that
visually suggests a rotational move-
ment about the central space.
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259
260
EXAMPLE OF A RADIAL.
.. ORGANIZATION PLAN
q: ..
. (DESERT HOUSE)
CALIFORNIA . Rictlartf Neutra
CLUSTERED ORGANIZATION
A clustered organization uses proximity to relate its spaces to
one another. It often consists of repititive, cellular spaces that
have similar functions, and share a common visual trait such as
shape or orientation.
Sharing commoH 611ape
difteteHt 6iz.e.E)
A clustered organization can also accept within its composition
spaces that are dissimilar in size, form, and function, but related
to one another by proximity and a visual ordering device such
as symmetry or an axis.
Clustered spaces can be organized about a point of entry into a
building.
DOD
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Or along the path of movement through it.
The spaces can also be clustered about a large, defined field or
volume of space.
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A clustered pattern lacks the compactness and geometric regu-
larity.
The spaces of a clustered organization can also be contained
within a defined field or volume of space.
Symmetry or an axial condition can be used to strengthen and
unify portions of a clustered organization and help articulate the
importance of a space or group of space within the organization.
80
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KARU!ZAWA HOUSE : CCXJ11try retreat 1974
K isl1o Kumk'a'Na
261
262
GRID ORGANIZATIONS
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A gri d organization consists of forms and spaces
whose positions in space and relationships with
one another are regulated by a three-dimensional
grid pattern or field.
A grid is created by establishing a regular pattern
of points that define the intersections of t wo sets
of parallel lines. Projected into the third dimen-
sion, the grid patt ern is transformed into a set of
repetitive, modular units of space .
A grid is established in architecture most often by a
skeletal structural system of columns and beams.
Within the field of this grid, spaces can occur as
isolated events or as repit itions of the grid module.
Since a three-dimensional grid consists of repiti-
tive, modular units of space, it can be subtracted
from, added to, or layered, and still maintain its
ident ity as a grid with the abi lity to organize
spaces. These formal manipulations can be used
to adapt a grid form to its site, define an ent rance
or outdoor space. or all ow for its growth and ex-
pansion .
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To accomodate the specific dimensional require-
ments of its spaces, or to articulate zones of space
for circulation or service. a grid can be made irre-
gular in one or two directions. This would create a
hierarchical -set of modules differentiated by size,
proportion a net toc- crtion.
A grid can also undergo other transformations.
Portions of the grid can slide to alter the visual and
spatial continuity across its field.
A grid pattern can be interrupted to define a major
space or accomodate a natural feature of its site.
A portion of the grid can be dislocated and rotated
about a point in the basic pattern.
.263
The grid can transform its visual image across its
field from a pattern of points-to lines, to planes,
and finally, to volumes.
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
ERK:; BOISSONAS HOUSE 1: New catfaal1, COtfttecticut I 19SG. Pkllip Jokl1sot1
264
A series of finite changes and permutations, the original design concept can be clarified,
strengthened and built upon, rather than destroyed.
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New York City , . Frat1k Lloyd Wrtgkt
SPACE ARTICULATIONS
l
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-=------- 1. The articulation of the surface of the
ground or floor plane is often used in
architecture to define a zone of space
within a larger spatial 'context'.
ArticuJa"tiOJ1 of a fi1ctiol1221 Z0t1e wiH1it1
a 0118-rwtff liYittg Bl1viruHtn811t
265
Build1hg ro site Tral19itt0l1
imperial villa , K3t!)Ura
o f C I I I (
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a (carpet} around the elevated space only.

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2. Elevating a portion ot the base plane
will create a field of space and define
the boundary of its field and interrupts
the flow of space across its surface.
And if the surface continues up across
the elevated plane, then the elevated
plane will appear to be very much a
part of the surrounding space.
: : : .
I I I :I ... ... I 5
Example-a carpet wrapped around
the floor and the elevated space .
3. If the edge oondition is articulated by a
change in form, color, or texture then
the field will become a plateau that is
separate and distinct from its sur-
roundings.
plat fOrn1 in a coquarG lake wrrou11ded by the
livi11g quarter-G .
. 266
.. ... .......... ::"::':::
Pre- . New '1'ork 1970 Hamlt1el,
4. Within t he interior
spaces of a building, an
elevated floor plane can
define a space that
serves as a retreat from
the activity around it. It
can be a platform for
viewing the surrounding
space. It can be used t o
articulate a sacred or sin-
gular space within a
room.
H igl1 A \tar i11 the Olapel Of Mot1asiery of SA IN ,"E- MARIE - r::E-
t-.4- TCXJRETTE R-.:mce 199.15!39, Le CorbtJ"?ier
267
5. A field of space can be articulated by
deJjressing a portion of the base plane.
The boundaries of the field are defined
by the vertical surfaces of the depression.
To visually reinforce the independence of the de
pressed field of space from its larger spatial context.
a contrast in form, geometry or orientation can be
used.
UNDERGROUND VILLA6E near l.ayat1g, Chirle'
268
6 The ground plane can be de-
pressed to define sheltered
outdoor spaces for under-
ground buildings. A sunken
courtyard, protected from
surface level wind, noise, etc.
by the mass surrounding it,
can be a source of air, light,
and view from the under-
ground spaces opening onto
it.
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7. Reading areas within a library space is defined by depressing their floor planes below the
main level of the library. The vertical surfaces in the reading area is used for additional
book storage. LIBRARY wiTH ''sUNKEN''
naadir1g space:
'MJifsburg Cultur-al CEt1ter
E.:-55811 .6erma11y 1962.
Alvar Aalto
plane can be usua
pattern of its structural system.
Ma-;;ortry Vault Wood
Joist
269
9. An area within a large room can be sunken to reduce the scale of the room and define a
more intimate space within it. The sunken area can also serve as a Transitional space
between two levels of a building.
~ , . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - ---------------
10. The ceiling plane of an interior space can ref-
lect the form of the structural system support-
ing the overhead floor or root plane. Since it
need not resist weathering forces, nor carry
major loads, however, the ceiling plane can
also be detached from the floor or roof plane
above and become a visually active element in
space.
11. The ceiling plane can be manipulated to de-
fine and articulate zones of space within a
room. It can be lowered or elevated to alter
the scale of a space, define a path of move-
ment through it, or allow natural overhead
light to enter it.
12. The form, color, texture and pattern of the
ceiling plane can also be manipulated to im-
prove the acoustical qualities of a space, or
give it a directional quality or orientation.
13. A vertical linear element, such as a column,
establishes a point on the ground plane and
makes it visible in space. Standing alone, a
column is non-directional except for the path
that would lead us to it.
14. The edges of the volume of space can be
visually reinforced by articulating its base
plane and establishing its upper limits with
beams spanning between the columns or with
an overhead plane.
271
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15. A row of columns or colonnades can define
the edges of a volume of space while permit-
ting visual and spatial continuity to exist bet-
ween the space and its surroundings. It can
also be attached to or support a wall plane
and articulate its surface form, rhythm, and
proportion.
Examples of two uses of Column-Grid.
a) A column-grid establishes a fixed, neutral
(except for the circulation elements), field
of space in which interior spaces are freely
formed and distributed.
Tst Floor Plan
MILLOWNERS': Ahmedatad ,
lt1dia , 1954 Le
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b) A grid of columns a posts corresponds
closely to the layout of the interior spaces;
there is a close "fit" between structure
and space.
272
THIRD FLOOR PLAN
AS50CIATleJ:
Ahmedotad l11dia : 1954 Le Corl:"x.J5J.sr
The Base Plane Elevated
A horizontal plane elevated above the ground plane establishes vertical surfaces along its
edges that reinforces the visual separation between its field and the surrounding ground.
The Base Plane Depressed
A horizontal plane depressed into the ground plane utilizes the vertical surfaces of the de
pression to define a volume of space.
The Overhead Plane
A horizontal plane located overhead defines a volume of space between itself and the
ground plane.
.
16. A vertical plane will articulate the space that
is fronts.
It can appear to be merely a fragment if an in-
finitely larger or longer plane, slicing through
and dividing a volume of space.
A plane has frontal qualities. Its two surfaces
or "Faces" front' on and establish the edges of
two separate volumes of space .
273
. . . .. ... .. .. . . . .
......... ... . : : ~
274
The two faces of a plane can be equivalent
and front similar spaces.
Or they can be differentiated in form, color, or
texture, to respond to, or articulate, different
spatial conditions. A plane, therefore, can
have two "fronts", or a " Fronts" and a
''back".
17. The height of a plane, relative to our height
and eye-level, is the critical factor that affects
the plane's ability to visually describe space.
When two feet high, a plane can define the
edge of a field but provides little or no sense
of enclosure for the field.
When waist-level high, it begins to provide a
sense of enclosure while allowing for visual
continuity with surrounding spaces .
When it approaches our eye-level in height it
begins to divide one space from another.
Above our height, a place interrupts visual
and spatial continuity between two fields and
provides a strong sense of enclosure.
19. Various elements in architecture can be seen
as parallel planes that define a field of space.
They can be interior walls of a building, the
exterior walls or facades of two adjacent
buildings, a colonnade of columns, two rows
of trees or hedges, or a natural topographical
form in the landscape.
KINESTHETIC QUALITIES OF SPACE
KINESTHETIC-
The sensation of movement or strain in muscles, tendons, joints. A good example of a build-
ing with Kinesthetic qualities of space is the Old Imperial Hotel in Tokyo designed by Frank
Lloyd Wright. It provides the Westerner with a constant visual, Kinesthetic, and tactile re-
minder that he is in a different world.
The changing levels, the circular, walled-in, intimate stairs to the upper floors, and the small
scale are all new experiences. The long halls are brought to scale by keeping the walls within
reach. Wright, an artist in the use of texture, used the roughest of bricks, then separated
them by smooth, gilled mortar set in from the surface a full half-inch.
, . ~
Walking down these halls the guest is almost compelled to run his
fingers along the grooves. The brick is so rough that to obey this impulse
would be to risk mangling a finger. With this device Wright enhances the
experience of space by personally involving people with the surfaces of
the building.
The early designers of the Japanese Garden apparently understood something of the interre-
lationship between the Kinesthetic experience of space and the visual experience. Lacking
wide-open spaces, and living close together as they do, the Japanese learned to make the
most of small spaces. They were particularly ingenious in stretching visual space by exagge-
rating kinesthetic involvement. Not only are their gardens designed to be viewed with the
eyes but more than the usual number of muscul ar sensations are built into the experience of
walking through a Japanese garden.
Z75
276
The visitor periodically forced to watch his step as he picks his way
along irregularly spaced stepstones set in a po.ol. At each he must
pause and look down to see where to step next. Even the neck muscles
are deliberately brought into play. Looking up, he is arrested for a mo-
ment by a view that is broken as soon as he moves his foot to take up a
new perch. In the use of interior space, the Japanese keep the edges of
their rooms clear because everything takes place in the m1ddle.
Q
D
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.Japattese rcom
Europeans tend to fill up the edges by placing furniture near or against walls. As a conse-
quence, Western rooms often look less cl uttered to the Japanese than they do to us. In
America, the conventional idea of the space needed by office employees is restricted to the
actual space required to do the job. Anything beyond the minimum requirement is usually
regarded as a "Frill".
The concept that there may be additional requirements is resisted at least in part because of
the American's mistrust of subjective feelings as a source of data. We can measure with a
tape whether or not a man can reach something, but we must apP,IY an entirely different set
of standards to judge the validity of an individual's feeling of being cramped.
HIDDEN ZONES IN
AMERICAN OFFICES
People's reaction to office space reveals that the single most important criterion is what peo
pie can do in the course of their work without bumping into something. Offices provides dif-
ferent spatial experiences. One office would be adequate, another would not.
One example is an employee who had a habit of pushing herself away from her desk and
leaning back in her chair to stretch her arms, legs, and spine.
away (rvm shove
If the employee touched the wall when she learned back, the office struck her as too small. If
she didn't touch the wall, she considered it ample.
0
There are 3 HIDDEN ZONES in American Offices:
1. The immediate work are of the desk top and chair.
2. A series of points within arm's reach outside the area men-
tioned above.
3. Spaces marked as the limit reached when one pushes away
from the desk to achieve a little distance from the work with-
out actually getting up.
An eclosure that permits only movement within the first area is experienced as " cramped".
An office the size of the second is considered " small ". An office with zone 3 space is consi-
dered "adequate" and in some cases "ample".
Kinesthetic Space is an important factor in day-to-day living in the buildings that architects
and designers create. Hotel rooms are too small when a person cannot move around them
without bumping into things. Comparing two rooms, identical in shape and area, the one
that permits the greater variety of free movement will usually be experienced as larger. Interi-
or spaces should be improved in the layout, so that people are not always bumping into each
other.
this room loot<s lar(jU
ihan this
277
278
Given the fact that there are great individual and cultural differences in spatial needs, there
are still certain generalizations which can be made about what it is that differentiates one
space from another. Briefly what you can do in it determines how you experience a given
space.
A room that can be traversed in one or two steps gives an entirely different experience from
a room requiring fifteen or twenty steps. A small restaurant with say twenty five small tables
for four people, when filled up will always look crowded and will give a person an experience
he is eating in a popular restaurant. While a spacious restaurant with say eighty tables for
four, when occupied only by the same number of peopl e as the small restaurant or 100 cus-
tomers will still look empty and gives an impression of not fully occupied.
t o o k ~ empty
A room with a ceiling you can touch is quite different from one with a ceiling that is high.
In large outdoor spaces, the sense of spaciousness actually experieQced depends on
whether or not you can walk around.
In an Exhibition room, as shown p. 279 the viewer is given the kinesthetic experience by
making the display pictures in a variety of levels, contrast of verticals and horizontals, large
anrl small panels, which are all done to move the viewer' s eye. Some picture frames are at
c: e1ling heights, some are hanging and some are at near the floor level. others are just at eye
level.
PLANNED TRAFFIC FLOW
One example is the photographic art exhibit called " the Family of Man" -503 pictures
occupying some 8,000 Feet !2. 700 meters) ot wall space in New York's Museum of Modern
Ar t Planneci and executed by Erlwaro Sti!IChen. A f loor Plan was made by Architect Paul
Rudolph, which is a crucial step in determining the overall arrangement of pictures.
To give the show pace and rhythm, Steichen and Rudolph wanted to be sure that peo-
ple saw the pictures in a certain order-large Keynot pictures alternating with contemplative
images, sorrowful subjects interspersed with lighthearted ones, The existing wall space is
used as well as for the construction of supplementary panel-which not only increased the
available display area but also functioned as conduits for the flow of traffic. Further, .after the
plans were moade, a reduced scale model was made so that the planners could see a small
but full version of the show.
In the miniature laboratory, pictures were tested in arrangements. The photographs
were reduced proportionately and positioned in the model; Steichen could then see pictures
'juxtaposed' in relative size, When adjustments were called for, the pictures could be reposi-
tioned and altered in size: entire panels could be moved around to establish new relation-
ships among groups of pictures.
floor level J
b! of gravel fOr protectiof1
of ptcturo:; from toucH
11 1
H!}IGHTI FRAMES (
Do
0 0
low level
floor
VARIETY OF LEVELS, CONTRAST OF VERTICAL. AND HORI1.0NTAL5,
I
LAR6E AND 5MALL. PANELS ARE OONE TO MOVE THE VJEWER5 EYI:
279
APPEARANCE OF
THE STRUCTURE
[
The principles related to appearance was discussed in Chapter 3 wherein composition of
mass, volume, areas and details were organized according to contrast, scale, balance, pro-
portion, rhythm, unity and character. Architecture does not necessarily result from the deve-
lopment of a functional building that is based only upon the importance of use and materials.
The various units of the structure may be correctly related to each other. but the proportions
of the different volumes could be so inharmonious that only ugliness and confusion would
exist.
It is necessary that a building be organized for appearance. The plan and the resultant
masses, volumes, surfaces and details-should be developed according to the rules of compo-
sition. The principles of composition may be applied alike to the two-dimensional plans and
surfaces or to the three dimensional volumes.
LINE GENERATED CIRCULATION
SHAPES IN PLAN LONGITUDINAL SECTION
CROSS SECTIONS
II
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282
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283
FORMS AND IMAGES
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SPACE- CIRCULATION RELATIONSHIPS
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DIAGONAL
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NE"CK L lt-.IK
284
SPACE TO CIRCULATION LINKAGES
51N6LE LOADED
DOUBLt:: LOADED
ENVELOPe-D
ALTERNATE SOLID VOID
BUILDING IMAGE
285
CHECKLIST OF CATEGORIES OF CONCERN
FOR A DESIGNER
1. FUNCTION {activi ty grouping and zoning), p. :llo
2. SPACE (Volume required by activities), p. 234
3. GEOMETRY (circulation, form and image), p. 282
4. CONTEXT (site and climate), p. 328
5. ENCLOSURE (structure, enclosing planes and openings), p. 372
6. SYSTEMS (Mechanical, electrical, etc.), p. 388
7. ECONOMIC (first, costs maintenance costs), p. 436
8. HUMAN FACTORS (perception, behavior), p. 458
a. Where the desi gner should concentrate his design efforts on his percepti ons of the
problems essence and its unique characteristics.
b. What the physical elements to be manipulated are within each of the issue cate
gories.
Examp
1
es:
1. FUNCTIONAL GROUPING AND ZONING
( HYGI E:Nr:.) (RECREATION)
SEDROOM BEDROOM
}r-5-U_N_D_f:ZC_K __ ]
5La:FPJNG
'TOILET DeN LIVIN& RCICM DINING
HOUSE
(FOOD)
Under this category we study the need for adjacency, similarity in general role, relatedness
to Departments. goals and systems, sequence in time, required environments, relative proxi
mity to building, volume of people involved, extent of man or machine involvement. degree
of emergency or critical situations, frequency of activity occurence, etc.
CIRCULATION
MOVEMENT THROUGH SPACE
The circulation path can be conceived as the perceptual thread that links the spaces of a
building, or any series of interior or exterior spaces, together.
Since we move in TIME, through a Sequence of Spaces, we experience a space in relation
to where we've been, and where we anticipate going.
The following are Five principal components of a building's circulation system as positive
elements that affect our perception of the building' s forms and spaces.
CIRCULATION ELEMENTS
1. THE BUILDING APPROACH
286 The distant View
Prior to actually entering a building's interior, we approach its entrance along a path. This
is the first phase of the circulation system, during which use are prepared to see, experi-
ence, and use the building's spaces.
The approach to a building and its entrance may vary in duration. from a few paces
through a compressed space to a lengthy and circuitous route. It can be either.
a. Frontal
A frontal approach leads directly
to a building's entrance along a
straight, axial path.
The visual goal that terminates
the approach is clear; it can be
the entire front facade of a build-
ing or an elaborated entrance
within it.
b. Oblique
An oblique,approach enhances the
effect of perspective on a build-
ing's front facade and form.
The path can be re-directed one
or more times to delay and pro-
long the sequence of the ap-
proach.
287

288
If a building is approached at an
extreme angle, its entrance can
project beyond its facade to be
more clearly visible.
c. Spiral
A spiral path prolongs the se-
quence of the approach, and em-
phasizes the three-dimensional
form of a building as it moves
around the building's perimeter.

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.. -
... '?
.
LD
. -.
;:;:A:;:
/"

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The building's entrance might be
viewed, intermittently during the
appr-oach to clarify its position, or
it can be hidden until the point of
arrival.
2. THE BUILDING ENTRANCE
.'\
....
\
90
\
\
\
5TRE!ET
\
- sTReET
SIDE WALl<
From Outside to Inside
Entering a building, a room within a building,
or a defined field of exterior space, involves
the act of penetrating a vertical plane that
distinguishes one space from another, and
separates "here" ~ o m "there".
It can be the passage thrqugh an implied,
rather than real, plane established by two pil-
lars or an overhead beam.
In more subtle situations, where visual and
spatial continuity between two spaces is de-
sired, a change in level can mark the passage
from one place to another .
Regardl ess of the form of the space being entered, or the
form of its enclosure, the entrance into the space is best
signified by establishing a real or implied plane perpendicu-
lar to the path of the approach.
289
.290
Entrance may be grouped formally into the following categories.
a. Flush -entrances maintain the continuity of a walls' surface,
and can be, if desired, deliberately obscured.
b. Projected-entrances announce their function to the ap-
proach and provide shelter overhead.
c. Recessed-entrances also provide shelter and receive a por-
tion of exterior space into the realm of the building.
In each of the categories above, the form of the entrance can be simi-
lar to, and serve as a preview of, the form of the space being entered.
Or it can contrast with the form of the space to reinforce its bound-
aries and emphasize its character as a plane .
I
In terms of LOCATION, an entrance can be centered with
the frontal plane of a building.
Or it can be placed off-center and create its own symmetri-
cal condition about its opening.
The NOTION of an entrance can be visually reinforced by:
Making the opening lower, wider, or narrower than
1
anticipated.
-==:::::11
Making the entrance extra deep.
or Circuitous;
(Ramps, Stairs)
~
lll J
It
291
292
Articulating the openinj:l with ornamentation or decorative
embellishment (climbing plants, sculpture, columns, statues,
glass mosaic, etc.).
3. CONFIGURATION OF THE PATH




}




The sequence of Spaces
All paths of movement, whe-
ther of people, cars, goods or
services, are linear in nature .
And all paths have a starting
point, from which we are
taken through a sequence of
spaces to our destination
The Contour of a path de-
pends on our mode of Trans-
portation.
While people, as pedestrians,
can turn, pause, stop, and rest
at will, a bicycle has less free-
dom, and a car even less, in
>' changing its pace and direc-
tion abruptly.
While a wheeled vehicle may
require a path with smooth
contours that reflect its turn-
ing radius, the width of the
path can be tailored tightly to
its dimensions.
Pedestrians, on the other
hand, although able to tolerate
abrupt changes in direction,
require a greater volume of
space than their bodily dimen-
sions, and greater freedom of
choice along a path.
J'L
1 The Intersection or crossing of paths is always a
~ ~ o i n t of decision making for the person approach-
1ng.
l D---- Cotitihui-t;' ,
293
J I_
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Iii
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~
The continuity and scale of its path can help us
distinguish between major routes leading to major
spaces and secondary paths leading to lesser
spaces.
When the paths at a crossing are equivalent to
one another, sufficient space should be provided
to allow people to pause and orient themselves.
... , :::::=::==:=="=:)> straight
The nature of the path's configuration
influences, or is influenced by, the or-
ganizational pattern of the spaces, it
links. It can either be:
loop
~ - -
294
curvi \i t1ear
a. Linear - all paths are linear. It can
be curvilinear or segmented inter-
sect other paths, have branches,
. form a loop.
intersectoo
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b. Radial-A radial configuration has
paths extending from, or termi-
nating at, a central, common point.
c. Spiral-A spiral configuration is a
single, continuous path that origin-
ates from a Central point. revolves
around it, and becomes increasing-
ly distant from it.
d. Grid -A grid configuration
of two sets of parallel paths that in-
tersect at regular intervals and cre-
ate square or rectangular fields of
space.
295
4. PATH-SPACE RELATIONSHIPS
Edges, nodes, & terminations of the Psth.
e. Network-A network configura-
tion consists of random paths that
connect established points in
space.
f. Composite-A building normally
employs a combination of the five
patterns above. To avoid the crea-
tion of a distorting maze. a hierar-
chical order among the paths can be
achieved by differentiating their
scale, form and length.
Paths may be related to the spaces they link in the following ways. Paths may:
a. Pass by Spaces
CCCLl(J
<i [ 0 0 0 -; D A ~ 0>
axially ~
The integrity of each space
is maintained.
The Configuration of the
path is flexible.
Mediating spaces can be us-
ed to link the path with the
spaces.
296
obliquely
~ ll 0
D 0
0
0
b. Pass through Spaces
The path may pass through
a space.
Axially. obliquely and or
along its edge.
In cutting through a space.
the path creates patterns of
rest ar)d movement within
it.
c. Terminate in a Space
The location of the space
establishes the path.
This path-space relationship
is used to approach and
enter functionally or sym-
bolically important spaces.

.
BOISSONA5 HOUSE II
Philip
.,::;J
Frat1ce,
5. FORM OF THE CIRCULATION SPACE
Corridors, Balconies, galleries, stairs .& rooms.
0

ut1der a water-fall
Circulation spaces form an integ-
ral part of any building organiza-
tion, and occupy a significant
amount of space within the build-
ing's volume. If considered mere-
ly as functional linking-devices,
then circulation paths would be
endless, corridor like spaces.
over a pool
promenade - a suitable place for walking for plea-
sure, as a mall.
Mall - a public plza, or system of walks set with trees
and designed for pedestrian use. .
The form and scale of a circula-
tion space, however, must acco-
modate the movement of people
as they promenade, pause, rest,
or take in a view, along its path.
The form of a circulation space
can vary according to how:
its boundaries are defined.
its form relates to the form of
the spaces.
its qualities of scale, propor-
tion, light, and view are articu-
lated.
297
- ~ 2 5
\. 150
=
298
entrances open onto it;
it handles changes in level with
stairs and ramps.
A CIRCULATION SPACE May
Be:
Enclosed. forming a corridor
that relates to the spaces it
links through entrances in the
wall plane;
Open on One Side, to provide
visual and spatial continuity
with the spaces it links;
Open on Both Sides, to be-
come a physical extension of
the space it passes through.
The width and height of a circulation space
should be proportionate with the type and
amount of traffic it must handle. A narrow,
enclosed path will encourage movement.
A path can be widened not only to sccomo-
date more traffic but also to create spaces
for pausing, resting, or viewing.
corridor
:
IE! I
corridor
or terminate it.
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t-=4
I
A
~
I
1
;
II
l
-
up
UP
STAIRS-
In accomodating a change in level, can rein-
force the path of movement.
~ ........ - --
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a.?
lA ..
-
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r-
~
-
~
-
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r-
interrupt it.
accomodate a change in its course.
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l
up
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300
staircae
.
II
II
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PLAN
1
B o t ~ arrive 011 top
per5pective "OOJeLe ACTIOt-.1 5TAH<CASE
SEMANTICS
The study of meanings is called semantics, which is usually thought of as the meanings of
words. Architectural meanings then are discussed as architectural semantics.
Meaning is not only the fi rst mental entity to come into consciousness, but that it is also the
entity which commonly inspires creative work. A memory image of an earlier perceived form
changes in the direction of the nearest form. During this change of the image, the subject
also experiences a trend to add a meaning to what was originally a perception of a 'non sen-
sica! form' .
This figure is often interpreted by different people as a Female torso
adumbell
and a violin
below is an example of a picture with manifold meanings. It shows a beautiful young girl
but as you look at her ears, it becomes the eve of an old woman. The face of the young girl
becomes the nose of the old woman and the neck becomes the mouth and chin of the old
woman.
1. SIGNAlS AND SIGNS
To understand the meaning of a perception implies for an animal that it is a signal for a cer-
tain action. For example a trained dog hears the ringing of a clock and this is a s1gnal for the
dog to take food: for a human being, a thing may be a signal for a certain kind of behaviour.
The gong sounds and we sit down at the table and eat. We see a certain traffic light and start
our car. In this connection, it is also customary to speak of signs. A traffic policeman makes
a sign to the motorist, who obeys this sign.
SYMBOLIC SIGN
There are three main types of Signs
1. Indexical Sgn, or Index
Something which had an relation between signifier and signified: Smoke
with fire, footprints with foot. In architecture every sign has an indicative compo-
nent: a glass door indicates itself and what is behind, arrows indicate circul ation. a
weathercock indicates the direction of the wind, a window indicates view. These
are the literal signs and one can imagine a low level significance architecture made
301
302
up from them such as vernacular, or industrial building, a building of cliches which
does not, particularly, refer to metaphors, symbols or aesthetic ideas apart from
itself.
The perceiver sees these forms as a matter of fact and generally there -has been no
intention to communicate on the part of the designer. Indexical signs are learned by
the perceiver over time and in this sense really are disguised symbolic signs which
have a peculiar quality. The Indexical sign is important for architecture in as much
as many new forms are introduced for pragmati c or functional reasons which then
become continuously re-used in this context until they become symbol ic signs. An
index therefore is a sign, or representation which refers to its object not so much
because of any similarity of, or analogy with it, nor because it is associated with
general characters which that object happens to possess, and because it is in
dynamical {including spatial) connection, both with the individual object on the one
hand and with the senses or memory of the person for whom it acts as a sign.
2. The Iconic Signs-
Concern a different set of relations between signifier and signified although, of
course, there is always present an existential and therefore indexical relation as well.
Most 'functional' architecture is of this sort: pie-shaped or wedge-shaped auditoria,
tube-shaped circulation corridors, structurally-shaped bridges, hot-dog stands in the
shape of liot dogs, folkhouse with a facade that looks like a real fireplace. And the
use of forms and materials according to their inherent emotional overtones 'red as ag-
gressive; passionate etc.).
....... :.,: ___?!!1'
~ ~
.l!l -

An ICON therefore is a sign which refers to the object that it denotes by virtue of cer-
tain characters of its own and which it possesses just the same, whether any such
object actually exist or not.
304
Cheese-grater precast unit a sign of 'parking garage'.
Glass and Steel Cage Signifies an office.
Widcwlll" .- a v'.eSi!O;;e w1tk a..t}e
Tlleztre <.,.. aua;tOf'ium il<e '.iJg!rt
Q!'llf<!r.!lt\'.l al1d me oode Of m<!dern
vcluJtle 1\MlHi kdv, le C<TI>v<l-isr attd
.l:t1rrig fcrrrl ifl; semi11a! way aJ!ll it
*t' <'li tltougfl otll6r 'v.ord'' jilr Th..,
wi!tl <>i!j iti in f.m !he t::OtJtltnj CluJ>
Truncated Wedge or wind-
ow less ' Pie-Shape' .
Is codif ied as Audito-
rium, ci nema. t heatre.
Roys/ Pavilion -John Nash a version of the hin-
du style (bulbous domes), latticework, Gothic
Tracery) as a symbol for this royal escape
palace.
I
B iS T
Bringing Business to stores best.
3. Symbolic Sign-
Where conventional usage sets the arbitrary relation between signi fier and signified
sampl es of this are the conventional use of three orders of classical archi tecture
(Doric for banks etc., masculine).
The classical style used f or townhouses, old English for country retreats; The
emblems on pubs, and the great menagerie of animals and amazons which decorate
and hold up buildings.
A symbol is a sign which refers to the object that it denotes by virtue of law, usually
any association of general ideas, which operates to cause that symbol to be inter-
preted as referring to-1hat object.
305
2. SYMBOLS
For a human being, the meaning of an object in addition, appear instead of another mean-
ing. as a symbol of the latter. The simplest way of understanding what this means is possibly
to imagine that one is making a symbolical representation of a mechanical, electrical, circuit
plan or plumbing device of a building. Every detail in this plan takes the place of the real
detail. Fuse, range, refrigerator, water closet, lavatories, etc. are all symbols for the real
things.
Architectu ra I
Earth
Concrete
: . '0' ........... .. .
. .. - .... . . .
t . ~ . ~ . ... :
' .
. . . 4 . . "
<J .,. 4 II>
. .
..... 4 . ......... . .......... .
Wood
Steel
insulation
door
SYMBOLISM
Some examples of Symbols
Plumbing
w
W.C. Water
Closet
[Q)
I

I
Lav. Lavatory
She. shower
C.L. Castiron Pipe
G.l. Galvanized
Iron Pipe
C.P. Concrete Pipe
Electrical
... -
sc..---
~
t(
Switch
Ceiling Light
Wall light
C.O Wall
Convenience
Outlet
Bench Mark column line

window
--0--
mn6 ifw
Symbolism -assumes primary importance as the basic strategy of perception whereby
learning and perhaps heredity establish what symbols define the important features of the
sensory milieu. This facility has survival value since the rapid recognition of a mismatch in
the world of the senses can mean the difference between life and death. The use of symbols
is therefore something which is deeply imbedded in the central nervous system, and which is
by no means confined to man.
306
Reduced to its simplest, a symbol is a phenornenon (Object, sound, smell or tactile sensa-
tion) which has a meaning additional to that which is communicated by its superficial con-
figuration or stimulus profile. It stands for a ' Landscape' of meaning without a precise hori-
zon because of the contrast between the relative simplicity of the object and the potential
complexity of the meaning, towards which it points, the experience of symbols evokes an
emotional reaction. Most of these reactions remain out of reach of consciousness, but can
nevertheless have a decisive influence upon mood and demeanour.
BIOGENIC SYMBOL SYSTEM
An example is the Italian Piazza wherein the dimensions were determined by the distance at
which the features of a face could be recognized. This was a basic biological determinant
shaped jointly by security needs and the visual capacity of the brain. It may will be that anx-
iety about space builds up once this transactional' distance has been exceeded. In some, this
anxiety assumes pathological proportions.
At the opposite extreme is the anxiety induced by construction. Even in such sophisticated
surroundings as a theatre, the biogenic value system can eclipse all others if the emotional
brain is unsure about such things as escape routes, or a suffi ciency of all and light. Such pro-
blems are accentuated by inadequacy of circulation space. Take for example a splendid
modern theatre. It looks pleasing outside, however, in one re.spect, it fails. Access to the
auditorium is at first floor level, and there is only one staircase to serve the whole audience.
Consequently, the time involved in making an exit can be considerable. There are emergen-
cy exits, but these are unknown quantities, and thus form no part of the 'cognitive map' of
the building. This one fact may establish an undercurrent of anxiety which may detract frorn
what might otherwise be totally enjoyable experience. It may never come to the surface. but
simply register as an unspecific qualitative reservation about the building as a whole.
Plan arrangements which cause people to be conspicuous may represent a biogenic
deficit. Entrance to a worship area of a church whi ch are situated either side of the sanctuary
or platform constitute a powerful disincentive to late comers to go through with it .
LEARNED SYMBOLS
In architecture a number of stock images have come to associated with certain bui ldings.
Law courts favour a stern classicism, suggestive of the logic of Greece and Firmness of
Rome.
Town halls in Britain tended to favour the gothic in the last century. No doubt the architec-
ture was meant to symbolize Christian integrity and compassion, virtues attributable to the
city fathers.
REPRESENTATION, COPY. REPLICA, PICTURE
Many illustrations in books are photographic or drawn representation of objects. A repre,
sentation is a symbol in so far as it is a substitute for the real object, which cannot be in-
serted in a book. At times, a representation may be found inadequate, and then a copyor
model is required. For example, when one wishes to give information on a building site
about some detail. The difference between a representation and a copy is, that a represent-
ation shows only the most characteristics attributes of the original, while a copy shows all
the details of the object, and-above-all-presents them in the same modality of perception as
that of the original, if a copy is an exact reproduction or it is called a facsimile. If the copy is
made the same size and of the same material as the original-for example, if a marble
sculpture is copied in marble, we often speak of a replica.
307
308
Finally, if something which appears to be a representation -for example, a naturalistic pic-
ture-is not a representation of some object which can be pen::eived, but only exist in the
imagination of the artist who created it, we do not speak of a representation but of a picture.
(anything closely resembling or strikingly typifying something else. perfect likeness or im-
age} It is however, evident that a representation a copy. a replica and a picture have one cha-
racteristic feature in common. They are all used instead of a perception or an imagination, a
characteristic whi ch is also found with respect to a symbol. A symbol is, however, a wider
concept. since it comprises such meanings as are used instead of the non-perceivable. (For
example, words for abstract concepts).
3. EXPRESSION
Both signals and symbols u ~ t be disti nguished from a third kind of meaning, namely ex-
pression. If a face has an angry expression, this does not imply that a person entertains an
emotional complex for which he exhibits a symbol. The angry facial expression forms a part
of the physical and mental totality which the angry person represents.
In a similar manner the ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION forms a part. as the semantic ac-
; tive component in the mental totality, which the experience of a consummate piece of archi-
tecture involves. Architectural expression, however is not the same as the expression of an
emotion.
Special Character of Architectural Expression
In architecture, we can talk of visual (seeing). auditory (hearing) haptic and tactile (relating
to touch) Gestalts (a new figure) in studying the semantics of these, the first question will
be: Does any other spontaneous meaning exist except facial expression, gesture, and sign
language? These three kinds of meanings imply perceived motion or change. It is not the
static gesture which carries the meaning but the pantomine movement . Such a motion is
rarely used, however. in architecture where gastalts are static.
If some spontaneous architectural meanings can be found, it will also be of interest to study
the pattern of evaluation used for them as an example, the Greek Temple is taken as a sub-
ject for architectural values.
When a number of people are asked " which colonnade in the figures (left} . gives the best
expression to support?" all will give the same answer. The uppermost columns seem too
weak, the ones at the bottom makes themselves ridiculous as they are so many and so
strong, yet carry so little with each other's help". This common answer indicates what is
spontaneously judged as the most obvious expression of the idea of support. There is an in-
clination to call this expression the 'best' and the 'most beautiful' one as well, providing an
answer with a characteristics of aesthetics as well. Whenever such expressions are met, the
experience tends to be that of a piece of architecture.
BUILDING DESIGN AS AN ICONIC SYSTEM
TRANSFORMATIONS
1. Pragmatic design - in which available
materials are used, earth, stones, tree-
trunks branches, leaves, reeds bamboos,
animal skins, tendons were put together ini-
tially by trial and error until a building form
was achieved which actually 'worked'. Prag-
matic design is still used in design with new
materials plastic skin inflatables, suspension
structures, and so on.
. . t i&U[Ctp . t ii$0.9. .
Jlt!.l 111$1
Examole the munich Olvmpic stAdi m
2. Typologie Design-in which the members of a particular culture share a fixed 'mental im-
age' of what the design of the building form should be 'like using the materials which
happen to be available, at a particular place with a particular climate, to house an
established life-style. Often encouraged in primitive cultures by legend, traditions, work
songs which describe the design process, by the mutual adaptation which has taken
place between way of life and building form.
309
~
The Lever House in New York
1952 became the Fixed Mental
image for a generation of ar-
chitects and clients as to what of-
fice buildings should be like.
3. Analogical Design- the drawing of analogies (usually visual) into the solution of one's
design problems with existing buildings, with forms from nature, from painting and so
on. Structural analogies with the feeling of tension and compression in the designer' s
own body; philosophical analogies with from physics, biology (general systems
theory)
Frank lloyd Wright described at the opening of
service the way he had derived the roof form of
this church at Madison, Winconsin (1950). From
the shape of his own hands.
r::::---- --:-; -:_ .:, . . . >>!""!t'IJl!IIIIV-7''___,...,.. _ _ ...
lei
A rnOttdrian de stiJI
p3111tiftg
as a t;lear
aHalogy to
I
CE
Reltveld5
Heme
at utmcltt
311
312
The CHAPEL Of NOTRE DAME. Roncttamp, Haute 5a&1e (19'505)
LAI?ORATORY TOWER: Joht1X711 Wax Build1119
Racirre, Wr.?COI1':li11
Frat1k lloyd Wnght
. ._:arr. . :9:9 E:;,, A
. .. . ...... - ---
4. Canonic (Geometric) in which the form is generated by some two or three dimen-
sional geometric system, originated by the Egyptians given extensive philosophical stif-
fening by the Greeks (plato, Aristotle) and utilized in the design of the Gothic catnedrals,
renaissance palaces and so on. Current manifestations include le corbusier's modular,
dimensional co-ordination and prefabricated building systems .
. / / / / -: ./ .

;. . . - ;.

. . " ,
/ .
,
The Parque los Caobos in Caracas- uses same geometric system in planning of the park,
including paths, avenues, paving and tree planting and for the educational systems of the
building, including the board marks on the concrete and the openings for ventilation.
313
314
VISUAL EXPRESSION OF FUNCTION
When we look at an object, we connect meaning with it depending on private associations.
What is of interest is to see whether there are any meanings spontaneously connected with
the perceptions. The first of such meanings will be found in the fact that the spontaneous
perception of an object indicates something about its function. This is a most interesting fact
from an architectural point of view. The following description of the expressions of functions
construction, or (production) and material refers to facts about semantic experience which
can be verified by any experienced architect.
On or about the 1930's, a new style of architecture appeared in Europe called "function-
alism". From the beginning, many young architects, thought perhaps that archt. Louis
Sullivan's well known dictum "form follows function" could be interpreted in such a way
that if buildings were only made to function well from a practical point of view. all would be
well. It was very soon discovered that no architect could do a good piece of work if he did
not, at the same time, give a good visual expression to the function of the building.
It should be said that a true expression of a function can only be given to an object which
functions well technically. Consequently, a designer cannot give an aesthetically satisfying
form to an object if he does not know its Technical function. He must either find out what this
function is; or the technical engineer must study the laws of architects. This is a matter of in-
terest and concern not only to the specialist in aesthetics, but for everyday life as well. Our
culture is decidely influenced by the way in which its milieu is shaped.
As has already been pointed out, a common 'understanding' of a piece of art depends on
whether the meanings connected to the perception are based on private associations only,
or given spontaneously to the perception in accordance with some elementary structure of
the human mind.
List of common and typical practical Functions:
1. To be Grasped by the Hand
The handle of the iron is meant to be grasped by the hand. The expression of the function
of the iron is taken into consideration. The whole unit is called a 'TOOL' which expresses
the function in words as well as the visual or form does.
The problem of making 'push-pull' handle so as to give a clear expression to their tunc
tions is a problem of practical signals as well as of aesthetic expression, and one in which
modern architects are very interested. Some architects have co-operated with sculptors
in this work.
a kaHdle to push
a to pull
The illustrations give an idea how the visual perception of the form is changed into a hap-
ti c (relating to touch) image. The basis of for the expressions 'push' and 'pull'. This plea-
sant haptic expression is based here on smoothly rounded forms without sharp edges or
straight lines.
Tactile sensation also play their part since a smooth surface is more preferable to handle
than a rough one. Expression, in this case is based on the transportation tendency from
visual perceptions (glossiness) to haptic and tactile images (conceptions) of smoothness.
2. To Supports Human Body
If a form shall express its purpose of supporting a human body, sitting or lying, the
form perception must be capable of a tendency to change into an image of a comfortable
haptic form which is given high value.
For a rider, the shape of an Engli sh saddl e, will give this expression of support.. High
formal aesthetic value is combined with extremely clear expression. that of the idea of ef-
ficiency.
In the chairs shown in the following illustrations. There is a difference between the older
chair. covered with decorative ornaments and the modern chair, where ornaments are
avoided and replaced by a thoroughly sculptured form intended to express the idea of
comfort.
The basis f or this expression is the transformation tendency from visual form perception
to Kinesthetic image or conception, plus the tactile sensations of softness and warmth
adding their contributions.
316
3. To contain or Support Something
At1 aHciel1t 'culpture
Of flfe iHvitatiott SIT DOWN Pl-EASE'
The expression of containing or supporting something other than a human body, an ob-
ject, fluid, or gas, cannot be described or explained by a transformation tendency as in
the last two cases. What the designer has to do is to create such a form -a container for
example-which will be an expression of the forces which must function within its walls
and make it capable of resisting pressure from its contents.
The illustration herein shows that the form stresses the fact that it contains and supports
its contents. The buoyant contour seems to react against the heaviness of its contents
and strives energetically and successfully to withstand pressure from within. The handles
do not hang limply without expression but are worn and inviting to grasp. The cover
forms a vaulted and protecting the contents. The total form makes a closed and expres-
sive figure, and its expression can be described as containing and protecting, in combina-
tion with easy handling.
Other expressions which have a
definite expression of containing
or wearing something are found
in the water tower .
This figure shows that the de-
signer combined the expression
of containing and pouring.
317
318


.. .
Water tower- it1 tke PARISH
of Vaiettce. Architect
aHd
The expression of a function must be combined with or based on a good practical func-
tion. A pot which creates the impression that it can pour well when in fact it cannot is a
bad object. The practical as well as the psychological evaluation must be satisfying. It is
precisely this combination between practical, formal aesthetical and semantic evaluation
which is decisive for the value of an object. While containers for shapeless materials such
as fluids and gases have been described. The function of simply giving support can be ex-
pressed by a Table, with a top and four legs.
4. To Deal with Static or Dynamic Forces
Described as one of wearing, supporting, or tension. The strength of a supporting archi-
tectural detail can be symbolized in such a way that the detail may represent a strong
man, an elephant and so on. For more developed taste, this function can be expressed
more adequately without using representations or symbols. In the rest, the Greek Temple
was introduced as a classical example of this. expression. Today, Techniques are more
developed, as an example, reinforced concrete, while on the other hand more compli-
cated functions have to be expressed.
The columns in the office of
building for Johnson Wax
Co. U.S.A. an attempt to
express the fun<:tion of a
structure in reinforced con-
crete.
Forms like these give a fair expression to the function of simple wearing but it is some-
times necessary to create a structure which not only wears but bends like a bow, as
shown in the bridge below, the classical example of such a fusion of expressions. The
supporting or tension stay, the vault, the arch-buttress and the beam also belong to this
group of expressions.
,_-. - ........ .. .: ....
.. , .... '_ .... ....
:.,. .: :: .. . --...._____ -
.... _
5ALGINA1VI3EL BRIDGE'
192930
Rot?ert Maillart
5. To Protect and Hem In
. . .J ..
Visual hemming in-sometimes appreciated as a protection sometimes avoided as a hin-
drance- is one of the most important architectural expressions. The expression of hem
ming is given by inner floor, walls, and ceiling.
The Steep roof of a building can give a strong expression of protecting. A flat roof gives a
weaker impression, but this can be compensated by heavy eaves, as seen from under-
neath. Buildings without eaves seem unprotected.
Other perceptions add to the attributes of visual form. Dull and dark colours. and a pro-
nounced texture, especially a pronounced deep texture. contribute to the expression
mentioned.
Heavy eave3
tl1e
1
fl
S1To11g
of protectiot1
319
320
eavef., t?UildiHg
u11protected
6. To Open and Connect
ill
i
-. '
'------...... , I
.................. I
.. , _________ I
...i..---- ... . - --.. --. .. ______ _
The expression of protection can become so strong that it develops into an expression ot
closeness or stuffiness. such a case, it may become necessary to insert doors and win-
dows in the wal l. These elements will visually connect the closed room with adjacent
spaces.
Prottcted outlook of a wiKdow
1
D
Visual Cot1t1ectio11
The perception of a door - even when closed -is transformed into an image ot un,mpern-
ded motion. whilst a window which does not reach the floor is connected with the idea of
a protected outlook.
If the window does not reach the floor, it is likely to combine with an image of unimpeded
motion as well. Such an image can become very unpleasant it the window is many
storeys above the street. In well-designed houses, it can sometimes be seen that the ar-
chitect has been aware of this, and has therefore placed the windows higher up in the
wall on these storeys furthest from the ground.
Wit1d0W reac:hiHg flaT
dtiey iH floor
7. To Distribute
DO
I
G;:.
DO
')
One visual form which very well expresses the function of distributing light, sound, air
and water, is the trumpet form, which with sufficient vari ation can be used for light fit-
tings, megaphones and air mouthpieces. A tunnel -shaped object. Can also have the ex-
pression of catching and sucking in air or sound. as in the old-type.
The is a classic example of a quite convinci ng expression of distributi on. The
light fitting itself is about fifty years otd, but is still looked upon as modern design.
8. To Move and to be Stable
A function associated with the ability of ships cars and aeroplanes to leave their way dur-
ing their rapid motion through air or water streaml ining is the visual form expression of
this function. The motor boat gives a definite expression of speed and effi ciency as it
makes its way through the water, and to thi s expression, the sharp stern is probably the
most important contribution.
No more than six horse-
power is needed to
overcome air resistance at
50 mph. This results in less
fuel consumed.
And impressive fuel
economy figures are not the
only result. The airtlow is
directed to reduce lift for
improved stability and
directional control.
.. '.,;;...-:- -; --- ..
L.. .. .. -
.Zjj stu
g .l ii. ...
! ... : .... .. :_ :::;z:t.::;::
Other perceptions, for example visually glossy and tactily smooth surface can also con-
tribute to the expression of speed.
321
Usually needed in connection with buildings and especially monuments, is the static ex-
pression of stability. Thi s static expression is usually achieved by using edged forms. but
can also be achieved by rounded forms.
The 5'tockholtf1 City litlrary

by meaH5
of i'P? cylit1dric book 'lvwer
risi119 arove tke
\ 0
mam buildiH9
9. Tool Expression
Tools which are meant for 'dressing' or manufacturing have a special kind of semantic in-
terest. They very often give spontaneously created and spontaneously perceived expres-
sion of thei r function. An example is an axe which immediately expresses its function.
Architectural expressions cannot be tufty understood merely by reading books. Practical
experience is absolutely necessary.
THE VISUAL EXPRESSION OF PRODUCTION
322
The purpose of an object cannot often be visualized without at the same time visualizing
how it is produced. The following main groups of production expressions can be men-
tioned.
1. Cutting-off-Material
The visual expressions for sawing.- planing, dressing and twining on a lathe, boring
milling, cutting and so on.
2. Modelling a Given Quantity of Material
A definite expression of a production method is by modelling, a given quantity of
material into a new shape.
Iron work, moulding, casting, chasing, throwing, rolling and so on belongs to this
group.
I- Beam- of l'ffoderH
il1dustrialired,
a definite .f t?ea'utiful

Plaiting and weaving are indeed venerable techniques which have been used all over
the world. Baskets demonstrate the way in which the appreciation of the expression
of the technique is closely combined with a formal aesthetic evaluation of the pattern
created by the technique.
y ;. ---.."'-
4. Fitting Together
The putting together of objects by means of fitting different details closely is a tech-
nique, which is, from the point of view of expression, often highly appreciated.
ki4;l"A .._, .
T"!'". l .
, . . r
.
: . . I
. '
, .
.
a chair Wker8 tke artH
and 1tg ars fitt9d 1aJefHer
323
\
324
5. Joining Elements
It is sometimes necessary to assemble parts of a building by specially made framing ele-
ments for this purpose. The professional Engineer or architect can obviously better ap-
preciate this kind of expression than the layman especially a proper technical under-
standing of the structure highlights the expression.
Art irot1 Footit19
for a woodew pillar
6. Frameworks
A hattgar roHt cf
differelrt
' ' I;
t

..
. 0
The construction of a Framework in whi ch the openings between the frames can be
filled in with sheets of wood, glass, iron plates and so on is also a very old method of
construction which gives a most highly appreciated expression.
This Method of construction is used today on a much greater scale with frames of
concrete and fillings of other materials.
7. Fusion
The use of intimate fusion between different elements of the same or different mate-
rials is a relatively new technique based on a certain modern inventions such as rein-
forced concrete, plastic laminated plywood and welded iron structures .
.. ....
A rtxJf
325
D?RSAL VIEW
DEVfL RAY
FQOM QUEENSLAND
GANGES SUARJ<
ACANTI-IoTfUTHIS ANT14VlJS
AND BoNES OP 071-IER
PR.1-IJSTOR.IC .SQUIIX,;
PERIOD)
McDONNEL
VOOD:? F-IOlA

THE BUILDING ENVELOPE
328
The envelope of a building is not merely a set of two-dimensionai exterior surfaces, it is a tran-
sition space-a theatre where the interaction between outdoor forces and indoor conditi ons
can be watched. Some of these interactions include the ways in which sun and daylight are
admitt ed or redirected to the interior, the channeling of breezes and sounds, and the deflec-
tion of rain. This transi tion spaces, whi ch forms the envelope, is a place where people in-
doors experience something of what the outdoors is like at the moment, and where people
outside get a glimpse of the functions within.
At entries, where there is a space created in the transition from one environment to another,
a person will be most aware of the difference t w e e n outdoors and indoors. Below is an il-
lustration or an example of entry as space, not just surface.
This South-faci ng entry to an architect' s office in Oregon becomes a microcl imate that buf-
fers the transition between the indoors and outdoors.
a. Three kinds of entry are visible:
1. The awning (over wi ndows of a restaurant ).
2. The cable roof with bare rafters (over the planting in the architect's entry) .
3. And the arcade, a sepond story carried out over a covered walkway, that links
shops.
The change of seasons brings deep shade to this entry in summer .
The envelope also has a fourth dimension; it changes with time. The seasons have a marked
effect on the illustration above, and a more subtle effect" on the east-facing balconies of the
apartments shown below. The year round usable volume of thP-se apartments is increased by
making the balcony into a sun porch.
a) June 21, 8:30 A.M. t ~ e sun is high and
nearly due east, so shading occurs only
from balcony overhangs and from blinds at
the railings.
b) Dec. 21, 8:30 A.M. the suD is low and
shining from the southeast shading occurs
hot from balcony. Overhangs but from ver-
tical balcQny-divider walls.
c) On August morning several year later,
showing the conversion of balconies by
many of the occupants.
COMPONENTS OF THE ENVELOPE
Basic Components are:
-windows
-walls
- roofs
The wim.lows can include !tkylights, clerestories, screens, shutters, drapes, blinds, diffusing
glass, and reflecting glass-an array of components that determined more exactly how the
envelope does its job of making the transition between inside and outside. A component
also should be thought of by its function in the exchange of energies: as a filter, connector,
barrier, or switch.
Ftlter - a means to make the connection indirect (Controlled)
Connector - a means to establish a direct connection
Switch
Barrier
- a regulating connector
- separ.ating element
An opaque wall thus serves as a filter to heat and cold, and as a barrier to light. Doors and
windows have the character of switches, because they can stop or connect at will.
329
330
Two different concepts of Envelope Design
1. The Closed Shell-in harsh climates (or when unwanted external influences such as
noise or intruding activities abound), the designer frequently conceives of a building's en-
velope as a closed shell and proceeds to selectively punch holes in it to make limited and
special Contacts with outdoors.
2. The Open Frame -in the hot-humid regions (or where external conditions are verv
close to the desired internal" ones). The envelopes begins as an open structural frame,
with pieces of building skin selectively adderl to morlity only a few outdoor forces.
The open-frame and closed-shell approach to envelope design, when combined with materi
al availability and influence of local culturP., can produce a distinct regional architecture.
OPEN FRAME:
Hot Humid Climate:
Tempera.te Climate:
CLOSED SHELL:
Arid Climate:
A barrier root of local plant materials is
added to reject rain and sun. A ra1sed floor
avoids damp earth and its creatures and
allows breezes to pass over anrl under its
users.
This open frame is wrapped in light-filtering
animal skin. doubled near the ground. Wind
and rain are rejected; protection against cold
is provided by user's clothing (blankets}
more than by the envelope. The switch at
the crown controls smoke.
TENT
The closed shell of mud block is a barrier to
wind and sunlight, it filters heat by both de-
laying and reducing its impact on the interi-
or. Some light and heat are admitted directly
by small connectors; the door and window
typically so south-facing. By early morning
...
.-..-..... .
PUEBLO
the cold, interiors are abandoned in favor of
rapidly-warming south terraces .
Cold Climate: The igloo's closed shell of ice is a filter to
light and heat, a barrier to wind. Holes for
entry and for smoke are allowed, but spa-
ringly. Fur-bearing hides hung inside can in-
crease thermal comfort for users.
lGLOO
With a wide range of energy sources, bulrling materials and mechanical equipment avail-
able, it is possible to design buildings anywhere that are connector dominated, despite the
climate. The consequences from the resulting energy consumpti on can be severe. By con-
trast , of defending against outdoor conditions becomes an overriding consideration, then
barrier-dominated envelopes can occur in any climate. The resulting fitness for human
usage - and the potential of using solar heat directly - can be reduced. The designer's com-
binations of connectors, filters and barri ers (and the switches that allow those elements to
respond to changing conditions) are basic to the design of building exteriors and can give
them the liveliness that makes a building an attractive addition to its neighborhood.
1 .. CONNECTORS -are strong indicators
that something outside is welcome in-
side. They are characteristic of regional
archi tecture in milder climates, but sun
connectors are dominant in solar-heated
buildinQS anywhere. Connectors, being
open to outside influences, are often one
position of a tswitch that in other posi -
tions becomes a filter or barrier.
331
Alters i11 va,rious p05itio11s of a switcff .
Le PAVILliON 5UI5SE, 1930 1932.
at tl1e UNIVERSITY OF PARIS
4. SWITCHES AND USER'S CHOICE
2. Fll TERS wprest!ll l deCISi ons about
how much or what ol outdoor condi -
tion IS to he adrmtted. fhey are found 111
some form in all building envelopes and 1n
all climates, an<i they inclu<i e a V\'lde
variety ot types. Because they adm1t de-
Sired amounts or qual1ties of light. air.
and sound they offer an opportunity for
an enhanced awareness of selected out
s1cie conditions from 1nsidc the building.
For example. the stainerl glass of a
church selects the blue ot a north sky. or
the warm reds anrl oranges of a sunset ;
the 'texture' of the sky's cloud patterns s
not admitted to the interior - only its col-
or comes through. Often the filter is one
of the positions ot a swttch. as in the case
of the wil"rlows of bwldings which have
venetian bl1nrls or Jalousi es.
3. BARRIERS are more drastic in the1r
complete severance of the outrloor-m-
door relationship. They are charactenstic
of regional architecture in harsh climates.
but are also common to spaces needing a
tightly controlled environment (such as
auditorium). Barriers to rai n are an almost
un1versal building features; barriers to
w1nd are at least seasonally common in all
cl1mates. except hot-hum1rJ ones. Bar-
ners to sun are more likely to be one posa-
tlon of a switch, unless a bUJirl111g IS suf-
fused with electric light or other plentiful
sources of 1nternal heal that m<:1ke solar
heat permanently unwelcome. In prtlc-
tJCe, cultural Influences oft en ovemrle
those of chmate, harners 10 sun are
erected even in cold, damp-environ
ments.
.
.,..., ,;, ... --
Tne North wall is mostly a barrier
.332
I /
,/ .'

; /
I
/
I
soutl1 wall
cart be a
to su1111grrt
/
." .' ..
It cal'f be i?olated
to varryittg
from #fel out5ide by
operati11.9 switcheG.
This house was designed with an Important addition of switches that can make the wind-
ow more of a barrier when appropriate. The house is provided with a large amount of ther-
mal mass, so that some of the heat admitted on a sunny day can be stored fornight time
warmth. The users of th1s house must often base their acti ons of the moment on what
will be needeo later, by ma111pulat111g thermal switches. This is called " Thermal Sailing"
and is similar to actions of outdoor workers n the far north, who learn t o unbottom their
coats 1n the cold early hours ot the workrlay before they begin to sweat and rebutton their
coats in the relative warmth of the late afternoon before the rapidly falling temperatures
near dusk can ch1ll skin.
The use of daylight to supplement or re-
place. Electric light involves in a more fami -
liar switch: The one that controls elect ric
lights. Jt seems obvious that electric lights
near windows should be controlled locally so
that. when daylight is sufficient, they can be
turned off. Many buildings are electrically
lighted with all controls at a cent ral point to
reduce the installation cost. The removal 01
t hese switches from the lighted areas usually
resul ts in wal r-to-wall elect ric lighti ng
whenever anyone uses this space, even if
f>-; . , ... ''<'<O' ' " ' one of those walls provides a plentiful supply
fa of daylight.
Designers of electric lighting systems must
recognize two basic conditions of use: With
out and with daylight; the luminaries and
their controls should b e chosen and located
accordi ngly. The figure as the left shows a
separate recessed lighting layout at the peri -
meter or just inside these windows and con-
trast with the fluorescent lighting further in-
333
334
side. The warm color of daylight; their ra-
diant heat can be welcome on cold dark
days, and they can be switched off in the
warmer, brigther days of summer.
Another way of combining general daylight
and specific electric light. Alvar Aafto's
library at Mount angel Abbey (Oregon} uti-
lizes a central north-facing skylight to pro-
vide daylight on two levels of the interior.
yvindows are also subject to glare from
direct or reflected sunlight-a problem that
can conflict with the desire for heat gain or
daylighting. This can be especially trouble-
some when the sun is low in the sky, appear-
ing near eye level. rooms open to the sun for
heat-gain purposes are not alone in this pro-
blem, as shown in this figure.
SUN VERSUS VIEW
This restaurant along a coast has connectors that give both a view of the sea and blinding
dinnertime sun. As diners arrive, switcHes are employed to block the sun but to leave open
some ocean vistas in other directtons.
Sun control devices that encourage heat gain but discourage glare are typically located inside
glass surfaces, where sunlight can be converted to heat and kept within the space. Where
the sun's heat is unwelcome, filters or barriers should be located outside can be carried off by
outdoor air. This exterior location enlivens a facade, but it can also cause problems of dirt
accumulation, wind damage, and weathering.
Heat
heatoutsi

glare. / I;)
outsicle
... :
INSIDE
glare
... /

Otl1er approacl1es to solar cotrtrol
Vet1etiBI1 blitfd5
i11side cat1 be ttaHipulated
INSIDE
OUTSIDE
aw11i11gs cat1 be exte11doo
below or- pulled up
>
three -dime11sio11ar filrers i11 the -ttrm of
overhu11gs, dott1i11ate tke soutk facade.
The weGt wit1dows uses it1tert1al swite11e5
over11u11g5 !es$ effective.
IN SlOE.
Two- dittteMsiot1al filter of
reflective gta% skeatltes
all face5 of this des.l9" but
se11ds a l7eattt of reflected
5LU11igl1t to neighoors.
335
336
ENERGY AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
Heat, light, sound and water are important elements in the design of spaces, along with col
or, texture, materials and form. A fountain without water with its usual coolness, sparkle
and splash, and a fireplace without firelight, heat, crackling sounds and a smoking aroma is
not a functional design. All the elements mentioned can be bl ended to give each place its
distinctive character. The users of spaces have five measurable senses of perception; utilizing
all of them when designing for people can result in particularly successful architecture.
ENERGY CONSUMPTION
IN BUILDINGS
The energy consumed by a building is the result of the energy needs of the structure and the
effici ency with which those needs are satisfied. Energy aims at both reducing
basic demand by cutting a buildings energy appetite and improving the efficiency of the
energy supply system by eliminating waste.
The energy demands ot a structure are a function of:
1) its design
2 ) tl':te environment in which it is located
31 the way in which it is operated
A Homeowner is primarily concerned with replaci ng the heat which escapes in winter
through the building envelope, or in counteracting the heat which penetrates the envelope in
summer. In complex buildings, the lights or computers man office may throw off so much
heat that the building may have to be cooled even though outside temperatures are below
freezing.
In effect there are no simplistic solutions which apply to all situations. Before one can deter-
mine what steps can be taken to conserve energy it is necessary to predict how energy will
be consumed in a new structure or to document how it is being consumed in an existing
one.
PRIORITIES
Nationwide the systems which consume the most energy in order of magnitude, are heati ng
and ventilating, lighting, air conditioning (cooling) and ventilating, equipment and pro-
cesses, and domestic hot-water.
However, the relative order of magnitude of energy use among the first three systems will
change, depending on the climate; the building construction, use and mode of operation,
and type, control and efficiency of the mechanical and electrical equipment.
Example:
a. The amount of energy required for domestic hot water is significant in hospitals,
housing, and athletic or cooking facilities in schools and colleges. In Baguio hous-
ing, for instance, the amount of energy needed to heat water is second only to space
heating, and to air condi tioning in Metro Manila. In hospitals the amount of energy
required to heat hot water may exceed the amount of energy needed for lighting.
b. Religious buildings anq public halls, which frequently include meeting rooms, offices
and school facilities are most likeliky to conserve energy in the same pattern as office
buildings in the same geographic location - but in smaller quantities per square
meter of floor area.
c. In those retail stores with high levels of general illumination and display lightning,
and/or a large number of commercial refrigeration units, electricity consumes the
greatest amount of energy.
d. W h ~ r e the designer should concentrate his design effort on his perceptions of the
problems essence and its unique characteristics.
e. What the physical elements to be manipulated one with in each of the issue catego-
ries.
Example:
1. FUNCTIONAL Grouping and Zoning:
HOUSE
Under this category we study the need for adjacency, similarity in general role, re-
latednesss to Departments, Goals & Systems, sequence in time, required environ-
ments, relative proximity to building, volume of people involved, extend of man or
machine involvement, Degree of emergency or cri tical si tuations, frequency of acti-
vity occurrence, etc.
BUILDING PROCESS
Successful! Conservation techniques have three aims:
1. To make the client both aware of conservation as one of many needs and willing to
provide the money to satisfy it.
2. To create a similar awareness in tr.e designer to include conservation as a design
consideration.
3. To ensure that the builder capably incorporates these determinations into the final
structure.
The process starts well before a designer enters the picture; it begins with a client in need. A
client stating needs establishes a scope of work which sets the outside limits of energy con-
sumption when a selection is made of a geographic region or a particular site on which to
build. It not only determines the climatic environment, but also subjects the client to the
availability of local fuels and the rate schedule to be followed in paying for energy purchased
from local utility companies.
DESIGN TEAM:
The energy core of the design team consist of the:
a. Architect-chief of the design team. The Aryhitect's design concept has basi c
energy consequences and establishes the limits within which all subsequent
energy decisions are made.
b. Mechanical Engineer-has responsiqility for plumbing. heating, ventilating. air con-
ditioning, electrical, and other mechanical systems required by the buil ding or
its occupants. The actions of the client and architect create the energy
demands which the mechanical engineer satisfies.
c. Energy Consultant-An emerging specialist created by the energy crisis. The job is
similar to a construction manager but limited to energy considerations. Func-
tions include programming. planning, technology, constructi on supervision, fi -
nancing, and operations.
337
338
The mechanical engineer is usually hired by the Architect as part of the design team, while
the energy consultant, some clients prefer to hire the Energy Consultant directly.
DESIGN SEQUENCE:
1. SCHEMATIC DESIGN: Schematic is a time for becoming acquainted, for examining re-
quirements, for exploring assets, for investigating controls, and setting timetables. In
short, for charting course and setting sail. Energy conservation in the finished structure
will benefit greatly if at the kick-off meeting the client makes a simple statement to the ef-
fect that energy conservation is a matter of concern and asks the team members for their
off-the-cuff thoughts on the subject .
Clients should also be prepared to state their position with respect to life cycle costing (as
will be discussed in the next few pages) and the extent to which they are prepared to
make a higher initial investment in order to gain future saving. Clarity in presenting this at
titude will facilitate the consideration of financially realistic options in energy design.
Finally, the Kick-off meeting should designate responsibility for the monitoring of energy
decisions throughout the development of the. job. Normally this will be the function of the
energy consultant, but should there be none on the team, the responsibility will fall to
either the Architect or the mechanical engineer.
Once the energy lead has been designated, the following information should be gathered
and made available for discussion:
1. Current and projected availabil ity of energy fuels (oil, gas, electricity) and similar data
with respect to energy prices or rate schedules.
2. Current energy consumption by buildings similar in scope. These data will provide
energy budgets that can be valuable points of reference as the design process moves
along.
3. Current energy conservation techniques being employed in similar structures. In a
fast-changing field like energy, constant updating is criti cal; and the latest input from
professional, government, trade, and academic sources should be sought.
4. Recent changes in design criteria. Codes and criteria which affect energy are undergo-
ing substantial revision in the wake of the energy crisis. These constraints set most of
the standards under which mechanical equipment is currently designed. They involve
both specifications and performance.
5. Implications of alternate energy sources (solar, wind) with respect to the proposed
structure. If any feasibility is indicated, then space. structural, and cost parameters
should be prepared. Once these data have been discussed, their implications for the
design of the structure should be analyzed and assessed. The architect, whose res-
ponsibility extends to all aspects of the building design and not just its ~ n e r g y aspect,
may not be able to accept all energy- related recommendations; but the options
should be made avail able.
To the architect, these energy implications are but one of a host of considerations that
enter into the design process as the first-concept sketches are prepared. Until the past
century, when the introduction of electricity and fossil fuels gave us the energy to
power new mechanical equipme':lt, architects tradionally planned buildings to mini-
mize the impact of the environment and designed their structures to be responsive to
it.
The characteristics of regional architecture throughout the world reflect these climatic
considerations, characterized as " PASSIVE DESIGN", and were long a part of archi-
tectural education and practice. Passive design considerations include:
1. Siting and orientation-The relation of the building to the land, the sun and the
wind.
2. Building shape -the less skin, the less exposure.
3. Nature of the envelope- Fenestrati on, insulation, thermal mass, wall shading, col -
or and reflectivity, openings and penetrations.

ElECTRICAt-- I
I E'GUIPMENTS
l
l CHEAP FUEL
COST
NEW MODERN
DE516NS
ENERGY
CRI SIS
EXPENS'lVE
FUEL COSTS
BACK lU PASSIVE
DE5IGN
ENERGY CONSERVATION 9UILI11NG
CUBICAL.. MINIMUM 5URI"AC ARI!'A
TO ENCLOSE I.OUIME
Just as the introduction of energy fuels gave us the ability to
ignore many of the constraints of passive design and devote
attention to other considerations, so the energy crisis is forc-
ing us to return to our traditions. The concept produced by
the end of the schematic phase should, therefore, reflect the
principl es of passive design together with implications of the
energy update data provided by the energy leader of the
design team.
vertical i511d horim1tat
sotarsl1ading
piUS Wit1dbfl!aki119
Mass (ntermal Wet!)
mall cf qlarirtg
ENERGY CONSERVATION 8UJLDIN6
r
No wittdaw
1
- LanJe area of glazittg
mall wall
[I t1/
Dark COlor Roof
{kBat al750rDirtg)
Glazed
Wall
CON'It:NTION-41. EJUtLDING
RECTANGULAR- GReATER .5URFAC5
AREA

339
2. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: This is the time when various energy options are explored
and aSsessed, and final strategies agreed upon. Conclusions are reached only after all
possible options have been explored. Yet because the work of each of the design profes-
sionals effects that of the others so strongly, a kind of cat-andmouse game tends to de-
velop. If the architect is going to be asked to provide a south-facing sloped roof to sup-
port a battery of solar collectors. It would be helpful to know this before she or he makes
a false beginning by starting to design a building with a flat roof. Similarly, the mechanic-
al engineer would like to have a pretty good idea of spatial shapes and aesthetics before
beginning the design of lighting systems.
One of the dangers of this phase, particularly as it affects energy, occurs when the Archi-
tect pursues and completes design development work with only minimal input from the
other consultants; then, having "fixed" the architectural design. The architect turns it
over to the other members of the Team for their input. Most mechanical engineers can
make almost any architectural scheme work, but if the structure has been fixed in most of
its details before they begin, their freedom to maneuver has been cut out from under
them, and the final energy efficiency of the structure Is bound to suffer.
It is far better to reverse this traditional sequence. Most schematic are in sufficient detail
to permit the consultants to satisfactorily explore the options, and any items needing am-
plification can be made available by the architect. With this procedure, the consultants
are free to consider the full gamut of options. Having reached their conclusions, the con-
sultants present and discuss them with the architect for incorporation into the work.
This change in sequencing is suggested because much of the hardware involved in ener-
gy conservation, such as heat wheels or thermal storage devices. is new to many archi -
tects. Thus they are not yet familiar with the space, structure, and location required by
this equipment. Moreover, this uncertainty is bound to continue since the vast amounts
of energy research currently being conducted will inevitably produce a continuing flow of
new products and technologies.
Having conducted their investigation first, the consultants will be able to advise the ar-
chitect on such.matters as:
Fenestration:
Insulations:
The percentage of openings for each orientation.
For walls. roof and cellar levels, at interior partitions separating
spac;:es which are treated differently.
Thermal Mass: Desired densities for wall and interior surface.
Space and Structural Requirements:
Together with optimal locations for major items of equipment
such as reservoirs for energy storage.
Horizontal Space Requirements: Ceiling and Roof Plenums.
Vertical Space Requirements: For ducts, shafts, and insulation.
Exterior Equipment: On roofs, adjacent to building on the ground, louver openi ngs,
and any other items visible on the outside of the building.
Reserve Spaces: Not needed for the energy supply situati on projected for initial
building occupancy, but desirable to accomodate future
changes deemed probable in the light of continuing changes in
energy availability.
3. CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS ... during this phase, every element of the struc-
ture is committed to paper. This activity is carried out by large numbers of staff, many of
whom may not have participated in the broad exploratory investigations of the earlier de-
cisionmaking phase. (Thus a mechanical drafter may place an out moded duct and tan
sizes in the plan or an architectural detailer will place the insulation in the interior as is
340
always done instead of a new method decided by the previous top-level discussions).
4. BIDDING OR NEGOTIATIONS
Contractors call to clarify certain aspects of the constructi on documents. Since energy
technology is in a continuing state of flux, its equipment and procedures are constantly
changing, and questions relati ng to this work will be particularly numerous during this
period. Moreover, since the traditional bidding process emphasizes lower initial costs
rather than lower life-cycle costs, the calls may be greater than usual.
Since budgets are always tight, a list of alternatives which has been well throught out
should be included as part of the bid package. This is much preferred to the receipt of
suggested cuts from contractors who, new to the job, cannot be expected to be aware of
its long-range aims.
5. CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION
Mechanical equipment is often late in arriving at the job. Many energy-related install-
ations rely on the efficient operation of groups of equipment, and not only on isolated
pieces. It is essential that the desired potential be achieved by adequate adjustment and
tuning up of the entire installation; one should not fall victim to the last minute rush to
move in.
It is advisable for the staff who will operate the finished structure to be on hand while the
final tuning up is being accomplished. They should be given the appropriate equipment
manuals and operating instructions, and they should be acquainted by the design team
with the thinking that went into the design of the structure and the way in which it is to
be operated.
6. OCCUPANCY AND OPERATIONS
It is advisable to schedule one or two meetings between the operations staff and the
design team during the first year even if no problems develop. After a year has passed,
copies of the energy bills should be sent to the design team for comparison with design
projections, for accurancy of billing and for suggestions or improving performance.
ENVIRONMENTAL
PLANNING
This is the whole essence of architecture. We plan people's indoor environment. A person's
relationship to the site is also necessarily the subject of planning. Neighbors are important.
Much consideration is due to other people a no to the buildings that adjoin any project. Final-
ly, nature has long since given us an environment. We shall now study the inter relationship
of nature and the interior environment.
Historic Architectural design reacted to its environment without reliance on mechanical
assistance which, in those early times, was not available. These design considerations in-
cluded:
Siting and orientation: The relation of the building to the land, the sun and the wind.
Building Shape: The less skin, the less exposure.
Nature of the Envelope: Fenestration, insulation, thermal mass. wall shading, color
and reflectivity, openings and penetrations.
341
THE SITE .....
SITE SELECTION
Selection options, if there are any at all are usually limited to a few sites within a communi-
ty. Most commonly, the client has already selected the site before coming to the architect
to discuss the proposed building; and the design consideration becomes one of developing
the site and the building as harmoniously as possible to minimize ultimate energy con-
sumption.
t- ------------------------_::::.::..?<>
I /
I _,_...
I /-
1 --
1 ///
I -
I .,......_.../
I ...--'/
I /
I /-
!.-"_,.. eou11dery G e o t t ~ e t ~ y as a
Gel1erator of b.Jildlrtg tont1
Buildit1g OH 6r0011d
over Ground
i11 Ground
Uttdergrou11d
at base
UHderstope
it1 valley
\ ... ,
Bridgi11g valley
over valley
342
Build arourd
natural rocks
aoo trees
\
mimic slope
witn profile
Relate buiJdi11g proftfe Cmrtrast profile
to 1a11d wJtrt Jcnt:l
/ .. . '


:'\
SITE DEVELOPMENT
The two primary energy considerations in the siting of a building are orientation to the sun
and orientation to the wind. Landscaping can also improve performance; shade trees can
seasonally control direct radiation from the sun; ground surfaces can control reflected
radiation, planted ground cover can moderate air temperature and wind breaks can dimi-
nish the force of the wind.
ELEMENTS OF SITE CONTROL
The purpose of site control is to modify adverse climatic forces at a distance before they
impact the building. The elements of site control include windbreaks. shade trees, ground
surfaces, ori entation to the sun and to tM wind, and underground structures.
1. SOLAR SHADING IN SUMMER
a. Shading by Structural Elements-This influence affects t he facades of buildings.
They are being designed to intercept exteriorly the rays of the sun in summer. Of
the many heat-contributing sources, direct solar heat gain is one of the greatest
causes of discomfort to occupants.
343
The care
of rtear11ooYJ Hours
duriHg the hotte,t day5 of
-6Utf1 ttter:
The 011 wall
i11terr.eptG early ma-t1h1]
by ry whose- -tt1er111a1 ltla$$
't:Jy rate
to
id montit1g (low sut1 interupred
t7y wide vertical p1lar;ten> as are the t11id2!fteti100YI
at a cornJl3rabfe ott3le.
344
Shading l7y horiZOtftal at1d vertial taffieS.
11fe EtMI'Vtfltlltftal 8uild1Hg at fHe
of Ollifarttiii at llerkeley.
This figure illustrate the use of dramatically wide external vertical and horizontal con-
crete baffles, where the shading effect is clearly seen in the almost total exclusion of
the sun on the south elevation.
b. Powered Louvers to Diminish Heat Gain
If a building is arranged to intercept the intahse rays of the sun before they pass
through its glass walls instead of toward, the air-conditioning heat-gain load can
often be cut in half . In approximate terms, the external shading rejects about 80% of
the fierce attack of solar energy while the internal shading accepts and reradiates
80% of it. The outside louvers have a chance to cool off in an occasional breeze, but
the inside drapes are part of a heat trap, and they constitute a system of hot-weather
radiant heating that discomforts those who must work near perimeter surfaces.
The amqunt of energy passing through 1 sq. ft. {.09 to .10 sq. m. ) of unshaded glass
on an east wall in the morning i ~ often evaluated at over 200 Btuh. This is almost as
powerful as a cast-iron steam radiation which produces 240 Btuh.
In this Bank Building, inspite of the advantages of full air-conditioning, heat-resistant
glass, and the use of fully closed inside drapes employees moved their desks as far as
possible away from the hot exterior walls. Two 50-ton compressor running conti-
nuously failed to keep the building comfortable even on days when the outside tem-
perature was only 73HF. The heated drapes were found to be an unwanted radiant-
heating system that effectively cancelled the cooling efforts of the air conditioning
plant. The temperature between the glass and drapes was 120F (48.8C).
345
346
The solution was to install exterior, automatically controlled, power-operated sun
louvers on the east and south walls. (The north and west walls are solid brick). One
of the two cooling units kept indoor climate cool when outside temperatures were in
the 90s. Employees near windows were perfectly comfortable. Much light but little
heat was reflected illto the building. As the sketch shows, the louvers are not fully
closed, even when the sun's rays are in a plane perpendicular to the glass. Without
attendance, the louvers turn to exclude the sun as its relative position changes
through the day. They open fully when the sun no longer shines on the controlled
facade, or when cloudy conditions prevail. (Louvers manufactured by Lemlar Mfg.
Co. Gardena, Calif.)
2. WHITE ROOFS AND DESERT COOLING
a. Evaporative Cooling -In hot arid regions. a method of cooling simpler than that of
the compressive evaporate refrigeration cycle can be very effective. Employing one
electric motor instead of three, if saves a great deal of energy, though it use a little of
water.
Evaporative cooling is an ancient method of lowering air temperature. As water is eva
porated to vapor, heat is drawn from the air, reducing its temperature; A blower
draws outdoor air in though grills, passing it through pads kept moists by recircu-
lated water.
The cooled air is then delivered directly to the indoor space. The effect of the gently
moving cool air is to cool the body and, additionally, produce further cooling by eva-
poration of body moisture. The thermal-evaporative cycle of the cooler is shown
thus:
/
/
/
/
/
Outdoor air at 105"F and 10% relative humidity can be considered as too unbalanced
a condition to provide comfort for humans. When outdoor air is as dry as this, the
adiabatic process of the air cooler results in air for indoors that is quite the same as
that provided by refrigerated cooling. The indoor condition of 7B"F and 50% relative
humidity thus produced are the same as those usually chosen as design standards for
refrigerated cooling.

AIR COOLER
DeSert Coolirtg . llle i<ryi;zm Residettce.
Palttf 5fX'I"gs, Ccllifi'Jnfia . View lod<iMg
west. 5kadOW of i1te fn:Mt-ligfft-
tk6 titne IFWAM.
em ( frottt) facade fully
ttw morrting !50t1 uy
ttatural plattting. Roof overhaHg 011 fife
put5 the few(higk)
lamely In
delay tkenttal tralfsmisstcm by matfY
hour::; . The far {wer;t) el*:1 of 'fke hou$e
awt1i11gG. and by
additiattal later as "tke
OOhitt:l 1ke Tile whi're
roof, 1fpical of hat heat-
and -me livi11g ltVtt1 arcd
are at t11e cmt. ttartl1
Tke CAJ!er"Ot1 the roof (left)
1ke cen1Tal of fke house.
TWo wau , ()ie lf tke
e.a.st wall and one 0)1' tne we6t wau,
cOtHptete il1ree- unit svap1rotive

9lower pulley (quiet
347
348
b. White Roofs. In reflecting heat away instead of absorbing it, which increases the
temperature of rooms below, white roofs are effective.
OUTDOOR AIR 7JnfPI!ft411JRE!
?
Ncn4 , 40 c { 1osF)

SURFACE TEMFERAlURE
l \
I
I
FRf:iSH PAINT I
'10 ( IO!IF) I
I
1

c&llicg n(64
/1\v
Roam air
zsc (srF)

\
\
I \
WHITll \
I MINT \
l '
I \
I
4'
Cilittg
Pcrrtition tetttperafure
( s:kJF)
4

i
Rexlfff air
5t&( tJ<fF)
G
INTt:RIOR
The room Temperature 4"C (8"F) cooler under the white is shown in above figure.
Also the interior is 12HC lower than the outside temperature.
3. PASSIVE SOLAR PLANNING
In utilizing the sun, the fir,st principles are to exclude it from interior
space In summer and to accept it interiorly (with adjustable drapes) for
warmth in December, January and Mid-February the cold months.
(winter)
The passive solar design is so called because it employs no sophisti-
cated collectors and no expensive technology to harness the sun's
energy. It is achieved by:
1. Orientation - By carefully considering the
location of the building, how it will relate to the
sun and breezes. The LAYOUT or planning-
major rooms are suggested to face south. The
west is solid masonry which intercepts the sun
and reduces and delays heat transmission to be
tolerated during cooler evening hours. Building
Facade acts as a wind deflector as well and
channels the breeze to other areas.
UP
LIVING ROOM
The size of the rooms, especially Offices
shoold be determined by the available natural
light.
A-- -- ENTRY
p i<ITCHEN
!i01

CJ O
FtRST FLOOR PLAN

of plammtg t11e
ewtrattte
\'le8mf' flte Vl#WK
N
STUDY
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
5
HOLl.OW
waH
2. Materials - For passive design approach
materials to be used should not absorb heat.
For instance metal should be avoided. The
basic material is ceramic and perlite for the roof
and walls. Both materials possess exceptional
insulating capabilities. However. during cold
season, high-mass materials absorb the sun's
heat, such as Tile Floors and Formica. Roofing
materials should be painted in light colors so as
to reflect the sun and not absorb heat. Ceiling
and walling should be lined with heat-insu-
lating materials such as aluminum foil, fiber
glass batts and blankets, loose fill mineral
fibers, foam or rigid insulati on.
349
1V2- 2'/r H
3. Features - The building should be designed to
allow the free flow of the breeze to all work
spaces. Windows for instance, are low, wide
and structured in such a way that the prevailing
wind increases its speed as it enters the build
ing.
4. Orientation to the Wind- Windbreaks con-
sist of either a fence or a row of trees or shrubs
which reduce air infiltration through windows
~ . . . . : : : : : : , . . . . . . . _ , . ~ , . . . . . , _ b y diminishing the wind pressure. The most ef-
H
fective locat ion for a windbreak is upwind a
distance of 1 1 /2 to 2 1 /2 times the height of a
building.
4. NATURAl HEATtNG AND DAYLIGHTING
If the sun's energy is to be used directly for heating in the cold season (winter), it can
also contribute to the illumination of the heated space. Hot air is effectively vented out
with the use of strategically located clerestories, whi ch are windows located on the side
of the roof for ventilation purposes. The size of rooms especially offices should be deter-
mined by the available natural light.
HEAT STORAGE
By avoiding transport systems of ducts, pipes, fans and pumps as well as heat exchangers
and complicated controls, significant amounts of money are saved, the operation and main-
tenance are simplif ied and reduced in cost, and in comfort and efficiency can actually be in-
creased.
A SOUTH FACING VERTICAL.
SOLAR COLLECTOR AND
1-lEAT STORAGE WALL.
As the sun hits the blackened surface of the wall, the concrete in this case absorbs some of
the heat whil e some of it simultaneously heats the air which rises and enters the room. The
heat in the concrete migrates slowly inward, and when the sun has set, radiates into the
building while warm convection currents continue inside between the black concrete and
350 the transparent cover.
Natural daylight does much to relieve the electric lighting demand not only in the areas
receiving direct solar gain in winter bu't also in the two north classrooms where cleresto-
ry glass supplements the sliding glass doors in the north waiL The figure belows shows
this toplighting.
NORTH e:LEVATIOH
The two north classrooms benefit from clerestory natural lighting, which supplements
that from the first-storey glass panels.
The east wall is largely blank against low summer sun, as is the west wall.
~ o l a r gai11 ard Mtural
G
~ ~ ~ : ~
$0UTH
1F1F=---
0
Summer shading for the f our south classrooms is accompanied by a conventional over-
hang.
351
352
Multi-Zone System like this facilitate energy saving by the operation of one or several
zones only as needed. Room registers from and to the unit appear below.
One of the two 12 x 5 inch (.30 x .125) down-flow registers in classrooms.
5. WINDOWLESS BUILDINGS
the 30 x 24 inch (.75 x .60) open-
ing that will receive the grill
through which return air is drawn
into unit C.
It is quite evident that glass is frequently a problem sometimes it can be omitted. Build
ings or large secti ons thereof can be enclosed by opaque walls. An example of a depart
ment's store designed in this way is shown in this figure. The problem is a complex one
and should have careful study in each instance by engineering consultants.
I ;
L.. - - - . _l
&eparhttttft 5m at Roolevett Field CsHtBr;
Gard8t1 City. New York.
Department stores are often best designed this way. Schools are, Parame-
ters including function, esthetics and thermal interchange must be examined. During
daylight hours they are densely occupied and well lighted (though, admittedly, lighting
levels are becoming more conservative). The space gains of people-load and lighting-
load are usually sufficient to heat the building by day in winter (December-February cold
months). Often they exceed this state and must be cooled. Hopefully this is done by the
low-energy method of ci rculating cool outdoor air. Glass, no matter how well handled in
summer, would add additional and instantaneous heat t hat is not needed. Quite dif-
ferently, the transmission of heat in through heavy masonry walls is minimal by com-
parison and usually delayed by 8 or 10 hours. Merchants do not need to have shoppers
distracted by views of the exterior . In schools, children at study can wait for
to be enjoyed later in windowed recreational area.
6. UTILIZATION OF NATURAL GROWTH
a. Shsde Trees
Deciduous trees provide in the summer and admit light in the winter.Ever-
green's provide shade in the summer and reduce window heat loss to the right sky in
winter.
A South-facing window shaded by a deciduous tree receives less solar heat than an
unshaded north-facing window (The-north Window received diffused radiation from
clouds)
353
solar altitude
Trees reduce window heat gain not only by blocking direct sunlight penetration but
also by lowering the ground surface temperature, as for example, when they shade
an adjacent parking lot. Placement of the trees should permit winter, {Cold months)
penetration while blocking summer heat.
leafles5 troes
do t10t o b.5truct
i gcill1
Summer 9.m
354
llllllllll IJIIJJJIII/1 ITI 111/lllllli/III/IJI J/IIJ/11/1
l!lllllllll!llll1
COLO SEASON
(DECEMBER TO FEBRUARY)
Solar- altitude it1 summer
10M
:\5 '/.
<ft.
'.A\ _(''}: ,v.
"v'r>u of
d:''b 2-Jb '\
at eye level
x.<.PJ below leaf growth
""""' "," , 1J """ """" r
SOLAR ALTITUDE IN SUMMER
5.40
b. Deciduous Ivy can also shade a building facade in summer and allow the sun to shine
through to warm it during the cold December months (winter).
Ivy in Full Leaf Summer
Energy fer PacifiC Northwest
c.srrrer fa" Enviromtfetriat
IJHi18rsity .1976.
355
356
7. EQUIPMENT ON THE ROOF
Services that connect to an active large building are numerous.
a. Entering Services-can comprise Electricity, oil , gas, and water.
b. Luving the building- ISewage and storm water, obviously relate to lower levels
of the structure.
Fresh air for ventilation and used air, re-
jected by .exhausted fans, frequently pass
through the building envelope near the
point of use. This can be at open mecha-
nical stories adjacent to air-handling
equipment. On the roof in tall buildings,
one finds a multitude of items including
roof-access penthouse, elevator machine-
ry, cooling towers, water storage tanks
and chimneys.
Tlfe Cfmse Mmrltattaf lblditrg ir New
Ci1y: SkidltfOm I OwiHgS a,q Ur-
n II , A helicopter
On the roofs of smaller, low-ri se buildings rooftop faci lities can include chimneys, fan ex-
hausts, plumbing vents, security lights, and roof-access stai rs.
The use of outdoor equipment is increasing, such equipment is necessarily weather-
resistant, locations can selected. They can include space adjacent to the building or on
a roof. Often such locations are preferred to the use of indoor space, which is costly to
build and can be used for more suitable or productive purposes.
In the preceding figure, zonal installations for heating-cooling-ventilation are shown in
roottop locations. Each of these units includes compressor, condenser, and evaporator
coil. The latter is in a duct, which also houses a filter, blower, electric heating coil, and pro-
vides an adjustable fresh air intake on the suction side of the blower.
Exltaust Fans. At of
peqM COtfCetftnri'iotf"
In this one storey motel, five or more self-contained weather resistant units can be used.
Each unit delivers warm or cool air to the space below through short duct-runs in furred
ceilings. The air is delivered through ceiling registers. Each unit thus constitutes a decen-
tralized zones.
Unlike some central-station installations, the zones can operate separate and turn-off
when not in demand. Hence energy is saved. Units are identified as white in color and
space-exhaust fans as silver-domed elements on black bases. Appearance of the equip-
ment is not unpleasaf"lt and no surrounding parapet is needed to mask them.
Opsrstion:
Each recirculates air to the
space below. The suction side of the blower draws air
from the space and admits fresh air from the downtown
gooseneck inlet at the left unit. By the action of the
blower, the air to be conditioned in the unit passes
through a filter, an evaporated cooling coil or, in
cold months (winter) an electric-resistance heating
coil. It is then delivered to the ducts below. The hot air
from this cooling process is discharged through the side
grills. Thus constitute the so-called heat rejection pro-
cess common to all refrigerant cycle cooling systems
the exhaust fan is used at areas of "people concentra-
tion" such as dining rooms, conference rooms, lounges
and bars used air is drawn away to prevent odors and
stagnation from building up.
----...
;:....-
i.l&e

8. UTILIZATION OF WATER AIR
r 1
Thermal energy can be stored in three-foot 1.00M high
water-filled drums in front of the south-facing windows,
once the sun sets, this heat radiate through the house,
trapped by the insulation. A back-up gas heater takes
the chill off cold mornings and a wood burning stove in
the living room provides additional warmth.
Provision of a water pool or pond or eYen a fountain is
also very effective.
A Fireplace effectively heats the living room in the cold
December months. However, this heat can be harness-
ed and distributed to the different rooms by using a
hollow steel plate in the form of a fireplace. A few
millimeters above the floor are small openings to admit
cold air to fill the hollow. When a fire is produced, the
cold air around the hollow is heated and hot air goes
above to the ducts which goes to bedrooms through the
ceiling.
357
0 0 0 0 0 0
FRONT
9. THERMOSIPHONING
wanttatr.
cold air
airdfmibutsd

6ttlok8 gcw
out 10 ckilffl18)'
In some cases, it is possible to move the fluids (liquid or air) without mechanical aid, by
natural convection or thermosiphoning. As the fluid is heated, it tends to rise, and cool er
fluid flows in to take its piace. Pumping, however, usually gives greater collection effi-
ciencies.
This heat is directly used for warming the living spaces of a building in conventional
ways. Ex: Through radiators and hot air registers. When the building does not require
heat the warmed air or liquid (called the heat transfer medium) from the collector can be
moved to a heat storage container.

r
-
.--
-
..--
A 190- galloH cylit1ders
-
A backup gzrs heater
tokes 1tte dtill of cold
tte0rt1i"gs atrd a wm
bUrning or: .
'Hfe 11VIt19
trott J:WVldeS
additional wamrf'h
-
-
-
,.-
-::::
l101d water ftlat
heat and t11er1
-
ares it il1to 11te house
at t1ignt
358
In the case of the "air medium" the storage is often a pile of rocks, or some other heat-
holding material; This also requires duct works and larger installation space; Heat-trans-
fer coefficient is less than that of the water requiring farger collector surfaces; Panel
construction is simpler and not subject to problems of freezing, leakage, and corrosion.
In the case of LIQUID MEDIUM or water, the storage is usually a large, well -insulated
tank of water, which has considerable heat capacity. This requires piping for circulation
and distribution; It usually contains an anti -freeze solution and corrosion-retarding ad-
ditive is required for aluminum piping.
Heat is also stored in containers of chemicals called eutectic or phase-changing salts.
These salts which store large quantities of heat in a relatively small volume, melt when
they are heated and release heat later as they cool and crystallize. When the building
needs heat, the ai r or water f rom its heating system passes through the storage, is
warmed, and is then fed through the conventional heaters to warm the space.
10. BUILDING CONFIGURATION
The Overall shape of a building affects the amount of energy it will consume. In general, a
configuration that resists unwanted heat transmission for a given enclosed volume, a build-
ing should be constructed with minimum exposed surface area. A spherical or round build-
ing has less surface and thus less heat gain or loss than any other shape for an equal amount
of total floor area. A square building has less surface than a rectangular one of equal area per
floor, and so undergoes less thermal transmission loss or heat gain. However, the number of
stories modifies this relationship f or the building as a whole.
The exception to this generalization about a buildings configuration is the situation where
the primary thermal load is the result not of the environment, but rather of internally gene-
rated conditions. Where an office building, for example, generates large amounts of heat
from its lighting and computers, the problem may be one of dissipating rather than con-
serving thermal energy. In this case it may (depending on the climate) be desirable to have as
large an amount of building skin as possible to facilitate heat dissipation.
In its " Energy Conservation Design Guidelines for New Office Buildings" GSA adds the
following observations with respect to building configuration;
1. Tall Buildings: A tall building has a proportionately smaller roof and is less af-
fected by solar gains on that surface. On the other hand, tall buildi ngs generally are
subjected to greater wind velocities, which increase infiltration and heat losses. Tall
buildings are less likely to be shaded or protected from winds by surrounding build-
ings and trees. They require more mechanical support systems, including elevators
and longer exhaust duct systems. The stack induction acti on in tall buildings in-
creases infiltration, thus requiring special measures to reduce its influence on heat
gain and heat loss.
2. Floor-to-Ceiling Height: Greater ceiling hei ghts improve environmental condi-
tions in the summertime by permitting warm air to rise. However, greater ceiling
heights increase the perimeter areas. thus increasing heat transmission through the
walls.
Reduced ceiling height reduce the exposed exterior wall surface area and the
enclosed volume. A reduced ceiling height can also increase illumination effective-
ness.
Floor-to-ceiling height is determined by physiological comfort, height of light
fixtures for proper light distribution, and height of windows necessary for good natu-
ral lighting.
In general, increases in ceiling height need increase only the exposed wall sur-
face (not window surface). The effet of greater heights on energy consumption may
be rather small, depending on the thermal characteristics of the wall.
3. Ceiling Plenum Height: Deep ceiling plenums allow the use of l a r ~ e r duct sizes
with low pressure drop and reduced heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
IHVAC) air handler and fan reQuirements. Ducts can be larger, allowing greater
359
360
volumes and air to be moved with smaller pressure drops, permitting reduced fan
horsepower.
4. Roofs: Very low buildings may have greater roof area in proportion to wall area,
and the heating and cooling leads which they generate may, in turn, influence the
selection of the mechanical equipment. In tall buildings, the roof is a lesser influence
on the total heat loss and gain, and will rarely influence the selection of the total
heating and cooling systems.
5. 'Exposed Floors: Buildings that are elevated on columns or with first -floor areas
and large overhanging upper floors increase heat loss and heat gain because of the
extra exposed floor surfaces. While this may be of slight advantage all year in south-
ern regions, or anywhere in the summertime, it presents a serious increased heat loss
in colder climates. Locating parking garages on intermediate levels similarly in-
creases energy consumption from additional exposed surfaces.
6. Building Forms: A dome roof can permit warm air to rise and collect at the top,
leaving the floor area cooler. Pyramids, zigzag exterior walls, rhomboid-shaped
buildings, and other forms can all be used to control the influence of climate on con-
sumption.
7. Zigzag Walls: Zigzag configuration of east and west walls provides self-shading to
reduce summer solar loads, provides natural windbreaks, and can permit low rays to
penetrate the building in the winter to supplement the heating system, if the wind-
ows in the zigzag are facing south. By facing the windows north in the z.igzag in a
southern location, heat gain is reduced year-round; but, in both summer and winter,
natural lighting and views can be available at both east and west facades without the
penalty of increasing summer heat gains. However, the energy requirements result-
ing from the additional wall surface for the zigzag form must be weighed against the
other energy benefits.
'11. GROUND SURFACES (PAVED AND PLANTED)
This option involves the use of light-colored ground surfaces to reflect sunlight onto a
building, dark-colored surfaces to absorb sunlight and lower outside temperatures.
Light reflected from the ground represents 10 to 15 percent of the total daylight trans-
mitted by a first-floor window on the sunl.it side of a building.
Percentages of Incident Light Reflected
by Some Ground Surfaces
Material
White paint: New
Old
Concrete
Marble (White)
Granite
Brick buff
dark glazed
Vegetation (average}
Macadam
Percentage
Reflected
75%
55%
55%
45%
4Q%
48%
30%
25%
18%
Ground reflected light transmitted through windows strikes the ceiling. This is beneficial
for dayiighting in two respects. First, the light is projected deeper into the room than
direct sunlight. Second, ceilings are usually light-colored and thus reflect light better
than darker floors.
Plant cover absorbs sunlight, yet has a lower temperature than paving because of eva-
porative cooling which occurs during the transportation of plants. The net heat ~ a i n
from the sun is rapidly dissipated by the enormous surface area of the leaves. Very little
heat is stored in vegetation because of its minimal mass.
Night air temperatures over grass, for example are therefore cooler than over pavemen_t.
The lower day temperatures and lower night temperatures of planted surfaces result m
less window heat gain and a reduced air-conditioning burden compared to the situation
of haying paved surfaces adjacent to the building.
12. UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
eartk
earth
i t t ~ a t i a t r
Placed between a building and the outside ele-
ments, earth slows the heat transfer from one to
the other, reduces the temperature difference bet-
ween exterior and interior, and at the same time
protects the building from cold winds and the
direct rays of the sun. While earth does provide
some degree of thermal resistance, it is not a par-
ticularly good insulator. A layer of insulation
therefore, must be located between the building
and the earth which surrounds it, or else the earth
will act as a heat sink, always drawing heat away
from the interior of the building.
Basic precepts to keep in mind when working with
underground structures, include the following:
1. Gentle South slopes are ideal for underground structures. They are easily built into
the hill and have south sunlight and positive drainage.
2. Avoid tow-lying depressions. Heavy cold air drains into them; Frost and dampness
are more likely in these areas.
3. Make sure that surrounding construction (parking lots, septic systems, etc.) do not
drain into the site.
4. Identify ground levels before making decisions on placement and depth.
5. Adequate soil percolation is essential, particularly for sunken courtyards and
atriums. If there are problems, consider the installation of overflow drains.
6. Any structural system can be used, provided it is designed to applicable loading
conditions. General rules are 150 lb/sq. ft. for roofs with grass cover and 400 lb/ft.2
for roofs when the earth cover is to support small trees. Add water, (snow) and
pedestrian loads.
7. Wall design is generally the same as conventional basement wall or other below-
grade construction.
8. Place insulation outside the below-ground building structure; this allows the struc-
ture to serve as a heat storage mass. Insulation can be reduced in thickness as the
depth below grade increases.
361
9. Butyl sheets provide both waterproofing and a vapor barrier.
10. For earth berming against existing exterior walls, a cement plaster finish applied to
metal lath (hyrib) and a vapor barrier on the existing wall are advisable. This detail
discourages roots, insects, and rodents from getting into the wall.
Berm -a ledge or shoulder, as along the edge of a paved road.
11 . Avoid curbs or parapets to retain earth covering. Freezing and thawing action will
tend to crack these elements.
12. To control interior dampness, dry the air through circulation and/or dehumidica-
tion.
13. Earth pipes can be used to provide natu!al coolin.g. Air taken from the outside dur-
ing warm weather can be cooled by being passed through long pipes buried in the
berm or below grade. The same piping can provide some degree of pre-heating of
fresh outside air during cold weather.
14. Examine local codes, especially in relation to fire exits and ventilation.
15. Lighting usage should be thought out carefully. It will affect both comfort and
energy use more critically in an underground structure.
DESIGN FEATURES TO OFFSET THE EFFECTS
OF WIND, SUN, RAIN, TEMPERATURE
1. ORIENTATION TO THE WIND
When window placement of opposite sides of an interior space is possible, the building
should be oriented slightly askew to the direction of the wind. When window placement on
opposite sides of a space is n'>t pcssible t'ut placement on adjacent side is possible, the
building should face directly into the wind.
a) Windows on Opposite Sides

TurbuleHce 42fa A
good overall
circulatio11
TurbuleHce
good overall
circulatiOH
%of tHe
wi"d velocity
1055
45%
36.2
Window location versus Air Circulation
It will be seen that if the wind encounters an inlet and an outl et in alignment with its out-
side direction, it will pass through the intervening space in a narrowly defined, high-
velocity stream. Very little ventilation will occur beyond that narrowly defined, stream.
However, if the wind is forced to change direction in transit between inlet and outlet, a
Turbulence within the room will develop. A circular current will encompass the sides
and comers of the room. The maximum airspeed is reduced compared to windows in
direct alignment with the wind, but the average velocity of air movement within the en-
tire space will be greater.
b) Windbreak consist of either a fence or a
tow of trees of shrubs which reduce air
inf iltration through windows by
diminishing the wind pressure. The most
effective location for a windbreak is up-
wind a distance of 1 1/ 2 to 2 1/ 2 times
the height of a building.
[
I H

- --- --- c-+
1'/a- zYt H
At this distance, the wind will be deflected up ana well over the building, reducing the
pushing action on the building's windward side and the pulling action on its leeward
side.
A wind break is more effective if it allows part of the wind to penetrate. A solid wind-
break creates a low pressure area on its leeward side with resulting strong eddy cur-
rents. These may be as destructive as direct wind in erodi ng the still air at the surface of
the window. Allowing a portion of the wind to pass through the windbreak to
relieve this leeward suction.
eddy- a if air, ar wa19r
mov1ttg a)al# 'Hfe mait1 cummt
atfd with circular mo1t0n. a rtfiJtimal eddy currem-
little wkirl,m or a little
v.flirlwind
AIRFLOW VERSUS FENCE OE.Sf6N
By protecting the window from the scouring action of the wind, the still layer of boun-
dary air outside the window is preserved, and heat loss is reduced as shown below,
which illustrates changes in the film f actor with different wind speeds.
ltt6ide air
363
364
Overall ventilation is consequently better, where the building interior is subdivided into a
series of interconnecting spaces, placement of interior partitions can provide the disrup-
tion of the otherwise straight path of airflow between upwind and downwind windows.
use prevai . breeze!S
a5 coolltrg aevce
Turt1
bacl< ro w1na
wiHdow
use !at1dscapit19 wind
protectiot'l lr biOWitfg dust
Protect Slffail buildittgs
witff tall tJteS
2. ORIENTATION TO THE SUN
r
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l
I
1
1
I
I
L...
~
-
-
---
-
-
---
~
-
-- - --
-
-
-----
-,
I
I
I
I
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_J
. . ~ ~ ~ : higher"" 1 - i
.. .
\
\
\
\
\
{--- SOUTH
METRO MANILA
(warmer lrfla5)
The general strategy for the placement of wind-
ows calls for the largest window area on the side
where the sun exposure minim.izes combined
heating and cooling needs sunflght transmission
will be a net benefit on an annual basis if the
winter (cold months) solar heat gain exceeds
(winter) cold months heat loss and summer solar
heat gain. The percentage of the incident solar
energy that a window transmits for any given day
depends on the angle at which rays of sunlight in-
tercept the window and for how many hours the
window receives sunlight.
In general, buildings located in southern latitudes
(like in Manila) should have window areas concen-
trated on the northern and southern exposures
(ideally with a projecting horizontal shading device
over south-facing windows) to minimize the air-
conditioning burden. To obtain the greatest
benefit from the sun as a cold month (winter) heat
source, buildings located in northern latitudes (like
in Baguio) should have window areas concen-
trated on the south (with minimal window areas to
the north) .
NORTH
)
colder amas
usually. 0t1 tke WEST and on
the EAST very mit1imal wiHdows
Is ttfade
365
Windows in summer are shaded by wooden overhangs. What heat does enter the
home is trapped by the same high mass materials inside and later removed by the cool-
ing night breeze.
//j
I / /
/ / /
/ / / I
I
/ / /
/ / 1/
I / 1 COf1tif1UOUS
I I Fitf and Ramada
I /
" /
I
cir&Uar
-1
366
Increasing the projection or Eaves and window panes.
~ oper.ol>le FIN
Use of media aguas and skirtroof, canopies.
eyebrow eavs
e r l e H ~ O H
i I
, ! I
II
I , I
. I
II
(
blitfds - useful at ar1y
trme of the day, cst1
at at1gle or cat1 removed
ee55rly
a PRE-CAST
Screetf wall
Fixed or Movable
jaloosie or lruvers
em.oyittg. a
Vertical fn1
wittdow
367
368
Ot1 tke NORTH hiqlf
wittdow little O\erl1a11g
tilted
RAINFALL
pivot wittdow
Building fOntt to ,rotect
glass areas
0t1 11te SOUTH wide
over11arf9, Higl1 pitch
roof , lOW big wttww
58COt1d floor overl1a119
I
step floors ittside tv
aviod direct ~ U H
Bui\dit19 . [or'!' permits 5Utf
at tute
3. TO OFFSET RAINFALL
c-arry r:vof prorection
iv grOOt1d

_ __ __ ____ _ _ _ J
Protectetrtriesfrolffroof
dramage afd pruvid6 aHOPies
rece9.Sefftry
for protectiOtf

COllect mer at specific
poit1t5
step up
to etfter
drahfaQe
from building
II
Slq)e roof to drail1
1ttrougl1 buildilfg
1.
stope balcot1ies
for drah1age
-
369
370
4. TO OFFSET TEMPERATURE
buildi119 for:
maxnnum drymg
cooli11g of surfaces
Allow 11ot air
up atfd out
Air at witfd?wj
wkere heat loss .f gah1
occur!)
Another feature which may be added to a building
is a patio or interior garden in the middle of the
structure from where the breeze would circulate
to the building's other parts. The garden may have
a concrete trellis with decorative hanging plants
which filter the air.

-f-1
A-
a

u
ENCLOSURE
372
QUALITI-ES OF ARCHITECTURAL SPACE
PROPERTIES OF ENCLOSURE
1. DIMENSION
2. SHAPE
Proportion
Scale
Definition
ODD
3. CONFIGURATION
Fo rm
4. SURFACE Color
c----_ - - - - - ~ - -
----'--'--- -
Texture
Pattern
5. EDGES
....
.......... '
, ..
. ~ A
. . ... . . .. . . . ... .. . . . -
6. OPENINGS
Enclosure
Light
View
OPENINGS IN SPACE
DEFINING ElEMENTS
DOORS -Offer entry into a room, and determine the patterns of movement and use within
it.
WINDOWS -Allow light to penetrate the space and illuminate the surface of a room, offer
views from the room to the exterior, establish visual relationships between the room and ad-
jacent spaces, and provide ventilation for the space of the room.
The quality of a room's degree of enclosure. Light and View is affected by the size, shape,
and location of openings or voids within the enclosing forms of a space.
1. DEGREE OF ENCLOSURE-The form of
its space.
The degree of enclosure of a space, as de-
termined by the configuration of its defining
elements and the pattern of its openings,
has a significant impact on our perception of
the orientation and the overall form of the
space.
373
aoo 0
374
. . ......,, .. .._,. ,...., .: .... -. .;. . .:;.,:.; .--

, !
,; ij l
.... ,, ... ,,.."'--JU..
i
i
.. -: .- - .: .. . - .. .. .:..;-;_-;.- . :.:-.: .
Openings lying wholly within the enclosing
planes of a space do not weaken the edge
definition nor the sense of enclosure of the
space. The form of the space remains intact
and perceptible .
i
I
L
Openings located along the edges of the en-
closing planes of a space will visually
weaken the comer boundaries of the space.
While these openings can erode the overall
torm of a space, they will also promote its
visual continuity and interlocking with adja-
cent spaces.
Openings between the enclosing planes of a
space isolate the planes visually and articu-
late their individuality. As these openings in-
crease in number and size, the space loses
its sense of enclosure, becomes more dif-
fuse, and begins to merge with adjacent
spaces. The visual emphasis is on the en-
closing planes rather than the volume of
space defined by the planes.
2. LIGHT . ... The illumination of its sur-
faces and forms.
The sun is a rich source of light for the illu-
mination of forms and spaces in architec-
ture. The quality of its light changes with the
t ime of day, and from season to season.
And it transmits the changing colors, and
moods of the sky and the weather to the
surfaces and forms it muminates.
Entering a room through windows in the
wall plane or through skylights in the roof
plane overhead, the sun's light falls on sur-
faces within the room, enlivens their colors,
and articulates their textures. With the
changing patterns of light and shade that it
creates, the sun animates the space of the
room, and articulates the forms within it.
By its intensity and distribution within the
room, the sun's light can clarify the form of
the space or distort it; it can create a festive
atmosphere within the room or instill within
it a somber mood.
Since the intensity of the light the sun offers
us is fairly constant, and its direction predic-
table, the determinants for its visual impact
on the surfaces, forms, and space of a room
are the size, location, and orientation of the
room's windows and skylights.
The size of a window or skylight will of
course, control the amount of daylight a
room receives. The size of an opening in a
wall or roof plane, however can be deter-
mined by additional factors other than
light, such as:
a. The material
b. The construction of the wall or roof
plane.
c. Requirements for visual privacy.
d. Ventilation
e. Enclosure of the space.
f. Opening's effect on the building's ex-
terior form and appearance.
375
The location and orientation of a window or
skylight, therefore, can be more important
than its size in determining the quality of
daylight a room receives.
376
An opening can be oriented to receive direct
sunlight during certain portions of the day.
Direct sunlight provides a high degree of illu-
mination that is especially intense during
midday hours. It creates sharp patterns of
tight and dark on the surface of a room, and
crisply articulates the forms within the
space.
Possible detrimental effects of direct sun-
light, such as glare and excessive heat gain,
can be .controlled by shading devices built
into the form of the opening, or provided by
the foliage of nearby trees or adjacent struc-
tures.
cat1opy- soli4 or
settfl-opet1
An opening can also be oriented away from direct sunlight and receive instead the dif-
fuse, ambient light from the "sky-vault" overhead. The sky-vault is a beneficial source of
daylight since it remains fairly constant, even on cloudy days, and can help to soften the
harshness of direct sunlight and balance the light level within a space.
Lat1d 6 / a r ~
377
Example of natural lighting:
\ ~ L
se-CTIONS
PLANS
378
3. VIEW
Another quality of space that must be considered in establishing openings in the en-
closure of a room is its focus and orientation. While some rooms have an internal focus,
such as a fireplace, others have an outward orientation given to them by a view to the
outdoors or adjacent space. Window and skylights openings provide this view and estab-
lish a visual relationship between a room and its surroundings. The size and location of
these openings, of course, will determine the nature of the view seen through them.
A small opening tends to frame a view so that it
is seen as a painting on a wall.
379
380
PROBLEM:
view
it
Lor
~ limited view
SOLUTIONS:
VIEWS FROM THE SITE:
zooe view spares 10 view
side
A large opening opens a room up to a bfoad
vista. The large scene can dominate a space or
serve as a backdrop for the activities within it.
A large bay window can project a person into a
scene.
RM
RM
A window can be located in the corner of a
room to give it a diagonal orientation. It can be
located such that a view can be seen from only
one position in the room. It can be oriented up-
ward to offer a view of treetops and the sky. A
group of windows can be sequenced to frag-
ment a scene and encourage movement within
a space.
provide acce55 1u view deck
aim fettestrati0f1 "toward
'lieN dice?ctiorr
vtew
frame viewG with approp,rjate Wit1dOW shape9
VIEW PROPORTION BASED ON
VIEW PROPORTION AND SITE
srep use zone
space for access
to view
Raise spaces 1Vr view
over
provide a view t:>ubble ort tne

view from
I it1k be1Weet1
381
OPENINGS:
THE BASIC VARIATIONS
1. WITHIN PLANES
' ... ,
=o;
' ': I. r
; , H '
-.. 0 L ,.!.' :.. ... -.:!.
... ,,i i.. ........... ..
Offcet1ier
2. AT CORNERS

: , . !,
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l
l.. .. ............... ,_;
grouped
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) _ ..... . ._t
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deep5et
skylight

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L .. _............. ... .J
i
./ -------- ,,
k':._ ....... _,,, ,_, - .
alottg one side along two edgeS turnittg a corner
grouped skyligl1t
3. BETWEEN PLANES
; - -
- ...... .._ .. -...(
------ - .... -
f ' i
. r- J
'---{
-- ..
-
---- --- _ _j
l. ..... __ ... .. .. ., __ ,. _J
--- - -: --- ..,
I horizontal
3ff opewi rtg wittdow-wall
cet1ter
(51'able)
r ---- ----------,
;
;
!
i. :-- . - -- --- .. - ..
redu"cU!nt
382
OPENINGS WITHIN PLANES
An opening located wholly within a wall or ceiling plane will appear
as a bright figure on a contrasting Field or background. If centered
within the plane, the opening will appear stable and visually organ-
ize the surface around it.
Moving the opening off-center will create a degree of visual tension
between the opening and the edges of the plane toward which is
moved.
The shape of the opening, if similar to the shape of the plane in
which it is located, will create a redundant compositional pattern.
The shape or orientation of the opening may contrast with the en-
closing plane to emphasize its individuality as a figure.
emphasis or
ittdividual ity
The individuality of an opening may also
be visually reinforced with a heavy frame
multiple openings may be clustered to
form a unified composition within a plane,
or be staggered or dispersed to create
visual movement along the surface of the
plane.
DO
DO
muti'iple
+o fOht1 a ut1ifJBd
a pk:sne.
may
w1t111n
.. . r.
i:
. :
1!
:,
_. ____ ,_lL
a figuro with.ll1
a" encla>ing field
( l'iegative) j
5taggered ordi$penied to
create vi sua 1 movement alof19 itle
6urface of the plat1e.
. - .. .. --. .... ,__
-----... _: --I an. opening. a
1, l1 Plane 1ncreases m s1ze, it
;
1
t I will, at some point, cease to
; : ( i be a figure within a enclos-
1 , I . . f" ld
, f ! mg 1e , and become a po-
l , .. . . .. sitive element in itself, a
- _ ___ ..J .. .. ... ) transparent plane bounded
1Ta115paret1-t by a heavy frame.
(Fitive)
383
wall catrtirtuous
witk floor
Floor and Ceiling Planes Concepts
ll
_11
cot1tit1ui ty
it1 from out
floor at1d ceilit1g conti11uous
roof as ceiling
Bal conies
STAIRS
384
floor:> _fla:rting
platf0rnt5
dropped cei fi ttg
plat1es
SKYLI GHTS
DOORS
WINDOWS
ENCLOSURE (BUILDING ENVELOPE)
Wall Concept s
wall cotrliHuity tkru glass
w"ll as focus
outside Wall
Texture diffenmt
ftom (ttside
385
ENVIRONMENTAL
AND THE INTERIOR
CONCEPTS
MECHANICAL-ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
The designer should be well-versed with HVAC, Heating, Ventilating, Airconditioning sys-
tems, as well as vertical transportation which include elevators and escalators. He should
also be well acquainted with Electrical Systems, wiring, lighting and communication and
signal systems. In here, the plumbing and sanitary control is included. With the proper
knowledge of these systems, the designer can properly locate the machines, raceways, wir-
ings, motors, generators and the like in its proper places. This will greatly affect the Design
Concepts of the designer from the start of conceptualizing the project.
THE BUILDING INTERIOR:
A look at the interior of a building .and its dependence on mechanical and electrical equip-
ment can serve to illustrate some basic design choices. Away from the perimeter and its visi-
ble interaction with climate and other outside forces, the interior is potentially an isolated en-
vironment. As the designer manipulates heat, air, light, sound and water to best match the
environment of these interior spaces with their function, the following choices must be
made.
a. Mechanical-structural integration
As the complexity and size of the mechanical distribution systems was increasing
with technological development {typically, more air is required to cool a space than
would be required for simply heating it} increased strength of materials was reducing
the size of the structural system. The "uncluttered" Floor areas between the more
widely spaced columns became desirable for flexibility in spatial layout. Keeping the
mechanical systems at or within those columns allowed these floor areas to remain
clear, so mechanical-structural integration was given further impetus. With the new
expectations for cooling, the refrigeration cycle's cooling tower often moved to the
roof, taking the air-handling machinery with it. This further encouraged the merg-
ing of systems, for one system was growing wider as the other diminished.

cumulative
structure
388
i11creasi119 curnulatiye
supply ana returH a1r

Tect1Hical SUp?Jrt with roof top air-
ha11dlil1g the total area duct $1Ze decrea5es
towards tl1e grauttd eonversely, tke 'totaJ
structural load increa6e5 toward tne ground
AIR "'rnROUGI-( Sll.J .. W
Pl91\N

. I
Dual- Duct. hiQh vefOcrty
q:' fhe BlUE tRoss -BLUE buildittg.
Alf? m retun1
pta trulff sit
return duet i"tegraf wffk flfe
389
390
Yet the functions of these systems are very different; compared to the on-off air,
water and electrical distribution systems, the structural system is static-gravity nt:ver
ceases. The moving parts in mechanical systems need maintenance for more fre-
quently than the connections of structural components. Changes in occupancy can
mean enormous changes in mechanical systems, requiring entirely different equip-
ment. Structural changes of such magnitude usually occur only at demolition. Me-
chanical systems can invite user adjustment; structural systems rarely do.
Thus, while it is possible to wrap the mechanical systems in a structural envelope, it is
of questionable long-term value, given the differing life spans and characteristics of
these systems. The probability of future change suggests that the mechanical
system be the exposed one, despite the appeal to many designers of the structural
system's cleaner lines.
b. Concealment and Exposure
Recommet1ded
exposed ~ d e
The pipes, ducts, and conduits that take the necessary resources to and from the in-
terior are often carried within a network of spaces unseenby anyone but builders
and repair people. The advantages of concealment include: less water and air noise,
fewer surfaces requiring cleaning, less care necessary in construction (leaks, not
looks are important), and more control over the appearance of the interior ceiling
and wall surfaces. Although maintenance access to such hidden supplv line is more
difficult, a variety of readily removable covers is available, particularly in suspended
ceilings.
On the .other hand, the exposure of these supply network provides an honest and
direct source of visual (and occasionally acoustical ) interest. Exposure in corridors
and service areas, and concealment in offices is an approach used in many office
buildings.
This wooden ceiling module
serves both the office and
the corridor space; the
Fluorescent office lumi-
naires spread lightly even
at desk heights.
The incandescent spot
li_ghts send sharp patterns
across the otherwise plain
walls of the corridor.
Flexibi lity is usually encouraged by exposure; changes can be easily made when not
accompanied by a need fOf neatly cut holes in concealing surfaces. However, Flexi-
bility from movable partitions requires constant ceiling heights, which is a feature of
the suspended ceiling approach.
One of the more spectacular examples of exposed mechanical (and structural sys-
tems is the centre Georges Pompidou, Paris- The result of a design competition for
a museum of modern art, reference library, center for industrial design center for
music and acoustic research, and supporting devices.
The view from a -noisy and
congested street; an open
square on the other side is
thus protected by the build-
ing.
391
39.2
When users are invited to play an active role in adjusting conditions inside,
of the switches they manipulate is helpful. Not only are users reminded of their op-
portunities by seeing these mechanisms, but user interaction is encouraged; adjust-
ments are sometimes discovered that the designer had not anticipated.
c. Uniformity and Diversity
The flexibility in office arrangements that are accompanied by uniform ceiling
heights, light placement, grille, locations, and so on, can extend a building's usable
life span. However, uniformity is not always attractive to users, and diversity is often
encouraged at a more personal level, with office furnishings, for example. A more
thorough approach to diversity can provide stimulus to the user who spends many
hours away from the variability of the exterior climate.
If offices must be uniform in ceiling lighting, air handling and size, the corridor, that
connect them and the lounges, or other supporting service spaces, can be delibe-
rately different as shown in the ceiling illustration above. Diversity requires that the
designer be complete and detailed about creating places, it gives the builder a more
complex and interesting task, and it can provide orientation and interest to the users.
The attractiveness of diversity is evident in most collections of retail shops where
light and sound, and sometimes heat and aroma, are used to distinguish one shop
from the next.
USER REQUIREMENTS
ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEM
As tor Architectural systems, it is important to start with the USER. This is called the "USER-
ORIENTED CONCEPTUAL PLANNING" the designer shall recognize his or her characteris-
tics and constraints. Determine the user's needs, create a place for the user to perform
whatever tasks he or she expects to do. The following steps are suggested in conceptualiz-
ing an architectural system.
Step 1: Define and examine the needs of the total user population, for example in design-
ing an office building, do not concentrate only on the primary resident, but look at
the needs of his or her visitors or clients and the people who will serve the primary
resident in the proposed facility.
MULTIUSE OF SPAC(D e>
Day use Different cf day
Different 1ime5 Of year
1110t1. 'tUBS.
Different day5 cf the weeK
1915 - l99s-

Multi use of part of (?uildif9
Differettt Multi of
:--------------------------------4
I I
I I
Multi use of
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
l
I
I
I
- ---- - ---.....1
393
394
'II
'
/
)I'
/
.....
D
0
D
Frne use
Zone for $ee0rity
lat1e fA HVAC (heati119, vetttilatitfB.
a1 rcottd it io H it1g)
Step 2: Examine and define the various tasks that each of the above users has to perform.
Determine what these tasks imply in terms of space, environmental control, sup-
porting furnishings, and utilities. (Heating, ventilating, Airconditioning, lighting,
electrical, acoustics, communications, elevators and escalators, plumbing and
sanitary pipings, waste disposal, i nsect cont rol etc.)
Step 3: Explore the interactive as well as the isolative needs of the various users and their
furnishings and equipment. Examine alternative arrangements to determine the
most convenient organization of people, furnishings, spaces, buildings, etc.
Step 4: Create an enclosure for the most effective alternative defined in Step 3 and add ap-
propriate partitioning to provide desired environmental control. privacy and security.
5egregateti
lt1tegrated
OF oG'PACE
or fireplace
gl<m
Duct panel, pJtted

pool .f .
fDUt1t23lt1
Rail
L__J
0
c[
8
Ill

Batkra>m
395
396
DIVISION OF SPACE
Step 5: Select an appropriate site that will accomodate the building defined in Step 4 and
locate, position, and arrange the buildings with respect to appropriate site and
building access.
After these 5 steps have been completed, you are now ready to examine the concept in terms
of aethetic features, including architectural style, special material e f f e c ~ and landscaping.
Because people are different, it is a mistake to assume that a system can be designed for the
so-called average person. Understanding these differences and accomodating the proposed
concept to them are vital to the eventual operation of the system.
USER POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristics
1. CULTURALFACTORS
2. BODY SIZE
Architectural Implication
Considerable variation exists among people with respect
to their cultural background, including social mores, reli-
gious attitudes, intellectual development, skill develop-
ment, attitudes toward others, and where and how they
live in terms of spatial feat.ures and modern Technolo-
gical amenities.
Language differences create an important barrier to com-
munications in many system operational setti ngs.
People of different nationalities, as well as individuals of
the same nationality, vary considerably in terms of size.
There are also differences in size between children and
adults, between men and women, and between mem-
bers of special user populations. Differences in size im-
3. MOBILITY
4. STRENGTH
5. SENSORY FACTORS
6. MOTOR SKILLS
7. COGNITIVE SKILLS
USER EFFICIENCY
pact on architectural space, including clearances and
reach distances.
The agility of various individuals varies considerably
(example between the young and the old and between
handicapped and nonhandicapped persons), and mobili-
ty may be restricted by the garments people wear. The
impact of restricted mobility on human-architectural inter-
faces may be critical to the operational utility of a system
concept.
Very young and very old people have considerably less
strength than those in the middle range, women are ge-
nerally weaker than men, and handicapped persons may
have virtually no strength. Architectural features that re-
quire lifting, pushing, pulling, or twisting must be tailored
to the weakest member of the expected user population.
Principal sensory factors associated with architectural
systems relate to vision, hearing, and touch. Although
only persons with so-called normal capacities may make
up the expected user populations of special systems (be-
cause of operator selection restrictions), most general
system concepts require consideration of the more
limited capacities of elderly and handicapped individuals,
especially the visually and aurally handicapped.
A limited number of people have superior motor skill ca-
pabilities as a result of either innate capability or training.
Other are limited both innately and by lack of training. Still
others are even more limited by physical handicaps.
Variation in cognitive skill occurs because of age differ-
ences, differences in education and/or technological op-
portunity, and innate mental handicaps. Understanding
the !>J)erational aspects of the proposed architectural
concept is critical to its effective use.
It is often said. that "user efficiency does not sell products-appearance does". From a human
factors point of view, however, efficiency is of prime importance to the eventual effective-
ness of any system. The Table below should be considered carefully during the conceptual
phase of any architectural system development.
Parameter
1. VISION
Variables
What a person sees clearly establishes the basic input to
that person. His or her use response depends on how
well the architectural concept implies what the designer
intends the user to do with it. The critical variables in-
clude the following:
1. VisibilitY-Are critical features bright, or are they
obscured by intervening elements, glare or shadow?
2. Legibility-Are critical features clear, or are they dis-
397
398
2. HEARING
3. STABILITY
torted by lack of contrast, parallax, exaggerated em-
bellishment, or illusory geometries?
3. Conspicuousness - Are features that are important to
detecting, recognizing and understanding lost in the
background.
4. Recognizability - Are features natural, familiar and or
similar to the observer's expectations, or are they dis-
torted or purposely made to look like what they are
not?
What people hear not only affects their ability to commu-
nicate but may also affect their general capacity to per-
form other tasks.
The critical variables include:
1. Audibility: If certain sounds must be heard, the
acoustic environment must be designed to carry the
sounds and not block them.
2. Intelligibility: The acoustic environment must be
designed so that it will not distort the sounds intended
for the listener.
3. Signal-To Noise Ratio: The combined communica-
tions and acoustic system must be designed to maxi-
mize the probability that extraneous noises will not
obscure the desired sound signal.
4. Noise Annoyance: Adequate noise attenuation must
be provided to minimize the possible deleterious ef-
fects that an annoying noise can have on individual
task performance.
How well a person performs ambulation or biomechanic-
al or other manipulative tasks depends on the stabili
ty-aiding elements of the architectural system and/or
the possible impediments designed into the system. In
addition, there are critical visual interactions that may
add to the instability. of the user.
Among the typical features to examine are the slope of
floors, walkways, stair treads, handrails and door
thresholds. Structural vibration also. impacts on user
stability.
too narroN
be
4. MOBILITY
5. CONVENI ENCE
HANDICAPPED USERS
How well people perform dynamic tasks tasks in which
they must move their bodies and limbs depends both on
the clearances provided around their task envelope and
on the supporting area provided to maintain stability.
How well people perform various tasks depends to a
great extent on how conveniently they can move from
one place to another. This requires careful consideration
of functional relationships.
The sequence of events, time constrai nts, and emer-
gency demands in order to create a logical and energy
saving arrangement of spaces and activities within
spaces, lack of convenience not only reduces immedi-
ate user efficiencies but also may add to fatigue and
possible operator failures.
Special consideration should be given to the needs of the handicapped when it is obvious
that they too can be expected to utilize a proposed architectural system, this shall include
the elderly persons.
1. CONSIDERATION FOR THE BLIND
Blind or partially sighted individuals get about by depending on sound signals and tactile
cues. They require the following special features.
a. Well -defined, rectilinear walk ways, streets, cor-
ners and curbs which the blind person can touch
with a cane.
b. Pathway obstructions that go all the way to the
fl oor or around so that the blind person's cane
does not pass beneath the object and thus allow
the person to run into the object.
c. Nothing at head height, such as signs, guy wires
that support telephone poles, and trees with low
branches.
d. Special braille signs for key public locations for
identifying a building name and number, a street
corner, or a bus stop.
e. Sound signals so that the bl ind person will know
when a DON' T WALK signal is on whether an
elevator is going up or down.
f. Guardrail and/or special tactile identification of
pathways to keep the blind person from veering
into the street.
2. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEAF
Whenever an audio signali ng device (warning) is used for the general population because
of the chance that people may not be looking in the directio'n of a hazar.d, and accomJ,>a-
nying visual and/or tactile {vibration) signal should be devised for deaf persons to draw
their attention to the hazard also.
399
400
3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ORTHOPEDICALLY HANDICAPPED
Architectural mobility for the orthopedically handicapped can be increased by the follow-
ing;
a. AdeQuate clearance, smooth ground and floor surfaces, especially at thresholds of
doorways, curbings and ramps for change of elevation, and reachable heights for
such items as drinking fountains, telephones, and built-in workable tops and shelves.
b. Limited force application reQuirements for opening doors.
c. Door handles and cabinet handles that can be pushed rather than grasped or. squeez-
ed and turned.
d. Stairs that are notsteep and railings that can be grasped and held firmly in the arthritic
hand.
4. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENT HANDICAPS
Extreme care should be exercised in developing mobility aids, or con-
cepts for people with one specific handicap, since the same facility may
have to be used by people with other handicaps (ex: a smooth, ramped
intersection comer designed to aid the wtleelchair user may remove the
very tactile cues that tell the blind person where the street begins).
In addition, care should be exercised in terms of how some aids to the
handicapped may affect the use of the facility or devise by nonhandicap-
ped persons. In many cases, however, the aid may help both the han-
dicapped and the nonhandicapped person. For example, larger clearer
street signs are needed in most cities today for the normally sighted
motorist and for the partially sighted person, who might be able to use
these signs if they were not so small.
STRUCTURAL AND ENGINEERING
CONCEPTS FOR ARCHITECTURES
OVERALL APPROACH TO STRUCTURAL EDUCATION
The objective of architectural design is to create an effective environmental whole, a total
system of interacting environmental subsystem. Since the architectural challenge is to deal
in a coherent way, with organizational, symbolic, and constructive complexi ty, fragmenta-
tion of technical knowledge does not contribute to a creative response by designers. This
leads to an educational conclusion that the learner must never be allowed to forget that his
ability to conceptualize overall space-form interactions will allow him to control the need
for details, and not vice versa. It also suggests that a common educational strategy for stu-
dents of both engineering and architecture would be to move deductively; from an introduc-
tion to structures that consicrers the schematic implications of buildings viewed as space-form
wholes, to a logical el.aboration of this basic understanding. The basic understanding focus-
ses on consideration of major structural subsystems and discrimination of key elements,
whereas, the act of elaboration involves attention to the details required to realize the whole.
The good sense of such an overall approach to education can be vividly characterized by
considering what we often termed the nonstructural space enclosure and subdivision as-
pects of architectural design. The spatial organization and articulation of the various proper-
ties of activity spaces calls for control of the external and internal adjacency and interface
potentials. Horizontal and vertical surfaces in the form of floors, walls, roots, and penetra-
tions through these surfaces must be provided to establish varying degrees of spatial diffe-
rentiation, access, and geometric definition.
Imagine that the physical components of a spatial organization scheme were designed with
no thought for their structural implications. The probability for major revision of early con-
cepts due to structural requirements will be high. Now, in contrast, imagine that these com-
ponents of spatial organization were organized from the beginning with overall structural im-
plications of the schematic space-form system in mind. The probability for major revision
would be minimized, and the symbolic and physical integration of the structure wi th the
overall architectural scheme would be insured.
It became apparent that an ability for overall thinking can make it possible to apply structural
knowledge to the total architectural design effort from the very beginning and with a mini-
mum of distraction by lower..jevel details. It alone can enable the architect to think of the
physical issues of a space-structure in a context that is inherently compatible with his mode
of dealing with the many organizational and symbolic issues of space-forming. Thus it can
assure that the emphasis on components conceived as acting together as total systems
rather than separately, an independent parts. It is also apparent that much can be gained
from applying this overall-to-specific model of educational management to a reconsideration
of teaching and writing strategies in many specialized field of design-related knowledge.
STRUCTURE AND OTHER SUBSYSTEMS
There are other important reasons for suggesting that structural thinking should be intro-
duced at the very earliest stages of the design process. These derive from the need to pro-
vide buildings with mechanical and other environmental service subsystems that support ho-
rizontal and vertical movement of men and materials as well as provide for heating, ventila-
tion, air-conditioning, power, water, and waste disposal. In addition, provision for acoustical
and lighting needs is often influenced by structural design.
Vertial cirruratiot1 1owerS --- - - -
al90 19!7ist horit{)t1ial force;
(a) Yertiatl Movemet1t 5u1?-
tal1 play

'-----7"":...-leKder tl?t
to J119ist Jt:Jn"mntal
401
402
Vertical movement of objects through a building requires rather large shafts, and overall
thinking can result in the use of these service components as major structural subsystems.
The requirements for provisions of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, power, water, and
waste services can be visualized in the form of a Tree diagram. These services usually origin-
ate at a centralized location and must trace their way horizontally and vertically throughout
the structure in order to serve the activity spaces. Large trunk-chase spaces may be re-
quired, and their structural implications should be considered early in the design process.
USE V.SOC USE VSS" USt:: USt:. (}.s5 u$"
In terms of acoustics, it is clear that the structural shape of a spatial organization can directly
iofluence acoustical prQperties. In addition, if a spatial organization calls for heavy equip-
ment to be located such that it impinges on a flexible structure vibration and acoustical dis-
turbances can be transmitted throughout the space because of an incompatible interface
between machines and structure.
SOJND DISTRIBUTION
lS INFLUENCED B'l'
1'HE C1JERALL SHAPE
OF SPACE
Mechanical Equipment Sound is transmitted through
structure. When the structure is flexible, vibrations are
also transmitted.
The requirement for artificial and natural light brings up other considerations. Artificial light-
ing often calls for integrating consideration of structural subsystems with considerations of
the spatial qualities of light and of the spatial requirements f or housing and the lighting fix-
tures. The structural implications of natural ligthing are even more obvious.
f'a?r irrlerfaee
dept-11
minimum
Lighting systems should be made
to interface well with structural
sub-systems
dept11 maximum

lightiHg
t1
cirasmferettt,-al
rei11(orcemenr
For example, consider a fully enclosed space-form with all lighting provided artificially. Then
consider an open-top Spatial organization with a heavy reliance on natural lighting through-
out the space.
NATURAL LIGHT AND STRUCTURE
INTERACT AT OVERALL LEVEL
a) Fully enclosed box represents simple structural
problems but provides no natural light.
b) Fully transparent roof provides natural light but
poses more complex structural design prob-
lems.
403
404
c) Bearing and shear wall design with few wind-
ows is simple but admits little light.
d) Frame design is more complex but allows up to
80% of the wall to be transparent for light and
view.
BUILDING FORMS CONCEIVED AS SPACE-STRUCTURES
If plan89 are 'ftt)
tffit1, They will
Pucklt: attd t1fe
form will c o l l a ~
TUBE ACTION CAN BE ACHIEVED FOR A VARIETY OF SECTIONAL SHAPES AND BY
MEANS OF STRUCTURAL CORE DESIGNS
BALANCED FRAME ACTION REQUIRES THAT INTERIOR COLUMNS BE ABOUT TWO
TIMES STIFFER THAN EXTERIOR COLUMNS
-T- "T - -, - -T---r
' '
1
I I
: t I I t
I I I I
t I 1
I I 1
I I 1 1 1
- - + -----+- -- - ., - - - - -r- ---,-
1 I I I
I I I
I I I
I I I I
I 1 I I I
o I A._ l
- J_ ---'- -l-...,--'-
-}
f
I
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v
"
/
'\
/
\ v
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Otre COtmectio11
405
use more tkalf OHe c.ainectlQrf
The overal Stiffness and Efficiency of a Basic Frame is improved by a combination
of more columns and Connector.
ld
n-

w
A 8
jt1heret1tly eff)Ciet1t
C is efficiel1t
406
Vertical and Horizontal Subsystems may be combined in many ways to provide
overall structural integrity.
Exterior
wall (Frames)
Interior Shear v.elf
(or Frames)
Core Tube
Tul?e m Tul;)e
Braced Tut>e
Clu5tered Tut.\9s (Frames)
407
At conceptual stages, the designer need only keep in mind the four basic structural sub-
system interactions that must be provided in order to achieve overall integrity in the struc-
tural action of a building form:
_JJU-
..
1. Horizontal subsystems must pick up and transfer vertical
loads in the vertical subsystems,
40()
--7
,-- - ------,
I
I
I
1
I
2. Horizontal subsystems must also pick up horizontal loads ac-
cumulated along the height of a building and distribute them
to the vertical shear-resisting subsystems.
3. All of the vertical subsystems must carry the accumulated
dead load and live loads, and some must be capable of trans-
ferring shear from the upper portions of a building to the
foundation.
4. Key vertical subsystems that can resist bending and/ or axial
forces due to overt urning moments must be provided. Where
possible, they should be interacted by horizontal subsys-
tems.


of 1:7uildirrq
Four corner carry
botH vertical crnd f1oriz0t11al
1cad6
High Rise Building- Steel Framing
I
. .
u
wit1d Co11t1eetion 1<- braci11g K- brOciHg t;taggerBCJ Tnm
Shear tamectiot1
v
L

v
/

I/
1/
v
Framing

""
:'\.
.....
f--L-
Circular
framing

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1\.
[\,
1\

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AWYJI
1'\ /
'\ /
I'\ v
\ v
f\ v
f\ v
1'\ v
1'\ v
1\
v
V\
0
caumn
pattern
409
GHear
Hole
410
l.edg81
l ~ o t a t e d
Footit1g
C.Onti t1UOUG
CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND
STRUCTURES AS EXPRESSION
OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
BUILDING
The purpose of a building is to provide a shelter for the performance of human activities.
from the time of the cave dwellers to the present, one of the first needs of man has been a
shelter from the elements. In a more general sense, the art of building encompasses all of
man's efforts to control his environment and direct natural forces to his own needs. This art
includes, in addition to buildings all the civil engineering structures such as dams, canals,
tunnels, aqueducts and bridges.
The f orm of a building is an outgrowth of its function, its environment and various socio-
economic factors. An apartment building, an office building, and a school differ in term be-
cause of the difference in function they fulfill . In an apartment building every habitable space
such as living rooms and bedrooms, must have natural light f rom windows while bathrooms
and kitchens can have artificial light ana therefore can be in the interior of the building.
In office buildings, on the other hand, artificial light is accepted for more uniform illumina-
tion, and therefore the depth of such buildings is not limited by need for natural light.
FORM, SHAPE AND
Environment may affect both the shape and appearance of the building. An urban school
may create its own envi ronment by using blank walls to seal out the city completely, and a
country school may develop as an integral part of the land scape even though both schools
fulfill the same function.
The form of a building is affected by a variety of socio-economic factors, including land,
costs, tenancy building budget, and zoning restrictions. High land costs in urban areas result
in high buildings. A housing project for the rich will take a different form than a low cost
housing project. A prestige office building will be more generously budgeted for than other
office buildings. Buildings with similar functions-therefore take on different forms.
STRUCTURAL FORMS:
The beam or arch have developed through the ages in relation to the availability of materials
and the technology of the time. The arch developed on a result of the availability of the
brick. In the Technology of buildings, every structure must work against the gravity, which
tends to pull everything down to the ground.
A balance therefore must be attained between the force of gravity, the shape of the struc-
ture, and the strength of material used. To provide a cover over a sheltered space and l)ermit
openings in the walls that surround it. Builders have developed four techniques consistent
with these balance between gravity, form and material.
Wall } a. Post and Lintel
. a horizontal
Jf" ..... =r __ ,=
1
==- bEam between
-I I
;s..: ::::::.-- - . tM:> vertical

411
b. Arch Construction
c. Corbel or Cantilever
d. Truss Construction
412
voussoirs
covering an open space by placing
wedge-shaped units together with
their thick ends outward.
a projection from the face of a wall
. fixed in position to support a weight.
allowing for the use of a pointed
roof.
CONCRETE
Concrete is 8 conglomerate artificial stone. It is made by mixing 8 paste of cement and water
with sand and crushed stone, gravel, or other inert material. The chemically active sub-
stance in the mixture is the cement that unites physically and chemically with the water and,
upon hardening, binds the aggregates tOgether to form a solid mass resembling stone.
A particular inherent property is that concrete may be made in any desired shape. The wet
mixture is placed in wood, plastic, cardboard or metal forms in which it hardens or sets. Pro-
perly proportioned concrete is hard and durable materials. It is strong in compression but
brittle and.almost useless in resisting tensile stresses.
MASS or PLAIN concrete is used in members in which the stresses are almost entirely com-
pressive such as dams, piers, and certain types of footing.
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b
beart1 r
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differet1ce .
.f cattp-esston aoovefmake
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at1d -rears
-+he bwer CGH'fei
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In order to avoid compression and tension, reinforcement made of billet steel and rail steel,
usually intermediate grade is introduced. This is called REINFORCED CONCRETE.
..... __..,_ .._,_-- --- :::::.=-- --------
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413
REINFORCED CONCRETE is produced in different ways:
1. CAST IN PLACE -when a concrete is
S l a v ~ - ) poured at the jobsite whose beams. slabs
--___,.---1"-----4"'------:-----:.r- and columns are set i n forms on scaffold-
414
the fOrm of
the SIDES of
beamS caM be
removed earlier-
0
0
SLUMP TEST
ings and later on rernoved after the concrete
is hard. Usually the minimum length of time
for walls is 12 days and for beams and col-
umns, 7 to 11 days. A rule of thumb is tore-
tain the bottom forms 2 days for each inch
of thickness of concrete.
For a 3.000 lb. concrete a ratio of 6 gallons
of WATER per sack of cement will produce
a watertight concrete. 6 1/2 gallons should
be the maximum.
Two Types of Mixture Tests:
Sometimes, the mixture of concrete is too much cement-
sand mortar caused by water, and sometimes insufficient
cement-sand mortar which produces honey combed sur-
faces. To test the consistency of mixes of plasticity, we
have the SLUMP TEST and to test the strength of the con-
crete, we have the COMPRESSION CYLINDER TEST.
1 1
I .2() !_
f- ---- ---- --4
n
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With an truncated cone made of sheet metal . with dimensions shown as above,leave the
top and bottom open. Freshly mixed concrete is placed in the mold in three layers, each
being rodded separately 25 times with a 5/8" (16mm) diameter rod. When the mold is fill-
ed and rodded the top is levelled off, and the mold is lifted at once. Immediately the
slumping action of the concrete is measured by taking the difference in height between
the top of the mold and t he top of the slumped mass of concrete.
RECOMMENDED SLUMPS
(plait1
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
Reinforced Foundation walls
and Footing
Plain Footings, substructure
walls
Slabs, beams, reinforced
walls
Columns
Pavements
Heavy Mass ConstructiQn
COMPRESSION TEST
SLUMP METRIC
MAX. MIN.
0. 125 0.05
0.10 0.025
0.15 0.075
0.15 0.075
0.75 0.05
0.75 0.025
This is the test given to concrete for strength. The specimens to
be tested are cylindrical in shape and have a length twice the
diameter. The standard is 6 inch (0.15) in diameter and 12 inch
(0.30 in height.
Freshly made concrete is then placed into the mold in these se-
parate layers, each about one-third the volume of the mold.
Rodded with a 16 mm, bullet-pointed rod. After the top layer
has been rodded, the surfaces is leveled with a Trowel and
covered with glass or planed metal. After 2 to 4 hours, .when the
concrete has ceased settling, the specimens are capped with a
thin layer of neat cement paste and covered with glass or metal.
It is customary to keep the specimens at the site of 24 hours.
After which they are taken to the laboratory and cured in a moist
atmosphere at 70F. Tests are usually made at 7 and 28-day
periods.
In making specimens, extreme care should be taken to see that
the ends are plane-parallel surfaces. After the specimen is
placed in the testing machine, a compressive load is applied until
the specimen fails. The load causing the failure is recorded, and
this load divided by the cross-sectional area of the cylinder gives
the ultimate compressive unit; stress usually in psi.
2. PRECAST CONCRETE
Prefabricated reinforced concrete which have been cast and cured in a factory rather
than in place on the site. Then delivered by long trailer trucks and installed by welding to-
gether all the components. These include floor and roof slabs, columns, girders, beams
and joists, wall panels and stairs. Whole wall sections are precast and later raised to po-
sition in what to be called TILT-UP Construction.
415
I
t
416
Advantages:
1. Casting and curing conditions, as well as concrete design, can be rigidly controlled re-
sulting in consistently high quality concrete.
2. The cost of forms and scaffolding is reduced since they can be placed on ground rather
than having to be suspended or supported in position.
3. Where mass production of a unit is possible, forms can be made precisely of steel en-
suring long use and very smooth surfaces.
4. Structural members can be mass-produced in a plant while excavations and founda-
tion work are taking place at the site.
5. Pre-cast concrete members are then delivered as called for in work schedules and in
most cases erected directly from truck bed to the structure without rehandling at the
site.
6. Close supervision and control of materials and a specialized work force in a centralized
plant result in a high-quality product.
7. Finishing work on concrete surfaces can be done more easily in the plant than in posi-
tion on the site.
8. Because of superior reinforcing techniques the dead load of the structural members
themselves can be reduced.
9. Plant production is not normally subject to delays due to adverse weather conditions
as so often happens to jobsite operations.
Two General Classifications of PRE-CAST Structural Members.
1. Normally reinforced
2. Prestressed
a. Pre-tensioned
b. Post-tensioned
Normally reinforced precast concrete are designed according to accepted reinforced-con-
crete practice prestressed concrete unit is one in which engineered stresses have been
placed before it has been subjected to a load.
When is employed, the reinforcement, in the form of high-tensile
steel strands, is first stretched through the form or casting bed between two end abut-
ments or anchorages. Concrete is then poured into the form, encasing the strands. As
the concrete sets, it bonds to the tensioned steel; when it has reached a specified
strength, the ends of the tension strands are released. These prestresses the concrete, put-
ting it under compression and creating built-in tensile strength having been prestressed.
Members have a slight arch or camber.
l
ftOM17-al
t--- ---:}
I
Prete"sion aJHcrete t>eam
U11Joaded
Load
T
T
loaded
Loaded
POST TENSIONING involves placing and curing a precast member which contains. nor-
mal reinforcing and in addition, a number of channels through which poststressing cables
or rods (tendons) may be passed. Sometimes the tendons are wrapped in oiled paper for
easy sliding. One side is anchored securely at the end and one side is held by a cone.
After concrete has hardened tothe desired strength: The cone is fitted to a hydraulic jack
and is pulled to the allowable strength then a small steel plate is wedge so as the tendons
will not go back to its normal position. Post tensioning is usually carried out when the
member is very large or when only one or a very few of one particular kind of unit are to
be made. In general, post-tensioning will be used if the unit is over 45 feet (14 ml tong or
over 7 tons is weight.
&:!m
-t11is is
whett pulled 10 n:quired
s1Te11gth or P5l . 5o -Hat
the tet1dot15 permanently

BE'AM, COLUMNS, JOISTS. FlOORING
chamref
linT
417
418
..... a of pr-e-cast
1 --- -- curtai11 wall welded
I
1 ro the 5tructuraJ
I
l beams will hasten
I
coHstruction time
and eli mo5t
of tke
wall pat1els
- are precasted custom- designed
p::mels wiii1
alro fOr tl1d1VIdual 11ousmg umt6.
3. LIFT SLAB BUILDING SYSTEMS
I I
'.
at
II
J
Lift slab is a systems approach to construction based on advanced Technology. But un-
like some competitive systems, lift slab is designed to fit your requirements instead of try-
ing to make you fit its requirements. In lift slab Building systems, floor and roof slabs are
cast one on top of the other. After a short curing time, they are lifted to their final positions
by hydraulic jacks and secured to vertical supports. The result efficient utilization of man-
power and desing versatility.
No large expenditure is required on the part of the general contractor who uses lift slab.
Nor does the architect or engineer need to limit his design creativity to fit a restrictive
system.
How Lift Slab Lowers Costs
a) FORMS ARE REQUIRED ONLY ON THE OUTSIDE EDGE OF THE SLABS. Lift slab
eliminates 90 percent of the formwork required for a cast-in-place concrete building
and reduces the number of carpenters to a minimum. With very little waste and trash,
costly cleanup is eliminated. Irregularly shaped floor plans are easily formed.
....
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.
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Ready mixed cot1crete
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b) SLABS ARE CAST ONE ATOP THE OTHER.
After the first slab is laid out, it serves as a template for subsequent slabs. This elimi-
nates layout on all but the initial slab, and cuts mistakes to a minimum. Electrical,
plumbing, and mechanical work is fast and accurate; craftsmen are able to work more
efficiently.
fu3t TENDONS
sleeves (fir eleciri2l
at1d plumbing
Here Post-Tensioning Tendons, mild steel reinforcement rods and forms to block out
openings in the slab are all in place, ready for next slab to be poured.
There is no wait for erectfon of complex elevated formwork. This shortens the time interval
between pouring one slab and the next. The bottom of each slab is exceptionally smooth
(just like the top); it is ready for finish paint or spraying without additional preparation.
c. Two Casting Systems are Available
. . .
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.. : .. , : - .. ... .. .. ... .. . -.. : '..;.. .
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coKcrete
All slabs are cast and cured on the
ground and then raised into position and
secured. The ground-level casting me-
thod is used for structural frame lift slab
building systems up to twelve f loors and
bearing wall lift slab building system up
to four floors .
419
420
1co
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C0 I A 0 e'?
Powerful hydraulic lifting tacks provide the muscle to lift
up to 150,000 pounds (72,777 kg.) per tack at rates of eight
to twelve feet (2.40-3.60 m) per hour or more. As many as
48 1ifting jacks can be used at the same time.
First the designed footing is laid out and poured then the reinforced
concrete column is enclosed in a form and poured. Up to a height
of 3 1/2 floors. When all slabs had been lifted. The top of the col-
umns is again smashed to expose the steel bars and another one
and one half floors height of column is' connected by welding and
poured to a smoothened top finish. This will accomodate all the
hydraulic jacks in one horizontal elevation.
,.._ __ steel em.Pedded
to coluf'tfn aJ1d
sla.b fOr weldirtg
purpo5es
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STA6R-f- .
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-INITIAL <XlL1JMH
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3- 3
STABE
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2- &
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(1) SEVEN SlABS @ ROOF LIFTED @ 21110 THRU TTH

tN TEMPORARY
SLABS IN PERM4N!NT PCSlTlON
_, CONTINOE UF"mj&@ ALL SLABS 114
(!) suss
A. ALL SLABS CAST ON THE GROUND
R- c:::::::;n:;:=::J
Jt1itt2!1 COioniP1
s-mge
R- c:= :!::=:::::J
c::==:::::=:::s 1il.A8S IN 1llt..ti"'RAJI"( POSITION
r:=====' SUBS ..
c.::=-::::::::: .::J 5&.A8S CAST ON I..FT!D SlA8I
SEE EXPLANATIONS ON NEXT PAGE
FINAL. FOSI110N
@ 7TH AHD Slit FLOOR SlABS
CNT CF LIFTING MO
GASTIN6 CDNTINUES ON11L
AU. SUBS ARE CAST
421
CASTING ON LIFTED SLABs-Four slabs are cast at ground level (see 1). The roof slab
~ ttlen raised to a temporary position 2) The remaining three slabs are raised. with slabs for
floors two and three secured in position 3) and 4) Two slabs {three and four sandwiched
together) serve as the base form for two new slabs that are cast in the air at roughly the
third floor level. An unusual flying form and work platform around the edges may be
secured to the two cured base form slabs and to the roof slab one floor higher. The two
base form slabs are next positioned and secured as floors four and five. The roof slab is
moved up 5} The new slabs serve as the form for two more slabs ... and the process is
repeated as many times as necessary.
This method is used for structural frame Lift Slab Building Systems over twelve floors
and bearing wall Uft Slab Building Systems over four floors. Use of this method means
that the lower floors are ready for finishing more quickly. The result is earlier completion
of the project.
Hydraulic jack
422
4. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
" Prestressing is a basic principle of design in which stresses are buift into a structural ele-
ment, such as a beam, in order to offset load-carrying stresses. The stresses directly op-
pose the stresses created when a load is applied to the beam, and, in effect, tend to "can-
cel out" the load stre_sses. In the case of prestressed concrete, high tensile strength strand
is used in either of two prestressing techniques-pretensioning .or post-tensioning.
This is a construction method also known as an Integrated Building System.
Fco1irtg
HOW IT WORKS:
1. The Foundation site is excavated and pre
pared while the structural components
are fabricated at the plant.
2. As soon as the foundation is ready, the
structural components are delivered to
the construction site.
3. Erection immediately follows using heavy
lifting equipment. Completed portions of
the building are immediately ready for fi -
nishing.
4.23
U-BEAMS are used as floor and roof units. Length up to 6.00 m (20 feet) Depth from .10 to
.15m (4 to 6 inchesL
DOUBLE TEES - are used as floor and roof
units or as wall panels.
Length - up to 15 meters (50 feet)
depth - from .25 to .45 (10 to 18
inches.
SINGLE TEES - are used as floor units.
They are capable of spans of up to 28
meters (90 feet) Flange- from 1.20 to
2.40 or (4 to 8 feet).
Concrete BEAMS, Concrete STAIRS, WALL PANELS are all precasted in the Factory.
Wall Panel Joints
The solution to the problem of water
proofing of joints spells the success of
the precast wall panel application.
Comprehensive detailing providing tor
water drains and sealants prevents see-
page of water through joints.
424
Deta; I 5c!rtion B
. . . ...
. . . . .
425
426
U Beams are set Atop the
prestressed Beam/ Girder then
a con crete toppi11g ~ placed iu
the de,ired thickness arrd level
5. SPANSTRESS
This method speeds up construction, and saves on expensive equipment, since it takes
cranes out of the way. Span-stress prestressed Concrete T
4
Joist Floor and roof system is
more compact and light-weight. Easier to transport and handle.
Span-stress prestressed T -Joist can be used with filler blocks or with collapsible steel
forms, or plywood forms. It eliminates or reduces scaffoldings to the minimum. Length
goes from 3.00 meters to 9.00 meters.
WITH FILLER BLOCKS
WitH
tA,
.. .
<:0
fiHer

o.OB tHia t:at1erere topping
wirn me,11 o. ts o.c. EW
R.C. @
WITH COLLAPSIBLE STEEL
With Collzrpsiple 4te81

427
428
6. PRECAST WAFFLE SLAB SYSTEM
This modular precast posttensioned waffl e SLAB SYSTEM is the first application of two-
way post-tensioning in a precast concret e floor system. This is a new system of con-
structing floor slabs that consist of si ngular square precast concrete modular elements
laid out in checkerboard pattern and integrated together into the structural flooring
system of a building by means of post-tensioning in two perpendicular directions.

This precast concrete modular elements are mass-produced and stocked in the ,.;,anufac-
turing plant. Columns can be precast/prestressed or cast-in-place concrete or even steel,
depending on the requirements.
CEILING VIEW
During the construction stage, the elements are set, four units at a time, on steel scaf-
folds pre-arranged to support the elements in a checker-board pattern.
429
430
Initial concrete grouting is then applied to the gap between elements and contoured to
follow the strand cable profile. After the grout has set, the cables are laid on and final
concrete grouting is poured up to the level of the precast concrete elements.
Curing time is days and the strands are then stressed. When all the strands have
been stressed, the steel scaffolds can then be removed, and the whole operation is com-
pleted.
6routing .
. i11itlaJ groutitt;3 1$ fWrW IHID
tke gap Mwe811 t11e WGtffls
BI6Hf8Hf1r imd c.oti'll:XJra:i 10
follow tke catilfe profils
7. SUP FORM METHOD

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... ,.
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'# .,
This method has been utilized extensively in agricultural and industrial com-
plexes. In particular the silos, either cylindrical or straight-sided have found
the most practical applications.
Lately, however, this has been applied to elevator core constructions and
even multi-storey hotel buildings. It can be applied to any construction in-
cluding multi-storey buildings.
Advantages:
a) short construction time
b) low labor cost
c) small timber requirement
d) smooth concrete surface
e) minimum of construction joints
The conventional conrete construction which was earlier discussed utilize a
lot of bracings and scaffoldings for the forms, are fixed and after pouring
concrete cannot be removed until after 15 days.
SLIPFORM modifies the method of forming in the conventional concrete
construction. It utilizes very much less framework, no scaffolding at all and
some braces. The whole form system is distributed over several hydraulic
jacks. The hydraulic jack system is the heart of the slipform method of con-
struction.
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........

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171
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431
432
' ... ::;::.:.::: ...... .;. . ::: ... :::::
The complete wall system of the structure is formed
about a meter and a half in height . When everything
is f ixed to the jacks and the hydraulic syst em tested
to good working condition, concrete is poured into
the forms and as all the forms are filled and the con-
crete starts to set, the forms are jacked up systema-
tically until the whole structure is completely con-
creted at which point the jacking operation stops and
the lost segment allowed to cure in the time periods,
required.
With slipform method t his last segment is stripped
within a week from the time the last concrete was
poured. A well -experienced sl ipform group should be
able to finish concreting a structure at the rate of
twelve inches (0.30 m) per hours .
. . . : .. . ,
:::"_::
8. COMPOSITE FLOOR
CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM
Designed and developed by an Ottawa firm of consulting engineers, a flooring system for
both poured concrete, masonry construction and structural steel buildings has become
very popular in Canada.
The system, known as D-500, has been patented by Hambro Structural Systems Ltd. of
Ottawa in Canada and in about two dozen other countries around the world.
Basically, the D-500 system incorporates a special Z-shaped steel top chord
(the top member of a conventional open web joist) which is automatically "locked" to
the concrete floor on hardening. In addition, the top chord is slotted to permit the inser-
tion of "roll bars" between joists.
These bars provide support for plywood sheets laid over them. Reinforcing mesh is then
draped over the joist and the concrete floor poured.
Once the conrete has set, it is a simple matter to unlock the "roll ba'rs" and remove the
plywood for use again.
Butts, Magwood & Hall Ltd., also consulting engineers in Ottawa, originated the concept
as a cost-control building system in 1967. To bring the invention to the marketing stage,
the aid of local builders was enlisted and Hambro Structural Systems ltd. was formed.
In 1970, Minto Construction Ltd., Canada, used the system for an eight-storey apartment
building, and had since used it in four other buildings.
Minto's architect, John Russell, likes the system because of its flexibility and cost
savings. These result from dispensing with propping f or short to medium spans. It also
enables subcontractors to move in quickly after the floor has been poured.
In one of Minto's recent projects, in which concrete had been poured the day before for
the eighth floor, plumbing and electrical wiring had started on the seventh, wiring was
complete and plumbing was complete at the sixth floor, and the ceiling on the fifth floor.
In contrast, for conventional poured-in-place conrete construction the building has to ad-
vane& through six floors before the subcontractors can even get started.
Such acceleration of other subcontractors leads to obvious savings in time. In addition to
the capital cost savings arising from the use of the Hambro 0-500 floor, it has been estab-
lished by Hambro that there are significant savings in electrical subcontractors alone over
the conventional concrete construction.
tit?g .
metHW17
:
... ,

Nol"e : Roll are rotated
for removal of
433
9. FLOOR DECKING - made of high strength zinc-coated steel decking which acts as both
permanent formWork and positive tensile reinforcing steel in one-way reinforced slab
construction for second level to high floordecking.lt mechanically and chemically bond on concrete
slab to form a solid flooring panel. Steel Decking provides permanent formwof1(, and acts as a
ceiling that looks pleasant to the viewer in the lower floor.
A. STEELDEK (by PhiiMetal)
THIM REIHFORCENEMT
NO.IO
..
POURED CONCREt E
" .. . . ca">
. . .. . . ...
B. STRUCTURAL-DECK (by Condeck lfl\ernational)
RE"INf'ORCEMENT BAR
NO.(IO
.. -
...
- . . . .
-- . ..... . "
..
... :' ', : ._ ..
STRUCTURAL - DECK
434
DECK ON IEAM
length
up to 13.7 m
CONCRETE (11
11
)
ECONOMIC
436
THE COST OF THE BUILDING STRUCTURE
FIRST COST
The economical aspect of building represents a nonphysical structural consideration that, in
final analysis, must also be considered important. Cost considerations are in certain ways a
constraint to design. But this need not be so. If something is known of the relation-
ship between structural and e:onstructive design options and they cost of implementation, it
is reasonable to believe that creativity can be enhanced.
The cost of structure alone can be measured relative to the total cost of building construc-
tion on the average, purely structural costs account for about 25 percent of total construc-
tion costs. This is so because it has been traditional to discriminate between purely structural
and other so-called architectural costs of construction. Thus, in tradition we find that archi-
tectural costs have been to be those that are not necessary for the structural strength
and physical integrity of a building design.
"Essential Services" forms a third construction cost category and refers to the provision of
and electrical equipment and other service systems. On the .average, these ser-
vice costs account for some 15 to.30 percent of the total construction cost, depending on
the type of building. Mechanical aRd electrical refers to the cost of providing for air-condi-
tioning equipment and the means of air distribution as well as other services, such as plumb-
ing, communication, and electrical light and power.
The salient point is that this breakdown of cost suggests that, up to now, an average of
about 46 to 60 percent of the total cost of constructing a typical design solution could be
considered as architectural. With high interest costs and a scarcity of capital, client groups
are demanding leaner designs.Therefore, one may concl ude that there are two approaches
the designer may take towards influencing the construction cost of building.
The FIRST APPROACH to cost efficiency is to consider whenever architectural and struc-
tural solutions can be achieved simultaneously, a potential for economy is evident.
This is what is meant by:
"Form and Function are one" - Frank Llyod Wright
"Less is more" - Mies Van der Rohe
"Maximize the number of - Alvar Aalto and
Jobs done by each design component. Louis Kahn
Since current trends indicate a reluctance to allocate large of a construction budget
to purely architectural costs, this approach seems a logiest necessity. But even where
money is available, any use of structure to play a basic architectural role will allow the non-
structural budget to be applied to fulfitl other architectural needs that might normally have to
be cut back.
The SECOND APPROACH achieves economy through an integration of service and
ral subsystems to round out ones effort to produce a total architectural solution to a
building design problem.
the final pricing of a project by the constructor or contractor usually takes different form.
The costs are broken down into 1) Cost of matert&r. brought to the site, Cost of Labor in-
volved tn every phaae of th4t construction process, 3) Cost of equipment purchased or rente<t
far the project, 4) eo.t of management and overhead and 5) profit.
Rough approximation of the cost of building a structural system is done by either the "per-
centage estimate", the "square meter" costs, or "volume-based estimates like per cu.m.
per truckload, per kilo, per bag etc.
CONSIDERING EASE OF MAINTENANCE
DURING THE PLANNING STAGE OF DESIGN:
If it is considered at all during the planning stage, facility maintenance traditionally becomes
a question of how can this facility be maintained as we have designed it? In other words, too
often the question of ease of maintenance does not come up when key architectural confi-
guration decisions are being made. In spite of this traditional attitude, all facilities have to be
maintained, and by human beings. 1he following key maintenance functions should be part
of any design concept trade-off analysis.
1. Daily housekeeping cleaning floors, walkways, windows, walts, ceilings, etc.
2. Periodic inspection and repair; inspecting and repairing windows, roofs, walls and
woodwork, hot water heaters, plumbing, etc.
3. Periodic REFURBISHMENT: repainting exterior and interior surfaces; replacing
roofs, replacing plumbing fixtures, etc.
4. landscaping maintenance: watering lawns and shrubs, removing trash, etc.
COMMON HUMAN FACTORS PROBLEMS
ASSOCIATED WITH MAINTENANCE-RELATED DESIGN
1. One cannot get to the spot that requires inspect ion, adjustment, cleaning, removal, re-
placement, or refurbishment.
2. There is insufficient space to do the job once a person has reached or located the mainte-
nance problem.
3. There is insufficient illumination to see what needs to be seen.
4. There is a lack of appropriate service connections to enable use of the necessary tools at
the work site.
5. The device to be repaired or replaced is buried into the structure, requiring major destruc-
tion and eventual repair.
6. Main service shutoffs (example: water, electrical or gas} are variously distributed, hidden
and/or inacessible, requiring an inordinate amount of time to find them.
7. The composite land-site-structural relationship precludes the normal and safe use of
common maintenance aids such as ladders or scaffolds,
ARCHITECTURAL SAFETY:
An objective conceptual planning should be to create an environment in which the user can
be as safe as possible. Although this is a tall order, many of the accidents that frequently oc-
cur in homes, offices, schools, factories, and elsewhere are due as much to the facility de-
sign as they are to user errors. The following typical safety considerations are applicable to
all architectural systems:
7
1. Use nonflammable, nontoxic materials.
2. Eliminate sharp edges, corners, etc. that could cause in-
jury.
3. Create properly designed stairs, ramps and walkways.
437
4. Do not use large ceiling-to-floor glass windows or doors
without appropriate barriers .to prevent people from walk-
ing through them when they are closed.
5. Ground all electrical controls, cover outlets and other-
wise prevent people from receiving electric shocks.
6. Provide adequate illumination so that people can see
where they are going and avoid tripping over a walkway
obstruction or step.
7. Use nonskid materials on floors, walkways, and stairs,
especially if there is a possibility of their becoming wet.
8. Provide appropriate handrails around balconies and
alongside stairs and use railing designs that children can-
not fall through or get their heads caught in.
9. Cover moving parts of machines to prevent people from
getting their hands or clothing caught.
10. Avoid locating heaters where they can be touched inad-
vertently or where pilot lights could ignite the structure or
adjacent materials or cause an explosion as a result of gas
fumes from a nearby vehicle.
11. Provide adequate emerging escape routes that can be
used in the event that normal passage ways and exists
are impassable.
12. Consider the problems of window washing and of house
or building repair in terms of typical unsafe practices as-
sociated with ladders and scaffolds.
13. Provide appropriate fencing around special facilities from
which children should be barred (example-swimming
pools, high-voltage wires and heaters.
14. Provide fire sprinkler and alarm systems.
BUILDING MATERIALS AS
EXPRESSION OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
HONESTY OF EXPRESSION
438
This is a principle to be observed in connection with the use of materials. The materials of ar-
chitecture have the primary function of enclosing space for the protection of man's interest
and activities, an achievement which can be attained more satisfactorily by paying the pro-
per attention to the qualities of these materials.
Wood, stone, brick and glass have their own physical characteristics and are best suited to
various specific situations. Rough field stone would be inappropriate where the smooth sur-
face of polished marble is desired. Materials should also be used in a truthful manner and not
to hide or imitate. Concrete need not be painted to resemble wood or bricks, and terra cotta
is interesting enough to eliminate the necessity of treating it like stone.
Materials and construction should express in addition, the function of the bui lding. Humble
materials should be used with simple structure, and the more ornate reserved for ambitious
buildings. Dishonesty should be avoided at all times. False fronts, useless columns inappro-
priate parapets, and spectacular roofs and domes usually detract from the functional and
aesthetic qualities of architecture and should have no place in good design.
Front" -is a front wall which extends beyond the side wall of a building or above the
roof.
False
Front '111
ECONOMY OF MATERIALS

---
' ----
1 r--
' I
' l
__ J L---
SECTlOt-..1
Correct specifications of materials for the type of structure is important. For instance, a
cheaper cost of material for a low cost house and a more expensive material for a luxurious
type of house.
SUGGESTED MATERIALS
For Simple Structure
1. Galvanized iron sheets.
2. Wood sidings concrete hollow block
walling.
3. Wood Flooring or cement tiles.
4. Plywood Ceiling.
5. Plywood Partitions.
6. Wood or steel windows.
7. Flush doors.
8. White tiles.
9. White toilet fixtures.
10. Ordinary paint.
MATERIALS:
For Ambitious Buildings
1. Long span colored roof tiles.
2. Reinforced concrete wall brick walls.
3. Concrete slab with vinyl tile floor, gra-
nulithic or marble flooring.
4. Spraytex and acoustical boards.
5. Narra or pine board panelings.
6. Aluminum Frame Windows.
7. Panel doors.
8. Colored tiles.
9. Colored fixtures.
10. Expensive paints including textured
or wall paper.
Building materials have certain physical properties to be structurally useful. Primarily, they
439
440
must be able to carry a load, or weight without changing shape permanently. When a load is
applied to a structural member, it wil deform; that is, a wire wiU stretch or a beam will bend.
However, when a load is removed, the wire and beam will come back to their original posi-
tions. This material property ie called ELASTICITY. If a material were not elastic and defor-
mation were present in the structure after the removal of the load, repeated loading and un-
loading eventually would increase the deformation to a point where the structure will
become useless.
All materials used in architectural structures, such as stone, brick, wood, steel, aluminum
reinforced concrete and plastics have become elastically within a certain defined range of
loading. If the loading is increased above that range, two types of behaviour can occur;
BRITTLE and PLASTIC: Brittleness win make a material br.,ak suddenly. While plasticity will
make the material flow at a certain load ultimately leading to fracture. The ultimate yield
strength of a material is measured by the stress at which failure occurs. As an example, steel
exhibits plastic behavior, while stone is brittle.
A second property of a building material is its STIFFNESS. This property is defined by the
elastic modulus, which is the ratio of the stress (force per unit area) to the strain (deforma-
tion per unit length). The elastic modulus therefore is a measure of the resistance of material
to deformation under load. For two materials equal area under the same load, the one with
the higher elastic modulus has the smaller deformation. Structural steel which has an elastic
modulus of. 30 million pounds per square inch (psi) or 2, 100,00 kilograms per square cen-
timeter,'is 3 times stiffer as aluminum, 10 times as stiff as concrete and 15 times as stiff as
wood.
THE VISUAL EXPRESSION OF MATERIAL
Architecturally speaking, to produce means always to produce in some material-but in the
theoretical analysis it is necessary to make a distinction between the two concepts. Any des-
cription of the expression of material must, however involve a description of how different
production and finishing methods are more 'natural' to a given material than others.
I. THE MATERIALS OF NATURE/ANCIENT MATERIALS
A
1. Wood
For building purposes and for furniture, wood can be used .in its natural state. Many
different kinds of tools can, however be used for cutting and sawing. Wood, can be
b'>wed and, with modern techniques, bent into complicated curved surfaces. Such
production methods permit a good materiai elCpression of the wood.
bent Wood
Wood is not so permanent as masonry but with proper care has been known to last
for centuries. Wood i$ used for structural purposes like framings, posts, roof trusses,
girders, etc. carved wood for interior decorations, and other uses like sidings, panel-
ings, floorings.
Wood may be used in its rough state surface, or planed and smoothed.
2. Stone
The great building material of nature, one of the oldest and perhaps the most perma-
nent.
a. Gnmlte- is a coarse-grained stone and should be. used for large, bold forms with
little carving. It Is the hardest and perhaps the most durable of the building
stones. It is often applied to base courses where protection is desired. In a polished
form it frequently employed as shafts of columns with limestone or terra-cotta
capitals and bases. The nature of the material makes it very adaptable to monu-
mental work.
b. Slfndstone-The various sandstone range in color from white to different tints of
red and brown or blue and gray. This material is popular for use in buildings whose
characters lean more to informality than to formality. They give variety and inte-
rest, and the textures of their walls have found favor in different structures.
c. Marble - is a limestone which is sufficiently close in texture to admit of being
polished. It may be divided into two classes, 1) Brecciated marble is composed of
angular fragments, 2) the serpentine marbles are prized for variegated patterns
and often used in large. Flat planes.
d. Limestone-has a fine, even texture, and its colors range from a light cream to a
buff and from a light gray to a darker, bluish gray. It is an excellent wall or exterior
stone and leads itself very well to carving.
441
442
3. Leather
Characterized by its high degree of plastic malleability which it requires through the
soaking process it undergoes during manufacture. After drying it is no longer mallea-
ble but keeps its form unless a special process enables it to keep its flexibility.
4. Ceramic Materials
Can be manufactured in many different ways. Clay can be used to make bricks, roof-
ing tiles, or toilet tiles, clay pot. Thus the form of a ceramic object does not always tell
us as much about the material as to the colour and texture.
clay rot::f" tile
Tiles 'fcmacotta
5. Metal
At an early stage, objects of iron and other metals were cast in forms. Today, rolling
and pressing are perhaps the most important manufacturing method.
Steel has qualities of strength but light. It requires less area than solid masonry. Its
structural design may be computed accurately, a saving in space and cost. lt permits
prefabrication in the shop so that less labor is required upon a crowded site. Slabs
and thin sheets of it and other metals can have been developed for surface cover-
ings.
a. BronzB- is one of oldest of alloys composing chiefly of copper and tin. It is cast
into shape and lends itself to the tr-eatment of many architectural features. Its per-
manency and beauty have stood the test of time. Banking screens and shop
fronts, doors and grilles, hardware and lighting fixtures, are constructed of this
material. It is capable of receiving numerous textures and colors. THe splendor
and polish of bronze require fine marbles and formal architectllre as a setting.
Skowmg t11e delicacy CJI1d g-ac.s of a
wrougrrt-1mt1 5 C ~ . A +ruthfUl
expr-e55ion of +ne drmm and hammered
quali1y of tHe metal. 5. Tritrita, florence.
b. Wrought Iron -The delicacy and spon-
taniety of wrought iron harmonize with
rougher surfaces and INFORMALITY.
W.l. is distinguished from other metals
by the manner in which it is produced
and by the final effect obtained. Instead
of being cast it is worked upon the anvil
while it is hot or cooling. Iron bars, rods,
and plates are heated and then ham-
mered and twisted into the attenuated
forms so characteristic of wrought iron.
The heavy effects of cast iron should not
be interpreted with wrought, nor should
the drawn character or wrought iron be
interpreted in cast. Wrought iron is elas-
tic and fibrous; Cast iron is brittle.
The workmanship of the artist is important in the production of wrought iron.
W .I. is honest and frank in its appeal. The hammer marks may be seen, the joints
and structural elements are part of the design.
Wrought iron is used for brackets, grilles. hinges, locks, gates, balconies. It can
have wood as a back drop for its design.
Wrought- iro11 f1i11ge frcm mai11 door of . Trvpl1ime, Aries,
Sturdy aM1tJit1atio11 of wood a ~ mek!l.
443
c. Copptlr-the ductility of copper makes it particularly adaptable for cornices,
spandrels, roofing. The protective green carbonate which forms upon the surface
gives an interesting quality to the material.
d. LBBd-a flexible and permanent material. It may be poured into interesting
shapes, cast, rolled or hammered, patterns may be beaten into its surface. It is
best used in sheets to cover or enclose, and as such may be decorated in a fitting
manner. Since it is a soft material, the detail of the ornament should be simple in
character. Lead is a essentially a surface material, and must not be pulled as a bar
or bent as U. I. whenim antimony is use as an alloy to lead, hard lead Is produced
and may now be cast into grilles for openings.
e. Chrome-Nickel Steel-a hard, non-corrosive metal and can be worked like
many others, leading itself to welding, stamping and forging. It may be polished
or left dull, or even enamelled in color. It is used in interiors for doors, panels,
grille or railings. It gives a brilliant, shining surface which is compatible with the
spirit of contemporary architecture.
f. Aluminum -are of the white metals and is noted tor its lightness. It is non-corro-
sive (non-ferrous) and non-staining, and can be cast or forged into various shapes
in order to secure the desired designs. It is used for shop fronts, doors, grilles,
hardware and exterior covering.
Some new aluminum products are colored dark brown or "ANALOK" finish. This
is a more expensive material and gives a more sophisticated character.
g. Monel Metal-a mixture of nickel and copper with an addition of iron, silica and
manganese, giving a surface resembling that of a nickel. Again it is non-corrosive
and is permanent in its physical qualities. Doors and grilles, balustrades and
screens find a satisfactory expression in this material.
Graceful. curved Ji}1e5 executa::J
it1 mo11el metal. 5implicity. PhotDs.
lJicl<le Gilver attd mat171e,
nchne:;9.
Cotttern p?tary, amveHtional izcd
or11ameHt of metal by l11ternatio11al Nickel
Go.
444
h. Nickel SilVers-ideal for interior work. Their soft, dull textures and
bine well with the marble and wood of contemporary designs, or may f1nd use 1n
connection with more stylistic types of architecture.
6. Glass
the art of glass blowing is a very old technique but is stilt included as a rational
method of production today. Glass like metal can be cast and rolled a manufactured
in some other way. The artist of glass strives to express the material he is using. The
most important sensations are volume colour, (Transparency) a stiff haptic form,
tactile hardness, smoothness and coldness.
Nature
Glass is a hard, brittle, and usually transparent substance manufactured by fusing to-
gether some form of silica and a base of lime or lead oxide. It is another ceramic pro
duct, made possible by the powerful element of fire. Glass has made possible the de
velopment of cheerful interior. It has made possible the open, flexible plan and has
promoted the close relationship which exists in the present generation between the
interior of a building and nature out-of-doors. Glass admits light while, it keeps out
the rain and cold.
Trat1spartmt
opaque
Tinted
Use
The modern use of glass has assumed so many forms. Glass has been co-
lored and rolled into various shapes for many architectural uses in a build-
ing. Combined with metal, it is made into furniture and equipment. Where a
sense of cleanliness is desired; it is used for wall coverings and paneling.
Where a decorative note is needed upon the interior, its black, shining sur-
face may assist in producing a mantel, a fountain, or the trim of a door.
Upon the exterior, its shows promise of becoming one of the imporumt
building materials, in collaboration with steel. Its light Weight and its pro-
duction in large, thin sheets with permanent colors and textures recom-
mend it as an enclosing medium. It may be used in the form of glass blocks
which admit light but retain privacy.
For a more romantic point of view, light is directed through colored glass.
The product is the stained-glass, which for centuries has been used in
mediaeval cathedrals. The glory of these cathedrals lies in its beautiful win-
dows with their scintillating beams of ruby and blue, which, by contrasting
with the dark piers relieve an otherwise, sombre interior.
cut
de5igvt
-
r.;< ..
.
.-,..;;;:.
Thinarchitectural
gla65 Placi<fdark
type (30X.30)
Arry cutt1Mg;
Glasc;
will do, an::;hitedural
g Ia G6 i6 gJua-::j iv a
piam 9-Jrf.ace.
tf1ir1
ptait1 mirror
445
446
For modern designs, stained glass is being employed for character dining/ restaurants. In
designing stained-glass windows, factors to be kept in mind are:
1. The character of the glass should be established by the nature of the surrounding archi-
tecture which may be Gothic, Renaissance or even modern.
2. The dominance of color or design will be subordinate to the color. Realism is not expres-
sive of the conventional combinations necessary with glass and lead
3. The positi on of the window and the source
of the light should materially affect the
choice of colors. If the window is on the
north, there should be more of the transpa-
rent or light-admitting colors; it upon the
south, more of the darker tones.
In the construction of a stained glass wind-
ow the individual pieces of colored glass are
held t ogether by lines, or cames, of lead.
and these strips of metal should contribute
to the design in addition to being structural.
The cames should follow the contours of the
various Figures in the design, and the pleas-
ing combination of dark lines and brilliant
areas should be the chief objective of the de-
signer.
7. Textiles
The foremost characteristic of textiles is the intertwining of weft with the warp. If a
printed pattern is applied to a uniformly coloured piece of textile, a bad expression
will be given to the technique as well as the material itself. The con-
noisseur therefore evaluates, the printed pattern much lower than the woven one. A
typical, often consciously used indication of the 'true' expression is to be found in a
slight, stiff angularity at the details of the pattern.
- ----.. -------- ----- - ---- - - - -
II . NEW MATERIALS
8. Concrete
A new material in use, concrete is becoming more and more dominant and which
has, in a certain sense, a relationship to other modern techniques. The Romans in-
vented concrete without reinforcement. In manufacturing concrete tod1:1y, mathema-
tical calculations are used which give the modern milieu an artificial touch in its ex-
pression of material and structure.
A unit, like a building or any other object, can be articulated in two different ways. lt
can either be composed of detai ls themselves definite units, assembled to make a
larger unit. As for example, the Greek Temple, a vintage car or a tea pot . This is the
ARCHITECTONIC FORM. Or else the articulation can be made in such a way that
the details seem to have grown out of a single form rather like the limbs on the body
of a man or the branches on a tree with no clear boundaries between the main trunk
and the body. This is the 'ORGANIC' form.
TWA Tent1it1al. Jokrt F. l<ettnedy
air[XJrt.
a modern po-t
447
448
Concrete is evidently more suitable for the creation of 'organic' form that any other
material, and such forms can obviously express the possibilities of the material and
give the expression of concrete. 'Architectonic' form, however, can also be created
in concrete as the construction of prefabricated concrete elements shows.
Concrete has strength, and a surface and texture capable of contributing to the aes-
thetic quality of a building. Its most important characteristic is its FLUIDITY. It is the
only important building material that can be poured into place and made to assume a
variety of shapes. Using only local stone, sand and portland cement, concrete then is
an international material and only assumes national characteristiCs under the
guidance of an architect.
The surfaces which are produced by wooden or metal forms may be treated in a
number of ways. They may be left as they come from the forms, with the marks
showing.
wnen wro:::l form ts removd,
trre IM:X'd grai11 will t::e
lmpr.intect
--a ROPE COt1 tA9 p/aQ:d here b9fbre
C01Crete. Wkerr 'tt nardetr$ I remove
tl1e am it well leave a pri11t.
If the form marks are too conspicuous or uneven, or coarse, the surface may be
ground or rubbed until the desired effect is obtained.
In many cases, it is necessary to apply a stucco or cement finish to the concrete
walls.
com binatiot1 rotgl-1
texture at1d -:;maJth f i n i ~ ~
r-ougl1 f i 1 1 i ~ h
Some Masonry finishes which come with concrete are:
1. Washout finishes using cement mortar mixed with pebble stones, broken glass,
etc.
2. Synthetic Stones- when broken stones are hammered to pieces and mixed with
plaster . After the plastered finish is dry and hardened, it is chiseled or pounded
with an axe to expose the stones and give it a rough texture.
9. Plastics
Another new group of artificial materials more and more in use is that group known
as plastics. However the different types of plastics all show the same architectural
difficulty, that of giving objects created in this material a good expression of the ma-
terial. From the beginning, plastic objects have been imitations of other forms, but
are increasingly assuming a definite style of their own today.
Plastics may be used for many parts of a building, especially for the space-enclosing
surfaces-such as walls, windows, floors, and ceilings and for equipment-such as
furniture and accessories.
Plastics may be moulded, cast, extruded, and laminated, depending upon their com-
position and use.
The plastics that can be cast and extruded may take on various sizes and shapes.
They may come as sheets, rods, strips, cylinders, cones - in fact, in almost any con-
ceivable geometric form. Sheets of plastics in a variety of color and thickness and in
a degree of transparency and opaqueness can be used for walls, ceilings and doors;
while strips of the materials can be bent into table legs, chair backs, or light reflec-
tors.
The laminated plastics consist of thin sheets of synthetic materials veneered to a ply-
wood or fiberboard base. They may come in many colors and textures, either for de-
corative or functional purposes, and are capable of resisting water, acid, fire or wear.
This group may also include resin-bonded plywoods which are strong, light and
durable.
In general, plastic open up new sources of inspiration in the f ield of architectural
design. They remove many of the limitations of old materials and offer increased op-
portunities for the development of a new architecture. Plastics may be sawed, cut,
bent, drilled, and treaded. They are smooth, hard, permanent, light in weight, t rans-
parent or opaque, and durable in finish and color. They challenge the imagination of
the modern designers.
449
BIOTECTURE AND
THE NATURE OF MATERIALS
' .
1 word element meaning life, living things.
ake,tch or a plan presents an idea; but materials make it possible to construct the building
which represents the conception of the creative mind of the architect.
Two groups of building materials with reference to their source and their preparation for use.
FIRST GROUP:
wood u5ed
Those which are the direct product of nature,
such as wood and stone. These come to the
hands of man as a gift from the forests and the
quarries and require only shaping and minor con-
ditioning for the place they are to occupy in the
building. Often it may be possible to use these two
materials directly without preliminary work of any
kind, except that of transportation.
for Ia] capi11
450
dreSiGBd
strne dr'rwtly

SECOND GROUP:
Constitutes the majority of our building materials, and require manipulation by the hands of
man before they acquire thei r fi nished form.
Nature has given us clay and ore, but they are simply the raw products and must be manu-
factured into usable commodities.
CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS:
I. NATURE: (direct product of nature)
STONE - Limestone, granite, marble, sand-
stone.
PREPARATION
by cutti ng and dressing.
WOOD - structural and decorative. Cutting and surface dressing.
II. MAN (Manufactured by Manl from clay
from clay
CERAMICS - brick, til e, Terracotta, glass
CONCRETE
by moulding.
pawed in form
METAL - st eel. iron, lead, copper , alumi - Cast metals are moulded.
Wrought iron is pulled and ham
mered into the desired shape and
design.
num, alloys.
PLASTICS Moulded
Other new materials Mi xed processes.
INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
I. SOURCES
1. Inorganic
Like stones, clay, adobe.
2. Organic
Like abaca, bagasse, bamboo, coconut (trunk. leaves, husk) sea shells (such as
'kapis'), lumber, cane wood (rattan} rice husk, nipa palm, animal dung, cogan, runo,
etc
II. QUALITIES
A. Structure: Properties that determine the reac-
tion of the material under stresses and its work-
ability with tools when used as a construction
material such as its compressive strength, ten-
si le. characteristics, porousity, lightness, hard-
ness, durability, rigidity, gracefulness and flexi-
bili ty of use.
B. Physical Aspects: Properties that determine
the esthetic properties of the material such as
texture, tonal QlJality, color, sheen. etc.
C. Inherent Weaknesses of the Material such as
rotting, (moisture} corrosion, susceptibility to
infection by termites, "bukbok" and similar
pests, discoloration, (solar radiation), fungus
growth.
D. Life Span of the Material.
E. Other inherent properties such as weight,
water resistance. heat resistance, insulating
value, acoustic value. etc. 451
452
Ill. APPLICATIO"' AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
A. Structural Components F. Finishing Material
B. Flooring Material G. Binder/Additive/Filler
C. Walling M a ~ e r i a l H. Ornamental Material
D. Ceiling Material I. Waterproofing Material
E. Roofing Material J. Glazing Material
IV. USEFUL TABLE FOR EACH MATERIAL
QUALITIES APPLICATION
MATERIAL STRUCTURE
P.HYSICAL
ASPECTS
INHERENT LIFE OTHER
WEAKNESSES SPAN PROPERTIES
USES
Indigenous-means originating in and characterizing a particular region or country, native.
V. SOME INDIGENOUS MATERIALS
1. Sawali-outer covering of bamboo poles as a woven material for cement backing.
2. Cococoir -a coconut product by-product in sandwich panels for insulation and to
minimize the use of cement.
3. Bagaase -(sugar cane wastes) and rice husks f:>r insulati on or cement backing.
4. Abaca - a f ibre obtained from the leafstalk of a banana plant native to the Philip-
pines.
5. Bamboo-commonly used throughout the humid tropics for house construction.
Main Characteristics
- low degree of elasticity.
- low concrete adhesion.
- limited range of practicable culm diameters and lengths.
- wide variability of moisture content.
Bamboo can also be used to reinforce concrete and can lead to substantial savings
and increased rural employment .
1v Pe exposed upwards
mait1 c ulm tt<XJesl
50ttfl11
max1 mum
6. Palm Frond Stems
These are used for non-structural panels, curtain walls, screens, and as a base for
plastering. To construct a house usi ng this material, one first prepares a timber
framework of vertical posts and beams with pre-assembled parrels of palm frond
stems tied onto it to form walls. As they are both highly susceptibl e to termites, the
timber framework and the palm frond stems have usually to be replaced every 4 to 5
years. However, by usi ng anti-termite shields and by raising the construction above
the ground, the life span of such a structure can be increased to 15 years.
453
454
7. Earth and Mud Bricks
The most common material of rural construction in the tropics is earth and mud. Mud
walls are often built straight on the bed level of excavations which may vary from 15
to 30 em. below ground level. Flat mud roofs are usually constructed by placing
wooden joists at suitable intervals, covered by planks or bamboos. Twigs and leaves
are then superimposed and topped off by mud which is tamped. screeded, and plas-
tered. Floors are generally made up by dressing and levelling the ground surface,
compacting, and then finishing with a wash of cow dung. As improved version of
this flooring techniques is to ram earth up to the plinth level and finish off with one inch
of clay mixed with river gravel.
Because mud has less strength than most other construction materials, mud walls
are built thicker. Partly due to the thickness of mud walls and partly due to its low
thermal conductivity, rooms built of mud are much cooler in hot climates than those
of any material. Heat builds up on the exterior of concrete walls and roofs due to
solar radiation and surface temperatures usually exceed air temperatures. Concrete
surface being thin and of low resistance conduct heat into the interiors. Mud walls
heat up to a lesser extent during the day and deter the flow of heat so that air temper-
atures in the interior are below those outside, while at night the temperatures are
above those prevailing outside. Thus mud bricks have a beneficial effect in hot, dry
climates which experience a wide fluctuation between day and night temperatures.
As mud bricks are small and can be easily cut and trimmed they allow great flexibility
so that adjustments can easily be made during process of construction. As they are
brittle, they do not stand up well to tension. For this reason, the vault and the dome
was evolved in the EAST. A cross-section of the vault, has a form very similar to an
inverted 'catenary' a catenary is the form that a chord as string will take when it is
hanging freely between two points of support and acted on by no force other than
gravity. However, an inverted catenary experiences only compressive forces with no
bending or tension. A vault this shape is ideal for mud brick roofing
and will resemble a "shell structure".
As mud is used to make both mortar for the vault and the bricks for the walls; the
bonding will be better because the surfaces will dissolve and fuse together on drying.
Inside View of Hut using Local straw for material for roofing.
455
456
sMART HOUSES' OF THE FUTURE
By: RAJ GOPAL VERMA
NEW DELHI-Early morning, a melodious voice wakes vou up: "Good morning. It's six a.m. big day ahead."
If you do not respond, the voice becomes more insistent nagging you till you are awake. Meanwhile, the curtains of
your bedroom windows would part automatically; the shower in the bathroom starts as soon as you are ready and
the coffee begins to brew.
This may sound like a fant8$'f. But wall, it is a moderate estimate of the "house of the future" which will respond to
your orders and no one else's, because security sensors recognize your voice. Already there are several hundred
such "smart houses" all over the world, designed around central that control .utility and security
systems, appliances and even music and fountains.
While you are out, your house continues to perform programmed tasks: starting the dishwasher and watering the
garden, opening the gate to certain people and activating recordings of household noises to deter burglars. The
commands can be changed on telephone. If you are ahead of schedule, call home to adjust temperature and
humidity klvela, tum on the sauna and feed the cat. Video consoles provide security because an in-built computer
can distinguish vou from other persons.
The ''smart houses" in Japan and the US have security and decorative lights automatically switching on in se
quence after dark. If motion detectors in any room sense on human presence after 30 minutes, the lights switch off.
Temperature and humidity are adjusted for nighttime comfort. Should late night snackers head towards the kit
chens, lights will come on, one at a time, to show the way.
Of late, a Japanese firm has launched a number of home appliances operable by means of telephone instructions.
Washer-driers, rice cookers, eletric irons, cleaning robots, refrigerators .. all fully automated and test manufac
tured, are being commercialized shortly.
The fully-automated rice cooker sucks up a programmed amount of rice from a storage chest and bran is whisked
away during cooking by an electronic brush. Cooking instructions may be set in advance by telephone so that the
boiled rice is ready whep the owner arrives home. The electric iron has no cord, but heats through induction. After
being placed on an ironing board, built-in-electro-magnetic coils heat the iron, which can be used for many hours.
The cleaning robot moves around the room, avoiding obstacles using an ultrasonic wave sensor. Whenever it en
counters dust accumulation the robot's sucking force automatically increases. The refrigerator has a liQuid crystal
door, which turns transparent at the flick of a switch, enabling one to see what is inside.
If you are driving back from the city and are caught in a traffic snarl, you dial home on your earphone to report the
delay. The house computer then delays the normal sequence of operations, but activates the video recorder to
catch the tale-serial you might want to see had you been at home. It also adjusts cooking and heating settings to
coincide with vour delayed arrival.
Tomorrow's cars will be unlocked and started with plastic cards while drivers would have to check their routes on
computer. Standard equipment will include dashboard navigation systems akin to that on aircraft cockpits, speaker
telephones, ergonomic seats and voice alerts to rouse drowsy drivers. Sensors detecting oncoming objects will trig
ger the brakes, accelerator or the eteering wheel to avert danger. On electronically gridded super highways, drivers
can put their vehicles on automatic drive and snooze while zooming towards their destinations.
The technology to manufacture these gadgets already exists today. But #le danger of incompatible systems also ex
ists. It is no good having a remote control video recorder or a burglar alarm if vour neighbor's dishwasher is ac-
tivated simultaneously.
In 1986, the European Commission had awarded a handsome sum of money to seven companies to design com
inunication standards for electric devices in homes which could work on mains wiring, infra-red, radio waves and
various types of cable and ultimately optical iibres. Products so designed will be registered by a special logo.
In future homes, robots will provide much-needed relief to housekeepers. Today, furniture is unnecessary heavy,
because thick pieces of wood, metal and plastic are needed to withstand the stresses imposed by people and ob-
jects. Technologists are now developing new materials that are far stronger than anything we are used to and yet,
extremely lightweight.
A future housekeeper will be able to literally lift a sofa with a fing&f. And it may not even need to be lifted, if it has a
motor and is voice commendable. The robots that clean the floors and rugs may be able to order the sofa to move
out of the way while it does the cleaning. iPNA/PTII
HUMAN FACTORS
458
SOCIOCULTURAL VARIABLES
It is important to recognize that people with different cultural backgrounds view architectu-
ral features differently. Some of the more important differences to evaluate are:
1. ATTITUDES TOWARD PRIVACY
Some cultural groups demand complete privacy, others appreciate privacy, and still
others rely merely on subtle cues that signal a desire for privacy.
2. FAMILY STRUCTURE
In certain cultural groups, several generations live together within a single dwelling
{grandparents with married child and grandchildren) In others, several families live in se-
parate but joined dwellings; and in still others, the family e m b ~ r s function as individuals
partially separated within the single dwelling.
3. THE ROLE OF WOMEN
In some cultural groups. women are isolated, in others, the distinction relates entirely to
functional factors (ex: the mother-child relationship); and in still others, completely non-
segregated attitudes prevail (ex: the work,.ing wife whose husband shares the household
tasks eQually).
4. RECREATIONAL PATTERNS
Some families are oriented toward more formal and sedentary recreational pursuits;
others are more physically oriented, usually toward outdoor activities; and still others are
travel-oriented and treat facilities merely as a temporary base of operations.
5. SHOPPING HABITS
Some families shop on the basis of day-to-day replenishment, and others shop infrequent-
ly but store for the long run.
6. JOB PATTERNS
To some, the job is a means to an end, (in which case, ease of getting back home is ex-
tremely important) others are job-oriented and would just as soon the separation between
home and job remain clear and distinct; and still others prefet to work at home and thus
desire a single living and working setting.
7. TECHNOLOGICAL EXPERIENCE
Although technology continues to advance even to the most.primitive areas. care must
be exercised not to assume that all cultures either want or will appreciate many of the
amenities offered by the more technologically advanced societies, especially if these
destroy certain living patterns held sacred for ethnic or religio(Js reasons.
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
The Architect is usually concerned about whether the user will be attracted by the design of
the community, home, building, or other structural edifice-not only when it is first ob-
served, but also is it is occupied over a long period of time. The adjustment between descrip-
tors will be different types of architectural systems. For example, the objectives for a
satisfactory home environment are not necessarily the same as those for a satisfactory office
or factory environment. By the same token, similar adjustment is required for subsystems
within the home, office, or factory; ex: the psychological needs in the bedroom are different
f rom those in the bathroom, and the needs of t he production department are different from
those of the company library.
SEMANTIC DESCRIPTORS FOR ASSESSING
OBSERVABLE PHYSICAL FEATURES
IN ARCHITECTURE
-o
ra ad1f8Ve
A
FACTOR CATEGORI ES : DESCRIPTION SCALING EXAMPLES
SPACIOUSNESS Generous Cramped
Ample Limited
Empty Crowded
FRIENDLINESS Warm Cold
Intimate Detached
Relaxed Stiff
VARIETY Stimulati ng Boring
Dynamic Static
Diverse Monotonous
UTILITY Purposeful Unnecessary
Efficient Confusing
Practical Frivolous
RATIONALITY Organized Uncoordinated
Logical Confusing
Simple Complex
FLEXIBILI TY Adjustable Constrained
Mobile Fixed
Expandable Contained
ACCESSIBILITY Open Closed
Direct Indirect
Formal Casual
SECURITY Familiar Unknown
Safe Uncertain
Protected Exposed
APPEARANCE Graceful Awkward
Contemporary Obselete
Meaningf ul Obscure
459
460
PERSONAL SPACE
Individuals perceive their relationships with others in term$ of the distance between them-
selves and the people they can see. At least four distinct territorial categories have been de-
fined by various researchers:
1. PUBLIC: Those areas where the individual has freedom of access, but not of action.
2. HOME: Those areas where the regular participants have regular freedom of behavior and
a sense of control over the area ..
3. INTERACTIONAL: Those areas where social gatherings may occur. An invisible bound-
ary and a territorial claim are implicit, though not officially promulgated by the people pre-
sent .
4. BODY: The area immediately surrounding the individual's body. This area is most private
and inviolate to the individual.
Many factors are relatea to the individual's need for personal space:
1. The desire to converse privately in a subdued voice.
2. The desire to interact intimately with a lovea one.
3. The desire to avoid physically contact with another person or the offensive odor of ano-
ther person.
4. The desire to see the eyes of another person clearly.
5. The desire to view another person completely at a single glance.
6. The desire to be an observer, but not an active participant.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL SPACE
The areas that you will be designing must accomodate more than physical objects and
physical needs. Since all aspects of space are interrelated and interdependent, we must not
isolate them.
1. "PHYSICAL SPACE" -or the Ultimate environment that we see and use, should be
determined through an analysis of human behavior and what function the space is to sup-
port. Human behavior is highly psychological and sociological. You don't just embrace
someone; a psychological feeling provokes you to do it. Someone doesn't merely hit or
box another person; usually a psychological feeling will be behind it.
2. "PERSONAL SPACE" -is largely a psycho-concept. People are often unaware of their
need for space around them. Physically, all people need a certain amount of space sur-
rounding them in order to feel secure. The amount and shape of this space varies de-
pending upon the individual and the activity. For instance, a person engaged in conver-
sation with a close friend may feel quite comfortable with eighteen (18) inches 0.45 m of
space separating them, but this distance would be intolerable in a formal business
meeting of two corporate executives.
The spatial distances that people select can also in-
fluence the mood of the activity. A doctor who sits
behind an imposing desk in an equally imposing ex-
ecutive chair and speaks to you as you sit six feet
(1.00) away irr a smaller, obviously inferior chair, will
probably convey a formal feeling to you. and as a pa-
tient, you may not desire to be treated in such a dis-
tant manner. The information you are about to hear
from the doctor may be unfamiliar and disturbing
enough for you to want a more personal approach.
On the other hand, a doctor who chooses to aban-
don the security of his desk and chair and.sit closer to
you without the barrier of the desk between you will
usually make you feel more at ease. You may feel
that you are being treated more as an individual than
just another heart, broken leg, or tooth in a 'file. The
absence of the desk as a barrier, therefore,
a psychological as well as a physical closeness; it
probably makes the patient feed important to the
physician, thereby possibly improving their commu-
nication and understanding. Sq you see, the proper,
sensitive use of space can affect human in a
POSITIVE manner.
On the other hand, close contact with other people
can have NEGATIVE effects some people experience
this feeling, for example in an elevator. When a per-
son enters an elevator alone and have all the elevator
space comfortably for himself he feels totally at ease
knowing that this small, vertically moving bit of
space is his castle, but upon ascending, the elevator
stops, accomodates say two people and he feels that
his personal space rights are violated. Then after two
floors 6 to 7 people enterS again and this time is
pushed behind and at a corner, and so feels totally
robbed of his personal space.
At times, other R90ple just seem to get too close to
you and you begin to feel uncomfortable, although
you may not always know precisely why. You
ence this when you are reading a newspaper and
someone is breathing down your neck reading also
your newspaper. The concept of perSonal space is,
indeed, a personal one.
Everyone demands a certain amount of space around
them. Formality and informality imply different dis-
tances, for example. We can emphasize or imply
formality by increasing the space separating the peo-
ple conversing. Less space tends to convey informal-
ity. Intimacy shrinks the distance between people to
inches. Each situation at the proper time allows peo-
ple to feel very much at ease.
There are Four (4} DISTANCE ZONES
A. Intimate Distance-"involvement with
another body"
a. Close Phase-distance of love-
making, wrestling, comforting and
protecting, however, sharp vision is
blurred.
461
.15
462
'
I
I
I
I
I
b. Far Phase -(distance from . 15 to
.45) H e a d ~ , thighs and pelvis are not
easily brought into contact, but
hands can reach and grasp extremi-
ties. The head is seen as enlarged in
size and its features are distorted
voice is used as a whisper, and the
other persons odor and heat is felt.
B. Personal Distance - " Separating the
members of non-contact species by a
Bubble or sphere.
a. qJosB Phase -(0.45 to 0.75 m) At
this distance one can hold or grasp
the other person. The three dimen-
sional quality of objects is particularly
pronounced.
b. FarPhase-(0.75to 1.20m) Keeping
someone at arm' s length. It extends
from a point just outside easy touch-
ing distance by one person to a point
where two people can touch fingers if
they extend both arms. Head size is
perceived as normal. Details of skin,
dirt on clothing, stain on teeth is visi-
ble.
Voice level is moderate. No body heat
is perceptible.
C. Social Distance- "limit of Domination" . Intimate visual detail in the face is not
perceived, and nobody touches or expects to touch another person there is
some special effort.
D. Public Distance-
a. Close Phsse- (1.20 to At dis-
tance of 2. tom, the whole figure can
be seen. Head is perceived as normal.
Impersonal business occurs at this
distance; This is a distance used for
casual social gathering.
To stand and look down at a person
at this distance has a domineering ef-
fect, as when a man talks to his secre-
tary or receptionist.
b. FQr Phase- 12.10 m to 3.60 m) At
this distance, the finest details of the
face such as the capillaries of the
eyes, are lost. But otherwise, skin
texture, hair, teeth and clothes condi
tion are \lisib\e.
Heat and odor are not detectable.
A proxemic feature of this distance is
that it can be used to insulate or
screen people from each other. The
distance makes it possible for them to
continue to work in the presence of
another person without appearing to
be rude. This is best for receptionists.
a. Class Phsss -(3.60 to 7.50 m) at 3.60 m, an alert subject can take evasive or de-
action if threatened.
The voice is loud but not full-volume. The fine details of the skin, and eyes are no
longer visible. Head size is perceived as considerably under life-size.
463
464
7.!i"D M.
25' 0'' OR MORE 0
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/ , __ ... _
I J ---
\
\ -..... ... ._.
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......
b. Fsr PhsH-{7.5() m and more) 9.00 meters is the distance that is automatically
set around important public figures.
The voice is amplified and exaggerated. Much of the nonverbal part of the com-
munication shifts to gestures and body stance. Words are enunciated more clear-
ly.
?orne
,. ---..
... ......
/, ',
/ '
I '
I \
/ 1r \
I I
l I
I I
\ I
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Inadequate personal space creates a sense of displacement and
can be psychologicallly devastating to a person. Any animal, in-
cluding man, must have some place or thing to call its own, no
matter how large or small. One of the "HUMAN NEEDS IN HOUS-
ING" is a need for a sense of place or "ROOTEDNESS". This pri-
marily involves the person's emotional need to belong somewhere
and to have come from somewhere and to have come from some-
where. People require emotional attachments to physical objects
and places if their future development is to be positive and progres-
sive.
On a small scale, personal space involves the irniT)ediate area sur-
rounding a person. Everyone has a "PERSONAL SPACE
BUBBlE", which we can define as the area around a person into
which others are unwelcome unless invited. The size of this area
varies, depending upon the individual culture. Certain culture de-
mand a large of space around their in9ividuals, while
others feel perfectly comfortable with comparatively little space
there you can experience, this in a crowded lobby or a crowded
bus. Most people can usually tolerate another person close to them
so long as they are not face-to-face. Eye contact nonnally in-
creases the comfortable distance especially between strangers.
1. "TERRITORIALITY" - involves space that living beings declare their own. They indi-
cate this ownerst,lip through their willingness to defend verbally or physically. that which is
theirs.
A pet dog barks and growls when a stranger get near her doghouse or near her master.
A person who gives a hostile look to someone will indicate an uneasiness to that person
and wiH give him the feeling that he is intruding in the other person's territory. Territoriali-
ty provides the frame in which things are done, places to learn, places to play. Safe
places to hide, -basic to territoriality is a sharp sense of the limits that mark the distance
to be maintained between individuals.
Territory is something which is relevant to the individual, to the MICRO-group such as in-
habitants of the same floor of a block of flats, through various social groupings to the
MACRO-group of the town and City. In times of conflict, territorial instincts are inf1ated
to include whole groups of nations.
2. "DEFENSIBLE SPACE" - This is an architectural in-
terpretation of territoriality and personal space. People
identity to others what they perceive to their own
through the creation of a physical barrier. Physical bar-
riers can take many forms, but one we are used to see-
ing is a fence that surrounds someone' s yard. Often this
barrier means that intruders are unwelcome. If some-
one trespasses, the owner will feel obliged to defend
the property in some way. Defensible space is a good
example of how human behavior shapes the environ-
ment.
PERCEPTUAL QUALITY OF THE
DESIGNED ENVIRONMENT
The following principles provide a further, subjective scaling of design characteristics that
may reduce the probability of negative response to the perceived environment:
1. ORDER- most people are impelled to seek order and understanding, but they also need
sufficient variety to be stimulated by what they see.
2. OUTUNE- The outline of the 'whole' should represent grace and balance, not awkward
angularity, overpowering massiveness, or unintentional symmetry.
3. IDENTIFIABLE REFERENCES- Environmental references ex: paths, edges, districts,
nodes, landmarks, runs, margins, portals, landmarks, areas, volumes and acoustic divi-
sions-should be clear.
4. FUNCTIONAL FORM - Space should appear "positive" rather than "negative", ex: it
should seem to have been purposefully designed, rather than left to chance.
5. THE. WHOLE VERSUS A SEQUENTIAL EXPERIENCE -Perceptual confidence
comes from an understanding of the whole, as opposed to a sequential experience,
which leads to continuing assumptions and doubts.
6. FAMILIARITY - An impression of Security based on the repitition of familiar patterns
should be created. but without incurring boredom or monotony.
7. RELIABILITY -Visual illusions that could lead to incorrect assumptions and loss of con-
fidence on the part of the observer should be avoided.
8. CULTURAL IDENTITY - Cultural differences reflect individual needs to identity with the
traditional, as opposed to challenges to keep up with what is fashionable.
9. AESTHETIC OBJECTIVE-The aesthetic objective should be relevant to human need
rather than architectural monuments; ex: it should provide psychosocial values with
which to identify, it should express the user's individuality (not the designer's) and it
should provide general perceptual enrichment.
465
HUMAN-ARCHITECTURAL INTERFACES
466
Although the specific human- architectural interfaces and the level of criticality of each in-
terface may vary from one system to another. the table below should be considered during
the conceptualization of any new system.
INTERFACE
1. SITE LOCATION
2. SITE AMENITIES
3. BUILDING OR
BUILDINGS
EXTERNAL
4. BUILDING OR
BUILDINGS
INTERNAL
5. SAFETY
CONS I DERATION
Distance to related facilities: Residential, commercial, and in-
dustrial areas, airport and bus terminals; etc. Accessibility (or
nonaccessibility) to highway, roadway, street, rail and water-
way systems: Vehicular or pedestrian, etc. environmental
factors: noise, air pollution, possible natural disasters, t r ~ f f i c
problems and aesthetic factors.
Parking Public transit access, walk-in customer exposure,
landscape, illumination, security and emergency access.
Number, size and location; entrances {number, location and
type), identification and illumination; special amenities (utili-
ties, sidewalks, and stairs), external maintenance require-
ments, etc.
Compartmentalization {number, size, arrangement); doors
and windows {type, number, size and location); stairs,
ramps, elevators; and escalators, heating, air condition.[ng,
vent ilation, and illumination; built-in features (cabinets,
plumbing fixtures, and electrical and pneumatic systems);
floor covering; safety equipment; communications systems;
acoustics, and internal management requirements.
Fire protection; emergency escape, first aid, and disaster
control.
HUMAN NEEDS
The most important human needs that affect interior design and housing are:
1. BELONGING -knowing that you call a pl ace yours and no one else's.
2. PERSONALIZATION - being able to demonstrate your creativity in identifying some
place as yours.
3. PRIVACY -having a place to go to or a method by which you can obtain time to your-
self;
4. CONTROL-a mastery over your life and environment.
BELONGING:
All living things have a need to feel that they belong, and the ways in which they satisfy this
need are diverse. Having possessions is an aspect of belonging. Having space for these ob-
jects is the other, integrally linked, aspect . You can have one without the other, but human
satisfaction is usually not compl ete under these ci rcumstances. This feeling of not beloning
is felt by people who moves into an unfurnished apartment when they have no furniture of
their own. You need possessions and a place to put them where you know they will be
secure in order to feel secure yourse(f.
A man usually have a favorite chair where he relaxes, a den where he spends most of his idle
time, white a woman might have a special place in the kitchen where she always sit and do
her chores, or in a garden where she sits always at the same spot. If a home, a car, or a
favorite chair is suddenly unavailable, either because it has been destroyed or because ano-
ther person bought it, or used it, your reaction and feeling will be. very much affected as
when now you want to sit and relax at your favorite chair, but a visitor sat down ahead of
you, for sure you will feel disoriented, forgotten and unimportant since you might think that
no one really cared about your favorite place.
People always talk about a place where they use to stay, where they spend most of their
time. The places of previous human habitation have strong influences upon these indivi-
duals. The memories of these places tend to polarize.
PERSONALIZATION:
Through this important aspect of space, a person can create an awareness among others
That a certain area or object belongs to him, and therefore, it should be respected as such.
The tampering with or destruction of the area or object will be met with hostility by the
owner.
Usually, if you have an office or bedroom and have no one to clean it except yourself, all
sorts of things like paper, toys, junks, letters, pictures etc. are placed where you want it to
be, Whenever you look for anything, you know where to find it. However, when someone,
say your mother, secretary or your wife starts to re-arrange or clean the room and upon re-
turning to your room, you find it all changed from the way to kept it, you will feel angered.
Personalization also means imprinting personal values upon something, thus making it a part
of oneself. It allows the emergence of creative urges so often inhibited by society. People do
not personalize everything only those things that they feel are theirs. For examples, young
people living in a communal arrangement will not personalize the living area that is used
commonly by all of the residents, but the will decorate their own spaces in a highly in-
dividualized manner, conspicously placing objects that reveal who they are.
From a look at such a room, a stranger co.uld probably tell quite a bit about its owner's per-
sonality or at least what that person would like to have the world to see. The Portrayal and
presentation of self are extraordinary important aspects of personal expression.
PRIVACY:
Everyone needs to spend time alone. The lack of this opportunity can have disastrous psy-
chological effects. Lack of it can contribute to delinquency, crime and passivity.
The opportunity for privacy allows you to discover yourself. It gives you time to think for
yourself and by yourself. May be it gives people a basis for being comfortable and satisfied
with their lives. Usually, unless you are secure within yourself you will have difficulty being
secure with other people or in outside situations. A basically secure, happy person has more
to offer others and the world than one who needs assurance and depends upon someone
else for happiness. Always taking and not being able to give much take their toll after a
while. Basically, privacy a l l o w ~ J people. To find out about themselves, to develop and to be-
come individuals.
467
468
CONTROL:
Control over the environment is one aspect of survival that is absolutely necessary for a per-
son's self-concept and maturation. If people feel they are losing or have lost centrO! over
their lives or environment, psychologically their ability to function everyday can suffer. Irre-
parable harm may occur.
Just havi ng a space, a personal space that you can influence and call your own seems to be
essential for human growth. People must be able to know they can influence {change,
adorn, personalize) something or some place so that they can have confidence in them-
selves. This is all part developing a good self-image. Loss of control over what happens to
and around you might cause you to slowly give up lifetime goals and ambitions for lack of
the necessary confidence to function effectively.
All of the CONCEPTS mentioned here are integral supportive aspects of human needs in the
spatial sense. But there are more alleys to investigate both from the directi on of human
needs in housing and from the Behavioral basis for alt design.
VALUE ASPIRATION and CULTURE
VALUES
At times, people act according to seemingly instinctive patterns; they do things intuitively
for reasons that they cannot readily explain. Everyone has basic and personal values feel -
ings, be they conscious or subconscious, that act as lifelong guiding forces. Often these
forces, called VALUES, keep you on a familiar course, which may be beneficial or detrimen-
tal, when you are involved in decision making.
Values do change, partiCtJiarly during different stages in the life cycle stages. Values are
long-lasting, and they are a necessary psyhoclogical crutch for all living things. Values give
us a framework within which we build our lives.
Basically, VALUES are of affective feelings that you, as an individual, have. Values can be
uniquely yours or they can be feelings characteristics of the society to which you belong.
They consist of attitudes that you have developed personally or inherited. Values are your
own thoughts and responses. You may not even know that you have them .
.. VALUE"- Defined
Webster defines value as "that which is desirable or worthy of esteem for its own sake; thing
or quality having intrinsic worth". In the sociological context "acts, customs, institution,
etc. regarded in a particular especially favorable way by a people, ethnic group, etc."
Values affect all of our Decisions, including:
How we think - - --- and don't think
Believe ----- and don't believe
Act ----- and react
Do ----- l}nd don't do
We develop general " MORAL" values (example good vs. evil, right vs wrong) and more spe-
cific ones !example it is wrong to kill, to steal, to tefl a lie, to cheat, etc.) " RELIGIOUS''
Values (ex: the teachings of our particular religion); " SOCIAL" and "CULTURAL" values
(Ex: respect for parents, charity toward the poor); ''Aesthetic" Values (Ex: what is beautiful,
artistic, pleasing to us); and " PRACTICAL" Values (Ex: thrift, cleanliness}.
Values are enduring, they take time to develop and nurtur:e, and like anything treated with
Tender Love and Care tTLC), they are not easily disposed of or change, usually, once you
developed, inherited, been handed a value on a silver platter, or had one smashed on top of
your head, you are stuck with it.
What makes Values so persistent? People psychologically need values as a basis for their ac-
tions. People like to share things, and they like to have a frame of reference when they are
making decisions. People need THINGS and ideas to relate to. These 'things' can be physi-
cal, as in the security of a living environment, or they can be psychological feelings. All of
these considerations contribute to a happier, better-functioning human being.
Simply stated, value are factors in human behavior. They provide a basis for
judgement, discrimination, and analysis, and it these qualities that make intelligent choices
possible between alternatives. Values grow out of human interests and desires. They are the
products of the interaction between an individual and some object or situation in his environ-
ment.
Why do you desire things? Is it because of your culture, your biological configuration, or just
your own personality? Human needs, whether they be physical, psychological, or sociolo-
gical in nature, play a part in the determination of values. In interior design housing, the
psychological and sociological needs are hardest to determine because they are so amor-
phous.
Why do some people demand to have a showplace for a home, a big mansion, etc., while
others are content with a home that reflects their own comfort? Some people love spending
time indoors, but others could'nt live without easy access to the outside: Some people want
a bi g living room or reception area while others like a small compact family room. Why?
Because people know what they are doing, whether, it is providing for sleep, eating or
another basic function.
Values are what goals are made for. To have a car, to have a house in the city or in the
suburbs, to have a far.m. AU people are individuals and VALUE different objects in life.
Something happens alor)Q the way to influence a person to value a certain idea .. For exam-
ple, the remembrance of having little money as a child can provoke thriftiness in adulthood. A
person who never really had a room for himself or herself as a child may regard the bedroom
as a waste of space and prefer using it as an office or workroom instead. The absence of
childhood privacy which seems to be a CULTURAL NEED a need provoked by the
individual's culture, can have varying effects upon people. These individuals may become
obsessed with privacy or may lack a deep sense of the privacy desires of others.
While no two individuals have exactly the same set of values there are many values which
are common to particular groups, communities and larger societies.
HISTORICAL EXAMPLES:
1. ROMAN EMPIRE: With story values of order, organization and discipline; a small city
state was able to conquer most of then known Western world. When these values were
overshadowed or supplemented by hedonism, intemperance, the empire simply disinteg-
rated, as much from itself as from external factors.
2. AMERICAN SOCIETY: Materialism is their value, such a value has contributed to a
very high level of material prosperity for the citizens of the United States. Looking at the
high standard of living enjoyed by Americans from a broader viewpoint, we can identify
other values which have probably contributed just as significantly to such material abun-
dance. A commitment to freedom and free enterprise.
3. FILIPINOS---Vetue of hard work---
In the Philippines, our society is highly paternalisti c, where there is papa, mama, uncle
and aunties, ninong and ninangs, assorted relatives and friends to rely on, we pull our-
469
470
selves together in glorious self-reliance and make it_ And so wMe here in our country, Fi-
lipinos tend to be lazy, corrupt, and inefficient. Yet When he is transplanted he becomes
highly productive, competitive, hardworking, and law-abiding. In other countries, he be-
lieves that hard work and study are the only ways to go up the economic ladder and be
successful.
VALUES PREACHED VS. VALUES PRACTICED
Values as practiced, affect many aspects of our life, both as individuals and as a community.
Values and the actions that flow from them have moral, social, political and economic con-
sequences.
FOUR (4) BASIC VALUES:
1. INTEGRITY -synonymous to honesty. It is "the quality or state of being complete or un-
divided." A person with integrity is one whose actions conform to his principles and be-
liefs. He is not divided by internal disharmony on conflict. Honesty, which is fairness or
straight towardness of conduct is a form of integrity.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Examples of Dishonesty
a. Building materials being overpriced by the Hardware stores to give commission to the
purchaser or representative of the owner.
" institutiona I
language"
"Ia gay"
"padulas"
"areglo"
"kickback"
"under the table"
"for the boys"
"more Euphemistic
"commissions"
"fees"
"rebates"
"discounts"
"gifts"
b. A transaction where the supplier has to downgrate, dilute, or
reduce the quantity of quality of the goods sold in order to pro-
vide for a "commission" to the Owner's representative. The
consequences are obvious. If the goods will be used to build
roads, the roads will become dilapidated and impassable in a
relatively shorter time than plained for.
The economic consequences; faster depreciation of transpor-
tation equipment; loss of productive man hours for people tra-
veling on the roads; added expenses and loss of income for
business whi ch use the roads to transfer their goods.
This example also apply to construction of buildings wherein
inferior materials like wood, steel, incorrect mix of concrete,
inferior paints are applied.
c. In a transaction where a developer or contractor is able to put up a big project which
are not really necessary such that a sizable.
Amount of investment made for the facilities cannot be utilized at al l. In other words,
"WHITE ELEPHANT".
2. DISCIPLINE -As a value, discipline touches many aspects of everyday life, and ts
closely related to other desirable values. For example, the values of COURTESY and
FAIRNESS are invdlv.ed when we are called upon to practice discipline in situations when
we have to line up in public. Also. how many times has a t raffic jam been caused by
vehicles that are on the w_rong side of the road because their drivers cannot wait in line?
Contrary Practices
1. "siksikan''
2. "singitan"
3. "unahan"
Individual and national discipline is a multi-faceted value which is
difficult to discuss exhaustively-but it is an essential eteroent in
any society that intends to get anywhere.
For instance, the strong discipline of the Japanese people has played a key role in making
their country an economic world power. To the Japanese the good of the group evidently
comes foremost, and the good of the individual follows naturally.
In this regard, the Filipino value or attitude which would be counter productive to econo-
mic progress would be "kanya-kanya" (everyone for himself). This affects society in
many ways.
On the economic level, one glaring example is the widespread abuse of our natural re-
sources, such as the indiscriminate destruction of our forests, whether by cutting down
trees to clear land, and the pollution of our seas and rivers. This lack of discipline in our
use of these resources will tell on our economy in the long run. (In fact we are already suf-
fering the consequences) -in terms of environmental imbalance which leads to soil ero-
sion, droughts, f loods and the accompanying destruction of crops, useful wildlife and
aquatic life, public, infrastructures and private property.
3. HARDWORK -It is a fact that many Filipinos are hardworking. They are willing to labor
diligently and to earn a living and to improve their lot in life. However, the
traditional "WORK ETHIC" suffers from lapses as a value in our culture.
We still find great dependence on "SUWERTE" or luck in our daily pursuits and as a ma-
jor determinant of our success of failure. We still harbor hopes of "HITTING THE JACK-
POT" with one big deal which will not entail to much work on our part.
Attitudes
1. "suwerte-suwerte"
2. "hitting the
jackpot"
3. "Bahala na"
We sti ll have the negatiye aspect of the " bahala na" atti-
tude, of letting tomorrow take care of itself without much ef-
fort on our part, of leaving things to chance without minimiz-
ing the odds against it.
4. "Puwede na yan"
And quite a number of us still have the tendency to be con-
tent with "good enough" work, without making that extra
effort to achieve excellence. In the competition of the market place, this spells the differ-
ence between the mediocre, run-of-the mill product in great demand. "Puwede na yan"
the attitude of those of us for whom excellence, one of the rewards of hard work, is not
a value.
The economic implications if the lack of commitment to hard work as a value are many:
lower productivity; lost business opportunities; lower quality of products and services;
lack of market competitiveness; waste of available resources; lower general standard of
living; more uneven distribution of wealth; delayed economic development; a heavier
wetfare burden on the state; and many more.
4. JUSTICE -Synonyms are "fairness, objectivity, impartiality; is a value which is univer-
sally upheld. Nobody wants to be called unjust.
Terms
1. "nakaisa"
2. "nakalamang"
3. "malakas"
But how much stock do we put in such terms as "nakaisa",
"nakalamang", "nakalusot". (made one over somebody, and
went set-free even an fault), of actions or practices which lack the
element of fairness?
What underserved benefits to the "malakas" or (influenced ones) get that are not avail-
able to the ordinary citizen? Of the more priveleges enjoyed by "Haves" over the "have
nots"?
Suffice it to say that the less justice in a society, the more discontent, agitation and un-
rest in the various economic sectors, farmers, businessmen, laborers. And it can take
many forms-unwillingness of business to invest; labor strikes; lower agricultural
productivity. Lower construction activities, instability of the Financial system; and at the
extreme and, subversion, rebellion, sucession.
471
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPTS OF
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
472
HOW VALUES INFLUENCE THE ENVIRONMENT
The environment can have a profound effect upon a person, no matter what age. An ex-
treme case would be an urban living environment where such crowding exists that no family
member could carry out normal bodily functions alone. A person living in such circums-
tances is bound to acquire some type of value from this experience. Too often, crime results,
but feelings of orderliness and cleanliness can also occur later . You can never predict human
behavior. You can never tell howan event will influence someone.
An example of what values are is this example, question. What do you vyant to happen to
you when you die? Wouldn't it be convenient if we all just disappeared - no mess to clean
up, no major expense, and how ecological! But unfortunately this is not the case. You all
know what usually happens. Relatives buy the "best," which probably includes an expen-
sive, well-made coffin lined with satin and color-coordinated, with a soft mattress for maxi-
mum comfort. You would be dressed in their favorite clothes, fixed to look healthy, and ad-
mired by all in your "going-out" party. Finally, you would be placed to rest forever by a bab-
bling brook or, if less fortunate, by a freeway exit, depending upon how far the good inten
tions (money?) of the family extend. Do you want this kind of send off? So values make you
do what you do. Think of a value you hold very dear. What is it?
As a future housing expert or interior designer, you Will be dealing with people on a daily
basis. Your belief is that the physical when developed properly according to
the situation at hand, can enhance peoples lives, fulfill them and make them happier and
healthier. Most times you do not know what your client's problem is, so you must deal with
that person on an interpersonal place; you have to find out what he or she is willing to do to
improve the environmental situation. Probably for.emost, you have to be able to communi-
cate well enough to determine the real problem.
Your job often isn' t that easy. However, when you try to improve a person's living or work-
ing environment, you are working with minds and values. You have to be able to find out
what people think and what they feel. This task poses. a special problem, because even
those most knowledgeable in the field do not know definitely which is more influential: the
environment as a determinant of human behaviour or people as determinants of the environ-
ment. In other words, a change in the environment might change a person's attitude, but
how do you know it will? You can never be sure. If people are abstract about what they feel
they want, your task of creating a physical space for them is complicated. How do you know
what to do?
Let's hypothesize that you have been called in by a couple who would like to spruce up their
house. They tel.l you that they would like a total change: Furnishings, wall finishes, floor
finishes, accessories, lighting, - the works. What do you think? Easy job, right? They have
even told you that you can do anything you like and it will be fine with them! Here's the
catch: They will spend only #20,000.00. What about their values? What would appear to be
an overriding value of theirs? Will you take the job? if so, will you set any spe-
cial conditions? ____ _
In this profession, you are spending other people's money, and everyone gets very touchy
about that. Some people have ill-gotten wealth or instant money while some have toiled
hard and saved hard earned money for a new house. So you've got to be careful and be sure
of your client and the ultimate goal so that you will be able to follow the proper course of ac-
tion. So you see, human relationships are very important. If you can speak with people
and make them feel at ease, they will trust you more, you will feel better, and the chances
wilt be greater that the job you do will turn out well tor all concerned. Trust and little things
count, and they become important cues in human behaviour .
The living environment is deeply affected by human values. Often, construction of a house is
viewed :at just that: its construction. Nuts, colts, hammers, nails, 2 x 41umber, etc. But it is
much, much more. The housing environment rises, at least in part, upon human feelings:
values if you will. Just because something has not changed for an extended period of time
doesn't mean it is out of date.
Some designs are, indeed vernacular . This means that their seemingly primitive form is ac-
tually as highly evolved as the present people and environmental conditions permit and re-
quire. Vernacular living environments most often satisfy people quite confortably and com-
pletely. Their materials are indigenous to the area, and the physical arrangement of the living
spaces is uniquely and adequately planned for the life-style of the inhabitants. The residents
usual_!y are well adjusted and desire nothing different.
We get into trouble in more "advanced" societies, where the burden of building is plated
upon developers of large tracts of. lands. Individuals with good intentions usually are ex-
cluded from this profession today because of the extraordinary expense. A developer often
is a stranger to the area in Which the construction is taking place. Because of this cir-
cumstance and the pressure placed upon the builder to produce the quality of life in the ar-
chitectural products of the modem period, which codified most of the utilitarian/ biological
standards during the last half century, has been less than satisfactory.
Traditional social networks are not accomodated; aggregations of dwellings rarely respond
to life-styles and cultural values and the solutions based on logistical packaging, construe
tion determinism or sculptural compositions, as well as the crusade for salubriousness have
only offered emptiness, uniformity, boredom and misfit.
It takes.sensitivity, along with knowledge to realize what you can change and when. Recog-
nizing the values of an institution as large as a country or as small as the family can help
guide your selection of an appropriate c;lesjgn. Misinterpreting information can lead to disas-
trous effects, perhaps to the creation of a totally inappropriate environmental solution.
HOW THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES VALUES
Values can influence people's ovyn self-concept. In design, it is a readily accepted fact that
people will generally take better care of a space and its contents if it contains some extra
comforting additions that normally are absent. For example, carpeting, in a residence hall or
office might make the users feel that those providing for them cared more about creating a
pleasant place for them to live and work than just bui tding a basic shell for their use.
Publicly financed nursing homes give us another exan'lple of an institution that disregards
human values. People who must move into these homes usually may not bring their own fur-
niture with them. To many older people, their furniture represents memories and a familiarity
with the environment that they especially need. It represents home: a building, people and
memories that are no longer with the individual. In old age, people often call upon objects to
replace treasured aspects of the past, and therefore their possessions are essential. Being
refused the companionship of their belongings at this time can be very disruptive to older
people because their values may have become so tied to their belongings that without them
they may question their reasons for living. For people who cannot actively continue their
hobbies or other past pursuits life often becomes a matter of just passing time. Familiarity
usually contorts them.
University residence halls also can enhance or diminish self-image. Lately they have more
sensitive to human needs. They provide a " sense of place, " an environment where students
can feel at home and where they have a relationship to space. They allow for individual crea-
tivity.
Many schools allow students to paint their rooms and put objects on the walls. Such per-
sonal touches are of extreme importance. Imagine if you were put in a room where you
473
474
could do nothing to make it "yours. " You just had to live with concrete block w('llls painted
"institutional" blue, large windows with obviously work venetian blinds, and dark, marble-
lized vinyl flooring. All you could do was bring in your own bedspread and pillows. You
could do nothing to the floor or walls. and it is too expensive a proposition to buy a window
treatment for such a short period of time. How would you feel? Would you feel you belong-
ed there? Would you spend much time there?
The sterile environment described above can be likened to a prison. Prison life is said to con-
tribute to the individual's delinquency to a measurable extent . If a prison is stark and imper-
sonal, why do you think the inhabitant might degenerate during incarceration? Values ...
confined to an environment that they cannot influence (personalize) because of its "hard ar-
chitecture," people can react in different ways: by avoiding the place, it possible. or in ex-
treme cases. by destroying the objects within it just to prove that they do have some sort of
control over their lives. Remember, the values we are dealing with are combinations of psy-
chological feelings and the physical envi ronment . We cannot easily separate them.
Lately, offices have been receiving some attention, too. Remember how frightening it was
to go Into the sterile, white dental office? This is one sight that has been known to provoke
hysterical behaviour in acjults. But what it the office resembled a home instead of a hospital?
True, you can't do anything about the medicinal smell, but what about tbe floors, walls and
furnishings? Carpeting, because of its psychological and actual warmth, can create relaxed
feelings among people, particularly if it is in a relatively cool or low-intensity color. Earth
tones are also appropriate. Carpeting will absorb and help diffuse sound waves so that you
won't hear the screams of terror that might actually be emanating from the work room. And
how about the furnishings? Can you think of any place more suitable to anthropometric
design (objects designed especially for people though the determination of the population's
average measurements) than a dental chair? If there is anywhere on earth that you need
comfort, its the dentist's office. And how about music? Mus4c should be loud enough for
you to hear but not loud enough to distract the doctor. Wouldn't it be awful if he or she got
carried away with it and drilled your tongue?
You must recognize the implication here that the human values are evident in the physical
environment. As a future designer, you should discover what will please people enough to
draw them to a particular place and what witf make them stay there. In most cases, the suc-
cess of the venture will not depend upon that environment, no matter how special it is.
Think about a restaurant . It cannot survive on a lively, unique atmosphere unless the food is
good (in the first place). The point is, though, that the environment does have an effect
upon people, and provided all things are equal, it can improve the visitation or business of
the establishment. Values are just one aspect of design, but they are an essential considera-
tion. They must be taken into account in offices, restaurants, schools, and probably most
important, homes.
A civilized " ambience" of the household or a native ambiance. rural ambiance. Ambiance
means an environment or its distinct atmosphere or "milliau") Millieu means an environ
ment, a social or cultural setting.
FOLK BELIEFS
IN CONSTRUCTION
ihese old beliefs mostly influence the design of a house in filipino architecture.
SOME BELIEFS
1. Don' t start the construction of a house at a period when the moon is waning, or entering
its last quarter. Pick .a time on or about a full moon.
2. Start a construction on a Monday; never on a Friday.
3. Avoid starting construction when the year is about to end. A better time is when the
year has just begun, January to June.
4. Never have a house built when your wife is pregnant, and is expected to give birth at
that very month.
5. Before giving the order to lay the foundation or put up the posts of your house. make
peace with all your enemies - especially those belonging to your own family or c:an.
6. In the North, they usually practice the flowing of blood from some animals or chicken
and all foundations or corners of the walt are spalttered with this blood in honor of the
spirits that might be living within the premises. Also a few drops of wine is offered with
some prayer dedication before any wine is partaken.
or medal!!i
accordittg to some old folks, the
coin heads be the orte
facil1g above not me s111ce
tl1e gxx1 luck rrtignt fly
7. Before .cement is poured into the foundation,
one peso coins should be dropped inside the
forms to bring good luck. Other place silver
medals of any patron saints, for protection.
Some also place coins at the stair foundation.
8. When any vertical part of the house is being
erected, like the first post, or the first row of
hollow blocks or cement wall, the father or the
eldest member of the family should be present
to witness. Two contributes to the sol idity of
the house.
9. Do not build a house directly perpendi cular to
the street. If space still allows it, locate the
house such that it li es in position whi ch is at
angle with the street. This way, the inhabitants
keep out of the way of disaster .
10. No par1 of your house should-cover or overhang an anthill ("PUNSO"l in Tagalog. They
say that the small spirit man or "NUNO" will get angry.
475
11. No part of the house should cover or overhang a site of a recently-cut tree; neither
should the new house overlap any portion of the old ho.use.
12. Never use materials that once belonged to a church.
13. As much as possible, avoid using materials that came from the owner's old house. The
bad luck of the old house will be transferred to the new house. the old people say.
14. All nails and screws that become bent in the process of building a house should be kept
in a box and not left lying around. Leaving them scattered will bring misfortune to these
involved in the construction.
up
15. It is taboo to use wood the sap of which is still
they call 'weeping' wood (Lumu-
luha).
16. The number of main posts should always be
even; not odd, never 13 pes.
17. Flooring planks-whether of wood or of
bamboo- must be laid parallel to the steps of
any stairway to make it 90 degrees to the stair
will make the good luck go down the stairs.
dowt1
correct
wrvn_g
18. The longer length of the roof must lie parallel to the road instead of perpendicular to it.
[I]
t+Jis
476
19. The number of steps in every flight of stairs must fall to the count of either oro (gold I or
plata (silver) never mata (death! since if the last counting is mata, bad luck or poverty is
to be expected.
/this
witt dow
door
it1
/or this
plata
20. The principal stairs, the master's bed should
face the East, so that the rising sun may shine
on them.
21. To the Muslims, the principal room and stair-
way should face the direction of Mecca.
22. Doorways should not face e.ach other along a
straight path, or a door to the window. They
should lie on a staggered path. Good fortune
flows quickly out of the house if arranged in a
straight path.
477
478
23. Main doorways should not face the west or
where the sun sets, it brings bad luck.
24. Main doors should always open towards the
inside to bring in good luck. Reverse opening
to the outside will bring out the good luck.
25. Do not occupy a new house until it is completely built and blessed. Before you will occu-
PY the new house, bring in first the common necessities in a house like sugar, rice, salt,
and also the statue of christ in a throne.
26. The arrangement of the bed should not directly be parallel and vertical to the girt or
rafter as the old folks say it will cut into half your good fortune.
u
ll
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
..
I I
n
L I
tl
II
II

II
II
rcifiBr or girt f U
------------------
,; v .. ______ ------------
1ifi5 IS preferred
11
II
11
II
II
u
II
or tHis
H bE\1
u
II
II
#:L;rafter or girt
It
27. Umbilical cord of a child is inserted in the staircase
so that the stringer would strongly connect itself to
the girder.
28. House plan shaped like a cross should be avoided
for this brings bad luck.
29. A basement placed in flat level land indicates
graves. This is a sign of early death in the family.
30. To avoid wealth or money from flowing out of the
household, main doors should not face the exit
doors.
FENG SHUI
Feng shui (pronounced "Fung soy") a term literally translated as wind-water, is the chinese
art of geomancy, the placement and location of buildings and manmade structures to har-
monise with, as well as benefit from, the surrounding physical environment.
It is believed that with proper orientation of one's house or business premises one is able to
harmonize with nature and relate to the physical surroundings favourably to attract desirable
cosmological influences. Having good Feng shui builds up one's confidence and energy to-
pursue success. It is believed that having bad feng shui may lead one to misfortune, failure in
business ventures or poor health.
It is the task of a Geomancer to determine the qi in order to site buildings in such a way as to
benefit from its vitalising power. With the help of the luopan or geomancer's compass, the
geomancer determines the best orientation of buildings, and assesses the good and bad
qualities of the dragon at the site. The luopan is a circular disc marked with concentric circles
of chinese characters. It gives series of direction and classifies a variety of geomantic factors
such as the type of water and the five orders of natures in relation to the time of birth of the
owner or prospective buyer.
Besides the luopan, the geomancer uses the geomancer's ruler to calculate the size and
overall dimensions of a building to ensure proportions favourable to good fortune. Apart
from the surrounding land and the b u ~ d i n g itself, each room is seen independently to
possess qi, and the geomancer's tasks is to locate its nucleus, the centre of vibrant energy, so
that its occupants may benefit from it, through the arrangement of furniture or the organiza-
tion of work.
Oi - cosmic breath of the chinese dragon or life for growth and vitality which causes moun-
tains to be formed and gives man spiritual energy.
In locating commercial and business centres it is important to find the dragon and qi areas.
Locate the most important buildings in the qi and prominent positions, like in the central
position and on the highest ground. If there are hills and sea in the location, place the com-
mercial buildings facing the sea with the hills in the rear. (or the building facing south so that
the rear faces north and preferably blocked to invite good luck).
Sha qi - literally translated, breath that hurts; travels in a straight line; ex: when a building
faces a T -junction, the qi is too vibrant and becomes sha qi.
An Example:
-----
another example
one enters the room but in a straight line,
luck exits outside.
479
Examples of Bad Feng Shui
1.
2.
3.
480
D
street
I I T-junctions
Perpendicular
Doors
Facing each other
--...... t--- 1
I
I
<)>
The corner of the block/
bldg. sculpture points at the
main entrance mostly bad
business.
Solutions in warding off bad feng shui
street
II
put a slight offset
Provide mirrors facing each
on the doors. These are us-
ed to deflect negative "chi".
Reorganize the usage of
space and reposition the
main entrance.
Or place a wall to direct
customers in. Business will
improve (or remove the
sculpture).
4.
Book
shelves
The entrance of a book shop
was affected by a magazine
rack and the Oi was op-
pressed by the ceiling-high
partitions of the cashier's
desk
Mogo:zine
raclc
5.
The business of this coffee house is poor.
The door of the toilet faces the entrance
space and customers entering the coffee
house are confronted by the odour from the
toilet when opened.
There is cross circulation between the
waiters from the kitchen and the customers
coming into the coffee house.
D
kitchen
reposition the magazines
rack and cashier's desk.
The entrance and the cashier's desk. are re-
positioned so that they no longer confront
each other. The new entrance also elimi-
nates the problem of cross circulation.
An ante room is created where the toilet
door is. The layout of the tables is improved
so that more tables can be accomodated.
kltche n
481
6. Sometimes a business house may be well-designed with no feng shui defects. Yet the
business is poor and the company runs into debts. In such a case, the feng shui of the com-
pany manager's residence has to be assessed.
Room living /dining
a. The main door to the house is in an
awkward position under a staircase.
b. The living room could have been wider.
c. The kitchen stove was facing the wrong
direction geomantically and there was
no direct access from the kitchen to the
external yard for utility purpose.
Room
a. On the upper level, one of the three
bedroom,s was situated far from the
toilet.
b. The partition between the bedrooms and
the verandah was solid, depriving the
rooms of cross ventilation.
482
c. The roof over the entrance . porch just
outside the main door was not utilized.
1. The front door was repositioned and a
garden walt added to accentuate the
front door.
2. The living room was widened by push-
ing the south wall out to incorporate the
entrance porch into the living room.
3. The stove was repositioned to face east.
Room
1. On the upper floor, a toilet was added
to the third room.
2. Solid partitions were demolished, the
rooms extended and doors repositioned
to allow ventilation across the rooms.
3. The roof over the entrance porch below
was made use of as a family room and a
toilet was added to the third room.

7, This night club has its qi disturbed and
blocked at the entrance by a large reinforced
concrete column.
The entrance door were oriented true North
which was in conflict with the horoscope of
the owner.

After the front doors were repositioned at an
auspicious angle obliquely toward north-
west, the problems of high turnover of staff
and other problems were resolved.
SOME DESIGNS TO AVOID:
Avoid the bed facing direct-
ly a door.
D
Avoid headboard aligned with. the door.
I
e
-
-
r
Avoid having a pond inside
a house.
stairs should not end in a
toilet whether going up or
down.
483
Avoid more than three to four doors in a row
for a residence.
The centre of the front door
faces the edge of another
building and empty land.
A withering tree or an awk-
wardly shaped tree in front
of the door is bad feng shui.
' c
' c
I
c
0
a business establishment
that is wide in front but
getting smaller resembles
a drain or funnel. This is
considered bad luck.
Steep or pointed roof form
or gable end causes sha qi
to the entrance.
a triangular-shaped pond in
front of the entrance is bad
Feng shui.
'
' I
' I

-----.J
I
' I
I
I

'------
NOTE: It is not good practice to orient a building to face true north, east, south or west.
484
If it is auspicious to place it in the direction of Kun, then place it off north (between
1 and 5off north).
In chinese, wooden steps are counted in the order of autumn, winter, spring and summer or
1, 2, 3, 4. The last step should end only in either spring and summer.
The master's bed should always face North. For good health and a life of contentment.
Master of the house should never sleep facing south.
The family will have more than enough to eat if the stove switch points west and the cooking
is done while facing east .
The toilet is the treasure of the house and so the toilet floor should be lower than the main
floor by 1 to 2 inches to keep the money in
misfortunes like financial losses and accidents can be avoided by following these dont's.
a. Do not use crazy-cut or excess marble floorings.
b. Do not put mirrors directly facing the stairs or overhead.
c. Do not have doors that open to other doors.
d. Do not build a basement directly under the master's bedroom or a closet under the
stairs.
SOME ADVISABLE DESIGNS:
1. Candles and red lights -are tools for positive "chi".
2. Wind chimes on doors and lanais help to bring good luck, but require that the chimes be
listened to frequently to make it work.
3. Aquariums (inside a house} are required inside a house since even if the fish die, it is
meant that the evil spirits are absorbed by the fish hence removing the trapped "chi".
4. Ponds and fountains (outside the house) attract good luck, but water should not be
made stagnant and should always have living things in it like fish and plants.
5. an establishment that originates from a small
entrance and gets wider inside is con-
sidered good luck as it resembles a money
bag.
6. Before moving in a new house, the master should wear a suit for good luck, carry with
him a blanket, pillow and bedsheet together with 48 pieces of coins in a little red box.
7. Cook something sweet, avoid eating sour foods.
485
YIN/YANG ELEMENTS AND FENG SHUI
In order to achieve good feng shui, there must be a good balance of yin and yang. In other
words, contrast should be present in order to achieve Balance. For example if the walls of an
office are painted a cool colour, the furnishing should be in warm colours.
EXAMPLES OF YIN/YANG
YIN
Feminity, darkness, Cool colours, liQuidity
and intrusion.
SIGNBOARDS
YANG
MasculinitY, brightness, colours that are
warm, Solidity and protrusion.
The signboard is a veryimportant element for a business establishment because it represents
the spirit and nature of business of the company. It must be legible and pleasing to the eye,
well balanced in shape and not blocking any openings.
The sizes of signboards are subject to yin and yang forces. For example, if the length is yin,
say 88 em (even in number) , then the breadth should be yang, say 81 em (odd number).
Signboards should have either three or five colours. Three symbolises growth and five, com-
pleteness. Those with two or four colours are not as ideal.
LOGOS
A logo or signage on a commercial building carries a denotative indication and gives a
message regarding its trade and sometimes, products. Good signage is not only an integral
part of the building design but also important in feng shui t erms. Besides the colour and size
of the signboards, the logos on them are juSt as important. Logos have to be identifiable, at-
tractive and appropriate.
both black no balance.
486
one black and one white-
mpre balanced yin/ yang.
This oval logo symbol ises
conflict.
A symbol that looks like an
upright arrow is a lucky
logo.
This logo is not good be-
cause the central part is like
a cross. (To the chinese the
cross signifies problems
unsolved).
THE FIVE ELEMENTS AND FENG SHUI
This is better as the upward
arrow is balanced by the
downward arrow.
one that looks like a down-
ward arrow is unlucky.
The chinese conceived the five elements as the five forces of nature and designed in the
sequence of harmony as Gold, water, wood fire and earth, or in the sequence of destruction
as gold, wood earth, water and fire. It is favourable to have water with wood, wood with
fire, fire with earth, earth with gold and gold with water (note that they are near each other).
It is not f avourable to combine earth with water, water with f ire, fire with gold, gold with
wood and wood with earth. {Note that they are not near each other in the sequence of
destruction).
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE
AND INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY
It is necessary for man to build. Even the simplest building involves a series of decisions. To
some extent decisions may be predetermined by TRADITION, by the builder's knowledge of
the right way to do things according to the custom of his people. On this basis a people
develops a characteristics architecture. We call things:
487
488
1. FOLK ARCHITECTURE
The buildings of men, being larger and more complex give rise to a greater number of
unique dedsions. Man is an unusually adaptable animal. He is capable of evolving
culturally, through cumulative experience of adaptation and successive creative deci-
sions. Decisions may be made collectively-by voting for example- but ideas occur in a
single mind which they may be communicated.
In the process of building a man make decisions which derive from his own ideas. His
ideas and therefore in a sense his self, seem to be embodied in the building-in the
design.
The architecture of a folk is evolved and modified by ideas and imitation. Folk architec-
ture is capable of diversity and differentiation. A hundred chalets may look alike and all be
different, just as a hundred people are superficially alike but all different. Architecture
begins with creative decisions by the builder and differentiations. which be associates
with himself.
Man discovered that over and above satisfying his functional needs the decisions he
made in designing a building created a relationship between him and the building, giving
it meaning, Architecture is building with which people have identified themselves, giving
it significance.
In folk archite.cture significance is given to the individual as a member of the communi-
ty- the f olk. Custom predominates design is within the context of custom; but folk archi-
tecture is design by people for people in the context of a community of people. It is intelli-
gible and congenial just as a dialect is.
In the older countries of the world it tan still be seen that Folk architecture is localized.
Often to a si ngle valley or a few square miles of plain. The reasons for this are sometimes
apparent. They are often cultural and ethnic. Folk architecture is generally the architec-
ture of small communities.
FOLK ARCHITECTURE is then the natural domestic architecture of a people. If they mig-
rate they commonly take it with them, even in defiance of climate, but practicality ope-
rates over a period of time to adapt the original forms to new conditions, frequently pro-
ducing a new Folk style derived from the old. The characteristics of folk architecture ex-
tends to simple communal buildings such as churches, workshops, warehouses, and
barns. Origina1ity in the design of architectural form is minimal and differentiation is main-
ly a matter of building type, detail and craftmanship in decoration. Folk architecture is
concerned with the comfort and convenience of its inhabitants, congeniality being the
prerequisite of comfort.
The grouping of villages into large organizations, with the emergence of towns and cities,
creates new architectural needs which cannot be satisfied entirely by folk architecture. A
new kind of man is required, the architect.
It is apparent that different villages have different architecture and each is significant of
its own locality and people. The idea of significance becomes generalized; it is seen as a
property which architecture has. A process of synthesis then begins in the minds of ar-
chitects- They see Fol k architecture as a way of designing and think of themselves as
designing in " The VERNACULAR" .
2. VERNACULAR is really a linguistic term, but it is transferred to architecture. An ar-
chitect designs in the built equivalent of the common way of speech, be it local, as in a
dialect, or national, as in the differences between the llocanos, Pangasinanese, pam-
pangos, tagalogs, cebuanos, muslims. Vernacular architecture uses the design skills of
architects to develop folk architecture.
From early times men have natural objects such as trees, caves
1
standing
stones or conical hills. They have made mounds an set up stones and tree trunks, giving
them religious and magical signifi cance. They have set up altars and made buildings to
house -the paraphernalia of sacrifice of worship. They have proceeded to build temples
signifying not only themselves and then non aspiration but also the power of attributes of
a spirit or deity. Much early religion was functional. :twas intended to achieve beneficial
results: fertility, rain, sunshine, the rotation of the seasons. Significance and function
were determined by priests who claimed to be expert in functionally correct and spiritual -
ly significant buildings. This architecture, concerned with man's relationship to spiritual
powers, was capable of development to high levels of sophistication.
Vernacular Architecture is a generalized way of design derived from Folk Architecture. It
may be seen as the development of the 'natural' architecture of a region which is de-
finable in terms of climate, culture and materials. Of its own nature, however vernacular
architecture as limited to that which can properly to expressed in the 'vernacular.' It can
be used for spiritual monumental and utility buildings but limits of properiety are set by
taste and judgement scale is a.crucial factor. Vernacular architecture is congenial to peo-
ple and symphathetic to environment. It is for loving rather than admiration.
3. SPIRITUAL ARCHITECTURE- a significant and symbolic of man's relation to unseen
powers which may be gods, spirits, forces of nature, awareness, ideas, ideologi es or con-
cept. The essence of spiritual architecture is that it is intended to have meaning and this is
its primary function.
Spiritual Architecture is designed towards spiritual or notional clients, human being
agents t or them. The inspiration of something over and above the human begetter of the
building has led to economic provision beyond the ordinary and the creation of the majo-
rity of the world's most admired buildings. It is a germane paradox that the greatest build-
ings'have been produced when it would have been an impiety to acount the cost, but
lavish expenditure in itself has produced some of the worst buildings in the world. This
suggest to us that motivation and significance are crucial to architectural design, the qua-
lity of the motivation and the character of the significance being revealed by the architec-
ture. This is another way of saying that a society is refl ected in its architecture. Spiritual
architecture reflects the spiritual condition of the people who build. But it is an error to
suppose that great buildings are directly propotional to spiritual health. Spiritual architec-
ture is concerned with the of individuals and groups.
4. MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE
"The phenomenon of death is awe- inspiring, its circumstances often pathetic, the belief
in a soul persistent and the desire for commemoration deeply rooted. The marking of a
grave is the beginning of monumental architecture. The purpose is to commemorate and
honour. The simplest, indeed the inevitable form is a mound which the emphasis appro-
priates to a mighty king, elevates into the pyramid and elaborates into the mausoleum.
Already in ancient Egypt, men are building tombs during their lifetimes to commemorate
them in death. The idea of monument is as dignification of the dead is extended into life.
Monuments are erected in honour of the living to outlasts their bodily existence. The in-
tention to remember, the complimentary status-symbol, gives monumental architecture
an honorific rote among the living, and the association with death is tactfully played down
until it is almost forgotten.
Monumental architecture is honorific in its significance and is extended from person to
institutions, to governments, corporations and banks. Death and religion being closely
associated in the minds of men, the distinction between monumental and spiri tual archi-
tecture is often blurred. There is some merging of intention and significance but there is
an original difference. Spiritual architecture is related to noncorporat things monumental
architecture to people and it is important to keep this distinction in mind.
489
490
MONUMENTAL MONUMENT is, by definition, committed to remembrance and so to the
appearance. The simple repose of massive earth-borne structures and trilithoni c openings
are preferred to enigmatic balances and controlled thrusts. Symmetry of plan goes with
the stable symmetry of structure. Monumental architecture is concerned primarily with
the dead and may anticipated in life the honours to be paid to the departed.
5. UTILITARIAN building takes as many forms as there are purposes to be served, but .in
the past it has generally not been regarded as architecture, the reason being that it was
simply serving a purpose without having any other significance. Castles or city walls
might be given monumental or spiritual additions, such as elaborated gateways intended
to impress the visitors and express the importance and pride of the inhabitants. Indeed
almost any building could be taken out of the utility class by giving it significance other
than its inherent function, but the design the lost its utilitarian character and assumed the
garb of another kind of architecture. Frequently this was monumental as in the great ther-
mae (bathhouse) of ancient Rome or the stables of a pretentious mansion.
UTILI TARIAN ARCHI TECTURE is, by definition, dedicated to utility, and the expression
of function becomes architectural homage to a non-spiritual objective. Utilitarian archi-
tecture is materialistic. Materialism can recognize no values outside itself and the utili-
tarian is self-justifying in terms of its utility. Utilitarian architecture is the reflection of rna
terial achievement seen as an end itself.
... ....... ....
.,. ....: , ' , .. .
\J' .
\'
.;
l11dia11 CUff
Ea5t Indian
goofad

491
492
Half- TimM- House
111\1
mmll

493
LAPLANDERS HUT INDIAN AOOBE HOU56
IGLOO
PIONEER SCP HUT
NIPA HUT
AFRICAN HUT
494
FOOT STOOL
HEIGHT
u
JJ!
l.93(6'<t)
0.16
1.12(s-a) 0.15
0 . 15
I.G2(s'-4') 0 . 14
USEFUL DATA
As per Filipirto- AGiaH ,
based 011 the M ODU LOR cf '' t.e
Z'l1d ''FlJRNICUBE" of the Author
STOOL CHAIR sec DINING TASI..E
"


n ll
c a
Jl
_I!
0.27 0 . 43 0.43 0.10
0.25
0.40 0.40 0 .65
0 .24
0 . 39 0.39
0 .23 o .3S 0.36 0 .61
!
OFFICE TABLE COFFE TABL.E CARD TABL.E BAR STOOL LAVATORY
BAR STOOL
I
!
!or
I
I , .
' PERSONS
HEIGHT
0.733

0.69
0. G7
0.64
0 . 50
0.47
0.4S
0.44
KITCHE"J CABft-JET RAILI NG
0 .$6
0. 91
1. 07(5'-6) 0 82 0 .79
1.62(5'-4") o. 79
0.76
0.66 0.59 0.75
0 .62 O.BI 0.55 0.10
0.78 O.S3 0 .68
o.ss 0.76 0.52

SHOULDER REST ARMPIT REST CEILING HEIGHT

1.4-0 2. 210
LOG ]. 3 1
2. 12
1.03 1.27 2 .00
0.99
I. C3 1.99
495
496
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Architectural Design ....................... ..... .. .................... .
Architectural, Form, Space and Order ............................. .
The Language of Architecture ...................................... .
Intentions in Architecture .......... ..... ..... ................ ..... .. ..
Existence, Space and Architecture .............. ................. ..
Architecture and the Human Dimension .. .......... ... ...... .... . .
Principles of Design in Architecture . , ... ............ .... .. .... ... .. .
Design Methods in Architecture ............................... ... . .
(Linkages by Keith Hanson)
A Modern Theory of Architecture .......... ... .... ...... ........... . .
Design Methods ......... ........... .............. .. . ........ ........... .
House, Form and Culture ..................... .......... ............. .
Design Concepts, a basic guidebook ....... ...................... .
Concept Sourcebook ................ ........ ................... ..... .. .
Structural Concepts and Systems
for Architects and Engineers ....... ...... .... .. .... ......... ... .
Signs and Symbols ................................. .. ... ........ .. ..... .
Solar Energy .............................. .......... .. ................. .
The Architect's Guide to Energy Conservation ................. .
Psychology of Perception ....................................... ..... .
The Hidden Dimension ..... ............................ .............. .
Ernest p;ckedng
Francis D.K. Ching
Sven Hesselgren
Christian Norberg Schulz
Christian Norberg Schulz
Peter F. Smith
Steve Tompkins
Geoffrey Broadbent
and Anthony Ward
Bruce Allsopp
J . Christopher Jones
Anos Rapoport
Gail Lynn Hartwigsen
and Allyn & Bacon Inc.
Edward T. White
T. Y. Lin and
S.D. Stotesbury
Broadbel]t, Burt and Jenks
Bruce Anderson
Jarmt1 Seymour
M.D. Vermon
Edward Hall
Tropical Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kukreja
Mechanical and Electri cal Equipment
for Buildings 6th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . McGuiness, Stein
and Reynolds
Human Factors Design Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Woodson E. Wesley
Human Dimension and Interior Space .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . by Manero
Newsweek ............ .............. .......... ... ........... ......... .... June 18, 1984
Asian Building and Construction Magazine .......... ............. .
Library of Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Life Book
Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parker
Philippine Prestressed Concrete Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
Prescon Phils. Co. ............................... .. ................... .. Brochure
Jackbilt Span-Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
CICG-UDDEMAN-Siip Form Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virgilio Yu:lon
Bulletin Today July 18, '85
Feng Shui for Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evetyn Lip
Folk Beliefs ........... .......... ,.. .... ............ ..... .. ..... ........ ... The Best of Budget Homes
Tshsnan Magazine
Future Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elizabeth Pennisi
Bulletin Today
INDEX
A
Absolute proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Accented rtwthm .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . . 138
Activit* of m.n . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. 3
Ac1iYity .-. . ... -.............. .. .. . .............. 226
AdditiYe fOtfN .. . .. . .. .... .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . 4()
Additiw trenlfonnetiori . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 40
AdjecenUNvfv* .. .. ... .. .. . . ... .. .. .. . .. . . 248
Ambience ........... ...... ................. ..... 156,212
Arnenhiell . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. -
Analogical Deeign .".. .. . ...... .. .. .. ........... ...... 310
Anthropomorphic ..... ................................ 108
Anthroohometric .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 111
Apparent megnitude.... . ..... . .. .. .................. 190
Architectural sefetv .. .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1J1
Architecturalspace .......................... ... .... 234
Architectural system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Articulated COfnBfS .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 54
Articulation oftorm .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 49
ArtHicial light & structure interact
atsubsystem level .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . . . .. . 403
Associated character .. ...... ....... ..... ... . . . 152
Axis .......... .... ... ... ....... ............ ............ 3, 129
B
Balconies
Balance or equalization .. . .. .. .. ....... ......... . .. ..
Barriers .......... .......... . ... . ...................... .
Bue plane depresse<l ...... ....................... .
Ba&e place eleva1ed .... . .............. ....... .. ... ..
Berm ........ ........ .......... . .. .. .......... ......... .
B i ~ i n g or negotations ........ .. .. .. .. ........... ..
Biogenic symbol system .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. ... . . ... ..
Biotecture and nature of materials .............. .
Bodysize .... .. .. ... ....... .. . .. .. ...... ......... .... .
Brainstorming .. .... ............... ........ ........ ..
Building ..... ... ..... .. .. ............. ... .... .... ...... .
Building approach ... .. .. ... . .. . .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ..... .
Building configurations . .. .. .. .. . .... .. ... . .. ... ... . .
Buidiilg entrance .. ....... ................ .......... .
Building envelope .................. ...... ........... .
Building interior ... ............ ... . .. .. .... .. .. .... .. . .
Building forms concerned as space
structures ... .. ...... ...... ................. .. .... ..
Building ma1erial as expression of
architectural design ......... ........ ............ .
Building process
c
Cast in place
Ceillg view

-
383
129
332
273
273
362
341
307
450
396
206
411
286
359
289
383
389
404
438
337
414
429
Centralized organization .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . 254
Circle ...................... ...... ............. .......... 29
Circulation elements .. ...... ............ ............ 286
Circulation space . .... .............. . .......... .. . .. . 298
Color ................ ......... ...... .................... 67
Cognitive skills .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ... .. .. .. 397
Color U$8ge .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 71
Combinations.. . .. ... ...... .............. . .. .... . .... .. 89
Commerce . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. . . ..... .. . .... .. 15
Commercial . .. . .. . ....... . .. .... .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 21
Competitions .... .. .. .. .. ..... ... .. .. .. .. . ..... .. . . . .. . 143
Composite form construction system . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Concealment & exposure.. . .... ............ ...... .. 390
Concept .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. . . . .. . . 198
Concept of &pace in arch'l theory ..... . ... .. . . .. 234
Concrete........ .................. .............. . .. .. .. 413
Connectors. . ... . .. ........ .. .. .... .... ......... .. ... . .. 331
Configuration of me path .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .... . .. 293
Confusion .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 145
Consideration. ... .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . . 399
Construction administration................... ..... 341
Construction documents .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 340
Context .. .. .. ... .. .. . ........ ......... ..... 196, 198, 252
Contract in arch'! subject ... . . . . . .. ..... . ... .. .. .. .. 90
Contrast ofform ..... . ... .. . .. ... ......... .. ........ 86
Contrast of line .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. f!7
Contrast ofsize .. .. . .... . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. ..... . .. . f!7
Contrast of tone.... ........ ...... ..... .. ... ...... .. ... 88
Contrast in arch'l subject .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 90
Cooteri1poTary .. .. . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. 1 1
Character .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. . .. . 151
Church .. ... ... ....... ............. .................... 14
Cla8Sification of materials. .... ..... ............. ... . 451
Climate ................. .... .............. ......... ... . 4
Closed shell . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .... . . .. 330
Clustered forms . .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 46
Clustered .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 253
Cube ...... ................ .............. ....... .... .... 34
Cut1ing of materials .... ... .... . , .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . . . 322
Creativity .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 205
Criticism ... ... . .. .. ........ ... .. .. ...... .... . .......... . 206
Cylinder .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .... .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 33
D
Defining element . .. . ..... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .... .. . .. 373
Degree ofenclosure .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 373
Design analysis . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 206
Design development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Design from linked requirements
in a housing problem .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Zl7
Design methOds and design tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Design paradigm .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 2f 1
Design sequence ....................... . ........... . 339
Design team .. .. .. .. . . . .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . m
Dimenslonal transportation ........ .. .. .. .. ....... . 37
497
498
Division of space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396, 396
Doors ..... ........................ .... ...... ........ 373
Duality . . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. 143, 144
E
Economic .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . .. 200, 436
Economic condition ... .. ......... .. .... ........ ..... 15
Economy of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Eddy . .-:.- ...... .. ... ...... .............................. 363
Edge & comers .. .. .......... ....... . , .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 51
Edge to edge contract .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 41
Edges ......... ....... ....... ......... . ........ ........ . 373
Education ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. . ...... .. ... . .......... .... 15
Effect of cotour on f orm .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . n
Effects of the visible size on colour . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . 76
Effect on architecture .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . 5, 7
Elements of sJte control .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. . 343
Solar shading in summer .. .. .. . .. .. . ... .. .. . 343
White roofs & desert cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Passive solar planning..... ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Natural heating & daylighting .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 350
Windowless building .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 352
Utilization on natural growth .... .. ... .. ... .. .. 353
Equipment on the roof .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. 356
Utilization of water & air ...... .......... ........ 357
Thermisiphoning ..... .... .. .. .... ......... .... ... 358
Emotional needs .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 2
Emphasis . .. .. ..................... ....... .... .... .. .. 162
Enclosure .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 200
Enclosure !Building envelope).. ...... .. ... . .... .. 385
Energy and architectural design ....... , .. . . .. . .. 336
Energy consumption on buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Environmental planning .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . 341
Ergonomics . .. .. ....................... ... ... .. ... 238
Evaluation .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . 212
Evaporate cooling ... ... .................. .. .. .. .... . 346
Excepti_onal size ...... .. .......... .. ........ .......... . 146
Expression .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 309
F
Face to face contact .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . 41
Family structure.. .... ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Figure ground .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 168
Filled and empty distance......... ........ .... . .. ... 186
Filters .. .. .... ... ........ .... .... .... . ......... .. .. . .. .. . 332
Fitting together ............. ....... ... .. .. .. .. .. . ..... 323
Folk architecture .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 479
Folk betief in construction . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 4 75
Form ... .... . .... ......... ... .. .. .. ... . ....... ...... . 19, 22
Forms and images . . ..... -... .. ......... . ........ .. . . 284
Forms of the ci rculation space ......... .... .... . ... 297
Form shape and appearance .. .. .. . .... . .. .. .. .. . 411
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Functional character .... ..... ....... ................. 151
Functional design .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 225
Functional grouping & zoning ...... ......... 216, 286
Fusion... ........ . .. ...... ..................... ... . ...... 325
Futurehome ........ ....... ......... ...... l7
Floor & ceiling plane concepts ........ ... ...... .... 384
Auctuation................... .. .... ......... . .. ........ 186
Framework$ 324
French .. : ::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::: ::: 10
Frontal .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. '1If1
G
Generic scale .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. . 25
Geometric .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. 209
Gestalt . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 179, D
Golden section .. ... .. ... . ...... , .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. 85
Good taste ... ........ ..... .. ..... ... ................... 90
Glass ... ..... ................ ... . .. .... . .. ..... .. ... .. 445
Gradation .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 87
Gravitational or picturesque....... .. ........... .... 136
Grid . ...... ...... ........ .. ...... .... ............. .... .... 253
Grid forms . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .............. . , ... , . .. , . . . . . . . 48
Grid organization ....... , . .. ...... ....... .. .......... 268
Ground sur1aces .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 360
H
Handicapped users ... ................... .. ........ 399
Haptic .. . ......... ...... ..... .... . .. .... .. . .. .. ... . ...... 308
Hearing ..... .................. ... .. ..... ... .. .. ........ 398
Height in place .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 192
Hidden zones in american offices .. .. .. . .. 276, 2n
Hierarchy .... .. ....... .... .... ................. .... . 146
Honesty of expression .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. 438
Horizont al disposition .. .... .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. .... .. .. 216
Hu":lan architectural interfaces .. ..... . .. .. .. .. .. 466
Human needs.......... ...... ......................... 466
H u I'Tl8f1 fact ors .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 458
Human scale .... .. ... ...... .... ...... ......... .. .... .
176
Illusions of depths .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. ..... .. .. .. . 188
Impossible figures .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. 176, 177
Indigenous materials... .... . .... ........ .. .... .... ... 451
sign or index ... ..... .. .. .... ....... .. , .. . 301
Industrial ............... .. ..... .. ... ..... ... ..... ,. .. .... 71
Inherent quality . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. fi1
Information .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 211
Innovations in airport design .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .... 222
Influence of man . .. .. ............ ............ ... .. .. 9
Influence of nature .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 5, 6, 7, 8
Institutional .. ... . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. 73
l11tellectual needs .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 2
Interlocking space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Interlocking volumes... .. .. . .. .......... .. .. .. .. ..... 41
Invisible structure .. .. . ........ ..... ...... . .... ..... 18
Iconic signs .. . .. ... .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. . 302
Irregular forms ..... .. .. ..... ......... ........ ..... .. . 35
J
Job pattern..... .. .......... ........ ... . .. .. ...... ...... 458
Joining elements ...... ............. .. .. .. . .. ........ 324
JuKtaposition ... ... . .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. . .. . 66,68
K
Ken .. .. .. .... .......... .. . .. ........ ,. .. .. .. . . .... 107
Kinesthetic . .. . .. .. .... . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 168, 167
Kinesthetic qualities of space .... .... ..... ... , .. .. 275
l
Learned symbols . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . 3117
. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Level CO\Intry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lift slab building system . .......... ......... . .. ... . 418
Light .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ...... ........ .. .. .. 375
Linear ................ ........ .. .. ,. ....... .. ... .. .. ... .. 253
Linear forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Linear organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 225
Line generated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282, 283
Linkages ................ ...... .................... .. 227,285
M
Macro group . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Mall .. .... ........... ... .. .... ............... .... .. .. .. . 297
Manufactured proportions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
M811boro box to box design contest . ... .. . .. .. . 209
Mass ........ .. ........ ..... ... . .... ..... ...... ... 19
Materials... ...... ... .... .. ...... .. .... .. ....... ..... .... 9
Mechenical electrical system ................. , . .. 288
Mechanical structural integration . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. 288
Metal ................ .. ....... ................ .......... 422
Methodology .......... .. ............... ...... .. ....... 210
Micro group .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . ... . .. . . 466
Milieu ....... .... ....... .............. ..... ....... . ...... 158
Mobility .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. 392, 399
Mode of .construction or structural
pl'op<) rtion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . 1 03
Modulor .. : ............ ............ .. .. .': ... 110
Monocular cues to depth .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 189
Monumental architecture.......... ... ........ ...... 480
Motor skill .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 397
Movement through space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Mountain regions . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. . .. .. . 8
Multi-usa of space. .. ...... ... .. ...... . ............... 392
N
Natural heating & daylighting . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 350
Natur81 light and structure Interact
at overall level .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 403
Natural material proportion .. .. .. ............ . ..... 101
Necessities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
New meterials .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . 447
Notional.... ...... .............. ... .... .. .... ... ....... 480
0
Oblique . .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 287
Occupancy ..... .......... .. ............. ............... 341
Open frames ........................ ..... .. .... .. .... . 330
Opening in spa<:e defining elements .. .. . .. .. .. . 373
Openings .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 373. 382
Openings within places movement . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 382
Orientation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25, 348
Organic ........ .. . .............. .. .. ...... ... .. . . 161
Organizational process .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 141
Orientation to the sun . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 285
Orientation to the wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Overhead plane .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 373
Overall approach to structural
education .......... ........ ........... ......... .... 400
p
Pll8dox of depth .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 184
Pa.sive solar planning . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 348
Path space relationships .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 296
Personal character............ ...... .. ................ 154
Personal space ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .......... .. . .. .. . 460
Personalization ......... .... .... ....... ........ . .... .. 466
Perception of object .. .. ... .... ....... ........ ...... . 167
Perception ofshape .. ...... ........ ...... ....... ... 167
Perception ofspace .... .... ........ .... ........ .. . . 185
Perceptual quality of the desjgned
environment .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 466
Position .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 24
Powered louvers to diminish
heat gain ... .. ... ...... .. .... .. .. .. .. .... .......... 345
Physical n4J&ds .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2
Physical space . .. .. .. .. . .... .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . Z37
Plan . ... .. .. ... .. ... .... .. ... ... . .. .. .. . 55
Plan configuration scheme .. ......... .... .. .. .. ... 160
Planning .. .. . . . .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. . . . . 323
Platonic solids . .... . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . . . . 32
Pragmatic design . .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Precast in concrete .. ....... ....... ... ... .... .. .. ... 415
Precast waffle slab system . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Prestressed concrete.... ....... .. ..... .. .. ..... ...... 423
Prestatement ......... .............. ........ ..... ".... 211
Priorities .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 336
Princioles .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 161
Principle related to function . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 216
Prism sculptures .. .. ... .... .. ....... , .. .. .. ... .. .. .. 203
Primary shapes .. .. .. ...... .. .. .. .. .. . ... .. .... .... ... 28
Privacy . .. ... .. .. .... . .. ... ....... ... ... .. ... .. .. .. . 467
Problem statement 211
Promenade .. .. . . . . . 297
Proportion . ............ 85, 150, 119
Proximity .............. ........ .... .. .. .. .. ...... .. ... 186
Process ofspace organization .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. 243
Properties of enclosure ...... .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 372
Psychological effects of color .. .. ............ .... . 70
Psychological blocks ..................... ............ 2!J7
Psychological factors ........ ............... ....... 179
Psychological considerations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 458
Psychological & social space .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 460
Q
Qualities of architectural space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
R
Radial .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 134, 253, 295
Radial forms .. ............................... ....... 253
Radial organization .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 2'57
Recreational pattern .. .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 458
Refurbishment .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 437
Regular forms .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 35
Rehabilitation....... . .. . ...................... .... .. .. . 15
Relations........... .. ........ .. .. ........... ......... . .. 98
Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Relative size ................ .......... ............... .
Roof ............................. .. ..... .. .. ........... 414
s
Safety color guides .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. 72
Salubriousness .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 473
Scale .. ............. ...... . ........................ ..... 126
499
Sernantii:s .. .. ...... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. . 330
Sensory factors .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. 397
Sensory perception .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 329
Similarity .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . .. .. 89
Sigl'\81 & sign .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 301
Site development .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .... .... .. . . . . 343
Site selection . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Size................... .. ............ .. .. .. .. .. ........... 125
Social conditions .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 9
Scx:io cultural variables........... ................... 456
Solar altitude in summer .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. . . 354
Solar shading in wmmer .. .. .. .. .... .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . 343
Subtractive forms .. .. .... .... .... ..... .. .. ...... .. ... 38
Subtractive transformation .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 38
Surface .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 372
Schematicdesign .. .. .. ......... ......... .... .. ...... 338
Slip form .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 43
Slump test .... .... ................... .. .. ... .... .. 415
Space........... .. . . ...... .......... ... . ... .. ... 237
Space to space relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 246
Space articulations .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 265
Space frame . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 234
Space to circulation relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Space to circulation linkage .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 285
Spanstress .. .. ...... ..................... .............. 427
Spatial organization ............................. .... 251
Spatial perception .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 239
Spatial tension .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 41
Spatial qualities .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. . 243
Spiral .... .... . ..... ................... ....... 295
Square ... .......... .. .... ........ .. . .. .. ... .... 27. 312
Stability .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Stages in designing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Strategic location .. .................. .... .. .. .. ... ... 147
Stairs . .. .... ....... .... .... ... . .. . .. .. ... ...... ..... .. . . 299
Stereoscopic .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 166
Stone .. ... ......... .... .. .......... ..................... 441
Strength ........................... .... ................. 397
Structural forms .. .. .. .... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. . 431
Structural & other subsystem.... .. .... .... .... .. . 101
Structural & engineering .. .. .... .. ...... .. .. .. . .. 400
Symbols . . . . . ...... ......... .. .. .. . .. ... .. ... .. 306
Symbolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Synthesis ..... .... .. .... ............ .. . .. .. ..... .. . 212
Skylights......... .... ...... ... ........ . .... ... . . . 386
T
Taste
Technological experience ... ... ... .. .. .. . ... .. ... .. .
Temperature ......... ........... .. . ................. ..
Temperature climate .... .. .. ... .................... .
Tent . ... ... ..................... .. .. ...... .... ........... .
Tentative solution ... .... . ... ................. ..... .
Terminate in a space .... .. ............. .... .... .. .. ..
Territoriality ...... ... ....... .. ........ .. ............ .
88
458
369
330
330
206
296
464
Answers To How good is your taste?
1. A 6. A 11 . B
2. B 7. A 12. B
3. A 8. B 13. A
4. B 9. A 14. A
5. A 10. B
500
Textile. ............... .................. . , ..... ... _ . , .
Texture . ....................... .. . ...... ........... .. ..
ThefiTlOIIfphoni "9 .. .. .. .. .. .. ...................... .
Tone ........................ .. .... .. . .... ... .... . .... .
Topography ... . ...... .. .. ...... ... ........ .... ...... .
Transportation ..... .... ... . .... ........ .. .. ....... .. .
Transformation ............. ...... ....... ............ .
Transition .................. . .. ........... .... . . .. .... .
Triangles ...................... .. ... ..... .. ......... . ... .
Typologie design ...... .. .. ...... .. .......... ... .. .. .
u
447
61
358
65
8
115
163
164
38
309
Unaccented rhythm ...................... .... ....... 138
Underground structures ...... ...... ....... .. ... ... 361
Uniformity & diversitY .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 392
Unique shape ........ ......... ............ . , .. .. . .. 147
Unity .. ............... .. ... ... .. .... ........... .... .. ... 142
Unsymmetrical ..... .............. ............... . 134
Users requirements .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 392
Utilization of natural growth...... .................. 353
Utilization of water & air .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . ... .. . 357
Util ization .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 481
Users population characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
User efficiency .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 397
v
Value ........ .......... .. .............. ... .. .. 468
Value aspiration & culture .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. . . 468
Vanity .... .......... ..... ... . . .... ............... ... 171
Vertical plane........... . ... ...................... ..... 273
Verr.acular .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 479
View ................. .. ........ .................. ...... 379
View from site .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 380
Vision.. ...... .. ........................... .. .. .......... 397
Visual depth ........... .. .... .... .... .......... .. ..... 187
Visual expression of f unction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 314
Visual expression of production .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. 382
Visual expression of materials . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 440
Visual properties of form .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . 22
Visual inertia .. . .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 26
Visual or optical illusions .. . .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. . . .. . . 100
w
Wall concepts .. .. .. .. ........ . .. .. .... .. .. .. .... ... .
Wab panel j oints ................................ .. ..
WIOdow opposite side ............ .. ... ...... ..... . .
Windowless building .............. ... . .. .. .... ..... . .
Window location ......... ................ .. .. .... ..
Whining triangle ... ..... .... ........ .. .... .... ..... .
White roof8 & desert cooling ............ .. ... . .. .
Wood .. ... . .................... .............. ....... ... .
Answers To How artistic are you?
1. B 5. A
2. B 6: A
3. A 7. B
4. A 8. A
282
424
362
352
362
124
348
440