Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 291

32.

97
86
681.3

86

. . .M., ..,
B.B., A.A., .., ..- M., , 1997. - 288 : .

ISBN 5-7163-0014-6
- . C

, ,

. .
, , , , .

32.07

2404090000
.
66(03) 97

ISBN 5-7163-0014-6

, , 1997

-2-

1 ..................................................................................................................... 8
................................................................................. 8
........................................................ 17
............................................................ 19
.................................................................. 21
2 ................................................................................................................... 23
............................................................. 23
............................ 23
.....................................................................23
, ................................................... 25
................................................................. 27
........................................................... 28
- ............................................... 30
..................................................... 30
........................................................ 30
.................................... 31
,
, ,
................................................................................... 32
.................................. 35
....................................................................... 36
......................................................................................................... 38
......................................................................................................... 38
............................................................................................. 39
.............................................................................. 39
.......................................................................... 40
3 ................................................................................................................... 45
............................................................... 45
........................................................................ 46
..................................................................................... 48
C ?............................................................................................... 50
......................................... 53
........................................................... 57
......................................................................................... 58
........................................................................................... 64
......................................................................................................... 67
.......................................................... 68
............................................................ 77
.......................................................................................................... 84
......................................................................................................... 88
4 ................................................................................................................... 91
.................................................................................. 91
Adobe PostScript ..................................................................................91
-3-

PostScript-...................................................... 93
..................................................... 93
..................................................................... 95
RIP.................................................................97
5 ................................................................................................................... 99
....................................................................................... 99
....................................................................................... 99
, ........................................... 100
................................................................................. 100
................................................................................ 102
................................................................................ 103
. .
...................................................................................................... 106
Windows 3.x.......................................................................... 107
Windows 95........................................................................... 115
Macintosh .............................................................................. 125
........................................................ 137
6 ................................................................................................................. 142
....................................................................... 142
............................................... 142
........................................................... 143
............................................................................... 144
Unicode............................................................. 146
....................................................... 146
......................................................................... 147
........................................................................ 147
....................................................................... 150
............................................................ 150
...................................................... 151
Type 1............................................ 152
Type 1.................................................. 158
Type 1 ................................................................... 162
TrueType ........................................................................................ 167
............................................................................. 169
TrueType- .......................................... 170
................................................................. 171
TrueType- .............................................................. 173
...................................................... 174
............................................................................. 175
.................................. 177
................. 178
........................................................... 179
......................................................................................... 180
-4-

7 ................................................................................................................. 184
................................................................................. 184
................................................................ 185
FontLab......................................... 187
................................................................... 187
............................................................................ 189
............................................................................ 191
......................................................... 192

.............................................................................................................. 195
............................................................................. 195
............................................................ 196
............................................................... 197
..................................................... 198
.................................................... 199
................................................................................. 201
....................................... 201
....................................................................... 201
...................................................... 202
....................................... 202
....................................... 202
....................... 203
8 ................................................................................................................. 205
.............................................................. 205
.......................................................................................... 205
........................... 205
........................................................ 205
............................................ 206
He .......................................................... 207
......................................................................... 207
....................................................................................... 208
He ......................................................................... 208
.............................. 208
- ............................................ 209
.............................................................................. 210
............................................................................. 212
.......................................................................... 217
............................................................................................... 221
................................................................................. 221
................................ 224
................................................................................. 234
, .................................................. 235
, ................................................. 236
-5-

9 ................................................................................................................. 240
.................................................................................... 240
............................................. 241
...................................................................... 242
............................................................ 242
.............................................. 242
...................................................... 243
................................................................. 243
.................................................................................. 244
................................................. 244
.................................................................................. 247
.......................................................................... 248
....................................................................... 248
................................................... 249
..................................................... 249
....................................... 250
............................................................. 251
10 ............................................................................................................... 254
.................. 254
................................................................... 254
.................................................................. 260
1 ..................................................................................................... 265
................................................................................... 265
2 ..................................................................................................... 277
, .......................... 277
DOS (866) ..................................................... 277
-8....................................................................................... 278
Windows (1251)........................................................................ 279
3 ..................................................................................................... 280
ParaGraph lntl........................................ 280
............................................................................. 280
.................................................................................... 280
........................................................ 280
............................................... 281
...................................................................... 281
....................................... 281
........................................................................ 281
.............................................................................. 282
.................................................................. 282
.............................................................................. 282
............................................................... 282
4 ..................................................................................................... 284
5 ..................................................................................................... 286
-6-

.......... 286
.................................................... 286
-
.................................................................................. 286
........................................................ 286
.......................................................................... 287
...................................................... 287
( ) .............................. 288

..................................................................................................... 289
........... 289
:................................................................................................... 290

-7-


, . . ,
.
,
, , . , ,
. .
, .
.
, - . , XV , - XVIII ,
: - ,
- .
() , ,
, .
, I 1710 . B
1740 .
C XVIII
,
1727 , ,
1756 . C .
, , XVIII .
B (,
(), ),
Pe .
B XIX XX .
-8-

, , , ,
, , , .
,
,
. .

-,

.
30- XX
, . Ho

. , ,
CCCP .

1938
CCCP -
. B 1946
.
K 70-
38 ( ,
) 114 (, , , , . .) - , 3489-71; , 1947 52 , , .
K 24
,
, , , .
C ,
- (), 31 90 : , , , , , . .
-9-

.
, 90-
192 300 . 50-
, , -, . A. , H. H. , A. B. , M. . .

,
, . , , .
, -
, , ,
.
.
, I. K
.
, , 57 ,
, . C

.
.

, .
B ( , , , , .), (, ,
, .),
(, , , .), (,
, ), (
, -4, ) . .

(
- 10 -

: , , ,
. .), : , ,
-
: , . , .

(, , . .), ,
( ), ,
.

, , ,
, ,
.
B ,
50% , , , ,
, , Mop 1931 ,
. , , , , , , ,
.
:
. , , () (8-10
). ()
,
. ,
(
) , ,
. , - .
,
- 11 -

, , . B
, ( ) , ()
() .
B 80-
35 ,
, - ,
, , , . .
B
.
,
, ,
, , .
, 3-
. .
, ,
, . .
.
. C ,
. . , , , , , . . , , , . A
, , ,
.
C
- 12 -


, , . C ,
, ,

. , .
. He , , - ( , , , ),
-ex , .

. B , ,
, ,
,
, , . . , , , , .
,
,
, .
:
.
(HP PCL PostScript Type l, TrueType)
.
,
.
,
, - .

, , .
, - . B
- 13 -


, , ,
,
. ,
, . .
. . , .
,
, 1994 ,
. .
C
. ,
. B
, , , . . , . Ho , .
:
, , .
- ,
. , , , ( ), .
, .
, ,
. B
-
- 14 -

. Ha , , ,
;
, . ,
- ,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
.

(
) .
, , .
B 80- ,
(),
, . B ,
15%
, , , .
To 10-12. , . , 60- ,
, ,
, .
B
(
) ,
( ,
),
( 1.1), (
) - 15 -

. T. . , ,
, .

1.1 : - ; - ; - ; - ; ; - ( )
,
,
,
, , ,
. B
,
CCCP
. ,
, .

, , , . Ha :
.

, ,
, ,
- ,
- 16 -

.
B , -,

-,
. , , .
B , ,
, .

, . TypeMarket
DoubleAlex, .

, ,
, . B
, ,
.
, .

.
, 1 1997 .
, .


, .
. .
, ,
( 1.2).
- 17 -

, , ,
. ,
, . Ha
- , .

1.2
, .
(Type family) -
, , , . . ,

.
(Type face) -
, , , .
,
, (, , , , ).

. B (light - ultra bold).

1.3 : ;

-
.
,
: ( 1.3).
- 18 -

- ,
. . A
( - )
: , ,
, , .
,

, ,
.



. 3489.1-71
: , , , , , - (), ( ) - , . . ( 1.4).

, , , , , ,

, , , , , ,

`=, aK, b", c, d, e, f


1.4
(). , - ( ) : , , , . . ( 1.5).
- 19 -

`=, aK, b", c, d, e, f


).

, , , , , ,
).

, , , , , ,
).

1.5
, -
, .
XX ( 1.6).

`=, aK, b", c, d, e, f


).

, , , , , ,
).

, , , , , ,
).

1.6 ()
K , , ,
.
( 1.7).

- 20 -

`=, aK, b", c, d, e, f


).

, , , , , ,
).

, , , , , ,
).

1.7


B
, , - . ,

, 0,376 , - 0,352 .
.
. - ,
(). , 10 3,76
(3,52 ), , , , , . . , ( ).
,

:
6 - ,

8 - ,

9 - ,

10 - ,

12 - . .

- ( = 4,51 ,
= 18,04 ).
. 10 20 .
: 6 - 21 -

5 8 10 9 12 . , ,
, -
. 24 36
10- .
C , , -
, . ,
,
, . . . B ( ),
- (
).

- 22 -

, ,
, .
,
-, . ,
. . Ho .
B , .
, , , . , , . Ho -
.
, , .

. . C
,
...


, - .
,
-
.
- 23 -

: , ,
. ( ) - ..
. - ..
, , . , .
. B (, , ).
- ().
. .
- , . ,
i,
.
.
. Ho - .
. C , , ,

( , ).
B . 60- . . B
.
. ! , ,
, .

Times Helvetica, , ,
, 80- . .
,
.
- 24 -

B ,

. , 1 100
, . - 100 000,
, ,
, 90 000 . -
, ,
. ( , ),
. To
.
, , 1, , ,
.
Font
, , , 200, 300, 400 .

,
, ,
A. . B , , .
( ,
- .) 12% .
, 35% . , ,
.
- , .
, ,
1

- , 1500 .

- 25 -

.
To .
.

.
.
.
2. , . ,

. ,
, , ,
.
, 9 10 2 (
,
-
()). , , .
, .
. 36 .
- 22 ,
- 28 (
2

! , , (
) , ITC Garamond,
8 , . Ha ,
. -
, , . .
! - , Ho , ,
, , , ( ). , -
, . B
, . ,
,
.

- 26 -

, ).
, - (

). B 50-55 .
,
. ,
.
: ,
, , ( ) .. K. -, - ,
, - , -
.


?
. . : ,
,
... - , ,
. B
.
A. . , ,
,
: , .
, , , , , .
,
.
:

:
1) , ;
- 27 -

2) ,
(
);
3) ( , ) 3.
, ,
. ,
, - . C
, , .



.
, ,
, .
, .

, , .
B ,
, .
.
,
,
.
B - ,
, . ,
. He ,
,
, , , , .

Paul Renner Die Kunst der Typography, 1933.

- 28 -

(, ),
.
.
.

5 - 5

1 - 1
1 - 1 ( - 3-5 )

1-5

, , .
, ,
. B ,
, .
, , . . B , , , , , - ,
, , .
- . B
, ,
.
- - .
. ,
. B ( ) ,
. B
, .
- ,
.
- 29 -

-
.
, :
; ;
.

. , ,
,
, . B
, .. , ,
, . - .


B . , ,
.
B . ,
, , , , .
, , .
.
. B
,

,
.



, - , . Co , - 30 -

.. , OCR-B .
,
. I, J, l I, j, r, f M, m, w .
,
- . ,
i , 90- .


?
. , , , (body type),
.
, :
- , , , - , .
( ),
, , . Ho , .
. . ,
, , .

. , 300-500 ,
10 9 , . ,
, , .
- , 9-10 ( ). , . ,
- 31 -

.
, .
, , ( )
, , .
, .
, 9-10 ,
. 24-. K , , , , ,
.
, ,
, , , , .

, , ,

,
, .
.
B ,
.
, .
- .
Times, - Garamond.
. - , 400 .


. To

, .

- 32 -

, . ,
, , ,
(12-14). ,
.


. XIX , ,
.
, .
. , XIX , XX .
,
(transparence).
-
. B
. (, )

. , ,

. (, ) ,

, (
). B
(Sumner Stoun) - Sans Serif, - Demos, Praxis, Flora
. .
, - , , ,
, -
. . -
,

, .
.
- 33 -

. , ,
- , - -, .
B
Officina Thesis.
,
- Mix. To ,
. Ho
. . B
,
.

chlmijIJn1 Sans
chlmijIJn Serif

Thesis,
90- .

- - , .
- , -

. - , .
. Ho, , ,
,
, ,
. . Ho... . ,
.

c=!,23!= d. a%%,
.

ROEPHC23?& abc&
ROEPHC23?& abc&

, . , (O, P), - 34 -

. , ,
.

c =!,23!= d. a %%,

ROPeHC23?&
ROPEHC23?&

B
, , - - ,
(O, P), (C, 2, 3), (R).
, , , ,
, , ,
.



x. B , , .

.

. , 12-14 . , , .
XIX . B XX
x. , , , .
B , . C
,
, ,
. B
- 35 -

:
, ,
. x
.
,
, , , , ( 2.1).

`*=,*=

2.1


70- ITC ITC ,
( 2.2).

ITC

Futura

ITC Garamond

Garamond

2.2

.


,

. ,

.
, . : ,
.
-
Ha , . . ,
.
- 36 -

, - , ,
- ,
, (,
- , ,
, , , ,
..). , . ,
.
, XIV
: ( ) , , ( )
( )
. . ,
.

, ,
-. ,
,
, , . B .
, 1818 :
... ,
, , .
Ho , ,
, , , ,
( );
, , ,
, - , .
B () ,
.
B
. : -
; , - ;
; ;
- .

- 37 -


4. . Ho . B ,
, , , . - ,
. C , , . B . B , ,
.

(, ...),
. B - . , .
. B
,
1 (Em space), .
, .

, , ( ). . Ho
.

- () () - .
. B
. 70-
, -
. 4

20-30- (
),
.

- 38 -

, , (, , ..)
.


.
, , 1940
B , . B . . A
,
. K
.
,
. B , .
, ,
(, ,
body type) ,
.
(interleading/auto) PageMaker QuarkXPress. B 120% . To 10 12 , , 72- - 86,4
, . B QuarkXPress
+ n , -
.


B

. B CCCP (1/2 ),
,
- 39 -

. , (1/3 ). ,

. (thin space) , (30 000 000) .
., . .. B
.


, . To , . B

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
, , . ,
, , ..
(
approche - , ). B -
.
- - .
3 2
. , , . ; ; .
.

.
, .
- 40 -


() . K , .
. -
. B .
. To , . B . B - ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ITC Kabel ITC Garamond,
. ITC Avangard 70- . C
- ( 2.3).
Bo ,
, . Multiply Master (tracking
curve).
: 8
. , , .

2.3 -

XX
, . , . () , - 41 -

.
-, . B

, 2400 dpi, ,
,
. , 8
6 .

, VA, LV, LT,
Qu, Ta, . , , . B 5. B
-. B
( ) .
( PageMaker'e - 12-).
,
, ,
.
, B&P - Incremental spacing.
5

()
, ,
, .
(manual kerning), . 1 (em space), , (alternate em space) - .
B PostScript-
- (kerning tables).
( 12-) , . B QuarkXPress'e (font face).
Tracking manually. To , , ,
. B Adobe Illustrator
, .
Custom tracking tables. B QuarkXPress , ,
.
B PageMaker . - (very
tight - tight - normal - loose very loose), .

- 42 -

7 .
. To
, . C
. Ho
.
. . B - - , - .
, .
, . ,
. , , , 1 8 , , 1997 .
B ,
.
Thesis. 4 : () () - , , , - , ,
, ITC Garamond, , .
B 60-70 . . , Courier Letter Gothik
.
, 100-
5000
, Font - .
B -c -
, , .., .
- 43 -

2 , , .
. -
, .

( ) , , ,
, . .
. -
, . .
,
. B

, ,
.
B
. ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, . , ,
Font, .

- 44 -


:
, .. (
); (, , , , , ,
- ) ;
;
( , , , , ,
);
( , , , , , )?
, ,
, , .
, - . , . He ,
-, , , , , -
. A , .
B ,
. B
. B ,
-
. : , ,
, , ,
, , , , . , ,
, , .
- 45 -



:
.
(
, , ).
, 50, 100 . ,
. - ( , ). , ( ) , ,
. , - .
, , , , . , K, N R, . , , V, - L, F . P, P
. 3 3, -
C , - H . - X,
, H, , , , , , , ,
.
,
. , , , .
B , ( , , - 46 -

).
,
- ? B
-. ,
. : - .
( , ),
- .
C
,
, . :

. - .
, ,
-
( - ). .
, R, -
.
, , - (, , ), , .
, , ,
,
, .
( ,
), (
). , , ()
, . , ,
, - 47 -

.
,
, , ,
. , , . C
,
.


- ? , , , . ,
. B
.
, , ,
. , ,
, , .
. , ,

,
. B , ,
.
( )
.
( , H x),
h p, ()
H, I, h, I, n, u , ()
, E, F, H, e, f, t, z ,

C, O, b, , o, p, ,
( ), ,
, ( - 48 -

), (
) , . ,
, , :
, ,
- ,
. ,
: ,
, , , , ; .
, , ,
. , , , , ,
, , ,
.
,
, Fontographer 3.5 FontLab 2.5 (
), , , 0,01 7,00 ,
() 28 .
Ha . , . B
.
, , - CorelDraw! . K
, .
,
.
, , .
- -
. :
, , 280 (
70 , 10 ), - 49 -

, , , ;
, , .
, -
. B , - , , . ,
, ,
, , , , , ,
... (He ,
, .)

C ?
C , , , - , . .
,
. .

, .
,
, .. , - .
( , - , .)
, , , . ,
, ,
.
, .

.
,
, ,
- 50 -

(, , , , ), ,
, ( 3.1).

3.1
A - (Character).
B - (Em-Square).
C - (Size).
D - (Baseline).
E - ()
(Cap-height).
F - () (xheight).
G - (Letterspace).

3 , (Serif).
4 - (Ascender).
5 - (Descender).
6 (Stress).
7 (Counter).
8 (Oval).
9 - (Bowl).

- 51 -

H - (Side bearing).
I - (Linespace).
1 - (Stem).
2 - (Hairline).

10 (Terminal).
11 (Ball).
12- (Dot).
13 - , (Accent).

.
, ,
. ,
, , . ,
. , :

. ,
,
. , .
( ),
. ,
( 3.2).





3.2 (ITC ).
ITC ,

(International Typeface Corporation)
,
, . ,
(25 33)
( 3.3), , : 6 26
( 3.4).

- 52 -

3.3 ()
(ITC ). ,

ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
OPQRSTUVWXYZ
abcdefghijklmn
opqrstuvwxyz
3.4 ()
(ITC ). ,

,
.
, , , .


, ,
: ( ), . , ( , )
( , ). B --, - --. B , ,

( 3.5).

- 53 -

3.5
.
, .
,
. ,
, a K - ( 3.6
3.7).

AHIMOT
UVWY
fotx
3.6 ( )

BCDEEFGJKL
NPQRSZ
0)yz{|
}~
3.7 ( )
:
, , (, B, E, K, P, R), ,
, - (, 3, , ).
, ,
, ( 3.8 3.9).

- 54 -

BCDEEFGKL
NPQRS
ach0yz|
3.8 ( )

JZ
dgk)}
3.9 ( )

. , , ( 3.10).

3.10 (ITC )
C
. ,
, ,

.
B
( ) ,
.
( 3.11) ( ,
. .),
- .

AHOPE
3.11 ( )
, , ( ) (
) ( 3.12
3.13).
- 55 -

AHOPE
3.12 ()

AHOPE

3.13 ()

. B
(, I, J), (, , H, O) , (, , , M, W, , , ) (.3.14).

IJ
hmn
lWftx
3.14 ,
( )


. , , .

ANOPE
ANOPE
ANOPE
ANOPE
3.15 , , (
, )
B
,
, (, H, )
, ( 3:5 2:3). - 56 -

, ,
, - ( 3.15).
, ,
. K
, , , () (
, ), (),

, (. 3.16), ,
, ,
.

CCC
3.16 ( , ITC
, )



, .
,
. ,
; H, , ( 3.17).

3.17 ( )
A , H,
- 57 -

, B - , . ,
( , ) 2-5%,
.
,
, 5-7%.

, ( ) .

2% ( 3.18).

3.18
: ( )
,
, , . , .
,
,
, ,
.


,
, . B

. B
.
- 58 -

.
1) -
, (
): E, F, H, I, L, T, , , , , , ( 6 - , E, H, T - ).
2) - , ( )
: C,
D, G, O, Q, , ( 5 - , C - ).
3) - : A, K, M, T, V, W, X,
Y, Z, , , , , , ( 9 - , A, M, X -
; , , K, ,

; M, N,
).
4) - , : B, J, P, R, S, U, ,
, , , , , ( 6 - , B P - ).
.
() ,
. B H.
, , ,
, , H ,
. ( , , , H,
).
,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
, .
( 3.19).
- 59 -

hmo
0xyI
3.19 ( )
F L, , , , ( 3.20).

FLc
3.20 F, L ( )

.
,
. Bo , ,
p, q, . B , , , , ( 3.21).

0y
3.21 (ITC ,
, )
. , , ,
H. B
H, . , ,
, , ,
( ). ; ( 3.22).

- 60 -

mn~
3.22 ( )

C .
, , C,
( 3.23),
.
E,
: , ,
. .
,
( 3.24).

q}
3.23 ( )

}}}
3.24 ( , ,
, )
, , ,
.
. -
,
. ,
V Y, - .
,
( 3.25).

- 61 -

VY
3.25 ( )
, , , K .
,
( , , ,

). A V,
,
( 3.26).

dk
3.26 (ITC ,
)
, , , . K
K , ,
.
. ,
. , , ,
.
K. ,
K ( 3.27).

3.27 (ITC ,
ITC )
- 62 -

. , , , , ,
,
(
).
, , , B, P, , , R.
. ,
, , , , .
, , , , ,
( 3.28).

3.28 (ITC )
3 B . , 3, B,
.
: . B 3 . B
( ). , ,
, ( 3.29).

3.29 (, ,
)
,

(, )
, P.

- 63 -

, . , , , , , ;
, . , - ,
. B
() ,
,
: , - ( ).
,
,
. , ( 3.30).

t
3.30 ( ,
ITC , )
, R,
(, ,
.). K ( 3.31).

R
3.31 R (ITC )


, ,
( ) , , ,
IX-X . - 64 -


. , , , , , .
: a, , , , , , , , . ,
, , , , , ,
, , K, , M.
B ,
, ,
,
. ,
(7 33 , , p, , , , ), (12 26 b,
d, f, g, h, j, k, l, p, q, t, y).
B ,
.
, . ,
.
1) -
, (
): , , , , , , (
h,
f, i, j, l, m, n, r, u, t).
2) -
, ( )
, : b, c, d, e, g, o, p, q, , , ,
( 8 - , c, e, o, p - ).
3) - : k, v, w, x, y, z, , ,
, , , ( 6 - , x, - ; , , , ,

; ).
4) - , a, g, s, , , , , ,
, ( 3 , g g, ).
- 65 -

, , , . B
.
B ,
.
B , . , , (
3.32).

KK
3.32 (,
, )
: p (, ) - , . p q,
b, h, k, l, ( ,
).

3.33 (,
, , ITC )
B
( 3.33).

- 66 -


- ,
. B : , , , .
, - ()
( ),
. ,
, .
, .
(), ()
(), ,
, , ,
. ( ), , (
),
( 3.34).

iL
iL
3.34 , ( ,
)
, , , ,
.
, , ,
.
, .
,
.

- 67 -


,
, : .
,
( , ).
, ( ,
) , .
,
, .
, ( )
, ( ) ,
:
( 3.35).

3.35 ( , ITC
, ITC )
B 1501
.
( 3.36).
, XVI .
.

, , ,
( ). B 8 17 ,
, . B - 68 -

( )
: . , ,
, , , .

3.36
(), 1501 .
. B , , ,
.
, .
( , ), ,
,
. B . , (, , , )
,
( 3.37).

- 69 -

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
QRSTUVWXYZ
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
QRSTUVWXYZ
3.37
(Monotype Van Dijck)
:

, - , . ,
,
.

3.38
( )

.
, , . , ,
. ( ),
, , - 70 -

, -
. B
,
.
, .

( 3.38).
, (
) , , ,
. , .
. B
. B .
, ,
,
. K ,
, n m, , ,
. , , . ,
, , . ,
, , , 2% ( 3.39).

3.39 ( )
, ,
.
1) - - 71 -

: f, h, i, j, l, m, n, r, t, , , , , , ( 10 , m, n, - ).
2) -
, ( )
,
: a, b, , d, , p, q, , g, , ,
( , , , , p - ).
3) -
,
: k, v, w, x, , z, , , , ( 6 - , x,
- ; x , , ).
4) - , ,
: e, g, s, , , , , , , ( 3 - , g g, e - ; /, j, v, w, ,
).
.
i,
, n u,
.
, .
i, ,
.
m, , ,
( 3.40).

in
3.40 (ITC
)

, , , , , ( 3.41).
, ( 3.42).

- 72 -

abc
defghijkl
mnopqrst
uvwxyz
3.41
(Typoart Garamond)

3.42 ( , )

.
( ), ,
,
( 3.43).
.
. . , ,
, a, d, q b, p (
3.44).


3.43 (ITC ,
, , ITC )

- 73 -

adqbpo
3.44 (
)

( ), g
. , (
3.45).

3.45 (ITC , ,
)
,
( 3.46).

3.46 ( , ITC )

.
. B
, .
:
1) (
),
2) ( ),
, ,
- 74 -

3) ,
, .
,
- ( 3.47).

3.47 (, ITC ,
)
, , , , ,
- ( 3.48).

3.48 (ITC , )
, , (
) ( 3.49).

3.49 ( ,
, , )
x
,
( 3.50).
- 75 -


3.50 (ITC ,
, )
. B ,
, . B
. B
,
, . ,

. B ,
e, ( 3.51).

3.51 ( ,
, )
r, , ,
s, .
, . ,
,
, s,
( 3.52).

3.52 s (ITC )
, , - 76 -

,
( 3.53).

3.53 (ITC )

, ,
,
( 3.54).

3.54 (ITC , ITC


)
, ,
. , ( 3.55).

3.55 (ITC , )


XIX .
1800 . ,

( 3.56).
- 77 -

,
, . , , ,
XIX .
, ,
American Typefounders (ATF), 1894 . 29 .
-
, ATF .
, - , ,
.
. : (Type
Family, . . ) ,
, , , (Type Faces)
.

3.56
( 1800 .)
, , (Bookman) (
3.57).
B 1896 . , . C , 1884 ., 20 (, , . .), (Cheltenham)
- 78 -

. 1911 .,
,
( 3.58).

ITC Bookman
ITC Bookman
ITC Bookman
ITC Bookman
3.57 (ITC )

`*=,*=

3.58 (1910) -
Berthold Sorbonna (1905) - ATF Cheltenham
(1896)
, , , -, , .
, , , . , , .
,

. , (), , 1957 . (Univers), 21 .
,
: , ,
. , , ,
( 3.59).

- 79 -

u
u u
u u
uu
u

u
uu
uu
u u u u
u uu
u

3.59 Univers (1957 .)

ITC Kabel
ITC Kabel
ITC Kabel
ITC Kabel
ITC Kabel

Futura
Futura
Futura
Futura
Futura
Futura

3.60 ITC Kabel ( Kabel


, 1927 .) Futura (1928-32)
,
.
- , , , , - 80 -

, , ITC , , ,
( 3.60).
, ,
( ) , ,
- , .
,
. . ().
,
30%, . ,

,
.
. ,
, .
,
, , ,

. , ( ) , ,
, ,
.
( 3.61).

3.61
(ITC )
, - 81 -



, , , .
B ,
( ) , :
() 1/3 2/3 . ( 3.62).

3.62
( )
,
,
,
.
,
,
- .
, , .


. , .

, () , ().
,
, ()
- 82 -

. , , , ,
,
,
.
, ,
( 3.63).

mbg
3.63
( )

B ,
, , . .
, , () ,
.


( 5%). , ( , , )
( 3.64).

3.64 (
)
B
.
. ,
,
.
- 83 -

, , , (), , , , .
, , .

( approche - , ) -
. , ()
. B
. , , ,
, ( 3.65).

3.65
( )
B .
,
( , , ). B
, , ,
. , ,
( ), , , - 84 -

. , , ,
, . , , . , -
.
, , - ,
. ,
.
B

, , , .
,
, ,
.
.
. ,
,
( 3.66).

AHOPE
AHOPE
3.66
( , )

. .

.
,
, ,
, . ,
,
. B (, - 85 -

) , , .
.
,
, ,
. ,

, , ,
.

,

. Ho
. , , 90%
.
. , ,
.
. ,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
B, D, E, F, H, I, K, L, M, N,
P, R ,
. B , , ,
.

. , , .
- , , .
. - 86 -

, , H. B ( , - )
,
,
()
, . (HHHHH) .

(, H) (, O). 2/3 1/3
.
(HHHOHHHOOOHOOO) .
(, A),
1/3
(, , ).

, .
, .

(HHHAHHHOOOAOOO)
.
, -
- . B
.
,
,
.
, (
5-10%) , , .
, . ,
, ,
.
- 87 -

,
. (, , , , ,
, ...) ,
, .
,
,
.
. B , (, ...
...), , ,
(, ). B

, , , . .,
, , .
y , -. ,
.

, , . B .
, .
,
,
, . .

, - 88 -

,
. : , TA, ATA, . .
. kerning, kern, . B ( )
,
( 3.67).
, .

3.67
)

C
.
, , ,
,
( 3.68).
,
. : 20 , 80,
300. ,
, . , , 300-700 . , , . C
- 89 -


, ,
.

AV AT AO
AV AT AO
3.68 ( )
()
- , .

- 90 -


Adobe PostScript

1985 Adobe PostScript.



(, , ,
..) -
,
.
PostScript
- (dtp - desktop publishing)
, . Ha
PostScript - ,
, - . , ,
, Adobe PostScript
,
.
PostScript . C
PostScript , 6 7 8. 6

- ,
- , . .
.
7
PostScript - ,
.
8
- ,
, . ,
2 + 3 , 2 3 + .

- 91 -

postscript ( )
.
,
. , ,
( ) , PostScript.
C , PostScript - ,
. (. Path) - , , 9. PostScript
( ); (stroke), (fill), (clip). ,
. , PostScript
() , .
C , PostScript . PostScript -
,
( print),
PostScript.
PostScript-
, PostScript. Bo
, Adobe
. , PostScript- , ,
. B .

- , () .

- 92 -

PostScript-

,
. , ,
Adobe PostScript:
newpath 10 20 moveto 50 80 lineto closepath stroke
newpath 120 80 314.15926 0 360 arc closepath stroke
...
:
- x = 10, y = 20 x = 50, y = 80;
- x = 70, y = 80 50;
...

, ? , , , .
, - (),
, .
, , , - .
- ( ),
( ,

) (
).
K ,
- ( )
( )
. ,
.
() , ,
- 93 -

, 10.
, .
, ,
(, -
pixel) .
, . B
.
- ( , ,
- , , ), - 16
777 216 11. , , 12.
- 72 dpi (dpi = dot per inch - , ppi = pixel per inch), 300-1200 dpi, - 1200 5080dpi.

. , 4 (210x297 )
2540 dpi 2100029700 = 623 700 000 .
a , ,
p , , 10

B , , EC, .
11
, ,
(bit per pixel). 1 ( ,
), EGA 4 , 4
2 = 16 . B
32
4
4 ( = 8 ) , 2 = 256 = 4 294
967 296. 24
3 , 24 , 2 = 16 777 216.
, .
12
. B , - ,
,
( ). .

- 94 -

,
(bitmap). , bitmap
13 (-)
. , -
. , bitmap
.

.
- , (, . sample - ,
). , bitmap,
, , ,
. .



14 , ,
bitmap ( )
. Adobe PostScript, , .

PostScript- ,
, , , PostScript, .
bitmap 15. . B
13

: - ,
, . . , :
.
14
, - , , .
15
, , . () bitmap- rasterising, bitmap- (dot)
- screening. ,

- 95 -

( ,
) ,
, , .
,
.

, . ,

, bitmap
.
,
.
(Windows Mac OS)
,
(Macromedia FreeHand Adobe Illustrator).
bitmap
,
- ,
.
, . bitmap .
, PostScript. ,
, , PostScript.
, - , PostScript- (PostScript interpreting ripping - )
, 16.
.
16
B
, . , ,
, (

- 96 -

RIP
B , RIP - Raster Image Processor,
. , PostScript ( ), .

Apple LaserWriter 1985 Adobe.
,
, PostScript. RIP .
B 80-
. B , RIP, ,
, - IBM PC, Apple Macintosh -
, . RIP

, .
RIP .
, ,
- , . . RIP, , , , . , ,
, - ,
, ,
.
RIP ,

, ..) .

- 97 -

. , , - PostScript , - .
, , ,
.
B , RIP
, . ,
, ( ,
bitmap, , .).
,
( PostScript )

- Adobe Harlequin.
RIP. PostScript - , ,
(,
). ,
PostScript -
. , ,
- PostScript- . Ho , Apple LaserWriter 300 dpi Linotronic 530
Avantra 25 -
, RIP , , .

- 98 -

, ,
().
17
( ASCII
ASC-),
. Ko ASCII 32 128 ( 0 31 , , : 7 - ,
10 - , 13 - ). , ASCII-
8 , ASCII-. B ,
( 128
255), (
) ,
. - , MSDOS ( 18 ) , 866. , , 2.
- ( IBM- MSDOS) , 17

( ,
) . B
( , ,
, - 0 111111112 = OFF16 =
25510) .
18
Ha IBM- CCCP , . He
,
( ), .

- 99 -

, , 19. , - Windows Macintosh MAC OS (Macintosh ) - ,


, . .
( , ,
- )
. B (, 6510) - A XeniaXC, A DecorC,
$ Wingdings, $ Zapf Dingbats . .
, , (
),
, ,
. , . ,
,
.

,

, , ,
( ) .
( )
, e , (pixels). B
- .
, , ,
- , -
(bitmap), o . ,
19

B DOS
. B -, .

- 100 -

- 12 (1 pt = 1/72
) Bitmap 12 , 8 pt - 8 . ,
256
, bitmap font (bitmap-). Ha 5.1 , Q bitmap- ( ).

5.1 bitmap-
Bitmap-
. - , bitmap .
( , ),

: () bitmap-,

bitmap
.


,
bitmap-
- 101 -

. ,
, . , 72 dpi ( ) 16
256 (16 , 16 ),

1200 dpi 267x267 , 8911 .
(256),
bitmap , , .
, ( )
, ,
.



.
(),
. B - ,
(origin point) .
5.2.

5.2

.
, - 102 -


Borland Dos. , ,
,
. B , .


outline () . - , ,
. , , ( 5.3
5.4).

5.3 TrueType

5.4 PostScript


-

, , .
- 103 -

, , ( )
. Ha ,
, .
TrueType. B outline-. TrueType- (
2), Apple
Macintosh ,
.
, ( ) .
, ( 5.5).

5.5 TrueType (
)
PostScript. PostScript,
1 Adobe PostScript,
TrueType ,
- 104 -

, , .
5.6. PostScript TrueType.

5.6 PostScript (
)
-, PostScript- ,
TrueType . ,
PostScript- , TrueType.
-, ,
. TrueType PostScript .
, .
TrueType PostScript- , - 105 -

, .
( ) , - TrueType
PostScript, . PostScript
TrueType , (substitution table). K , -
, ( ) .
outline- bitmap (
PostScript , TrueType)
. ,
, .
,

, . bitmap-
,
, .
, - ,
Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop Macromedia FreeHand.

. .
B
20 - Windows
IBM PC Mac OS Apple Macintosh (
, ).
,
,
.

20

- ,
Windows - , Word for DOS,
Chiwriter, Tex, Ventura ..,
() .

- 106 -

- (bitmap) (outline)
TrueType. ,
. , bitmap-
.
, ,
, -
. C
TrueType PostScript-.
PostScript- - Adobe Type Manager (ATM).
PostScript . ATM
.
, , , , - Windows 3. 21, Windows 95 22 Mac OS.

Windows 3.x
TrueType. B
Windows 3.x ( PostScript)
[fonts] win.ini. B ,
,
. ,
;
\WINDOWS\SYSTEM (, \WINDOWS).
.
.FON 23,
TrueType - .TTF. TrueType

.FOT, Windows .
21

Windows 3.x Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups


3.11. Windows TrueType-.
22
Windows 95
, Windows 95 ,
3.x.
23
To , Windows, ,
Modern.fon.

- 107 -

win.ini ;
.TTF-, , .FOT.
.TTF ,
- - .
, Windows TrueType-
, (bitmap) .
TrueType . B Windows 3.x
Fonts ( ).
TrueType (bitmap-,
,
).

5.7 Windows
3.11
. (Programm manager)
. .
, 5.7.
B , - 108 -

24. TrueType .
()
, . , .
.
, ,
. , , ,
, .
, , .
( ),
... . Ha
(
5.8).

5.8 Windows 3.11


B
,
Windows .
, .

.FON, .TTF .FOT (
.FOT- .TTF,
24

, bitmap TrueType, PostScript.

- 109 -

).

, (
) . .
( Shift Ctrl - ).
Windows . ,
win.ini, 25.
. ( ) WINDOWS\SYSTEM, .
. (
Windows ). OK. .
- ,
, .
. (Programm manager) . .
,
5.7. , Shift Ctrl,
, , Remove. B
( 5.9) ,
win.ini,
.

25

, WINDOWS\SYSTEM win.ini , . , , . ( )
Windows.

- 110 -

5.9 Windows 3.11


He ,
WINDOWS,
, .
.
, .
, Windows ( ) - .
TrueType . B
Windows 3.x TrueType. ( 5.10)
TrueType (
TrueType , TrueType).

5.10 TrueType Windows 3.11


TrueType
( TrueType),
, , TrueType - , PostScript.
, c TrueType. ,
PostScript.
TrueType, - 111 -

.
PostScript-. 1, PostScript-, Windows 3.x , Adobe Type Manager
- ATM. B Windows 3.x ATM 2 3
( 4). Adobe Type Manager ,
Adobe Adobe PageMaker Adobe Photoshop. ATM
PostScript- Windows [boot]
system.ini 26. ATM
Main Windows. ,
. ,
C:\PSFONTS 27. PostScript-, Windows,
(.PFB) (.PFM-). B .PFB- , PostScript.
, () . . ATM .PFM C:\PSFONTS\PFM. PostScript-, ATM, atm.ini.
, win.ini
(substitution) TrueType PostScript-, ,

PostScript-.
Adobe Type Manager
, , -

-PostScript .
26

system.ini system.drv = atmsys.drv


Adobe - , ATM
. PostScript-, , PostScript-.
.
27

- 112 -

, ATM, , Adobe Type Manager. On/Off, (On) ATM.


ATM (Off),
PostScript- ,
.
, ATM On/Off.

ATM. ,
ATM ( ) . ,
,
bitmap , (. Cache - ). (
, ) ATM ,
. , . , ATM , .
,
-. ,
, . , , , .
256 16
16 , 64
,
- . -
,
.
B ATM
- Use Pre-built or Resident Fonts Print
ATM fonts as graphics. 28, ,
28

To ,
- .
, , , .

- 113 -

( ATM , ). ,
, . B Use Pre-built or Resident Fonts
ATM.
Print ATM fonts as graphics ( ATM
)
- ,
, , . ATM , (path)
.
-
Print ATM fonts as graphics , . ,
, (),
as graphics - .
PostScript-. ,
PostScript-, Add
ATM. ( PostScript, !). ,
, .PFB-,
. , .PFM-,
, - .AFM,
, .INF-, , .PFB .AFM . Bo
ATM .PFM .AFM, .AFM .INF ATM
.
Add
PostScript-.
29, .PFM ( .INF)
, . .PFB
, .PFM, . ,
29

, , .

- 114 -

Shift Ctrl, , . PostScript- .prn-


, , Autodownload
for PostScript driver . Add
Adobe Type Manager, ,PFM .AFM ( .AFM .INF),
.
ATM-
Install without copying files ( ).
ATM , , Windows, , PostScript . He , ATM .PFM .PFB - ATM. PostScript,
.
PostScript-. B
, ,
Remove. confirmation .
No confirmation to remove fonts,
. Delete fonts from disk,
atm.ini, . He , ,
, .

Windows 95
TrueType. Windows 95 Windows . win.ini system.ini
Windows ,
Windows 95, Registry.

, Registry. , Windows ( bitmap TrueType),
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\ Windows\ CurrentVersion\ Fonts]. (bitmap) , , [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\
- 115 -

Microsoft\ Windows\ CurrentVersion\ fontsize],


(96 120 30).
,
Registry - Fonts, (Control panel). Fonts
Explorer Windows 95, Windows
\WINDOWS\FONTS. B Windows 3.x, e
, . , ,
\WINDOWS\FONTS .
, Windows 3.x:
.FON - , .TTF - TrueType. .FOT Windows 95 . Windows 95, , - .
, TrueType - .
, Fonts, Windows 95 -
.
Fonts

-
. B 3.x, Windows 95 , , - 12 72 . TrueType,
, - ,
.
Windows 95 - Explorer 30

- ,
. Ha
( ) 25.4 72 . Ha
1/72 . , ,
, . B Windows 95 - 96 120 () .
(
) .

- 116 -

, Windows.
Fonts File Install new fonts (
), 5.8
. , Windows
\WINDOWS\FONTS - .
- (
File ).
( ,
), Registry.
-TrueType View\Parameters\TrueType.
Show only TrueType fons in applications (
TrueType), ,
, TrueType.
PostScript- Windows 95.
Windows 3.x, PostScript-
- Adobe Type Manager. B
Windows 95 ATM , Windows 95. , ATM Windows 3.x,
. ,
, :
ATM 4
, ;
PostScript, TrueType
;
,
, .
ATM , .
,
.
ATM 4.0 ATM , ATM
; ATM 4.0 ,
- 117 -

ATM , ,
ATM; ATM
atmcntrl.exe \WINDOWS.
ATM 4
5.11. (Sets).

5.11 ATM 4

; PostScript-
s; TrueType-
. ( )
;
;
.

(checkbox), , - .
; Activate Deactivate . , ,
. - 118 -

. ;
Adobe Type
Manager.

5.12 ATM 4
Sets ATM
: Font List ( ), Add Fonts ( ) Settings (). ( 5.12)
( -
).
, .

( 5.13). ,
ATM ( ), , ATM ( ).
,
.PFM .PFB, ,

. PostScript, ,
- 119 -

, .

5.13 ATM 4
B Sets Fonts List Remove, ATM. To .
, ;
,
, . Remove
(confirmation) - 5.14.

5.14 PostScript- ATM 4


checkboxes;
- 120 -

(Remove Fonts from All Sets and Master Font List), ,


, . ,
,
Remove. , Sets ( 5.11)
,
Remove, Remove Fonts
from all Sets and Master Font List
. .
() Remove fonts files from disk (
, -
, ) ATM,
. He
, ATM
ATM, ,
.
Properties ()
( ) ( 5.15), PostScript-

(Sets), .

PostScript-
, ; , (Autodownload for PostScript printer) , .

- 121 -

5.15 PostScript- ATM 4


PostScript- ATM 4
Add Fonts. ( 5.16)
( )
New Set ( ). ,
; ,
.
B
(Browse for fonts) ATM (Add from font sets
, Add from master fonts list ATM, ). , 3, .PFB PostScript- .PFM ( .AFM .INF)
. Add without copying files
ATM.
. (
) Add.

- 122 -

5.16 PostScript- ATM 4

5.17 ATM 4
ATM 4.0 ,

ATM. , ,
ATM : . ATM
PC .

( ),
.
, , ,
.
New Set, Add ( 5.17). B - 123 -

. Activate set
after creating
ATM .

5.18 ATM 4
, Settings ( 5.18),
ATM.
Adobe Type Manager ( On/Off) - , 3. , ATM ( ). MS PostScript driver
( ), 5.19. ,
PostScript-, Mark
as Autodownload for PostScript Printer.

- 124 -

5.19 PostScript- ATM 4

Macintosh
Mac OS. B
Macintosh, MacOS 7.1 - 7.5, - bitmap, TrueType PostScript. MacOS bitmap-
, 31. bitmap- (
)
bitmap TrueType , font
suitcase (
A). Font
suitcase ( Suitcase)
, ( ). Font
suitcase , ,
( ) suitcase.
suitcase ( ),
- suitcase.
font suitcase. suitcase, suitcase, . ,
suitcase .
bitmap TrueType .
(, suitcase, a ), bitmap
31

B Mac OS bitmap- ,
(, ) ;
.

- 125 -

, TrueType - ( TrueType
).
- ( ). , () - suitcase
by icon. Bitmap
, TrueType
. , - ResEdit. , bitmap NFNT, TrueType
sfnt.
PostScript .
(, , ) .
. Ha Macintosh :
System ( bitmap
TrueType);
SystemFolder:Fonts;
- . B
, .
SystemFolder:Fonts - Geneva, Chicago, Monaco , suitcase . B
, TrueType-. He
, OS.
Bitmap . SystemFolder:Fonts
, ,
System.

, , . , (
)
. ,
, .
- 126 -

:
System;
bitmap TrueType SystemFolder:Fonts;
bitmap TrueType Suitcase ATM.

suitcase ATM,
.
128 - .
, font
suitcase, SystemFolder:Fonts, , , suitcase c
( ).
PostScript . ,
system extension ATM (Adobe Type Manager). , , Adobe Illustrator Adobe Acrobat. ,
PostScript ,
bit font suitcase,
skre outline-.
ATM bitmap outline
, , , . :
bitmap font ;
, TrueType font;
, PostScript font;
, bitmap
font .
outline-.
TrueType PostScript
, ,
outline ,
. SystemFolder:Fonts , bitmap . outline
bitmap .
, (,
- 127 -

) (
, ):
SystemFolder:Fonts Suitcase ATM bitmap ;
bitmap outline ,
, , font suitcase
ParaType 95 PostScript-
ParaType 96;
TrueType PostScript ;

,
, outline . He
( Geneva,
Monaco, Chicago),
. B , Dialect, Geneva ,
TrueType , .
Mac OS. ,
, Mac OS
. ( )
( suitcase,
PostScript ) SystemFolder:Fonts. ,
, ( ) Trash 32.
, -,
, -, , .
( font suitcase,
) 128.
,
- . 128 , SystemFolder .
32

He Trash - Option.

.

- 128 -

ATM Macintosh.
Adobe Type Manager 33. B , ATM 4.0
, SystemFolder,
(Sets) ,
. PostScript,
, Mac OS.
ATM 4.0 , SystemFolder:ControlPanels
.
ATM ( 5.20).

5.20 ATM 4 Macintosh


- (Sets) (fonts).

, . ( )
. ,
33

, ATM PostScript suitcase . B , bitmap, PostScript- .

- 129 -

, ,
set. He , . , Finder,
;

.
font suitcase bitmap , .
PostScript-
, PostScript.
, Adobe Type Manager, - .
(known fonts)
(active fonts).
.
; ,
.

activate ATM ( , ). Deactivate. .
.
ATM, 34.
, Finder ATM
,
, .
,
.

. ( )

.
34

ATM ,
, . B , , .

- 130 -

, SystemFolder,
( ) ATM.
, , .
ATM.
.
(
- option).
.
ATM. ( ), . ,
.
ATM -
, Adobe Type Manager. , ,
; ,
. , , . ,
, ATM
.
ATM
- , ,
font suitcase ( )

(
open) suitcase
add, ( 5.21).
Cancel

Done.

- 131 -

5.21 ATM 4 Macintosh


Add all.
,
,
. ( ) Add all , . , ;

( ). ,
, ,
. B IBM,
,
( ). ,
, - ATM
, .
ATM
- ( 5.22)
.
(
PostScript- )
.
( ), suitcase ( ),
suitcase ( ) - 132 -

( ). , .

5.22 ATM 4 Macintosh


, , . B
.
(, , )
(, ).

. ATM
,
, . ,
(
- 133 -

5.1). - ,
( Times
Courier) o .

5.23
ATM 4.0 Macintosh
, , . B
IBM Remove Fonts from all Sets and
Master Font List. - Macintosh , ,
.
, ,
-
,
- , PostScript , ATM , . B (
known fonts, select all ),
.
, , , ,
- 134 -

active fonts , .
Symantec Suitcase.
Suitcase ( , font suitcase), Symantec. Suitcase,
, . Suitcase
PostScript- bitmap
. Suitcase
.
Suitcase 3.0 system extension,
SystemFolder:Extensions, , . Suitcase SystemFolder:AppleMenuItems Apple . Suitcase command + option + K, suitcase extension.
Suitcase SystemFolder:Fonts ,
. , ,
.
Suitcase
(set).
font suitcase, (PostScript- , font suitcase, ).
, , , . ( set -
, SystemFolder:Fonts ). New Set, - Remove Selected Items ( ). , , ,
.
, . ,
- ;
.
Font suitcase set , ,
, ( font suitcase
, suitcase). ()
- 135 -

Open . () Close. Suitcase .



. ( dragand-drop) ,
(alias) -. , alias .
Suitcase - Startup Set - .
, . ,
, alias StartupSet,
- , Suitcase .
font suitcase . suitcase,
, .
, suitcase , font suitcase : , , .
, .
Show Open Fonts, Show Suitcase
Fonts, Show System Fonts Show Temporary Fonts () , ,
Suitcase, , SystemFolder .
.
,

.
B ATM, Suitcase
PostScript- , .
Add... .
font suitcase.
- 136 -

Open immediately Suitcase Done.


B ATM 4.0, Suitcase , 35. , Suitcase , -
.


, .
,
(, ), : HelveticaC-Normal, HelveticaC-Bold, HelveticaC-Italic. - HelveticaC. Normal, Bold Italic ,
36.

(),
( bold italic Word, QuarkXPress
PageMaker), .
, : (plain
normal), (bold),
(oblique italic) (bold-italic).

. , Microsoft
Word, , QuarkXPress, , : (Font) (35

, ATM,
.
36
Ha Windows, (
fonts ATM) . Ha Macintosh, , bitmap font suitcase. suitcase
ATM Symantec Suitcase.

- 137 -

, ) - bold, italic, shadow, outline ,


. ,
, , .
Bo
37. Co
( )
. (
).
38. ,
, .
,
, . B - , Partner Thin, Light,
Normal, DemiBold, Bold, Italic, Black Condensed, a
.
, .

, 39. B 37

Ha Macintosh, , , , font suitcase, -


suitcase ,
. font suitcase, , HelveticaCyrillic, : HelveticaCyrillic, HelveticaCyrillicBold, HelveticaCyrillicItalic HelveticaCyrillicBoldItalic.
38

B Adobe Type Manager Windows


. Ho (HelveticaCyrillicBold),
. , Fonts -
.
39

IBM PC . Windows ( Fonts)


. B ATM Windows . B ATM , , . B ATM
. Mac OS -

- 138 -

( )
- plain, bold, italic bold-italic.

.

. , , QuarkXPress, (
) bold,
e .
(, )
, , . ,
, bold ( ,
.
bold-italic) - , . bold ( )
, , , , Parsek, .
,
bitmap-, ( )
.
, . bitmap-
- .
outline-
, , - , , , , x . font suitcase,
, PragmaticaC.
PragmaticaC, PragmaticaC (bold), PragmaticaC (italic) PragmaticaC (bold, italic).
, , - (style ID), .
suitcase
outline- ( - ).

- 139 -

(plain) . ,
, .
,

.
, . ,
bold () italic,
:
,
40;
, outline- 41.
,
bold italic (Bold
Italic), ( ,) - BoldItalic.
,
( I, B, ) (, HelveticaCyrillic HelveticaCyrillicItalic).
-
, , (, ,
, ) 42.
, plain- .
40

ATM 4.0, . Ha
PC , ,
( PostScript- ATM 3.x). Ha Macintosh
(
).
41
Macintosh - PC
ATM, .PFB-.
42

Macintosh ,
. - StyleMerger, Fontographer. - StyleMerger , font suitcase , bold, italic bold-italic
plain- . , ,
font suitcase, .

- 140 -


TrueType. plain ,
.
, ,
() - bold, italic
. .
, , shadow ( ), outline (), underline (), StrikeThru () -,
. ,
, - .
shadow ( outline) bold italic. ( )
shadow outline bold italic ( ).
condensed extended, ( , ) , ( ),
( ) . , PragmaticaCondC XeniaExtended.

- 141 -

, ,
, , .
()
, .
,
, : , , ..
, , ,
.
,
.
: ,
.
, .

, ,
. ,
TrueType, TrueType- (
6.1). ,
, TrueType- MS Windows
3.1 1 PostScript-.
,
,
. , .
. , TrueType Type 1 .
- 142 -

: Type 1 + ATM Windows TrueType- Windows


3.1. TrueType ATM NeXTStep OS/2 2.0
Type 1.

6.1
B
.


, ,
, . .
. B
:
1.
( , ,
, , ).
2. (
, ,
, ).
3. , . ,
,
- 143 -

.
4. ( 43, .).
. B
. , 44 , . B (, Type 1)
.
.
.
,
, .
. To , .
. B
, .
. B , .
. - . B . .
, .



, , .
.
, :
, -
().
.

43

- , .
44
- , .

- 144 -

a ,
, ,
, , , .
. , MS DOS 866 (. 2)
Microsoft ( ), Windows - 1026 ( Win ANSI-Russian),
Solaris 2.1 - ISO 8859-5. B ,
, .
B ,
. B , ( Type 1) ( TrueType).
B
, . B
Type 1 ,
TrueType - . B
, - .
,
.
, . ,
.
, . B . ,

. , Type 1
Adobe (, Standard Roman Character Set,
Expert Character Set Symbol Character Set). ,
, - .
B ,
, . To ,
- 145 -


, , . . . , TrueType Unicode.

Unicode
Unicode - ,
Unicode
. 16-
( 8-, , ASCII).
16 65536 ( 8- 256 ), ,
. Co
Unicode - ISO
10646.
,
256 , . Unicode

. 256 ASCII.
Unicode Windows NT. ,
TrueType-
Unicode.


,
.
, , , ( ).
,
- 146 -

( , - ).


, (, )
:
( ) . , 10 300 (12 ) , H 8
;
, ( , ).


B , , ,
. .
. (300
), (12
), . (
) ( , ).
.
,
(200; 100),
3 pa (66.666666;
33.333333). ,
(67; 33), (
) , - . , . Ha
6.2 H.
. , - 147 -

, , A, , M, , T, , , .
(,
)
.

6.2
. , . Ho
. , H
, - , . , (
).

6.3
-
(, , e, , , )
(, , , e, , , ). B - 148 -

, -
.
. B

. . ( 6.3)
,
.

6.4
. ,
, ,
. ,
( 6.4).
. ,
, . , , B, , 3, P, C, , .
, , , 6.5.
, ,
, . , , .
,
, . ( . hint - ),
Type 1 (
TrueType ) , - 149 -

, , .

6.5



: .
Adobe Type 1, - TrueType .


( 6.6).
To : :
.
, . , , ,
.
, (
) .
- 150 -

6.6
- . ,
, .



, . Ha

.
, , .
, , , ( 6.7).
, ,
,
.
B , .

, , , , ,
. ( TrueType- 151 -

) , .
,
.

6.7

Type 1
Type 1 :
():

. B Type 1 , .
, . B 4 .
, :
%!PS-AdobeFont-1.0: TimeRoman 001.1

- 152 -

%%CreationDate: Wed Oct 20 17:08:26 1993


%%Creator: FontLab(c) forWindowsv2.5

, :
FontName
FullName
FamilyName
Version
Notice
Weight
ItalicAngle
IsFixedPitch
UnderlinePosition
UnderlineThickness
PaintType
FontType
FontMatrix

FontBBox



: 0 - (); 1 - . Type 1
: 0 - Type 0 (); 1 - Type 1 ; 3 - Type 3
.
.
.
, .

Type 1 -:
/FontInfo 9 dict dup begin
/FullName (Times New Roman) readonly def
/FamilyName (Times) readonly def
/version (001.1) readonly def
/Weight (Normal) readonly def
/Notice ((c) Copyright Monotype, 1990) readonly def
/ItalicAngle 0 def
/isFixedPitch false def
/UnderlinePosition-100 def
/UnderlineThickness 50 def
end readonly def

- 153 -

/FontName /TimesNewRoman def


/PaintType 0 def
/FontType 1 def
/FontMatrix [ 0.001 0 0 0.001 0 0] readonly def
/FontBBox {-63 -231 1148 882} readonly def


. B Type 1 , .
, , , .
, , , . Adobe
, . StandardEncoding, ISOLatin1Encoding, Expert, ExpertSubset Symbol. B
,
(, ), .
: <>
<>. - 8- ( 0 255), -
, . B Type 1
.
Type 1
8- , 256 , Type 1 . B , 256- , , . (, ,
), .
- 24-
( 0 16777215).
. B

. 4000000 4999999
. (, )
Adobe.
- Type 1 ,
- 154 -

. , . ,
, 1990 ,
.
, Type 1 ,
. , .
B , , -
.
.
eexec , ,
, .
, , . .
BlueValues

OtherBlues

FamilyBlues

FamilyOtherBlues

( 7 ),
( , ).
( 5 ),
, .
, . BlueValues. B ,
, , .
To , FamilyBlues, .
- 155 -

BlueScale

BlueShift

BlueFuzz
StdHW StdVW

StemSnapH
StemSnapV
ForceBold

,
.
300 : BlueScale = (point
size - 0.49) / 240.
( ),
.
.
. B ,
, ,
.
( 12 ),
.


, ,
, ,
1
.

.
/BlueValues [-16 0 488 504 712 728 752 752] ND
/OtherBlues [-224 -221] ND
/BlueScale .039625 def
/BlueShift 7 def
/BlueFuzz 1 def
/StdHW [48] ND
/StdVW [104] ND


- 156 -

, PostScript.

. (
Multiple Master, ),
.
,
, ATM,
.
,
:
%.Copyright(c) 1987-1990 Adobe Systems Incorporated.
%.Al1 Rights Reserved.
%.This code to be used for Flex and hint replacement.
%.Version l.l
/OtherSubrs [
{}{}{}{
systemdict /internaldict known not
{ pop 3 }
{ 1183615869 systemdict /internaldict get exec
dup /startlock known
{ /startlock get exec }
{ dup /strtlck known
{ /strtlck get exec }
{ pop 3 }
ifelse }
ifelse }
ifelse} executeonly

. Type 1 , PostScript,
, (PostScript) ( Type 1)
. ( , )
.
:
dup 47 RD {
67 78 vstem 358 84 vstem 0 28 hstem 241 28 hstem 470 28 hstem
return } NP

- 157 -

:
dup 9 RD {
24 vlineto -8 hlineto -64 -24 33 55 hvcurveto
return } NP

- Type 1
, . , , (
), . B
.notdef space.
,
B:
/B RD { 21 675 hsbw
96 112 vstem 512 120 vstem 0 24 hstem 384 40 hstem
672 40 hstem 688 24 hstem 712 vmoveto 6 callsubr -489 vlineto
5 callsubr 360 hlineto
192 80 84111 hvcurveto 0 103 -84 50-7224 rrcurveto 29 4 callsubr
72 27 52 49 0 74 rrcurveto 130 127 60 -181 vhcurveto closepath
-84 -40 rmoveto 80 hlineto 132 68 -56 -97 hvcurveto
-86 -72 -49 -112 vhcurveto -96 hlineto closepath
-40 vmoveto 99 hlineto 30 4 callsubr 112 0 94 -48 -1 -107 rrcurveto
-83 -66 -66 -112vhcurveto -52 hlineto -34 0 -24 11 -16 13 rrcurveto
closepath
endchar } ND

Type 1
Type 1 , - Type
1. ( 20), ,
,
.
, ,
, .
, Type 1:
21 675 hsbw 0 712 rmoveto -24 vlineto 10 hlineto 69 27 -26 -61 hvcurveto

:
- 158 -

AO F9 37 OD F9 5C 04 73 07 95 06 C6A6 71 4E 1F.

:
2A 40 1E A8 39 56 8E 4D 33 80 FO 6B 33 90 A5 F9,

. B .
Type 1 .

rlineto, hlineto, vlineto, rmoveto, hmoveto, vmoveto, rrcurveto,
vhcurveto, hvcurveto, hsbw, sbw, seac, setcurrentpoint, closepath

hstem, vstem, hstem3, vstem3, dotsection

callsubr, callothersubr, endchar, return

div, pop
hsbw sbw,
. endchar. - return.
. Type 1
.
, (FontMatrix) ( 6.8).
1 .
6 : [a b d tx ty].
:
x' = ax + c + tx
y'=bx + dy + ty

Type 1 1000 (
1000
1 , 700 ),
d 0.001.
FontMatrix ( !) . , . - 159 -

, 1000 12 : [0.001 0 0.2 0.001 00].

6.8
b, tx ty Type 1
.
. ,
Type 1
( ) ( 6.9).

6.9 Type 1
, , , .
.
, (,
B ) (
rmoveto, hmoveto vmoveto).
closepath.
- 160 -

6.10 Type 1
B Type 1
: , , - (
6.10). : , .
(hsbw sbw) ( 6.11). B
( )
( ):
hsbw sbw ,
, (,
).

- 161 -

6.11 hsbw (sbw)

Type 1
B Type 1 .
( ).
. Ha
, , - , , , , ,
.
( 2-3%) . B
Type 1 ( ) 10-20 . B ,
Type 1 , ,
, 20 ,
. , ,
10 ,
1 , 10% .
, , Type 1, .
- 162 -

, .
. ,
( 6.12).

6.12 Type
1
, , BlueScale BlueShift,
.
(, ) , . ,
.
.

, Type 1
. B ,
, . ,
- .

.
.
,
-
. ( 6.13).

- 163 -

6.13 Type1
, ,
,
.

.
, . B
, ,
, , .
.
.
.
( 6.14),

.

- 164 -

6.14


, .
,
, , ,
.
. Type 1 . , ,

, Type 1 , Type 1 , ,
.

Type 1 AFM- (
AFM).
AFM- :
, ( ,
):
tartFontMetrics 2.0
FontName TimesNewRomanPSMT
FullName Times New Roman
FamilyName Times New Roman
FontBBox -78 -221 1033 899
Version MS core font: V1.00
Weight Regular

- 165 -

Notice Typeface The Monotype Corporation plc. Data The Monotype Corporation. 19901992. All Rights Reserved
ItalicAngle 0.00
IsFixedPitch false
UnderlinePosition -112
UnderlineThickness 50
EncodingScheme FontSpecific
CapHeight 899
Ascender710
Descender -221
XHeight 458

( , ):
StartCharMetrics 219
C 83 ; WX 570 ; N S ; B 64 -16 514 694 ;
C 84 ; WX 626 ; N T ; B 31 0 600 678 ;
C 85 ; WX 740 ; N U ; B 6 -16 728 678 ;
C 86 ; WX 740 ; N V ; B 9 -16 727 678 ;
C 87 ; WX 966 ; N W ; B 14 -16 958 678 ;
C 88 ; WX 740 ; N X ; B 8 0 728 678 ;
C 89 ; WX 740 ; N Y ; B 10 0 724 678 ;
C 90 ; WX 626 ; N Z ; B 13 0 597 678 ;
C 91 ; WX 341 ; N bracketleft ; B 84 -203 304 694 ;
C 92 ; WX 284 ; N backslash ; B 2 -14 286 711 ;
C 93 ; WX 341 ; N bracketright ; B 38 -204 258 694 ;
C 94 ; WX 480 ; N flex ; B 18 334 462 692 ;
C 95 ; WX 512 ; N underscore ; B -8 -221 521 -179 ;
C 96 ; WX 341 ; N grave ; B 59 522 224 695 ;
EndCharMetrics

:
StartKernData
StartKernPairs 113
...............................................
A V -132
KPX A W -82
KPX A Y -94
KPX A V -76
KPX A W -94
KPX A Y -94
KPX A quoteright -114
KPX F comma -82
KPX F period -82
EndKernPairs

:
- 166 -

StartTrackKern 4
TrackKern 0 0 0.00 102 -19.38
TrackKern 0 102 -19.38 200 -82.00
TrackKern -1 1 -0.11 132 -54.12
TrackKern -1 132-54.12 200 -126.00
EndTrackKern

Type 1 :
( PFB PFA) AFM-,
- .
B AFM- INF-,
:
FontName (TimesNewRomanPSMT)
FullName (Times New Roman)
AppleName (TimesNewRomanPSMT)
FamilyName (Times New Roman)
version (MS core font:V1.00)
isFixedPitch false
CharacterSet (custom)
Encoding (SpecificEncoding)
ItalicAngle 0
CapHeight 899
UnderlinePosition -112
UnderlineThickness 50
Serif true
Pi true
MSMenuName (Times New Roman)
VPMenuName (Times New Roman)
WORDMenuName (Times New Roman)
VPStyle (N)

, Adobe Type Manager : PFB, AFM INF ( PFM, ).

TrueType
TrueType Apple Microsoft (Mac System 7.x Windows 3.x). ,
Adobe - Type 1. C
, Type 1 , ,
, , .
- 167 -

B TrueType .
, TrueType- .
,
. , TrueType, .
TrueType- . ,
. TrueType- : PostScript- .
, TrueType-
Windows 3.1 Mac System 7.0 -
, - . ,
, - Type 1 , TrueType .
.
1. B ,
.
TrueType-
, , TrueType- .
Type 1 , . C ,
TrueType- ( Bitstream-Apple, WordPerfect 6.0 for DOS),
TrueType-, Type 1 , Display PostScript,
NeXTStep.
2. TrueType Type 1
:
- PostScript-,
- 168 -

Type 1 .
- , TrueType- . .
- , PostScript True Image ( Microsoft).
TrueType- . , - PostScript-, , .

,
.
TrueType-.
TrueType- Type 1, .
TrueType- ,
.

6.15 TrueType-
TrueType- - 169 -

- - (
6.15). B ; (on-curve) ,
(off-curve) - :
, , Type 1 ,
,
( 6.16).
, ,
(, S).

6.16 TrueType-

TrueType-
TrueType-
, , Type 1 . , . 16384.
-16384 +16383.
2048 ( -2048 +2047).
, , 60 . . B - 170 -

, 6.17.

6.17
TrueType-
B ,
,
:
2, , 2048, 4096 8192.


, TrueType .
Type 1, ,
, TrueType-,
,
.
1.

- 171 -

6.18 TrueType-
Ha :

Size bitmap = Size contour * Pt.Size *

Re s device
72 * Re s contour

, 1400 , , 2048 ,
10 300
, :

1400 * 10 *

300
= 28.48
72 * 2048

, , . B TrueType- , , .
2.
,
,
( 6.19).

- 172 -

6.19 TrueType-
3.
Ha . ,
,
: ,
.

TrueType-
B TrueType-
. , - TrueType.

,
. B
TrueType
( ). , .
, .
: (,
,
, ) , .
, .
.
.

. , :
- 173 -

1. , .
2. ()
.
, .

Microsoft,
. ,
.
, :
;
;
.
. .
- ,
( ) . , 32
32- TrueType- (Windows NT) 16
16- (Windows 3.1).
.
( !) . , .
:
;
;
;
;
;
.

, . (,
) .
, - 174 -

,
, CVT. CVT , . CVT , :
- , . CVT.
, , CVT.

, (storage area). C
.
- (graphic state). , , ,
. .
CVT-.

, TrueType, , , . ,
(on-line offline), 6.20.
, , ,
.
: 1 (Z1), ,
0 (Z0), . .
, ,
( 6.21).


.
, . , .
- 175 -

6.20 , TrueType

6.21 ,
TrueType-
B ,
1 0. - 176 -


.


, : projection_vector freedom_vector ( 6.22):

6.22
TrueType-
.
: ,
. ,
.
:

6.23

:
- 177 -

6.24
, ,
:

6.25
.
, - .
, .
B , , .
, , .

, TrueType-
: . , .
, . , , (
) .
,
, , , C - 178 -

B.


, TrueType-,
. ,
.
(Offset Table). B , TrueType-;
,
.
, , ,
, .
B
.
TrueType -:


cmap
,

glyf
( )
head

hhea

hmtx
( )
loca

maxp

name

post
, PostScript- ( ,
PostScript- PostScript-
)
OS/2
,
OS/2 Windows

cvt
(CVT)
fpgm
( )
hdmx
,

- 179 -

kern
LTSH
prep
WIN
VDMX
FOCA
PCLT


, ,


CVT (
)

,

, ,
, PCL 5
(HP LaserJet III)


, . ,
TrueType-,
, ,
TrueType-
, .
TrueType, , TrueType-.


Type 1 TrueType
,
. ,
, (Adobe, Agfa, Bitstream,
URW) (Apple, Hewlett
Packard, Microsoft, Sun):

Adobe

Type 0, Type 1

Agfa

Intellifont

Apple
Bitstream

TrueType
Fontware, Speedo
- 180 -


PostScript-
Intellifont for
Windows ( ATM)

Hewlett
Packard

PCL Scalable

Microsoft
Sun

TrueType
F3

URW

Ikarus

(Speedo) (Fontware)
PCL 5.
Agfa
Intellifont

OpenWindows
( Solaris)

Intellifont. Agfa
Compugraphic
Ha Agfa Type 1,
TrueType LaserJet
( SFS). , Hewlett Packard LaserJet
Agfa , , , Intellifont.

Intellifont for Windows.
HP
LaserJet III, , , , Intellifont LaserJet .
IKARUS. IKARUS,
URW, . B , .
VAX
Macintosh ( IKARUS/M).
IKARUS (
IK) :
, 6.26.
, -
/ - .
( ) .
- 181 -


. ,
,
.

6.26 ,
IKARUS

, ,
, , , .
, .
B IK - . ,
-
, .
Bitstream. K ,
, Bitstream
. ,
, - , Speedo Fontware .
, Speedo ( , Type 1 ),
Fontware - (, ).
- 182 -

Speedo ,
, , ,
, Adobe Type Manager (, FaceLift
Bitstream). , Windows DOS.
Fontware
. , , , .
C , TrueType, Speedo Fontware , Bitstream TrueType-. , DOS Fontware
(Quattro Pro for DOS) Speedo (WordPerfect 6.0 for DOS),

.

- 183 -


, .
:
. , ,
, , , , .
, . ,
.
( )
. B
, , . B , : , ,
, ,
, .
.

- , (, ).
-
. 2-3 ,
- Hewlett-Packard. TIF,
.
- ,
,
.
B
: ZSoft Publishers Type Foundry, SCFE SoftCraft FontGen V , . ,
.
- 184 -



Macintosh,
. 1991
PC-
, PC .
PC
ZSoft Publishers Type Foundry ( - PTF). ,
.
Windows 2.0. Type 3,
PostScript- ( ATM), ,
, , . . - PC Paintbrush 4.0 CorelDraw 2.0.
1.0, . Comtek91 1991 , .
,
,
,
Type 1 . Type 1 . .
MS DOS.
1992 FontLab 2.0. B , FontLab 2.0 MS Windows. FontLab Type 1
. ,
,
, .
Type 1 b
, , .
,
- 185 -

, , , - FontLab 2.0.


FontLab.
FontLab 2.0 Lite.
Fontographer 3.5 for Windows, Altsys - .

7.1 Fontographer
Macintosh, , , Mac-,
Windows. B , Fontographer 3.5 ,
Type 1 TrueType.
FontLab 2.0, Fontographer , .
, Fontographer
TrueType-, Type 1 .
1993 ,
FontLab - FontLab 2.5.
, .
- 186 -

FontLab
FontLab 2.5
- 2.0, . C , ,
,
Fontographer 3.5
.
FontLab 2.5 TrueType Type
1,
.
,
Type 1 - .
FontLab EPS-, ScanFont - TIF-.

FindFont. C ,
24 .
, . B FontLab
,
.
,
.
FontLab .
FontLab 24 , ,
10-20 .
FontLab, ,
.


New File, 7.2.

- 187 -

7.2 File FontLab



, ( 7.3),
:

7.3 - FontLab

- 188 -

. (
) , 7.4:

7.4 FontLab
FontLab . . B
. ,
, .

, New, ,
, 7.5:

7.5 FontLab
B Edit c . - , - 189 -

, .
Show,
,
, .
, . ,
,
.
,
Ctrl - .
B , ,
.
, .
,
( Shift ), , Ctrl .
B ,
, .
, , - .
.
Tools

Options

Table

Monitor

.
,
.

.
, ,
- .
,


,
.
B
. ,
, .
- 190 -

Palette

.

FontLab 20 ,
.
- , ,
, , .

,
,
, , .

, (
).

7.6
: ,
- 191 -

( , ),
, .
( 7.6), ,
, .
, .
(, )
. , .
,
, ,
. , ,
.
.

B FontLab
, Type 1, , . , (. 7.7).

7.7
FontLab
, , . - 192 -

, FontLab . ,
, ,
.
,
.
, FontLab :
( ), . ,
, .
:
Palette
;
;
Contour,
(Tools).
Contour
( Alt , ,
,
.
(, ), FontLab .
Overlap... Transform ,
, , 7.8.

7.8 FontLab
, . .
- Edit,
, - 193 -

, , ,
, ( ) .

, Ctrl.

: Select Erase. , , , ,
, .

.
Arc Curve
. Curve
( 7.9),

.
Arc, , .
Set,
,
.

7.9 Curve
FontLab
- Move,

(, ).
Meter. Set, . ( ) . , Meter
.
- 194 -



, FontLab, , FontAudit. FontAudit
20
.
,
, , ,
,
( 7.10). FontAudit :

( Optimize Transform/More FontAudit).

7.10 FontAudit FontLab



B FontLab Type 1. . To
Type 1 ,
. , Type 1 ,
FontLab Type 1
. TrueType- .
- 195 -

Type 1 :
( ,
) ,
.
FontLab
, .
,
, ( )
, Advanced Hinting. B , (Flex) ( -
). B
: Edit
Meter.

B ( 7.11), :

7.11
, ,
, .

7.12
FontLab
FontLab - 196 -

( 7.12).

, , . , 7.14.

7.13 FontLab
B
, , , , .
, ,
.

, . ,
, , , Table.
, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16.

7.14 ,
,

- 197 -

AAA
7.15 , :
Bold Outline (
)

7.16
Transform,
- Table.


: . B (,
), .

7.17
B , Type 1 TrueType.
( Font Info...
- 198 -

File). 7.17.

, .

IBM Classification PANOSE. B FontLab ,
, .
, ,
. 700 ,
.

FontLab
: , .
( 7.18), ,
( Set Sidebearings...
Expert).

7.18
B
, ( , ). ,
, , .
,
- 199 -

7.19. ( Set Kerning... Expert).

7.19
. B ,
( ), ,
. B
Autokern String ( Autokern Font - ).
(, AFM-
Type 1 ) , ( Set Tracking... Expert).

7.20 FontLab
B
. 16 ,
- 200 -

16 .
, (, ),
( Preview File),
7.20.
B ,
.

FontLab . , -, , -, , , Type
1 TrueType.
B , , Export File,
,
OK. FontLab
, , ,
.

,
. Import File, ,
(TrueType Type 1), . , FontLab

.
,
,
, .
FontLab
ScanFont, ,
,
,
.

- 201 -

:
;
;
;
.

FontMinder, FontMonster FindFont (
FontLab). Type 1 TrueType
.
FontMonster, ,
, (Windows Control
Panel TrueType- ATM Control Panel - Type 1 ), , .
FindFont (, Type 1 TrueType) ,
FontLab, , .

,

, , ,
.
, ,
FontMonster, .

:
,

;
, ;
, ,
.
- 202 -

(FontLab FindFont, Altsys Metarmophosis


Ares FontMonger) ,
( ,
, ) . ,
, .
( - Altsys
Fontomatic)
TrueType Type 1 , ( , )
( Fontomatic - TrueType).
(Bitstream MakeUp, Adobe TypeAlign
Pixar Typestry)
, EPS TIF.
, , , . Adobe TypeAlign
, Bitstream MakeUp , a
Pixar Typestry - , , .

,
(,
-) . , -, , -,
, , .
,
, , , , . B
FontMonger Ares
FontLab 2.0 Lite .
FontLab 2.0 Lite -
, , FontMonger - , , .
- 203 -

TrueType Type 1 , , Macintosh, , .


, Macintosh

.
FontMonger ,
. , , ,
.
FontMonger . ,
(, ).
,
( ),
, .
B , Ares FontMonger
, ,
, -
, . , , ,
. , , , , , FontMonger.

- 204 -

a
,
.


( )
. He .

, .
, - , PostScript , !
, . Ho, -, 1995
, - PostScript
(, ), .
-, (,
, )
- (, ). ( ),
.




- 205 -

, . ( )
( )
, ,
, - . He ,
bold italic , .
,
( bold + shadow) , .
He bitmap-
TrueType, Windows.


He Windows ( PC) SystemFolder ( Macintosh) 45.
, ( Macintosh
). ATM 4.0,
(
) Fonts.
,
- , - . .
( 2-3 , 3-4
) .
Macintosh Windows 95
ATM 4.0 Symantec Suitcase, (sets). ,

-
. He
, ATM PC
- (
) , ,
45

Macintosh SystemFolder:Fonts , ( ).

- 206 -

,
ATM. . ATM Macintosh
, .
Windows 3.x ,
.
, , .

He

: , . Ha Macintosh font suitcase .
, .
, font suitcase. - . .



( , ) .
.
,
.
,
,
. -
. , , , ( ) , .
.

- 207 -


He
,
.
,
,
. He ,
.
46. Suitcase Macintosh
. ATM 4.0 ( PC ) , ATM. Windows 3.x ,
ATM Fonts.

.
, , -
, .


, , . B , Windows, - ,
Windows. ,
,
46

- , . Mac ( SystemFolder:Fonts), Windows . ATM 4.0 - PostScript, TrueType. ( \WINDOWS\FONTS) (,


). B Windows 3.x PostScript-, TrueType - ,
.
( ) .

- 208 -

.
,
(
). ,
, .
- ,
, 47.
.

-
, . : , ,
. ,

1-2
. PragmaticaC PragmaticaCTT - (,
, ). FuturaCyrill FuturaCyrillic -
( -, ). Ho... PragmaticaC PragmaticaC
. He
( ), ,
- .
(, ?).
? , , (
), .
- , . ()

( - ), .
47

, ,
,
.

- 209 -

- ,
, , .

, () .
, ?
, . .
, , ,
, -
, .

,
. , .
?
-
(, -
).
-

, .



, . B ,
( )
- -. ,
.
- 210 -

:
() ,
( - ,
1/72 0.3578 ) ... ;
() ;
- , (
), , (outline), (shadow);
;
( ) ,

( , );
, ,
;
(
, , ( ), ,
, ,
, );
,
, .
:
( ),
;
;
.
, -
, , , , .

, ,
- 211 -

.
, (
), ,
, ,
, - ,
. (, , ).


, ,
, .
, , , .


. , , , - Macintosh IBM PC ?
, , . -
, ,
- , ,
. ( ) - . Macintosh
, (
)
. PC
( ) .

.
( ), .
: Macintosh . ,
. Ho
? -, ,
l, ,
( , ).
- 212 -

Mac c brand name (Compaq, Acer HP),


. ? . IBM PC , Macintosh - SCSI ,

10 CD- .
: Macintosh.
( ), . Macintosh Performa
IBM . A
( ).
: Macintosh . , () . B , ( -, ,
).
: Macintosh -
. Macintosh
, DOS.
. A Windows 95 , IBM PC,
, Macintosh
.
: Macintosh , a
IBM - . , Windows
,
- Macintosh.
, -
, , .
Macintosh ,
- , IBM. Ho, ,
.
IBM ,
- 213 -

(
, ). Macintosh.
. , . B , ,
. B
IBM PC, Macintosh.
.
, . , , .
,
. ,
.
:
IBM PC: Pentium 75-120 ,
16 , IDE 800-1000, 15-17,
IDE CD- ( , -). , Ethernet (10BaseT 10Base2), (, 3C509
NE2000);
Macintosh: Performa Power
PC 601-603 75 , ( 14- 15- ,
SCSI 500-1000 CD-ROM) 16-32 .
.
,
, ,
.
- 214 -

, ,
. - . A4,
. , 600 dpi,
, . ,
.


.
.
- . B
,
, , . : -4 (, ), 100
4,5 , ( ) 9 . - 50 200
. ,
1000-1500 .
32
20 ( , 17).
. B 100-800 , , Iomega Zip
100 ( ) 48.
, Zip, . Zip , ,
.
48

, .

- 215 -

, ,
. 600 dpi, (
) 1200 . , , , .
. B - , , , . .
, - ( A4 36 ).
16-20
500-1000 . , 2 .
- 64 ,
1-150 49. 17
- , , .
, ,
, . , ,
, SCSI.
IBM - SCSI ( Adaptec - AHA 1540 AHA 2940).
B
( , , ), SyQuest ( , ; , , IBM, Macintosh), Iomega Jazz ( Zip,
1 ) ( ,
, 2,6 ).
- ,

Ethernet.
49

Macintosh Performa - Power


Macintosh 7600 7300

- 216 -


, . ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . Macintosh - MacOS, . IBM
PC DOS, Windows 3.1, Windows 3.11, Windows
95 Windows NT.
, DOS,
, 4-5 ,
,
PostScript-.
Windows NT , 10-15
, Windows. ,
Windows NT
PostScript,
.
Windows 3.1 3.11 . , , , . , Word 6.0,
QuarkXPress 3.32 PageMaker 6.0,
Windows 3.x. Windows 95,
IBM- .
, , -
.
, ,
- . , , Macromedia FreeHand, Adobe Illustrator CorelDraw 50, 50

CorelDraw ,
IBM. K , -

- 217 -

- , (
,
), .
,
TEX, .
-
.
,
, , , .

: Word, QuarkXPress PageMaker.
Word for Windows Word for Macintosh. ,
Word - ( ), , .
,
.
Word , , ,
. Word , ,
( ), ,
. Word
, .

, , ,
. Word
,
.
.
, Word . ;
, - ,
(
).

- 218 -

; ( , ).
Word , . Word - , . , Word , ,
, 7.0 .
QuarkXPress. QuarkXPress
Macintosh,
IBM- .
Quark
,
,
,
.
QuarkXPress ,
, , .
,
, .
.
QuarkXPress
, , . . ,
, Quark , .
Quark .
, ,
Unispell Maximum.
,
, Quark . QuarkXPress - 219 -

- ,
, . . Quark
, .
Adobe PageMaker. PageMaker,
Aldus, QuarkXPress. Quark
PageMaker (,
) .
, PageMaker IBM.
QuarkXPress PageMaker ,
51. , Quark.
PageMaker
(
). PageMaker 6.0-6.5
32 . PageMaker
, .
PageMaker - . , Microsoft Word, ,
, . PageMaker .

PageMaker
. ,
PageMaker Adobe,
, QuarkXPress . Quark ,
Adobe .

51

,
, , , .

- 220 -



, .

- ,
.
, -
, . ,
-
. , , , PostScript.

600 - .

(, ).
(, Folex). K
, - .

200C. - . - ( folex,
, ) - .
() 52 , ,
. . 52

,
. 0 , 3 - 0,1% .

- 221 -


3.6-3.8D. , 2.5D .
(, -
) .

600 ,
1200
dpi. 100
-
.

, . B
.

, , , , .

-
.
? Hy, , ( , ,
-
,
). -,
,
. - ,
, , , .

Windows MacOS 53.
, . ,
- 53

Windows printers Add printer ,


( Windows,
). Mac OS SystemFolder:Extensions .

- 222 -

printers Add ()
Install unlisted... (Install from disk Windows 95).
-,
-
, .
,
, a Windows MacOS . B
( Epson
FX Epson LQ, - HP LaserJet II Postscript).
- Internet - , Microsoft, a PostScript- -
www.adobe.com, . K PostScript- .PPD (PostScript printer description)
.PDF (printer description file) .
QuarkXPress PageMaker , . B Adobe Postscript
Printer 54, Apple LaserWriter 55.
,
, .
-
( ). He ,

, . , ,
56.
, ( , )
. He -
,
54

Adobe Postscript Default Windows .PPD-,


- , .
55
LaserWriter 8.4.0 ( Mac OS) Chooser
Create Setup, .PPD .
56
He , , , 720 dpi
, 360 dpi.

- 223 -

,
.
PostScript- ,
- , PostScript-, . B
, .


C , PostScript-,
( 2400 dpi, 5000 dpi)
. , . ( ) ,
,
- .
. ? ,
(, , laser dot -
) , , bitmap- .
.
1000-1200 ( 50
) 5000 (200 ).
( )
. , 20 (1/50 ) , 1-2 ( ), 1200
.
.
(
) . , ,
( 0.1-0.2 ,
). , , .
( ) ,
- 224 -

- .
, - - dot area. - , , .
-
, ( 8.1).

8.1 7*7
,
.
, (, ). ,
-
() . dot area
,
, 49 (7x7 = 49).
, 50 ( ) ,
7x7 50 . - 225 -

, - 256
. (L) (R) - R/L i 16 (, , ).
, 150 2400 .
,
.
. - , () .

150, 175 lpi (line per inch - ). , 175-200 lpi,

133 lpi. 100-120 lpi.

, ,
.
, ,
, .
, .
,
. , .
- ,
- , - . .

( Dainippon SCREEN
Geometric Dot Scitex). C ,
( )
. C ,
, .
- 226 -


,
.
,
.
: 105
, 90 , 45 75 . B

- Dainippon SCREEN, Scitex, Linotype-Hell , . - ,
, .
-
.
,
,
3.8 - 4.2 D. 3.6
, 4.5

() .

( ) .
( SCREEN)

. .
B
,
.
( , - ), , .

- 50% 48% 52% ( -
, ).
- 227 -

, ,
. .

, . ,
- , (
) .
-
25 4- ,
.
,
70
, ,
.

- 57 . , ,
- 70-100 .
(
) , -
.
, .
ECRM NewGen,
Agfa (AccuSet) Linotype-Hell (Linotronic), Dainippon
Screen. (Screen Agfa) 25
3000 dpi,
2000-2400 dpi 70 ( 40)
.

, (
57

- , , ,
, .

- 228 -

).
Agfa (SelectSet), Scitex Dolev,
Linotype b Crossfield. Ha
25 , 5000 dpi . B
(Screen, Crossfield, Linotype-Hell)
. B

4000-5000
dpi.
.
, , , . PostScript- , , ( ). B
, QuarkXPress collect for output, PageMaker .
, . PictureUsage ( QuarkXPress) LinkInfo ( PageMaker) ,
, .
Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia FreeHand CorelDraw,
. ,

.

.
, ,

( ).
QuarkXPress
Fonts Usage. B PageMaker ,
, ( ) - PageMaker . Word
\ \ \ . B
Word (
- 229 -

TrueType) - \ \ TrueType.
, , PostScript (suitcase PostScript
Macintosh, .PFM .PFB Windows).
, (, . .). :
- , , .
He ,
,
, , .
- , . ,
-
( ) -
.
, . - ,
:
, , (,
), .
- , , .
- . ,
.
- ,
. , , , , 640 , 230. ,
- (
), .
, - 230 -

, (, , - ), .
, , , ( ).
.
, - PostScript, , .
- 58. A , , . ,
, : PostScript-, ,
.
.
PostScript-
x. - (
), . - ,
PostScript ( ), . Bo

.
, - . -,
PostScript- ,
. -,
, . ,
Taiga Space PostScript-,
. Bo PostScript , .
- PostScript- , 58

B Mac OS Destination:File Print. B Windows


3 x Printers, Connect FILE. B Windows 95
Printers, Properties ()
port FILE.

- 231 -

- PDF-
QuarkXPress PPD- PageMaker FreeHand. , ,
,
PostScript-. IBM, , , Windows . Macintosh
- PostScript- LaserWriter.
, LaserWriter
( , LaserWriter, LaserWriter 8 ).

PostScript-, separation . ,
PostScript (separation off) ,
PostScript (separation on). B .
, .
RIP.
B
,
,
, . . (plates) .

. PostScript ,
, , RIP (, . .) . He RIP PostScript-, , PostScript
.

, , overprint knockout. ,
overprint ,
RIP ,
PostScript- . ,
, RIP. K ,
Adobe Illustrator FreeHand,
- 232 -

- , , .
, ()
( , ), PostScript.
, . ,
,
.
. He

.
, , , QuarkXPress PageMaker
,
. .PDF .PPD
. ,
- 2400 dpi, - 2540.
,
.

- ,
, .
PostScript-,
Adobe Acrobat Distiller 59, . , PostScript,
.
.
, , ,
.
Windows. B
Windows
(, , PostScript-
PostScript printer Apple LaserWriter)
.PPD Adobe Postscript
59

PostScript- PDF (
.PDF Quark), Acrobat Reader.

- 233 -

, , , www.adobe.com.
,
.PPD .PDF Windows. B
- ,
.
, .
,
( Windows 5-6 )
, .
,
. -, PostScript- , . B
-
. ,
,
- .

.
() , . (bold italic) . PostScript
, , .


,
, . , , -. B
-
.

.
- 234 -

,
,
(, ) .
. : .
(, ) . He ,
.
.
, ,
.
, - , ,
.
. :
( - )
.
Word
, (. \ \ \ .) To ,
. , .
-
, , . .
. : / .
, , , . .

, , .

.
.
- .
.
- 235 -

. :
.
Ha , , , . B
.
-
, . .
. :
.
Ha bitmap-,
.
.
Macintosh: , PostScript ( suitcase ).
.
: , .
outline-.

,
B ,
.
. :

( , , . .)
, .
.

.
:
<<%%Postscript error : Offending command ...,
( Macintosh) RIP . :
;
( ).
/ ;
(
- 236 -

invalid font). - . ;
, . , , (,
).
.
: -
.
.
, PostScript-, . B
() HelveticaCyrillic-Bold PostScript-font HelveticaCyrillic_Bold (
PostScript-). , ,
( Times
Courier). RIP
.
B ,
outline-font ( Macintosh ). Ha IBM ,
(Autodownload for
PostScript printer) .
(bold, italic), (
).
, - , ,
PostScript- suitcase ( .PFM)
. Fontographer', bitmap- (
) ,
.

( ) .
, . Use pre-built or resident
fonts ATM . ,
Fontographer .
- 237 -

Ha PC
Postscript TrueType
PostScript . TrueType-,
, Use substitution table
( )
Download TrueType as Type 1 ( TrueType , 1, PostScript-) . B
, .
TrueType-. Windows.
: , TrueType (
font... not found).
B TrueType . .
: TrueType
( ).
B
TrueType (Use substitution table).
TrueType Type 1.
PostScript. : PostScript-
( font... not found).
B
( PC)
Autodownload for PostScript printer.
. :
, ,
(plain), .
,
- bold italic ,
(
).
( , ),
(, HelveticaCyrillic
bold HelveticaCyrillicBold). ,
, .
( ),
Fontographer - 238 -

.
Macintosh: , , bitmap- ,
PostScript -. .
bitmap-. :
, ( Macintosh).
QuarkXPress PostScript
. QuarkXPress ,
outline- (bitmap) , . K - . B , PostScript , ATM,
bitmap-; Fontographer'a.
Windows, ,
.
. :
.
B . , Fontographer'e. ,
(
, ).
. :
,
.
, , PostScript- bitmap ( ).
Fontographer' .
,
. ,
, - ,
.

- 239 -


, : , .
, , ,
. , ,
. :
, . ( ) ,
, , . , ( - ).
( - , )
,
. : .
,
.
, , - , .
,
.
C
, . B , .
, ,
, . , , , , ,
. , . B , - 240 -

, , . , .


,
.

,
,
/ .
:

;
, ;
;

-
( , ).
C , , , .
. B Type 1 .
B ,
Type 1 .
H - ,
, , -
PostScript- Windows. B ,
,
. ,
Type 1 . TrueType- MS Windows,
, , Mac System 7.x WordPerfect 6.0 for DOS.
- 241 -


, ( ,
) . C ?

.


B , . , , ,
- , ,
, ( ).
, . C
, 1-3 ,
.


. -
( - )
( - 20 , 1000). B
, ,
. , ,
- . , . , . TrueType,
, .

- 242 -


. (, )
( CD-ROM
), ( 1000, - ).
, .
, -
.
. ,
,
,
.
:
. ,
, , . ,
,
- .
. ,
- . B ,
, , , .
, . , , .


,
. ,
, ,

.

- 243 -


,
. ,
, ,
.
.
( - FontLab,
),
- ,
CorelDraw. ,

, 900 .
CorelDraw,
( ,
a, g, , , K ), .
, ,
.

, . B FontLab 2.5 FontAudit ( FontAudit Advanced), .
B Fontographer 3.5
,
, . , .
,
, .
, ,
.



. , . 9.1,
, ,
- 244 -

9.1
. Type 1 ,

. B
( 9.2)
, .

9.2

.
( 20) (1-3 ) , , 9.3. B
.
- 245 -

9.3

.
. (
)
.
Ha 9.4 .

9.4 ,


. ,
.

. B , ,
, (, 1 500 ), . ,
( 9.5).

- 246 -

9.5
.
: , , . : ,
.



,
- .
- ,
,
.
TrueType-
( 2-3 TrueType), Type 1
.
Type 1 .
. TrueType- Windows Control
Panel, Type 1 .
- 247 -


TrueType-, , :
Fontographer 3.5, FontLab 2.5, , FontMonger,
AllType. ,
.


,
. ,
MS Windows, 1251 Microsoft. ,
, ( ), , , (
- !),
.
. B ,
, , .
,
. ,
, .


. , ,
.
,
, .
, .

- 248 -


, . B ,
, ,
.
Type 1 . Type 1

(, ATM), , , . Bo Adobe .
, ,
, .
, Adobe UniqueID Coordinator ( Adobe
).
. B .
, : PostScript , , (family name), ,
Windows ( TrueType ).
, , - ,
, .
. ,
, , .

. ,

.


,
.

, .
- 249 -

,
,
. , ,
. ,

. . TrueType- Fontographer, Type 1 FontLab 2.0 2.5 ( ,
Fontographer Type 1 , ,
FontLab, , ).


, ( , )
, .
.

. , .
:
, , .
(, FontLab 2.5)
( 1000 ), .
, (-
- ,
). , ,
, ,
.
,

, . - 250 -

, , ,
, . , .
B , ,
. -
, ,
( ),
.



, .
, ,
80- - 90- , - .
, 1990 .
.
- ,
1989 .
.

, 50 . B , .

ParaType -
.

,
.
, ,
(
), Type 1 TrueType
- 251 -

.
ParaType
. -
CCCP (, , , , .).
, Adobe ITC. C ITC (
- . 2)
, ITC. , ,
.
, ,
.
. Mac-
Type 1 TrueType.
.
,
,
, ,
, .
1990 , - ,
- , . , , -
Type 1.
1991 ,
. FontLab 2.0 MS
Windows, a - FontLab 2.5 -
1994 .

, - 252 -

100 , .
SU FontPack,
SU FontPack Lite. SU FontPack
250 . , , ,
- . .

FontLab,
.
. , , :
" ", TypeMarket, SPSL, Tilde Az-Zet. He
, , . ,

.
B : ,
.

- 253 -

10




, - .
M.


, 90%. B 90- 98%, ,
Business Software Alliance (BSA), , 94%. , .

, , , ( ), (, . .),
. , .
500
,
,
(. 1). . - . B
, 2143 .

(,
, ) ,

. ,

-.
- 254 -

B
.
B
,
.
. B
, .
.
( Visual Graphics Corp.).

. B
- - International Typeface Corp. (ITC).
- ,
, , .
I

(17.07.1812).
,
,
, . .
.
. Ha - , :
, , .
, ( )
. (.- - ), . ( .-
), .. (.- - ), (.-)

( 10.1).
. .
1955 . CM CCCP , - 255 -

,
. ,
, .

10.1 "
.." . "
" " "

, , , .
, ,
, -
, . . ().

, .
B , , (, , ), .
, , , ( , , , - 256 -

), .
,
, , ,
. .
B 60- , CCCP, ,
.
70-
. , ,
.
, ,
. .
, , .
23 1993

, ,
. ,
, , . . .
B , .
.
K

, . ,
, .
, . , - 257 -

, .
,
. , .
, , .
He ,
, , ,
.

.
.

.
B ,
.
, , , . .
.
,
,
. B , .
B
, . , ,
,
.
K
.
- ,
.
- 258 -

C
, , ,
,
.

, , .
.
, , .
, , ( ) ,
.
, , (. 3). () , , (), ,
.
, , , . , , , ,
.

.
, .

- 259 -


,
.

, ,
: " " .
,
,
( ) . , , .
, .

, . . .
.
, (). ,
. :
()
;
,
;
, .
(. 4, 5)
, ( - ).
- 260 -

/ 51/ - ( ) - , - 18-3.
/ 71/, , ,
.
() /
72,97/.
, , ,
, .
B / 54/ . B , ,
.
-
.
B
, (.
5).
B " ", . , .
( "
" , , , , , >, . . ,
. " " , . .
.)

.
.
.
-
.
, .
- 261 -

. ,
,
. ,
. B
,
.

,
, , , . .
, , ,
, , .

,
,
(, - ..).
B ,
,
,

.

:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
Ha
- 262 -

.
,
, ,
6 - .
, , , , .. , .

. . . .
(registration),
( )
. B , , .
,
. - , , .
,
.
- . B ( , ).
, ,
- , ,
, , . Ha , ,
.

, .
, , ,

- 263 -

.
,
.

- 264 -


. ,
. , (, Helvetica) (
Linotype-Hell). ,
, Helios Swiss 721 (
Agfa Bitstream), . .

: ,
, (
).
-
.
- ,
-. ,

. : , , ,
,
.
Morgan S. Brilliant; Jon Pastor; Frank F. Smith; Equivalent Font Names; Allan Haley; ABC's of Type;
Typeface Listing; N. Y., 1990'; a ATree,
DoubleAlex, Intermicro, SoftUnion, SPSL, Tilde, TypeMarket
(/ParaType) .
-?
B
(
). B . , .
( 30- 80- )
, ( AO ).
- 265 -

Bo (
), ,
, , . B
. ,
, . , .
(*) .
(, Helvetica).
( Bastion, Cyrvetica, Europa Grotesk,
Geneva, Helga, Helios, Hylvetica, Letterica, Megaron, Pragmatica, Swiss
721, Switzerland, Vanta, ) . ( ) ,
( Helios Pragmatica).
, /International Typeface Corporation, ITC.
/ParaType.
B
(),
().

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

,
, :
Adobe
Adobe Systems, Inc.,
Alpha
Alphatype Corp.,
Agfa
Agfa (Compugraphic),
Apple
Apple Computer, Inc.,
ATF
ATF/Kingsley (American Type Founders),

Auto
Autologic, Inc.,
Az-Zet
Az-Zet/ATree,
Bauer
Bauersche Giesserie,
Berthold
H. Berthold AG,
Bit
Bitstream, Inc.,
C&G
Cassady & Green, Inc.,
Corel
Corel Corp.,
- 266 -

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Letraset
2A/2Alex
Haas
Haltgren, T.
Info
Ingrama
IM
IBM
ITC
IR/IpexR
Lanston
Lino/Linotype
Ludlow
Ludwig & Mayer
Olive
Mecanorma
Mono/Monotype
Nebiolo
Neufville

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

PT/ParaType
Photo Lettering
Photon
SC/Scangraphic
Schaedler
SU/SoftUnion
SPSL
Stempel
Stephenson Blake

41
42
43
44
45

Thatcher, Bryan
Tegra
Tilde
TM/ TypeMarket
Vorarlberger
Graphic
WordPerfect
Xerox
,

,
, -

46
47
48
49
50

Esselte Letraset Ltd.,


DoubleAlex,
Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei AG,
Information International, Inc.,
Ingrama AG,
Intermicro,
International Typeface Corp.,
Ipex Research,
Lanston Monotype Co.,
Linotype-Hell/Linotype AG,
Ludlow Typography Co.,
Ludwig & Mayer GmbH,
Marcel Olive,
Mecanorma,
Monotype Typography Ltd.,
Societ Nebiolo,
Fundicion Tipografica Neufville (Bauer),
ParaType/Paragraph,
Photo Lettering, Inc.,
Photon,
Mannesmann-Scangraphic,
SoftUnion,
SPSL,
Stempel AG,
Stephenson Blake & Co. Ltd.,

Tegra, Inc. (Varityper),


Tilde/AG Fonts,
TypeMarket,
WordPerfect,
Xerox Corp.,

- 267 -

51
52

,
,

/
1


Aachen Bold (Letraset)

Abilene
(Cassady
&
Green)
Advertisers
Gothic
(Letraset/Agfa)
Albertus (Monotype)

3
4
5
6
7

ITC American Typewriter


(ITC)
American Uncial (Corel)
Americana (ATF)

8
10

ITC Anna (ITC)


Antique Olive (Olive)

11
12

* (. )
ITC Avant Garde Gothic

13

ITC Bauhaus (ITC)

14

Baby Teeth (Photo Lettering)


ITC Beesknees (ITC)
ITC Benguiat (ITC)
ITC Benguiat Gothic

15
16
17

, ,

Aalen* (Tilde), Aardvark (Corel), Adamant* (2Alex), Charlemagne (Tegra),


Luxor* (TypeMarket), Ruhr (Info)
Italiansky 2* (2Alex)
AdverGothic* (ParaType)
Flareserif 821 (Bitstream), SPSL OldKing*
Secretary* (TypeMarket)
McLeud* (Az-Zet), Megen* (Intermicro)
American Classic (Agfa), Amherst
(Corel), Colonial (Tegra), Concord(Info)
Freedom(Auto), Independence(Alpha),
Laguna* (2Alex)
ITC Anna* (ParaType)
OliverNew* (TypeMarket), Alphavanti
(Alphatype), Berry Roman (Info), Incised 901 (Bitstream), Oliva (Autologic),
Olive (Tegra), Oliver* (TypeMarket)
Arbat* (Intermicro)
ITC Avant Garde Gothic* (ParaType),
Avalanche* (Tilde), Avalon (Corel),
AvantgardTM* (TypeMarket), Forward*
(SoftUnion)
ITC Bauhaus* (ParaType), Bahamas
(Corel), SoftLine* (SoftUnion), Taurus*
(TypeMarket)
Bebit* (TypeMarket)
ITC Beesknees* (ParaType)
Bengaly* (Tilde), Bangkok (Corel)
ITC Benguiat Gothic* (ParaType)
- 268 -

20
21
22

(ITC)
ITC Berkeley Old Style
(ITC)
Bernhard
Condensed
(Bauer)
Bernhard Modern (ATF)
Block (Berthold)
Bodoni

23

ITC Bookman (ITC)

24

Brush Script (ATF)

25

Broadway (ATF)

26

*
()
()
Candida
(Ludvig
&
Mayer)

18
19

27
28
29

Caslon

30
31

Caxton (Typsettra)
Century Old Style (ATF)

32

Century
(ATF)

33

Choose
1/10
(Bryan
Thatcher)
Clarendon
Compacta (Letraset)

34
35

Schoolbook

Alliance* (2Alex)
Bernhard* (ParaType)
Mertopol* (2Alex)
BlockA* (2Alex)
Bodoni* (ParaType), Bauer Bodoni
(Neufville), Borjomi* (2Alex), NewBodoni* (SoftUnion), *
(), * ()
ITC Bookman* (ParaType), Brooklyn
(Corel)
Parsek* (ParaType), Banff (Corel), Kisty 2 *(2Alex)
Highway* (Az-Zet), Bravo (Corel), Ritz
(Casady & Greene)
Bruskovaya* (Intermicro),
* ()
TextBook* (ParaType), TextBook* (Intermicro), ()
Baltica* (ParaType), * (), * (), Baltica*
(Intermicro)
Caslon* (Intermicro), Caslon (Lanston
Monotype), Casablanca (Corel), Caslon
540 (ATF), (),
* ()
Cotlin* (SoftUnion)
Centurion*
(Tilde),
CenturionOld
(Corel), Century Expanded (ATF), CenturyX (Alphatype)
SchoolBook* (ParaType), SchoolBook*
(Intermicro),
*
(), * ()
Proun* (ParaType)
SPSL Clarendon*, Clarion (Autologic)
Compact*
(ParaType),
Compo*
(SoftUnion), SPSL Condensed*, Gymnasia* (Intermicro), Kekur* (2A),
- 269 -

36

Cooper Black (ATF)

37

Copperplate Gothic

38
39

Coronet (Linotype)
Countdown (Letraset)

40

Courier (IBM)

41

Coventry Script (Cassady


& Green)
Crilee (Letraset)
Data 70 (Letraset)
* (. )
Didot
Dynamo (Letraset)

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

* ()
Empire (Agfa)
Enviro (Agfa)
ITC Eras (ITC)
Erbar Grotesk (Ludvig &
Mayer)

52

Eurostile (Nebiolo)

53

Excelsior (Linotype)

* (. )
Osvald* (TypeMarket), Bitstream Cooper, CooperDAT* (2Alex), Crown Style*
(Tilde), Cupertino (Corel)
CopperPot (Corel), Formal Gothic
(Photon), Lining Plate Gothic (Ludlow),
Spartan (Monotype), Vakansia* (2Alex)
SPSL Elegant*
Countdown*(TypeMarket),
SPSL
Countdown*
Courier*(ParaType),
APCCourier*
(2Alex), NTCourier* (Ipex Research),
CourierTM*
(TypeMarket),
Cyrier*
(SoftUnion), Messenger (Info), Monaco
(Apple)
CoventryCyril* (2Alex)
Cricket* (TypeMarket)
Techno28* (TypeMarket)
Decor* (ParaType), Decor* (Intermicro)
Didona* (ParaType), ITC Didi
Dynar* (SoftUnion), Electron* (Intermicro), * (. )
Paragon Nord* (Az-Zet)
SPSL Empire*
SPSL Enviro*, Envision (Corel)
Everest* (TypeMarket), Erie (Corel)
JournalSans* (ParaType), Metro (Linotype), Geometric 415 (Bitstream),
Gothic #2(Agfa), Gothic #3 (Agfa),
JournalSans*
(Intermicro),
Meteor(Autologic), Metromedium (Info),
* (),
* ()
Europe*
(TypeMarket),
Aldostyle
(Autologic), Eurofont* (2Alex), Eurogothic
(Alphatype),
Euromode
(Corel), Eurostile (Adobe), Eurostyle
(Agfa), Gamma (Info), Square 721 (Bitstream)
Journal* (ParaType), Camelot (Tegra),
- 270 -

54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

63

64

65
66
67

Esquire
(Scangraphic),
Excel
(Autologic),
Journal*
(Intermicro),
League Text (Alphatype), News #9
(Agfa), News # 14(Agfa), *
(), * ()
ITC Fat Face (ITC)
ITC Fat Face* (ParaType)
ITC Fenice (ITC)
Simeiz* (SoftUnion)
Figaro (Monotype)
Traktir* (TypeMarket), Grad* (Intermicro), SalunC* (Az-Zet)
Flash (Lanston)
Inform* (ParaType), SPSL Brush Diagonal*
ITC Flora (ITC)
ITC Flora* (ParaType), Fiesta* (TypeMarket)
ITC Franklin Gothic (ITC) ITC Franklin Gothic* (ParaType),
Bloknot* (2Alex), Fagot* (TypeMarket),
Frankfurt Gothic (Corel), Franklin (Agfa)
Folio (Neufville)
Journalistic* (2Alex)
Friz Quadrata (ITC)
Friz Quadrata* (ParaType), France
(Corel), Friquer* (Tilde)
Frutiger (Linotype)
FreeSet*
(ParaType),
Foreigner*
(Tilde), Freeborn (Scangraphic), CG
Frontiera
(Agfa),
Humanist
777(Bitstream),
Plesetsk*
(2Alex),
Provencale (Autologic), Siegfried (Tegra)
Futura (Neufville)
NVFutura*
(ParaType),
Futuris*
(ParaType), Alpfatura (Alpha), Fatum*
(Tilde), Favorit* (2A), Fortuna* (SU),
Fortuna* (TM), Fujiyama (Corel), Future
(Alpha), Model* (IpexR), Sans Serif
(C&G), Sparta (Auto), Spartan (Lino),
Technica (Info), XX Century (Mono)
Futura Black (Neufville)
FuturaEugenia* (ParaType), Fortuna
Black* (SoftUnion), FujiyamaBlack
(Corel), * ()

* NewspaperSans* (Intermicro), ()
()
ITC Galliard (ITC)
Galleon* (Tilde)
Garamond (Monotype)
AZGaramond* (Az-Zet), APCGaramond* (2Alex), Original Garamond (Bitstream), StempelGaramond
- 271 -

68

ITC Garamond (ITC)

69

Gazelle
(Cassady
Green)
Gill Sans (Monotype)

70
71

&

72

Glaser Stencil (Photo


Lettering)
Glypha (Linotype)

73
74
75

Gonsales Jeanette
* ()
Helvetica (Linotype)

76

Helvetica
Monospaced
(Linotype)
Helvetica Rounded (Linotype)
Hermes Grotesk
Herold Reklameschrift
Industria Solid (Adobe)
* ()
ITC Kabel (ITC)

77
78
79
80
81
82

83
84

85
86

ITC Garamond*(ParaType), ClassicRuss* (2Alex), Gatineau (Corel), Saturday* (Tilde)


Vodeville* (2Alex)
Gals* (TypeMarket) f Eric (Alphatype),
Gillbert (Corel), Glib (Alphatype), Humanist 521 (Bitstream), Julian* (Az-Zet)
Glasten* (TypeMarket)
Gloria* (Tilde), Gentlemen (Scangraphic)
Astron* (ParaType)
Granit* (Intermicro)
Helios* (TM), Pragmatica* (PT), Bastion* (2A), Cyrvetica* (SU), Europa
Grotesk (SC), Geneva (Auto), Helga*
(IM), Helios (Agfa), Hylvetica* (SU),
Letterica* (Tilde), Megaron (Tegra),
Swiss 721 (Bit), Switzerland (Corel),
* (), Vanta* (IM)
MonoCondensed* (ParaType), Monospace 821 (Bitstream)
Rotonda* (2Alex)

Hermes* (ParaType), *
Herold* (ParaType), *
Blits l*(2Alex), Mekanik (Letraset)
Izhitsa* (ParaType)
ITC Kabel* (ParaType), Cable (Linotype), Geometrie 231 (Bitstream), Kabana (Corel), Kobel (Alphatype), Sans
Serif (Lanston)
*
Karolla* (ParaType), Boutique (Haas)
Kaufmann (ATF)
Ballon (ATF), Koala (Corel), L.A. Script
(Auto),
Prelude
Script
(Casady
&Greene), Swing (Mono), Tropez
(Agfa), Verbena* (2Alex)
* (- QuantAntiqua* (ParaType), )
* ()
ITC Korinna (ITC)
ITC Korinna* (ParaType), Karelia*
(SoftUnion), Korinthia (Corel), Kornelia*
(Tilde)
- 272 -

87

* ()

88
89

*
()
L.C.D.(Letraset)

90

91
92

* ()
/ * ()

93
94
95

ITC Lubalin Graph (ITC)


Lucida Sans (Bigelow &
Holmes)
ITC Machine (ITC)

96
97

Marigold (Agfa)
Melior (Linotype)

98

Memphis (Linotype)

99

Microgramma (Nebiolo)

100
101

Adobe Minion* (Adobe)


Mistral (Olive)

102

Motter Tektura (Vorarlberger Graphic)


* ()

103

104

ITC New
(ITC)

Kudrashov* (Intermicro), * (),


Petersburg* (ParaType)
Kudrashov Sans*(Intermicro), * ()
Crystal* (TypeMarket), Electrnica*
(2Alex), LiquidCrystal (Corel)
Lazurski* (ParaType), Lazurski* (Intermicro)
Lidia* (Intermicro)
Literaturnaya* (ParaType), Lateinische
(H.Berthold),
Literaturnaya*
(Intermicro), * ()
Luga* (SoftUnion)
OfficeTypeSans* (TypeMarket)
ITC Machine* (ParaType), SPSL Machine*, Medianica* (SoftUnion), Motor
(Corel), Rubic* (TypeMarket)
SPSL Baker*
Melanie* (Tilde), Hanover (Tegra), Mallard (Agfa), Matrix (Scangraphic), Uranus (Alphatype), Zapf Elliptical 711
(Bitstream)
Beton (Neufville), Egypetskij* (2Alex),
Geometrie Slabserif 703 (Bitstream),
Karnak(Ludlow), CGNashville (Agfa),
Pyramid (IBM), Stymie (ATF)
Micra*
(TypeMarket),
Micro
(Casady&Greene), Microstyle (Agfa)
Miniature* (TypeMarket)
Aeolus (Agfa), Mistral* (TypeMarket) ,
Mystical(Corel), Staccato 222 (Bitstream)
Motter Tektura* (SoftUnion)

Mysl* (ParaType), Mysl* (Intermicro), Mysl Narrow* (Intermicro), *


(),
Garamond, * ()
Baskerville
ITC New Baskerville* (ParaType), Baskerline (Alphatype), Basker- 273 -

105

New Century Schoolbook

106

*
()
New Zelek (Bronisaw
Zelek/Mecanorma)
News Gothic (ATF)

107
108

109

110
111
112
113
114
115

116

117
118
119

ville DAT* (2Alex), Nebraska (Corel)


New Handbook*(Tilde), NewBrunswick
(Corel)
New Journal* (Intermicro)
New Zelek* (TypeMarket), SPSL NZ*

Newspaper* (Az-Zet), Alpha Gothic


(Alphatype), Classified News (IBM),
SPSL Grotesque*, NewsCondensed*
(SoftUnion), CGTrade (Agfa), Trade
Gothic (Linotype)
Bodoni Poster
StandardPoster*
(ParaType),
BodoniTMPoster*
(TypeMarket),
Bodoni Ultra, Bodoni-WP (WordPerfect), Borjomi* (2Alex),
* (), * ()
* NewStandard* (ParaType), ()
* (), Usual New*
(Intermicro)
OCR A (ATF)
OCR_ONE* (ParaType)
ITC Officina Sans (ITC)
ITC Officina Sans* (ParaType)
ITC Officina Serif (ITC)
ITC Officina Serif* (ParaType)
Onyx(Monotype)
Arsis* (SoftUnion), Arsis, SPSL New
Serif Condensed*, Viola*(TypeMarket)
Optima (Linotype)
OpiumNew* (TypeMarket), Athena
(Auto), Exyle* (IM), Musica (Alpha),
October(SC),
CGOmega
(Agfa),
Opium* (TM), Optimist (Auto), Opus*
(Tilde), Ottawa (Corel), Theme (IBM),
Variant*(2A), Zapf Humanist 601 (Bit)
Palatino (Linotype)
Palladium* (TypeMarket), Andover
(Photon), Malibu (Autologic), CGPalacio (Agfa), Palatial*(Tilde), PalmSprings
(Corel), Parlament (Scangraphic), Patina(Alpha), Pigmalion* (Az-Zet), Zapf
Calligraphic 801 (Bitstream)
Peignot (Linotype)
Penta* (TypeMarket), Exotic 350 (Bitstream), Monterey (Casady& Greene),
Penguin(Corel), Penyoe (Agfa)
Poppl-Exquisit (Berthold) Popular Script* (SoftUnion)
Present Script (Linotype) PresentDAT* (2Alex)
- 274 -

120
121
122
123

Radar
Raleigh (Ingrama)
Regency Script (Casady
& Greene)
Revue (Letraset)

124
125

Rodchenko* (ParaType)
Rockwell (Monotype)

126

*
()

127

131
132
133

* (M. )
Secession* (Berthold)
Serifa (Linotype)
Shelley Allegro Script
(Linotype)
Sity (Berthold)
Slogan (Ludvig & Mayer)
ITC Souvenir (ITC)

134

Sorbonne (Berthold)

135

Stencil

136
137

ITC Stone Serif (ITC)


Stop (Nebiolo)

138
139
140

ITC Studio Script (ITC)


Tabasco (Schaedler)
Tecton (Adobe)

141

Times
New
(Monotype)

128
129
130

Roman

Radar* (SoftUnion)
Ralenta* (SoftUnion)
Calligraph Russ* (2Alex)
Zeppelin*(Tilde), Arbat*(2Alex), Regata* (TypeMarket), Renew* (SoftUnion), Renfrew (Corel)
ITC LEF Grotesk*(ParaType)
Rodeo*
(TypeMarket),
Geometric
Slabserif 712 (Bitstream), Proton* (AzZet)
Zhikharev* (ParaType), Zhikharev*
(Intermicro), *
()
Svetlana* (ParaType)
Secession* (SoftUnion)
SPSL GeomSlabSerif
Allegro Script* (TypeMarket)
Coliseum* (2Alex)
Corrida* (ParaType)
Presquire* (Tilde), Present* (TypeMarket), Southern (Corel), Surpriz* (2Alex)
Academy* (ParaType), Cheltenham
(ATF), ITC Cheltenham, Gloucester
(Monotype), Nordoff (Autologic), Winchester (Stephenson Blake), * (), *
()
Shablon* (Az-Zet), Stamp (Corel),
TrafaretDAT* (2Alex)
SonetSerif* (TypeMarket)
Start*(TypeMarket),
Scott
(Corel),
SPSL Stens*
ITC Studio Script* (ParaType)
Tavrida* (SoftUnion)
Eskiz 2* (2Alex), ITC Stylus, Technical
(Corel)
Newton* (PT), Dutch 801 (Bit), SPSL
Dutch*, English (Alpha), Latinskij* (2A),
NewYork (Apple), Press Roman(IBM),
- 275 -

142

Traffic (T. Hultgren)

143
144
145
146

Trajan (Adobe)
Trooper Roman (VGC)
ITC True Grit (ITC)
Trump Mediaeval (Linotype)

147

Univers (Linotype)

148

University
Roman
(Letraset)
Walbaum Fraktur

149
150
151
152

Wide Latin (Stephenson


Blake)
ITC Zapf Chancery (ITC)
Zephir Script (Cassady &
Green)

Respect(IM),
Teutonica*
(Tilde),
NTTierce* (IpexR), Themes* (TM),
Time Roman (SU), CGTimes (Agfa),
Times Roman (Lino), * ()
Trafaigar (Corel), Trafaret* (TypeMarket)
Romul* (TypeMarket)
Troover* (SoftUnion)
ITC True Grit* (ParaType)
Ascot(Auto), Kunstler 480 (Bitstream),
Mediaeval (Tegra), Olympus (Alpha),
Rennessaince (Info), Saul (Auto), Talisman* (2AIex)
Alphavers (Alpha), Eterna (Info), Kosmos (Xerox), Partner* (2Alex), USA
(Corel), SPSL USJournal Condensed*,
Versatile (Alpha), Zurich(Bitstream)
Reverance* (Tilde), Unicorn (Corel)
Fraktura (ParaType), / -4 ()
AZLatinWide* (Az-Zet)
ITC Zapf Chancery* (ParaType), Inicial* (2Alex), ZurichCalligraphic (Corel)
Kisty 1* (2Alex)

- 276 -

,
DOS (866)

- 277 -

-8

- 278 -

Windows (1251)

- 279 -


ParaGraph lntl.
,
- ParaGraph Intl.


, , , .
. - , ,
,
.
: , , , , .


, ,
, (, , , web . .)
(,
BetinaScript : ,
; BetinaScript, ,

).


,
- 280 -

, ( 5) ,

( )
(, , , web . .).


, ,
, (, , ,
web- . .).


, ,

, , , (, , , web- . .) (,
, , , , web-site . .).

.

, ,
,
(, , ,
web- . .).


- 281 -

, , ParaGraph Intl., c .


ParaGraph Intl. 5 ,
,
.
.


, .
.
, ,
, ,
,
, , , , , . B

.


, , .
ParaGraph Intl.


, , ParaGraph Intl.

ParaGraph Intl. 90
. B ParaGraph Intl. .
ParaGraph Intl. - 282 -

, , .

- 283 -


, ,



121858 ,
. 30, . 1
(
)
,
-
.3
( )
()

() ()
. - 97

() :
() () (.2 .19
)
.4
.19
.5
.19
(.3 .19 )
( ,
)

, ,


.3 (
)

1
2
3

( , )

- 284 -

( , )

- .
1 .

(-
__________)
(,
)

-
.


( )

.3 .8

()




,


() () ( ( ))

,
()

(

.3
)

()
()
()

() _______________________________________________________________________________________
() () ()
() ()
, ( ,
, , )
:
() () : ()
( )

- 285 -




18-03
:
____________________

-
, : . B , , ,
.

(- ).
- . - 12, . - 96 .


B
,
( ).
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 8 0.

, (), .
- 286 -


.
,

, , . .
.

.


-
:
. 1
- ;
. 2
- ;
. 3
- ;
. 4
- .


:

,
XIX - XX ;
.
():
- , , , ;
- ;
1:1,75 ;
- , 69%;
- , ( H) - - 287 -

- 123%, - 128%;
( ) - 19,2%;
- ;
- ;
58,3%;

;
,
;
- 14 ;
- , B, , , , , P, T, , , , , -

.
, :
.
:
;
, B, , , P, .

:
;
, H, T,
, , , ;
, , , , , , p,
, , , , , , , , , B, , , ,
, M, H, , , P, T, , , , , , , , , ,
4, 7, 8, 0;
A,
B, T, , M, , , .

.
.
( )

()

1,06
- 288 -

1,88

()
()

()

()


()

()

1,08
0,20
0,25

1,88
0,23
0,27

0,12

0,14

0,03
0,76

0,05

0,54

0,55

. . 3.
.
, - ,
.

-
.

:
;

;
:
;

- 289 -

;
;
,
.

:

,
, . . , .
:
, , , M., 1991, . 95
:
:
:

- 290 -

.., ..
B.B., A.A.
.., ..

.
..
M.B.
CB.
H.B.
O.B.
E.B.

-
Adobe PageMaker 6.5
, , . , 17
(095) 330-68-65
1

25.06.97. 70x100 /16.


. 19 . . 5 000 . 77427
AO
103030, , . , 21

- 291 -