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Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)

Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.
Chapter 4 Homework Solutions
4.9.
x ~ N(, o), n = 16, x = 10.259 V, s = 0.999 V
(a)

0
= 12, o = 0.05
Test H
0
: = 12 vs. H
1
: = 12. Reject H
0
if |t
0
| > t
o/2
.
0
0
10.259 12
6.971
0.999 16
x
t
S n

= = =
t
o/2, n1
= t
0.025, 15
= 2.131
Reject H
0
: = 12, and conclude that the mean output voltage differs from 12V.

MTB > Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample t > Samples in columns
One-Sample T: Ex4.9
Test of mu = 12 vs not = 12
Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 95% CI T P
Ex4.9 16 10.2594 0.9990 0.2498 (9.7270, 10.7917) -6.97 0.000

(b)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
/ 2, 1 / 2, 1
10.259 2.131 0.999 16 10.259 2.131 0.999 16
9.727 10.792
n n
x t S n x t S n
o o


s s +
s s +
s s


(c)
o

0
2
= 1, o = 0.05
Test H
0
: o
2
= 1 vs. H
1
: o
2
= 1. Reject H
0
if _
2
0
> _
2
o/2, n-1
or _
2
0
< _
2
1-o/2, n-1
.
2 2
2
0 2
0
( 1) (16 1)0.999
14.970
1
n S
_
o

= = =
_
2
o/2, n1
= _
2
0.025,161
= 27.488
_
2
1o/2, n1
= _
2
0.975,161
= 6.262
Do not reject H
0
: o
2
= 1, and conclude that there is insufficient evidence that the variance
differs from 1.

(d)
2 2
2
2
/ 2, 1
1 / 2, 1
2 2
2
2
( 1) ( 1)
2
(16 1)0.999 (16 1)0.999
27.488 6.262
0.545 2.391
0.738 1.546
n
n
n S n S
o
o
o
_
_
o
o
o



s s

s s
s s
s s

Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.
Since the 95% confidence interval on o contains the hypothesized value, o

0
2
= 1, the
null hypothesis, H
0
: o
2
= 1, cannot be rejected.

MTB > Stat > Basic Statistics > Graphical Summary


(e)
1 , 1 0.95,15
2 2
0.05; 7.2609
n o
o _ _

= = =
2
2
2
1 , 1
2
2
2
( 1)
(16 1)0.999
7.2609
2.062
1.436
n
n S
o
o
_
o
o
o

s
s
s

Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.
4.9 continued
(f)
MTB > Graph > Probability Plot > Single

From visual examination of the plot, the assumption of a normal distribution for output
voltage seems appropriate.

4.16.
(a)
n
1
= 200, x
1
= 10,
1
p = x
1
/n
1
= 10/200 = 0.05
n
2
= 300, x
2
= 20,
2
p = x
2
/n
2
= 20/300 = 0.067

(b)
Use o = 0.05.
Test H
0
: p
1
= p
2
versus H
1
: p
1
= p
2
. Reject H
0
if Z
0
> Z
o/2
or Z
0
< Z
o/2

2 1
1 2
10 20
0.06
200 300
x x
p
n n
+ +
= = =
+ +


( ) ( )
1 2
0
1 2
0.05 0.067
0.7842
(1 ) 1 1 0.06(1 0.06) 1 200 1 300
p p
Z
p p n n

= = =
+ +

Z
o/2
= Z
0.05/2
= Z
0.025
= 1.96 Z
o/2
= 1.96

Do not reject H
0
. Conclude there is no strong evidence to indicate a difference between
the fraction nonconforming for the two processes.
Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.

MTB > Stat > Basic Statistics > 2 Proportions > Summarized data
Test and CI for Two Proportions
Sample X N Sample p
1 10 200 0.050000
2 20 300 0.066667
Difference = p (1) - p (2)
Estimate for difference: -0.0166667
95% CI for difference: (-0.0580079, 0.0246745)
Test for difference = 0 (vs not = 0): Z = -0.77 P-Value = 0.442

(c)
1 1 2 2
1 2 / 2 1 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2 / 2
1 2
1 2
(1 ) (1 )
( ) ( )
(1 ) (1 )
( )
0.05(1 0.05) 0.067(1 0.067)
(0.050 0.067) 1.645 ( )
200 300
0.05(1 0.05) 0.067(1 0.067)
(0.05 0.067) 1.645
200 300
p p p p
p p Z p p
n n
p p p p
p p Z
n n
p p
o
o

+ s

s + +

+ s

s + +

1 2
0.052 ( ) 0.018 p p s s

4.36.
(a)
MTB > Stat > ANOVA > One-Way > Graphs, Boxplots of data
One-way ANOVA: Ex4.36Un versus Ex4.36Pos
Source DF SS MS F P
Ex4.36Pos 3 16.220 5.407 8.29 0.008
Error 8 5.217 0.652
Total 11 21.437
S = 0.8076 R-Sq = 75.66% R-Sq(adj) = 66.53%
Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on
Pooled StDev
Level N Mean StDev --------+---------+---------+---------+-
1 3 4.3067 1.4636 (------*------)
2 3 1.7733 0.3853 (------*------)
3 3 1.9267 0.4366 (------*------)
4 3 1.3167 0.3570 (------*------)
--------+---------+---------+---------+-
1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0
Pooled StDev = 0.8076
There is a statistically significant difference in wafer position, 1 is different from 2, 3,
and 4.

Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.


(b)
2 factor
MS MS 5.4066 0.6522
0.3962
12
E
n
t
o

= = =

(c)
2
2 2 2
uniformity
MS 0.6522
0.3962 0.6522 1.0484
E
t
o
o o o
= =
= + = + =

Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.
4.36 continued
(d) MTB > Stat > ANOVA > One-Way > Graphs> Normal plot of residuals,
Residuals versus fits, Residuals versus the Variables

Normality assumption is probably not unreasonable, but there are two very unusual
observations the outliers at either end of the plot therefore model adequacy is
questionable.


Both outlier residuals are from wafer position 1.


The variability in residuals does appear to depend on the magnitude of predicted (or
fitted) values.
Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.
4.41.
(a)
Regression Analysis: Brake Horsep versus rpm, Road Octane , Compression

The regression equation is
Brake Horsepower = - 266 + 0.0107 rpm + 3.13 Road Octane Number
+ 1.87 Compression


Predictor Coef SE Coef T P
Constant -266.03 92.67 -2.87 0.021
rpm 0.010713 0.004483 2.39 0.044
Road Octane Number 3.1348 0.8444 3.71 0.006
Compression 1.8674 0.5345 3.49 0.008


S = 8.81239 R-Sq = 80.7% R-Sq(adj) = 73.4%


Analysis of Variance

Source DF SS MS F P
Regression 3 2589.73 863.24 11.12 0.003
Residual Error 8 621.27 77.66
Total 11 3211.00

The multiple regression model relating brake horsepower (y) to rpm (
1
x ), road octane
number of the fuel (
2
x ) and the engine compression (
3
x ) is
3 2 1
8674 . 1 1348 . 3 0107 . 0 03 . 266 x x x y + + + = .

(b)
0
H : 0
3 2 1
= = = | | |
1
H : 0 =
j
| for at least one j
Since the P-value for the F statistic is very small (approximately 0), we reject the null
hypothesis and conclude that at least one of the three variables rpm (
1
x ), road octane
number of the fuel (
2
x ) and the engine compression (
3
x ) has a nonzero regression
coefficient.

(c)
The P-values corresponding to the variables rpm, road octane number and compression
are 0.044, 0.006 and 0.008, respectively. Since these are all less than a significance level
of 0.05, each of the three variables contributes significantly to the regression model.

Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.
4.42.

20 10 0 -10 -20
99
95
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
5
1
Residual
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Normal Probability Plot
(response is Brake Horsepower)


270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
Fitted Value
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
Versus Fits
(response is Brake Horsepower)


3500 3000 2500 2000 1500
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
rpm
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
Residuals Versus rpm
(response is Brake Horsepower)


Homework Solutions from Chapter 4 (taken from Montgomery)
Reference: Montgomery, D. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York,
2009.
97.5 95.0 92.5 90.0 87.5 85.0
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
Road Octane Number
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
Residuals Versus Road Octane Number
(response is Brake Horsepower)


Based on the residual plots, there do not seem to be any violations of the necessary
assumptions for multiple linear regression.

4.50.
(a)

1
= a-1 =4-1=3,
2
=an-1= 4(5)-1 =19
0.05 < P-value < 0.10

(b)
0.025 < P-value < 0.05

(c)
P-value < 0.01

(d)
0.10 < P-value < 0.25

4.51.
MSFactor=SSFactor/3=18.30
DF Error=DF Total DF Factor = 12
MSError = SSError/12 = 1.6475
F=MSFactor/MSError = 11.11
P-value < 0.01
Since the P-value is smaller than 0.01, there is strong evidence against the null
hypothesis. We conclude that the means are not the same for all factor levels.