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gd;ik etPdj;Jtk; Nehf;fp: jkpopd; Nfhl;ghLfSk; vOj;JfSk;;

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1.

,yf;fpak; vd;gJ mwpTj;Jiwfspy; xd;W> mwpTj;Jiwfs; midj;JlDk; njhlu;e;J Clhl;lk; epfo;j;Jk; xd;W. mwpTUthf;fr; nray;ghl;bw;F Kd;fl;lr; nray;ghlhd mofpaiy mbg;gilahff; nfhz;bUg;gjhy; ,yf;fpak; xU r%fj;jpd; elj;ijapaYld; neUq;fpa njhlu;GilaJ. mofpay; $Wfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;Nl xU r%fj;jpd; mwtpay; tbtikf;fg;gLfpwJ. xU r%fj;jpd; mwtpay; newpfs; midj;Jk; ,ize;J mr;r%fj;jpd; murpay; Nfhl;ghl;bid tbtikf;fpd;wd. mofpay;> mwtpay;> murpay; vd;Dk; njhlu; ,izg;gpy; epfOk; ,iaGfs;-Kuz;fs;> ,ilntspfs;-rpf;fy;fs; vd;gitNa r%ftho;tpd; nkhj;jkhd ,Ug;igAk; ,af;fj;ijAk; tbtikj;Jj; jUgit. jdpkdpju; vd;Dk; epiyiar; r%fkdpjuhf tbtikg;gjpy; nkhopf;F cs;s gq;F tpupthd jsj;jpy; ,yf;fpaj;jpw;Fk; cz;L. mt;tifapy; rkaj;jpw;Fk; ,yf;fpaj;jpw;Fkhd cwT neUf;fkhdJ> ,uz;Lk; kdpj ,Ug;igg; nghUs;gLj;Jk; kpf El;gkhd nraiyf; ifahs;git. ,it ,uz;Lk; mt;tifapy; Nfhl;ghl;L cUthf;fj;jpd; ,iz mikg;Gfshfr; nray;gLfpd;wit> ,d;gk;-Jd;gk; vd;Dk; cstpay; ,Uikfisg; gpw Gyd; czu;TfSld; cwTgLj;jp tho;jy; vd;Dk; nray;ghl;by; ed;ik-jPik> Vw;ff;$bad-Vw;ff;$lhjd vDk; kjpg;gPl;L mwpjiy ,it cUthf;fpj; jUfpd;wd. kdpj tho;tpd; nghUs; kw;Wk; ,yf;F vd;gtw;iw tiuaWj;jy;> tpsf;Fjy; vd;Dk; ,Utifr; nray;ghl;bYk; fiy,yf;fpak;> rkak; vd;Dk; ,izg;G $Ljy; neUf;fk; cilaJ. moFzu;T kw;Wk; ,d;GWjy; vd;Dk; $Wfisf; ifahs;tjd; %yk; kdpj cstpaiy ,af;Fk; Mw;wy; ,tw;wpw;F mike;JtpLfpwJ. ,e;j cstpay; jsj;jpy; ,yf;fpak; epfo;j;Jk; nray;fspy; Kjd;ikahdJ Nfhl;ghl;L cUthf;fk;. Nfhl;ghl;L cUthf;fk; ,y;yhj ,yf;fpag; gilg;G vd;gJ ,Uf;f ,aYk; vd;why; mJ Nfhl;ghLfis kWf;Fk; ,yf;fpakhfp Nkyjpf Nfhl;ghl;Lr; nrhy;yhlyhfNt mikAk;. Nfhl;ghLfspd; Kd; mwpjYld; njhlq;fp mtw;wpy; epfOk; rpf;fy;fs;> rpLf;Ffs; Fwpj;J tpthjpj;J gpd; xU Nfhl;ghl;lhf;fj;Jld; KbAk; ,yf;fpa Mf;fk; vg;NghJk; murpay; nray;ghLfspy; xd;whfNt ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. tupnkhop kuGfspy; kw;Wkpd;wp tha;nkhop kugpYk; ,e;j epfo;T vg;NghJk; cs;s xd;W. tho;tpd; xt;nthU jsj;jpYk; tha;nkhop kuG fw;gpj;Jf;nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpwJ> xt;nthU #oypYk; mJ jd; fijiaf; $wpf;nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpwJ. mJ njhlu;e;J jdpkdpjiu r%f kdpjuhf> kuG ,iae;j kdpjuhf cUthf;fpf;nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;jpaj; Jizf;fz;lj;jpd; ngUq;fijfshd kfhghujk;> uhkhazk; vd;Dk; ,U kuGfSk; xNu rkaj;jpy; tha;nkhop kuGfspYk; fhtpa kuGfspYk; njhlu;e;J tUtjw;F mtw;wpd; Nfhl;ghl;Lf; fl;likg;GfNs mbg;gilahf mike;Js;sd. ,f;fijg;gug;gpw;F ntspNa cs;s r%fq;fSk; $l ,f;fijfisj; $wpj; njhlu;tjw;F mit jkf;Fs; nfhz;Ls;s Nfhl;ghl;L cwTfNs mbg;gilahf mike;Js;sd. jdJ r%f-murpay; Nfhl;ghl;Lj; njhFjpf;Fs; nghUe;jhj ve;j fijf;$wiyAk; xU r%fk; jdJ kuGf;Fs; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy> kw;nwhU tifapy; mg;gbnahd;W cUthFk; rhj;jpak; xw;iwj;jd;ikahd r%f mikg;gpy; Vw;gLtJk; ,y;iy. kuGepiy jpupjy; nra;Al;F ,y;iy> kuGepiy jpupapd; gpwpJ gpwpJ MFk; vd;gJ njhy;fhg;gpa Nfhl;ghL. Mdhy; gd;ikahd> $l;bizg;ghd r%f mikg;Gfspy; fijfSk; vjpu;f;fijfSk; cUthfpagb ,Uf;Fk;. mf;fijfSf;fpilapyhd Kuz;fSk; Nkhjy;fSk; Nfhl;ghl;lhf;fk; ngWk;nghOJ gy;NtW ,izkuGfs; Njhd;wp tsu;e;J xd;Wld; xd;W NkhjpAk; ciuahbAk; jk;ikj; jftikj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <LgLk;. jkpopd; ,yf;fpatuyhWk; mjd; gd;ikg;nghUspy; ,t;tifahd Nfhl;ghl;Lg; Nghuhl;lq;fs;> Nkhjy;fspd; tuyhwhf mike;J xU fl;lj;jpy; jkpo; vd;Dk; xw;iw milahsj;jpd; topNa nghJkughf kWtbtk; ngw;Ws;sJ. ,g;nghJkuG ,jw;F Kd;G jdpj;Jk;> tpyfpAk;>

Kuz;gl;Lk;> kWj;Jk; ,aq;fpte;j gy;NtW kuGfSf;fpilapy; Vw;gl;l xU Nfhl;ghl;L ,zf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; fl;lg;gl;l xd;W. ehk; ,g;NghJ mwpe;J gapd;W tUk; jkpo;nkhop> jkpo; kuG> jkpo; tuyhW vd;Dk; midj;Jk; nkhopj;Njrk; kw;Wk; nkhopapdk; vd;w Nfhl;ghLfspdhy; fl;lg;gl;lit. jkpo; vd;gNj mt;tifapy; xU gz;ghl;L milahskhfTk; mjd; njhlu;r;rpahf xU Nfhl;ghlhfTk; ,Ue;J ek;ik ,af;fpf;nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ,jidj; jkpopd; etPd tbtk; vd;W ehk; Gupe;Jnfhs;Sk; NghJjhd; jkpo; vOj;J kw;Wk; jkpo; ,yf;fpak; vd;gjd; Nfhl;ghl;L murpaiyAk; ehk; Gupe;Jnfhs;s ,aYk;. ,y;iynadpy; ekJ ,d;iwa vOj;J kw;Wk; ,yf;fpar; nray;ghLfis khWjy; milahj xU neba kugpd; kPl;LUthf;fk; vd;W nghUs;gLj;jpf;nfhz;L ve;jtpj Gj;JUthf;fj;ijAk; kWj;Jk; vjpu;j;Jk; nray;gLfpwtu;fshfp Nfhl;ghl;L ntWik nfhz;ltu;fshfj; Njq;fp eype;JNghf NeUk;. ehk; ek;ikg; Gjpjhf tiuaWj;Jk; nghUs;gLj;jpANk xU etPd tbtj;ij mile;jpUf;fpNwhk;. ,J xU Gj;JUthf;fk;> ,J cyfpd; vy;yhr; r%fq;fSf;Fk; Neu;e;jpUf;fpwJ. ek; r%fk; ,Jtiu ,JNghd;w xU murpay;-nghUshjhu-r%ff; fUj;JUtq;fSld; tho;e;jpUf;ftpy;iy vd;gNj ekJ epidtpy; ,d;Dk; xU Nfhl;ghlhfg; gjpthftpy;iy vd;gjhy;jhd; neba khw;wk; milahj> epiyj;j milahsk; xd;iw ikakhf itj;J ekJ mZFKiwfis> r%f cstpaiyf; fl;bf;nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;. ekJ r%f ,aq;F jsk; mjd; nghUs; fl;Lkhdk;> murpay; midj;Jk; NtW xU tbtk; ngw;Wtpl;lJ vd;gJ ,d;Dk; ekJ nghJ cstpay;gpy; gjpthftpy;iy vd;gjhy;jhd; kf;fs;ika murpay; mwk; (Democratic Ethics) xU gz;ghl;L mbg;gilahf ek;kpilNa cUthtjpy; rpf;fy; ,Ue;Jnfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

2.
,e;jpar; r%ftuyhw;wpy; kWrPuikg;G> Gj;JUthf;fk; vd;git typikahd Nfhl;ghl;L ,ilaPLfshy; epfo;j;jg;gl;lit. ngsj;j-rkz rPuikg;G kuGfs; ,e;jpar; r%f-murpaypd; mbg;gilfis khw;wp mikf;f Kaw;rpj;Jg; gpd; tpspk;Gepiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;ljd; tpisTfis ehk; xt;nthU fhyfl;lj;jpYk; ntt;NtWtpjkhf re;jpj;J te;jpUf;fpNwhk;. r%fr; rkj;Jtkpd;ik> rhjp xLf;FKiw> jPz;lhik td;nfhLik vd;gtw;wpd; neba tuyhw;wpy; khw;W topKiwfs; mopf;fg;gl;ljd; milahsq;fshf ,e;j tpspk;Gepiy kuGfs; kPe;J epd;wd. khw;wq;fis kWf;Fk; ,e;jpar; r%f mikg;gpy; fhydpa-etPdj;Jtk; Vw;gLj;jpa mbg;gil cilg;Gfs; ek;ik khw;WfisAk; kWrPuikg;GfisAk; Gj;JUthf;fq;fisAk; Nehf;fpj; js;spaNghJjhd; ehk; kPz;Lk; Nfhl;ghl;L fl;likg;Gfspd; Njitiag; Gupe;Jnfhs;s Neu;e;jJ. fhydpa-etPdj;Jtk; ,e;jpag; ngUkuGfspd; td;Kiwfis> ,e;jpar; rka kuGfspd; kf;fs; kWg;G tpjpKiwfis> ,e;jpa Ml;rpajpfhuj;jpd; xLf;FKiw tbtq;fis Nfs;tpf;F cl;gLj;jpa gpd;Ng ehk; ek;ik kWguprPyidf;F cl;gLj;jpf;nfhz;Nlhk;. ,d;Ws;s tbtj;jpy; ,e;jpar; rkaq;fSk; $lj; jkJ Gwf;fl;likg;Gfis khw;wpf;nfhs;sNtz;ba Njit Vw;gl;lJ. fhydpa murpay; ek;ik Njrpa kag;gLj;jpaJ> Njrk; vd;gij milahsk; fhl;baJ> mjd; njhlu;r;rpahfNt ,e;jpa nkhopj;Njrpaq;fSk; cUthf Kbe;jJ. etPd ,ae;jpuj;njhopy; El;gk; ,e;jpa tho;Kiwapd; mbg;gilfis khw;wp mikj;jJ Nghy Nkw;fpd; vLj;Jiug;G KiwAk; jfty; gug;G KiwAk; ,e;jpaf; fijahly; Kiwfis khw;wpaikj;jd. jkpopd; etPd ciueil vd;gJ ntWk; thf;fpa mikg;gpy; Vw;gl;l khw;wk; my;y> mJ xU fUj;jpay; khw;wk;> mbg;gilapy; xU Nfhl;ghl;L khw;wk;. ciuahly; vd;gJ r%fr; nraypd; xU tbtk; Mdhy; mJ xU ,yf;fpa nkhopahf> ,yf;fpa vLj;Jiug;G tbtkhf khw ekf;Fg; gy E}w;whz;Lfs; Njitg;gl;lJ. ,e;j vLj;Jiug;G Kiw> fij$WKiw xNurkaj;jpy; Nfhl;ghLfisg; Gupe;Jnfhs;tJ> Nfhl;ghLfisj; jd;tag;gLj;JtJ> Nfhl;ghLfis cUthf;FtJ> Nfhl;ghLfisj; Nju;e;njLg;gJ> rpy Nfhl;ghLfis kiwg;gJ vd;gtw;iw cs;slf;Fk; xd;W.

3. 2

jkpopd; njhlf;ffhy ciueilfs; fpwpj;Jt ,iwg;gzpahsu;fshy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gJ jkpo;r;rpe;jidapd; etPd tbtj;jpw;Fs; Vw;gl;l xU cs;sPlhd Kuz;ghl;ilj; njhlq;fp itj;jJ. mjhtJ etPd nrhy;yhly; kw;Wk; vLj;Jiug;G Kiw vd;gJ ntspapypUe;J NgRk; Fuyhf njhlf;fk; ngw;wJ. kw;nwhUtuhf ,Ue;J> kw;nwhU Nfhl;ghl;bd; topNa jkpo;r;r%fj;ijg; ghu;j;jy;> mNj rkak; jkpo;r; r%fj;ij kw;nwhd;whf khw;Wtjw;fhfg; NgRjy;> kw;nwhU mZFKiwapd; topNa jkpo;r; r%fj;jpd; kPJ tpku;rdk; itj;jy; vd kw;nwhU mwpT kuGf;Fk; jkpo; kuGf;Fk; ,ilapyhd Clhl;lf; fskhf jkpopd; Kd; etPd vOj;JUthf;fk; mike;jpUe;jJ. ngsj;j-rkz kuGfspd; Nfhl;ghl;Lr;nrhy;yhly;fs; njhy;jkpofj;jpy; Vw;gLj;jpa mNjtif mOj;jj;ij ,e;j Kd;etPd vLj;Jiug;Gfs; Vw;gLj;jpd. INuhg;gpa mwpnthsp kuGk;> Gul;rpfspd; Gjpa Nfhl;ghLfSk; jkpopd; mwpjy; Kiwapy; mbg;gilf; Nfs;tpfis cUthf;f Kbe;jJ. fpwpj;Jtj;jpd; epWtdk; rhu;e;j eilKiwfs; jkpo; kugpd; r%fr; nrhy;yhlypd; Nghjhikfis Gyg;gLj;jpf; fhl;bd. ,e;j cyfkakhd gpd;Gyj;jpy;jhd; jkpopd; kWtiuaWg;G Kaw;rpfs; njhlf;fk; nfhs;fpd;wd. jkpopd; nghJ epidtpd; $l;LUthf;fk; vd;gJ cyfkakhd Nfhl;ghLfspd; gpd;Gyj;jpy; ,t;tifahfg; Gj;JUthf;fk; ngWfpwJ. jkpopd; njhlf;f fl;l ,yf;fpa> Nfhl;ghl;Lr; nrhy;yhly;fs; midj;Jk; ,Utifahd Fuy;fspd; ,izg;G: xd;W jkpohf ,Ue;J jkpOld; NgRk; Fuy;> kw;wJ jkpohf ,Ue;J cyf mwpTld; NgRk; Fuy;. cyf mwpT vd;gJ fhydpa mwpT jd;idg; nghUj;jpf;nfhz;l tpupe;j jsk;> ,q;F cyfk; vd;gJ INuhg;gpa ikaj;jd;ik cila xU fUJNfhs;. ,jd; Kd; ek;ik milahsg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s ehk; mjd; nkhopapy; NgrNtz;Lk; ,y;iynadpy; ehk; nkhopAk; milahsKk; mw;wtu;fs; vd xg;Gf;nfhz;L cUtw;wtu;fshf khwNtz;Lk;. mt;tifahf cUtope;J NghtjpypUe;J ek;ikj; jLj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; Kaw;rpfs; vy;yh jsq;fspYk; epfo;e;Js;sd. jkpopd; nkhopf;FLk;gj;ij milahsk; fhZjy;> jkpofj;jpd; epytpay;tbtpay;fisg; gjpTnra;jy;> jkpof muRfspd;; tuyhw;iw Neu;Nfhl;Lf; fhy tupirapy; vOJjy;> jkpofj;jpd; rhjp-Fy tuyhWfisAk; tof;fhWfisAk; njhFj;jy;> mJtiu nghJr;r%fj;jpw;Fg; Gyg;glhky; kiwe;J fple;j jkpo; E}y;fisg; gjpg;gpj;jy;> goe;jkpo; nkhopiaj; jw;fhyj; jkpOf;Fs; gjpTnra;jy; vd mwpTUthf;f> Mtz cUthf;f nray;ghLfs; vd ,it tpuptile;Js;sd. mj;Jld; jkpopd; NtWgl;l kuGfisAk;> gd;ikahd tof;fhWfisAk; cs;slf;fpa xU nghJ milahsj;ij cUthf;fp mjw;Fs; xU nrt;tpay; kuig ikag;gLj;Jy; vDk; gz;ghl;L murpay;> milahs murpay; cUthf;fk; vd;Dk; kpFe;j Kf;fpaj;JtKila nray;ghLk; epfo;fpwJ. ,it midj;jpYk; xU gpujpikaj;jd;ik> gDty; ikaj;jd;ik cs;Sb ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gij ,q;F ehk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. 1835-f;Fg; gpwF ,e;jpau;fs; mr;Rg;gbfis> E}y;fis cUthf;Fk; cupik ngw;w gpwfhd epfo;Tfs; ,it> Mdhy; ,it midj;ijAk; njhlq;fpitj;jtu;fs; INuhg;gpa rkag;gzpahsu;fSk; fpof;fpe;jpaf; fk;ngdpapd; epGzu;fSk;. mtu;fspd; Mtzq;fSk; Ma;TfSk; jkpof-,e;jpa mwpitj; jd;tag;gLj;jp Nkyhjpf;fj;ij tpupTgLj;Jtjw;fhd cj;jp. mNj Mtzq;fSk; Ma;Tj; juTfSk; jkpo; rhu;e;j mwpTUthf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilfshf mikfpd;wd. ,e;jj; jskhw;wk; jkpo; mwpT vd;gJ xl;LUtj; jd;ikia> fyg;Gj;jd;ikia Vw;W jdf;fhd Nfhl;ghl;LUthf;fj;ij epfo;j;jpajd; njhlu;r;rpahf epfo;e;jJ. ,jw;Fg; gpd;dhd jkpo;r;nrhy;yhly;fspd; midj;Jj; jsq;fspYk; njhlu;r;rpahf Nfhl;ghl;lhf;fk; vd;gJ ikakhd ,lj;ijg; ngWfpwJ. tha;nkhop tbtq;fs;> epfo;j;Jf; fiyfs;> vOj;J cUthf;fq;fs; midj;jpYk; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l Nfhl;ghL rhu;e;j ciuahly;fs; cs;slf;fg;gl;ld. NfhghyfpU\;z ghujpapd; ee;jdhu; rupj;jpu fPu;j;jid fpUj;jtk; Vw;gLj;jpa jPz;lhik Fwpj;j Nfs;tpiaf; ifahs;tjd; %yk; ,e;J kjj;jpw;Fs; xU Nfhl;ghl;L ,ilaPl;ilr; nra;a Kay;fpwJ. ,uhkypq;f mbfs; cyfkakhd gpd;dzpapy; rkur rd;khu;f;fk; vd;gij Nfhl;ghlhf;fk;

nra;tJld; epWtdk; rhu;e;j Kiwapay;fisAk; cUthf;Ffpwhu;> mtUf;Fg; ghly;> ciueil> Ngr;R midj;Jk; jdJ fUj;JUthf;fr; nray;ghl;bd; gFjpfshf mikfpd;wd. ghujpf;F etPdj;Jtk; vd;gJ rPu;jpUj;jk; ngw;w ,e;J kjk;> tpLjiy ngw;w jha;ehL vd;gtw;Wld; ,izfpwJ> mtuJ ghly;fSk; vOj;Jf;fSk; etPdj;Jtj;ijj; jd;tag;gLj;Jk; Kaw;rpfshfpd;wd. mNahj;jpjhrg; gz;bju;> ngupahu; <.nt.uh ,UtUk; jkpo; murpay;> jkpo; mwpT> jkpo; milahsk; vd;gtw;wpd; mbg;gilfisNa Nfs;tpf;Fl;gLj;jpajd; %yk; Gjpa Nfhl;ghl;L> fUj;JUt mikg;ig cUthf;Ffpd;wdu;. Njrpak;> Njr cUthf;fk; vd;git kWrPuikf;fg;gl;l ,e;J milahsj;Jld; jkpopd; xU Kf;fpar; nrhy;yhlyhfpwJ> jpuhtpl murpay; nrhy;yhly; vd;gJ gFj;jwptpd; mbg;gilapyhd r%fePjpapd; cUtfkhfpwJ. ,lJrhup rpe;jidfs; cyf mstpyhd tpLjiyapd; FwpaPlhfj; jkpo; ntFrd cstpaypy; gjpthfptpl;lJld; ,yf;fpa> Nfhl;ghl;Lr; nrhy;yhlypd; Gyg;glhj cs;slf;fkhf nray;gl;Lf;nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. jkpopd; ntFkf;fs; murpay; Ngr;Rr;nraypd; gpupf;fKbahj gFjpahf xU njhd;kj;jpd; jd;ikAld; ,lJrhup fUj;jpaypd; njhlu;fs; gjpe;JNgha; cs;sd. ,tw;iwf; fle;J Gul;rpj;jiytu;fspd; njhd;kq;fSk;> Jau;j;ju P ;f;Fk; md;id gbkq;fSk;> jkpopdj; jiytu;fspd; nghw;fhyf; fdTfSk; vdj;njhlUk; ePz;l murpay; nkhopg;ngUf;fj;jpy; etPd jkpo; vOj;J ve;j Nfhl;ghLfspd; mbg;gilapy; jd;idj; njhlu;fpwJ> ve;jf; Nfhl;ghLfis vOj;jhf;FfpwJ> jd;idj;jhd; vt;tifapy; Nfhl;ghl;lhf;fk; nra;fpwJ vd;gJ ntWk; vOj;J Fwpj;jhd Nfs;tp kl;Lky;y. ,d;W epfo;e;Js;s ,uz;lhk; fl;l cyfkakhjYf;Fg;gpd;> ru;tNjr %yjd Vfhjpgj;jpa cUthf;fj;jpd; gpd;> cau;njhopy;El;g ru;thjpfhuj;jpw;Fg; gpd; ,e;jf;Nfs;tpfs; ,dp ehk; tho;tjw;fhd fdTfs; Fwpj;jhdit> ek;ik murpay; capupfshf itj;Jf;nfhs;tjw;fhd ek;gpf;iffs; njhlu;ghdit.

4.
jkpopy; Nfhl;ghLrhu;e;j vOj;Jf;fs;> vOj;J rhu;e;j Nfhl;ghLfs; vd;w ,uz;L jsq;fspYk; ehk; fLikahd rpf;fiy mile;jpUf;fpNwhk;. Vnddpy; ,Jtiu ehk; itj;jpUe;j ek;gpf;iffs;> ekf;Ff; fpilj;J te;j juTfs; midj;Jk; mbg;gilapy; ek;ikf; iftpl;bUf;fpd;wd. jkpo;r; r%fj;ijg; Gupe;j nfhs;tjw;F ehk; ,Jtiu ifahz;L te;j mwpjy;fUtpfs; NghJkhdjhf ,y;yhjJld; mit ekf;F kpff;Nflhd Gupjy;fisAk; mspj;J te;jpUf;fpd;wd. jkpo; vd;Dk; xw;iw milahsj;jpw;Fs; xU gz;ghl;L ikak; ,Ug;gjhf ehk; ek;gpte;jij rhjpapd; ,d;iwa ,Wf;fk; Fwpj;j Gupjy; cilj;Jg;NghLfpwJ. jkpopy; xU etPdj;Jt- gFj;jwpT kuG cUthfp te;jjhf ehk; ek;gpte;jij ,e;Jika rlq;Fg; ngUf;fk; ngha;ahf;fptpLfpwJ. jkpo;r; r%fj;jpw;F ,aw;if rhu;e;j tho;tpay; gofpa xd;W vd;w ek;gpf;ifia ,aw;if ehrj;ijr; rpwpJk; nghWg;gw;W ngUikAld; nra;Jnfhz;bUg;gJld; mZTiyfis kdpjFyj;ijf; fhf;fte;j khkUe;J vd;W ehk; nfhz;lhbf;nfhz;bUg;gJ nkhj;jkhf mopj;JtpLfpwJ. jkpopy; njhlu;r;rpahd xU murpay; nrhy;yhly; ,Ue;J tUtjhfr; nrhy;yg;gl;L te;jJ ntWk; MSk;fl;rp> vjpu;f;fl;rp kw;Wk; Jizf;fl;rpfspd; gilgy mzptFg;G vd;gjd; %yk; ngha;ahf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. jkpopd; ,d-nkhop-gz;ghl;Lmilahs murpay; gw;wpa fl;Lf; fijfis ,yq;if kz;zpy; jkpopdg; gLnfhiy epfo;e;J nfhz;bUe;jNghJ jkpo;$Wk; ey;Yynfq;Fk; jilapd;wp ele;Jnfhz;bUe;j Nju;jy; fs ehlfg; Ngr;Rfs; vupj;J ,y;yhkyhf;fptpl;ld. ,d-nkhop-milahsk; rhu;e;j tpLjiy kw;Wk; jd;Dupikg; Nghuhl;lq;fs; vd;gJ gpd; etpdj;jtj;Jtj; jsj;jpy; nghUsw;wit vd;gJ Nghd;w Ngr;Rfs; xUGwk; gug;gg;gLfpd;wd. mg;gbnadpy; jkpopy; murpayhf;fk; vq;F njhlq;fp vq;F KbfpwJ vd;gijg;gw;wpa Nfs;tpfs; kPz;Lk; NtnwhU jsj;jpypUe;J njhlq;fg;gl Ntz;ba Njit ,Uf;fpwJ. jkpopd; mwpTj;JiwAk;> vOj;Jk; ngUq;fijahly;fspd; topghl;L kd;wq;fshfptpl;ljhy; ,it murpay; ePf;fj;ij cWj;jypd;wpr; nra;J tUfpd;wd. ,e;jpah Nghd;w gd;ik kuGk; goik

kuGk; ,Wf;fk; ngw;w ehl;by; murpay; ePf;fg;gl;l jdpkdpju;fSk;> r%ff;FOf;fSk; kf;fs;ika murpaypd; mbg;gil mwq;fis mopf;Fk; Guhjd td;Kiwapd; fUtpfshfptpLtijj; jtpu NtWtop ,y;iy. ,e;jpa murpay; mikg;Gk; etPd kdpjcupik Nfhl;ghLfSk; ,e;jpahtpd; gz;ghl;by; gbahky; tpyfp ,Ug;gjw;fhd fhuzk; ,q;F ftpe;jpUf;Fk; murpay; ePf;fk; nra;ag;gl;l r%f cstpay;. ,e;j cstpay; tpLjiyf; Nfhl;ghLfshy; topelj;fg;gLk; etPd [dehaf murpay; cUthf;fj;ij mopj;J mbg;gilthj td;Kiw Ml;rp mjpfhuj;ijNa cUthf;Fk;. mg;gbnadpy; murpayhf;fj;ij njhlu;e;J nra;Ak; fiy-,yf;fpaq;fs; ekJ ,d;iwa Njit. ,Jtiu ,Ue;j murpayhf;fk; kw;Wk; Nfhl;ghl;lhf;f Kiwapy; vd;d nfLjp Neu;e;jJ vd;w Nfs;tp vOk;. mtw;wpd; gd;ik kWf;Fk; mwpjy; KiwfNs mtw;wpd; mbg;gilf; nfLjpfs;. cyf mstpyhd tpLjiyf; fUj;jpay;fspy; xd;iw mwptpay; G+u;tkhf Kd;itj;j NguwpQu; mk;Ngj;fupd; rpe;jidfs; jkpopd; nghJr; rpe;jidf; fsj;jpy; ,d;Wtiu tpspk;GepiyapNyNa itf;fg;gl;bUg;gij ,jw;F vLj;Jf;fhl;lhff; $wyhk;. jypj; murpay;> jypj; fUj;jpay; Fwpj;j jkpo; vOj;jhsu;fs;> mwpTj;Jiwapdupd; ,opthd Gwk;js;Sk; ghu;it ,tu;fs; ve;j ehSk; tpLjiy murpaYf;F Mjuthdtu;fs; ,y;iy vd;gjw;fhd milahsk;. jypj; ,yf;fpak; VNjh jypj;Jfs; vOjp jypj;Jfs; gbj;Jf;nfhs;sNtz;baJ vd;gJ NghyTk; mit jkpo; ,yf;fpaj;jpNyh> rpe;jidj; jsj;jpNyh NruKbahjit vd;gJ NghyTkhd xU Nghf;if jkpo;g; nghJf;fsk; gofp itj;jpUg;gJ ,jd; mwpT kWg;Gf;F kw;nwhU cjhuzk;. jkpopy; ngz;zpar; nrhy;yhlYk;> ngz;zpa Nfhl;ghLfSk; vjpu;nfhs;sg;gLk; Kiwia itj;Nj jkpo;r;rpe;jid etPd jd;ikia milatpy;iy> mJ kdpj cupikfis kWf;Fk;> mwptpay; ghu;itaw;w epiyapy;jhd; ,d;Dk; ,Uf;fpwJ> mjpNyNa mJ ngUik nfhs;fpwJ vd;gJ Gyg;gl;LtpLk;. ngupahu; jkpopy; ,lxJf;fPl;L murpay; jtpu kw;wtw;wpy; ntspNaw;wg;gl;l xU rpe;jidahsu; vd;gJ GupatUk;. xU kuGr; r%fk; nghJg;Gj;jpapy; ngz;zpa kWg;G> ngz; rkj;Jt vjpu;g;igf; nfhz;bUe;jhy; mjw;fhd Nghuhl;l Kiw NtW. ,q;F etPd rpe;jid> etPd ,yf;fpak; vd;w jsj;jpy; mit epahag;gLj;jg;gLtjd; xNu gpd;dzp ,Jtiu ,e;jj; jsq;fs; etPdg;gltpy;iy> tpLjiyf; fUj;jpay;fis Vw;ftpy;iy ,tw;wpd; mwpthu;j;jk; vd;gJ ntWk; ebg;G vd;gJjhd;. ngz;zpak; kw;Wk; ngz; rkj;Jtk; vd;gij xt;nthU ,ioapYk; mtkhdg;gLj;Jk; jkpopd; fhl;rp Clfq;fs; kw;Wk; jpiuj;Jiw vd;Dk; mwpTkWg;G> tpLjiy kWg;G epWtdq;fSf;F ,tu;fs; mspj;JtUk; jpwd; rhu;e;j gq;fspg;Gfs; Fwpj;J ,tu;fSf;F ve;j mtkhd czu;Tk; Vw;gLtjpy;iy> khwhf mJNt ,tu;fspd; tPLNgwhf ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy; ,tu;fNs r%f mwk;> Ez;Zzu;Tfs; vd;W Ngrpj;jpupAk;NghJ jkpopd; khw;Wr; rpe;jidfSf;fhd ,lj;ijAk; mopj;JtpLfpwhu;fs;. jkpopy; tpspg;G epiyr; r%fq;fs;> tpspk;Gepiy murpay; Fwpj;j fdj;j mikjp ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ. jw;NghJ jkpopy; gjpthFk; rpWkuGfs; Fwpj;j fijahly;fs; Gjpa xU jsj;ij mile;Js;sd. ,it ,Jtiuapyhd Nfhl;ghl;lhf;fq;fspd; Nghjikia czu;j;Jfpd;wd. ,df;FO tho;f;iff; fijfs;> ,dtiutpay; fijfs; mbg;gilapy; khw;W murpaypd; Nfhl;ghL kw;Wk; nray;ghLfspd; njhlf;fkhf mikfpd;wit. jkpopy; ,t;tif vOj;Jf;fs; xNu jsj;jpy; gilg;gpyf;fpyf;fpaq;fshfTk; Nfhl;ghl;L cUthf;fkhfTk; gjpthfj; njhlq;fpAs;sd. #oypay; murpay; jkpopd; mjpf tpspk;G epiyg;gLj;jgl;l xd;W. ,J ,yf;fpar; nrhy;yhlypYk;> Nfhl;ghl;Lr; nrhy;yhlypYk; kwjpf;Fl;gl;ljhfj; njhlu;fpwJ. moif Nerpj;jy; vd;Dk; xU czu;Tj; jsj;jpy; jkpopy; mjpfk; Ngrg;gLk; ,aw;if mbg;gil cyf murpaypy; xd;whFk;NghJ kwjpf;Fl;gl;ljhf khwptpLfpwJ. jkpopy; vOgJfspy; njhlq;fg;gl;l khu;f;rpaj;jpw;fhd neUf;fbfs; Fwpj;j tpthjq;fs; njhlq;fp> ngupahupar; rpe;jidfis jw;fhyg;gLj;JtJ> mk;Ngj;fupaj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L ,e;jpar; r%fj;ijg; Gupe;Jnfhs;tJ> ngz;zpaf; Nfs;tpfspd; top midj;J

mwpTj;jsq;fisAk; kWMf;fk; nra;tJ> jypj; murpaiy [dehaf murpaypd; Kd; epge;jidahf Vw;gJ> ,tw;Wld; Ez;zurpay;> clyurpay;> milahs murpay; vd;gtw;iwAk; cs;slf;fpa nghJf;fsk; cUthf;fg;gLk; NghJjhd; tpLjiyf; fUj;jpay;fs; rhu;e;j> Mjpf;fj;ij kWf;Fk; gd;ik murpay; nrhy;yhly;fs;; jkpopy; cUthf KbAk;. ,it midj;ijAk; xd;whfj; jUk; ve;j xU jdpj;j Nfhl;ghl;Lj; njhFjpAk; jw;NghJ ,y;iy vd;gjhy; ,it fyg;Gj;jd;ik-,izg;Gj;jd;ik nfhz;ljhfNt ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;j fyg;G epiyia> ,izg;G epiyia> xw;iwj; jd;ik mw;w epiyiaj; njhlu;e;J epidtpy; gjpT nra;aTk; ngUq;fijahly;fshy; kiwf;fg;gLfpwitfisj; njhlu;e;J Gyg;gLj;jTkhd jkpopd; vOj;Jf;fs; Nfhl;ghl;L mbg;gilfSld;jhd; mikAk;> ,e;j vOj;Jf;fisg; Gupe;J nfhs;sTk; Nfhl;ghLfs; Ntz;Lk;. 5. Nfhl;ghl;lhf;fk; vd;gJ xU murpay; nray; vd;gjhy; Nfhl;ghl;L ePf;fk; vd;gJ murpay; kWg;Gr; nrayhfpwJ. xU Nfhl;ghL jd;id fhyj;jpw;Fk; epfOk; #oYf;Fk; Vw;g GJg;gpj;Jf;nfhs;shjNghJ mJ ek;gpf;if vd;w epiyia mile;J gpd; njhd;k tbtk; ngw;W ,Wfp mbiknfhs;Sk; fl;lisfspy; xd;whf khwptpLk;. ,e;jr; rlq;F epiyf;F khw;whf Nfhl;ghLfisg; GJg;gpj;jiyAk; mtw;iw ,aq;Fk; epiyapy; itg;gijAk; ehk; njhlu;e;J nra;Jnfhz;bUf;fNtz;Lk;. Nfhl;ghl;Lr; nray; vd;wTld; VjhtJ xU fUj;jhf;fj;ij ikag;gLj;jp mJNt midj;ijAk; cs;slbf;fptpl;ljhf epUTtNj Nfhl;ghl;Lf; nfhLq;Nfhd;ikapd; mbg;gil. ,e;j tif ikag;gl;l Nfhl;ghLfs; jkJ Nfhl;ghl;L epiyia ,oe;J Mjpf;ff; fUj;jpay;fshfTk; mjpfhug; ngUq;fijahly;fshfTk; khwptpLk;. jkpo;-jpuhtpl milahs murpay; vd;why; mJNt midj;ijAk; cs;slf;fptpl;ljhfTk; mjw;Fs; jypj; milahsk;> ngz;zpa milahsk;> tpspk;Gepiy kf;fs; kw;Wk; ,df;FO milahsq;fs;> ghyurpay; milahsq;fs; vd vJTk; jdpj;jdpNa ,Uf;fKbahJ vd;gJ cz;ikapy; jd;dilahsq;fspd; murpay; ,Ug;ig mopg;gjhfNt ,Uf;Fk;. ,lJrhup rpe;jidj; jsj;jpYk; ,NjNghy; ghyurpay;> #oypay; murpay;> gz;ghl;L-milahs murpay;> kz;Zupik murpay;> jd;dhl;rp murpay;> ,dtpLjiy murpay; vd vy;yhk; mlq;fptpl;ljhf cupik Nfhu;tJ mtw;iw nksdj;jpy; Gijj;J cUtopf;Fk; mopj;njhopg;G cj;jpahfNt ,Uf;Fk;. mg;gbnadpy; NtWgl;l milahsq;fis nkhopg;gLj;JtJk; me;j milahsq;fs; jk;ik Nfhl;ghl;lhf;fk; nra;Ak;nghOJ mtw;iw gjpTnra;tJk; ,d;iwa vOj;Jf;fspd; Kjy;fl;lr; nray;ghlhf mikfpwJ. cyf Nkyhjpf;f murpaypd; ntspg;gilahd eltbf;iffs; xUGwk;> ru;tNjr %yjd Mjpf;fj;jpd; rjptiyg;gpd;dy;fs; xUGwk; vd kf;fs; mopg;Gr; nray;fs; tpuptile;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk; ek; fhyfl;lj;jpd; vOj;Jf;fs; mtw;wpd; Nfhl;ghl;L cUthf;f gq;fspg;igf; nfhz;Nl jk;ik epahag;gLj;jpf;nfhs;fpd;wd. jkpopd; ,Jtiuahd jdpj;jdpahd Nfhl;ghL rhu;e;j vOj;Jf;fs; jkJ ,l-nray; vy;iyfisg; Gupe;J Vw;W jdpj;J khWgLk; Nfhl;ghl;Lr; nrhy;yhly;fSld; jk;ik ,iz-,Ug;ghf;fpf;nfhs;Sk;nghONj ek;fhyj;jpw;fhd cyfkar;#oypy; nghUe;jpa jkpo; tho;Tf;fhd Nfhl;ghl;Lj; jsq;fs; cUthfKbAk;. -------------------------------------------Fwpg;G 1. ,f;fl;Liuapy; Nfhl;ghL vd;w nrhy; concept, ideology, doctrine, theory vd;Dk; nrhw;fSf;F neUf;fkhf xU trjp fUjp gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ mjw;fhd murpay; nghUspy;. Conceptualizing- Deconceptualizing, Politicization-Depoliticization vd;w fUJNfhs;fs; Nfhl;ghl;lf;fk;-Nfhl;ghl;LePf;fk;> murpayhf;fk;-murpay;ePf;fk; vdf; ifahsg;gl;Ls;sd.

2. murpayhf;fk;> gad;glyhk;:

murpay;ePf;fk;

vd;Dk;

fUj;jhf;fq;fis

tpsf;f

gpd;tUk;

Nkw;Nfhs;

Politics proper thus always involves a kind of short circuit between the universal and the particular; it involves the paradox of a singular that appears as a stand-in for the universal, destabilizing the "natural" functional order of relations in the social body. The political struggle proper is therefore never simply a rational debate between multiple interests but, simultaneously, the struggle for one's voice to be heard and recognized as that of a legitimate partner. In this precise sense, politics and democracy are synonymous: the basic aim of antidemocratic politics always and by definition is and was de-politicization, that is, the unconditional demand that things should return to normal, with each individual doing his or her particular job.

(Slavoj iek in A Leftist Plea for "Eurocentrism" . Critical Inquiry, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Summer, 1998) The University of Chicago Press)