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2.1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4. . .
1.5.

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1.6.
1.7.
1.8.

1.9.
1.10.
. . . .
2.2. .
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2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4. .

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1.1.
1.2. . . .
.2.1.
.2.2.
.2.3.
.2.4.
,2.5.
2.6. , ,
1.3.
2 . 0;

3 . 1 .
3.2.
2.1.
>.2. . .
>.3.
!.4.
3.3.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
3.4.
.

54
55
55
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65
67
67
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72

4.1.
.1.

77
77

4.1.2.
4.1.3.

4.1.4.
. . . .
4.2.

4.2.1.
4.2.2.
. . .
4.2.3.
. .

4 2.4. .
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. . .

4.2.5. . .

. .

4.3. .
. . .
4.3.1.
. .
4.3.2.
.

4.3.3. . . .

4.3.4.
4.3.5.
4.4. . . . .
4.4.1.

. . .
4.4.2.
4.5. ,

4.5.1. .

. . . . .
4.5.2.
4.5.3.
. .
4.5.4. ( )
4.5.5.

80
84
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89
91
93
94
97
97
97
98
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101
102
102
104
105
105
109
6
120
124

5.1.
5.1.1.
.
5.1.2.
5.1.3. .
5.1.4.
5.2.
5.2.1.
5.2.2.
5.2.3. . .
5.2.4.

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78

126
126
132
134
136
139
139
139
147
151

6.1.
. . . .
6.11.
6.1.2. . - . .
6.2. . .
6.2.1.
6.2.2.
6.2.3.

161
161
164
170
1"0
171
177

48237

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2.4.
.2.5.
.2.6.
2.7.



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.2.8. .
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2.9.
. . . .
2.10.
.

2.11. . . . .
2.12- . . . .
6.3. . .
.3.1.
3.2.

3.3.
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6.4.

. . .
4.1.

4.2.
4.3. ,

4.4.

1.5. ,

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6.5.
5.1.
1.2. ,

. . .
1.3.

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180*
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201
205
213
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217
220
222
228228231
234
242
244
255
255256
258-

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7.1.
. . .
.1.

.2.

.3.
.4.
,5.
. . . .
6.
7.2.
1.
2. .
3. . . .
4. . .
5. . .
S.
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7.
3. -
7.3.
1.
I. , . . . .
S.
7.4.
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280
280'
282
286
290
295
298
309
309
312
316'
317
320
321
331
333
337
337
339
343^
346
346


348
351
360
365
366
368
379
379

7.4.2. .
7.4.3.

7.4.4.
7.4.5.
7.4.6. , .
7.4.7.
7.5.
7.5.1.
7.5.2.

7.5.3.

7.5.4.
. : . . .
. 7.5.5. - . .
7.6.
7.6.1.
7.6.2.
7.6.3.
7.6.4. . . .
7.6.5. . . . .
.
8.1. . , .
. . .
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8.2.
8.2.1.
8.2.2.
8.2.3.
8.2.4.
8.2.5.

. . . .
8.2.6.
8.2.7.
8.2.8.

8.3.
8.3.1. ,

8.3.2. ' . . .
8.3.3.
8.4.
8.4.1. . .
8.4.2. . .
8.5.
8.5.1.

8.5.2.
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8.5.3. ,,
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8.5.4.
8.5.5.
8.5.6.
8.5.7. . . . . . . . .
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8.1.1.
8.1.2.
8.1.3.
8.1.4.
8.1.5.

388
392
393
406
414
414
415
419
423
430
441
441
444
446
456
464
472
472
478
480
483
493
502
504
518
522
522
525
536
552
552
552
559
559
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9.1.
9.1.1.
9.1.2.
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9.2.2.
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9.2.4.
9.3.
9.3.1.
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9.3.2.
9.3.3.
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10.1.
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2.1.8.

,
, .
, ,
(),
()
.
, ,
Z .

.


2 = /cos , .
, , . .
2 .
,

0
Z

2
| | >

\ %\
L

,
/.


, / fxt
'2
\z \ "

, , ,

,


2., \1- \

.
2 ,

,
(),

, ,,
)

36

^1

._

,,
,
1 '
1


1 z: | =
SJt

'1

.
.

,
\ Z j = |Z-\
.
8

2.1.9.

. : 1) , 2)
, 3) 4) .

,
( 50100 ),
(
) ,
.
,
, ,
, .

[21, 82].


, ,
,
.
,

. , .
, -
, Z=r+ix,

.

f = 0 f
~,

,
, .
,
MUH

37

/
Z = 4- i
,
, Af,
[76]
A L = IkTrbf.

(2.24)

k , 1,38-10

, ,

, Af .
,
( = 293), (2.24)

{^ ) =^^.
(2.25)

,
,
/,
Z = 4 - \ f,
Af.
,
g \,

z = J- =

- i - .

g+ib


, . ,
Z.

,
'

.,2 _ _ 4 * 7 7 /
' ~ |Z|
'

. .
2

= AkTgAf.

(2.26)

,
,
,

.
,
. . . ,

, .
38


, -
.

/?, = dujdi

.
,
, .
- ,


2,53 .

, Af
a

= 4kT R &fik
e

()


, R .
, ,

lua

4kT gfif~4kpng bf,


e

,
()
_

1 _

[Ri

di


,
, :

= 21 ,

(2.27)

-19

, 1 , 6 - ,
F .
,
, ;

() . , ,

h =

i'c +

i' i" .
, i' i"
c

39


, .


:
/L =
+ 2 ( / + ] |) /.
(2.28)
/


=f-

= ^ l .

(2.29)



. ,

, ,
, .


[76].
,
,
, , }^ ,

.
5 (/), 1
I (),

:

a0

.2^5
' S '


. 2.5 / ,

. 81

30

' S \

Jl o +
a

3(>

,
35 ,
.


2

= ^,

(2.30)

.
, . 2.8,
.
40

Gi G
, G ).

, / .
2

/f.

. 2.8.

()
()

' /^i ,

, AfLa , - (2.26), (2.28)


(2.30),
2

** +2'{1 +\1 \)

\ df Af,

6/ ,
,

4 +'2{1 +\1^\)

4kTr

U =
2

K df-

(2.31)

(g + gcrf + b*

- (2.31) g b
; ,
, , ; 3 0 0 ,
= 1,38-10
/ = 1,6- 10~ .
Ki (Ki < 25),

.
<? - (2.31),
1

)
.
41

g, b, g . . . ,
, ,
K'Ki-

CK

= Vb'l + UZ
2

,
,
,
.
, .
,
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,
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. 1000
.
(, )



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, , 42



.
,
,
(. . 6.2.11).
,

,

const

VT^Th-

,
, ,

() ,

U .
,
, Z
.
,
,

5
1 .
,
,
,
,
,
/,
. . [14, 17],
, . 9.2.3.
,
R,

\/R~', / 0

R:

= const R.
'



, ,
( ),
(
).
,
,
, 43

;
,
,
.


Z ,

.

f = YfJe *
.


, . . , . ,
, 50 ,

c

cp

201g-^2_ = 50<5

= 0,00316

2 H 0 M

2.1.10.

D

.

.
, .

,

D = 20 lg
n



,
.

D i=s 70 ;
50 .
,
D ,

/ ( 1 )
U
( Ia ),
(), .

2 m u h

44

MUH



.
. ,
,

U2 , , () . .

.

, ,
10 . ,
.

, ,
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[65],
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.
,
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[5, 28].

. 2.

.

,
.
, ,
.

45

2.2.

2.2.1.
,
, ,

, . . ,
' ) .


U\(t)
, , ,

Ui(0 = <Vl(0,
(2-32)
[/ =const, 1 (/) ,
:
1 (0 - 0 /
(2.33)
1 () = 1 t > ;
0

t t , . . 1 (t i;),
t < t-, t > t
(2.32) U , i(0
,
,
) = 1 (0(2.34)
t

ud

^ ^ U ^ _

. 2.9. ()
()

f/i(f) = 1(0 . 2.9 1,


1

) ,
, , = ]/2 coj
. . , ,
( t = ,
, , t v 0).
46

; ^1 ,
J K i e e ,
. ,
| | , ,
t, tt], t1 . . .
, (. 1.26)
:

'

u (1)r--U \(t-t )-U \{t-t ).


1

, , ,
h(t),

w (^
! w (t)= l(t).
k(t),
u (t),

Ui{t) = \(t), . .
2

*(0 = M 0 U , ,

I ( O

(2-35)


.

2 3
. 2.9. (f),
= 0,
u (t)=\(t)

(t) = k(t)
, ,
:
(
=k(t) = K(f)^
= K(0).
=

2.2.2.
,
,
,

. ,
, ,
. .
.
,

, k - \ {t), k =const.
m

47

, . .
, , -,
t (. 2.10),
0,1 0,9 (
) > -,
s,
, , -, s
( ),
,-(. 2.106),
0

cn

. 2.10. () ()


< , , t = 0 = 0),
;
(. 2.96).
t
( ) T (

),

, .


t ,

( 2

3 6 )

' ^ i b k ,
z .
k ~ 4/3, =2 z=-625, t, ^ 0,08 .

(t > /,.)
.
48
y


, . . [53],
, . .
t

:
4o6u(

ty V4i
o6ui

+ ^ + -

+ ^~

37

<- )

(2.37) ,
.
/
;
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(),

. ,

, 5%,
.
, (
) ,
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N.

)


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|
14%.
f

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7:

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HzIM
8)
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)

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4237

49


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;
()
()
1

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(2.38)

cnN-

2.2.3.

, .

,
,
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, :
,


,


,


[46, 60].


, ,
,
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. ,
. 2.12.

. 2.12,
( )
,
,
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,

*) '
s
(. 2.106).
50


,
.
,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
, .
, , ,
i f ( ), / 2
. 2.12, ,

.
,
.
, , ,

B = f(B ),
a

u3

o6



;
, (, )
, , .
, ,
,
:
3

(2.39)

,
:
B =kbb^k Bnp, Bl .
(2.40)
U3

=k

0,5,
1 ~ 2 3,
"{ , 1.

= k u^'
0,67 1. ,
,

= 1,5 2. "f
or ,
, ,
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5,

,

,
= /

= AjjU'fj, "fc , ,
, , "fc

.

,
, ',
,
. .
,

()
. ,
5- (. 2.6),
2

du,

Ui = 0 - k ,
0

du

du,

i
i
- k < k ;
2

du

,
[45], :
ft

ft,

. .
(2.41)

(. 2.66)
du,

(.

- ; k

MUH

du

, :

MaKC

(2.42)
2.2.4. .

,
.

,
k(t) (. 2.9 2.10).

(. 2.26),
52

.


u (t)
u (t) (. 2.11).
,
,

,
:
2

1.

2.13,
t
(
),
() \jT
"77
,
, ,-;
. 2.13.


, .
t

dt

,


R ,
( , , R

).

th


u , ,
( )
R
.

ex

ex

aKC

UaH


3.1.


(. 1.6) , ,
, ,
().
, , ;
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,
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54

,
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. . 1925 .


.

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'),
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3.2.

3.2.1.
,
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55

(. 3.2). ^

. 3.2.

, , ,
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0 ,
0

.
( )


.
;
. 3.3.3.

, .
, ,
-
.


,
U /U i .
, (. 1.3),
,
.
,
R (. 3.3),
1

02

c2

56

(, )
.
R . ,
d a

chsu

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1
. I

. 3.3.

,
U -\- \U \ 50 250 ;
ai~c


, ,
,
,
U 4- \U \,
Gi .

U ,

;
R . , R ,

U ( )
.
R ,

, R ,

I
.

,



,


^ - 3 4 -

a0

c0

aQ

c0

c02

cu2

57

. ,
,
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( ).
a

3.2.2.

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.

I


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(. 3.5)

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777&77777777
777-7777777
,
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( ') .

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).
2

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58

( )

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. 3.7.

,
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, '
.


. .

,


.
,
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:
1

= +

11

"2 = +

+ ]

+ <h u\

- f a u\
3

U2ft>

. . .,

. . . .


"i =

2 ,

=
'

- f - 1

(3-

- (3.1)
(. 2.6), , .

.
,
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(, ) ,
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,

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,
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,

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,

;
7.6,

(. 3.10).
^
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R
R ,
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R .

,

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1 G

(+)
^
a

R ^
a

XT * V
fSL*r>

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a

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a

61

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3.2,3

).

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Ht

R.

&

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b.

jj

,
(.

3.12).

3-IJ),

(,

0)

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- 3. .
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>

}>*

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( ^ . ).

<

().

, *
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L

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,
C R ,
R .
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,

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. ,

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64


,
.
,
, .

( | Z | > 100 )

.
,
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.
x

3.2.4.

( < 3 6 ) , . . 1- .
2

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, ,


Z
(. 3.16).

237

65

,
,
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Z

2
.


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.
,
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,


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2

2 o n m

3.17.

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66

( < 1050 )
(. 3.17),
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9


U
(. 3.18),
^, U =0 (. 3.186).
0

c0

3.3.

3.3.1.
1 , .

", ,
,
.
,
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, ,
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.
67

3.3.2.

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(. 3.19).
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24
48

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(. 3.20);

.



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. 3.21.

(. 3.22).

,
68

(,
) ,
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,
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0
. 3.22.

,
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R ( ).

1^
/-*-\


/
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Uco

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, no

^ rVW-j

{,
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-
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.
,
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CR ( R )
,
.
X

69


,
U ,


10 20 .
,


,

,
+ *

i

,
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,
50 100 ,
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,

5 15 ,


. 3.24.

.

KHQ

3.3.3.


. 3.25. U
c0

. 3.25.

U

R R^. m

70

1 , ,
U = R I
U = {R + RJ / ,
R R' R' , R'^,
.


R R^
' R , " R' ...

0,1 1 ,
0,1 1 .
,
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R ( 3100 )
6^,(0,5 100 ).
(. 3.25)
.
, ,

.
, R (. 3.25)
,
, R I ,
1
.


. i i
,
** _ 0 i ,
,
0

C0

KL

C02

K1

KI

:
I

3 A0

" = R

i.
B


( ) ! .
0,05 10 .
(. 3.20)
.
| , U" , U = RI .
, d .

C0S

71

,
. 3.25,
;
,
R , R ^ . . . ,
. 3.26, (
) .
K

. 3.26. ,
R , /?/-.
c

= 1

+ 1

< U o = # c


( R );
,
^(,02 = RJaOic


R^ R , . . . ,
. , . ,
,... (5 1000 ).
K2


[31].
3.4.

,
,
, . ,
72

f
, |, , I ( m ^ l ) ;
| .
I ,
, . .

(
, .)
;


.


.
, ,
,
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^ .

|,
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) -^,- .
srfg ,
.
^^
. tft?
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^ ,
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,
(~, ), " - ,
. '

') ,
,' ,
.
73


. (


, U ),
, .
. 3.27.
H

. 3.27.


, -7

-
( )

;
, , :

-f
R

i =

(3.2)
. Rj

"

= const.



.
-53, ,
. 3.28.

.
( 10 )
, ,
,
(
74

10 ). 20 ,
2
10 - .

(. 3.126
3.136), , ,
6

0,5

~ 3.28. ,
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,
0
*

ae

ft 9-


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1 ,


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. 3.27 3.28 , , , .
. 3.28, 75


10 .
,
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() .
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, ,


.

- .

0,10,5 .
, ,

(. . 2.1.10), ,
, , ,
, ,
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:
,
.


4.1.

4.1.1.
, .
, ,
i
" () = const
.
,

a

la

= < ( c<
U

a>

H\

. ,
" , ,
^.

= ( , ).

(. 4.1),
, =
const Z 0 , . .

77

i . ( , ),
, = i (i ),

a

= (/ ( " )

= const-



.



R ,

\l fia
I

.

tat)


I

'
a

. 4.1. \ ,

, ,

,
.
,
: 1) 2) .
4.1.2.

,
,
,
,
R ^0,
. 4.1,
0

(4.1)
(4.1) , i ;
- = U = const
,
a

t0

(4.2)
.
(4.1) (4.2) ,
. (4.1) i 78
a

,
/ .=
= E 'R
(. 4.2). /
U
b [ - (4.2)],
. . .
U' ,
' .

a0

a0

-.

- -8 -*
'

"*

.1

)
)
. 4.2.

,
6% / U
', ", , '"...,

,

, , .
0

a0

,
i (. 4.26),
', ", , '"...,
.
-i

i = / ( )
, , ^

U , /

, , R 6%,
i ,
, . 4.26 .

. , =-- 250 R = 50 ;
=
= 250 (. 4.2)

a0

250

50

= 5 = I,
79

.
/, = 6 ,
: U ^\40
/ ^ 2 , 2 .
, . 4.2,
R . R 0
, R
,

0

aQ

ctg = ^=~

= ^-

(->

, :

'

ctg &, = /?
'

1 1 ,
\ 1. , (4.3) ctgP
, . . [3,

/ = ^ .

Ra

4.1.3.

,
Z = r (. 4.1),
U
a

l0

C/ sinwt.
mc

,
:

= a0

"

+ "

/ U
( ^ = 0) , a i ^, ^,
.
0

aQ

UaO i ~
a

~ ^

^) '

ia-IaD=T(" -UJ
a

(-)

(4.4)
,
A (U , l ). 1 / < 0
80
a0

a0

, [ ri/2 (. 4.3),

tg f>i =
3 = .

tg3 = - ^ , ctg3 = r .
.

(4.5)

, { , - ' i
" ,

,
~~
) - /
.
1

,
" , . 4.3.


,

R
( = 0,
) .
*| ,
'& ()
) ( ) . , ,
|
^, ,

JffeHb r = R .
; ;
().
\ s . , ,
. 3.3,
-$ R , , ,
. ,
c

( <^R \ ,

*-237

RI +

,
81

,
R R

RgRc
Ra+Rc


LC (. 4.4) R = R .
/?,
;



a


,
a Q . -

1. 4.4.
, 3 R

'



1! / ,
,
.
'
1 ( U ) \
=
( 1 =
,
. 4.5.
.

: 1) r >R ,
2) r <R

3) =0.
^'

U , U l ,
1

I
1 ...
,
, , ,
<

cm

82

am

am


= U
' ~
g

4.5.

: ()
( )
0

, i
,

. 4,6. :

' (. 4.6). 1
i
/ / i
, ,
6
83

aManC

aMUH

i .
. 4.6 ,
, , ,
,
.
, ^ ( )

= / + ' ~
, Z = r ( 4.1)
, ^ ,
. . ^= +U m<
i ^= + l
^ =
a

am

4.1.4.

.
, ,
, . .
.
,
( . 4.6)
r i ^,, ,
.
, ( _ = r i ^J),
.
a a

1
ZJ

am

a r c t

'

U
ZJ' , 180. ,
Z
an

am



" - = I a I Km
Z

s i n W

* = am S\nv>t.

(4.6)

I
| Z |
1 , . .
am

*~ = I sm(tot
an

84

).
?

'

(4.7)


F(i ^., _ ) = 0, /,
(4.6), (4.7).
(4.6) (4.7) ,
a

am

sin t cos l

am

cos t sin

U
"a \\

- cos !.

sin <p.

,
+ 2

COS

U
^ am

Uam

sin

(4.8)

1 an

,
.
_ ,
(. 4.7).

. 4.7. . 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6

i
. . 4.76 ,


.
a

85

,
.
r = 0, = 90 - (4.7)
,

fl

Ur'-Vr

1.
Uam.

(4.9)

I am

=
. 4.8.

-
(4.8)
'

,
. 4.8.

0>

= \


(4.4). , i
-> 0, , ,
. ,
, .
,
(4.8) . 4.7,
, ,
U .

,

, ,
.

( ),
/ . 4.7,
( 2) ( 3).

.
a

,
. , ,
- (4.8), , , ,
, 86

,
.
- ,
,
< ,
/",.

, I
U.

cm

. 4.9. () ()
. . -

. . - ), ,

(. 4.9), ,
, ,
0 ,

, Ri,

Z.

.
,

Rt + Za '
,
4 95. xi Z
, .
, | Z |
(R + Z ), .
Z = r -f i ,,,
0

tl

Mt/fw

1 am

-, /

V(Rt+r ?
a

. I

cm

, >

+ xl

:
Ig-n
Ucrn

(Ri + rj- + xr

) M . . -.
", :, 19i9.

,0

".

,,87

S = S4,
^
d

";;

i\/(Rt

+ 0 -f

- -

4!0

< ''



. 4.10.
,

U
, U ,

[
.

^. 4.10.

^
\Z \.

am

am

4.2.

4.2.1.

,
,
.


i = f(u),

= , (/) = (_/ cos / ,


(4.11)

m

i = f(u) = b{t) = I

ep

+ I cos t
ml

+ I cos2*t^
mS

. . . ;(4.12)

, ,
: I , I , I

.

83

ml


U + U (. 4-11),
,
i =-- f ()
m

i = + + +
0

,

, O i , Cj . . .
I , I
1 ...
. 2.1.7;
. , , . . .
,

/ , I
1 ...
- . 4.11.
1 , I l
...1
- , ,
0

cp

m V

m 2

,
, i ,
/ , . . . , ) 0
- == ,
C O S ( t ,

cosa>r .
n

I'm ' Um

i = f ()
:
! h = hp +

m l C O S ^

-f-

m2

*2 = hp + t i cos- t + I
m

= rp +

7
m

l COS

m2

COS 1 ^ 4 -

-'-

m (

- l )

I*

i,
2

' l

COS u> U - j -

/ , COS

(0 r

} .(4.13)
+

m (

- l )

COS)<


| ,
[ 1- ,
, , ,
. 4.6 4.7.
4.2.2.
i = f(u)
, , i = a -J- +
, ,
, , . . . -

89

I , I
cp

) / =

m2

= 0, / = ~ - = (. 4.11).
2

(4.13), :
h

hp

1.

( )
hp

(4.14)

:
I

h ^

ml

(4.15)

2, + (

(4.16)

i
i 1
i .
b

, , . 4.12, J'J = i

= 67 , 2 = ^ 0 = 41,5
/ = (',, . = 20,2 ..
:

&
fa hp

67 + 2 - 4 1 , 5 4- 20,2
= 42,5


:
1

67 20, 2
23,4

. 4.12. ,
,

67 2 - 4 1 , 5 +

20.2
' = 1,05 -



, . .
k, =

J ana

In
90

.
=
= 0,049 =
23,4

4,9%.

.
, (4.15) (4.16) ,

(/, ) (/

2/ '
2

(4.17)

2 (, )
3

. 4.12 ,
\i i \ \i i \,
(4.17)
l

=
2

-|

(4.18)

2 ( + )

17

:
& = 0,049.
(4.18) ,

14 ,

^4

1 + 2fe;

1 -26,

(4.19)



. , /_,<5%
: < 11:9.

4.2.3.
" 5-
i = f(u),
i = f(u )
,

. I ,
I , 1 1

;
(4.13)
",

SO .
, ,


/,,.

( ) - 4.13.
a

P l , c

'

,,

,
, : 0', 60 , 90
3

91

120 180 (. 4.13), , (4.13):


+ I i 0,5 + /
( - 0,5)
h = /, + / i - 0 + / ( = / , + 1 ( - 0,5) + / , ( 4 = hp + mv(~ 1) + / - 1

'2 =

+ LB - 1) + /* ( ~ 0,5),
1) + / - 0 + / - 1 ,
0,5) + / 1 + / ( - 0,5).
+ / - ( - 1) +
1 3

:
(, +

/,) 4 - 2 ( 1 ,

(<1 ' ) +

4)

' ml
(j, +
7

<) -

2i,

(4.20)

2
('1

'5> 2(1

('1 -t- 5)
1

ti)

(t + '*)
12

4-

6i,


i i , . . . , i b

U --15Q6
ca

. 4.14. , B , ,
i

v

i
, . 4.14.
a

ii =

i ~ i
5

92

'<

8,5

= 6,2

4,0

= 2,2 .

- (4.20):
I

-1

,'

- CO.?+ 2 , 2 ) + 2 ( 8 , 5 + 4,0)
'

I
-I
' ~ 'ml

(.7-2,2) + (8,5-4,0)
:
(10,7 + 2,2) 2-6,2

,
^,06

6
(10,7 + 2 , 2 ) - 4 ( 8 , 5 + 4,0) + 6.6.2

>

= 0,125 ,

(10,7 2,2) 2(8,5 4,0)


j

,
6,31 ,

0,083 ,
=

12


]/

/ ^ 2 + / L s + 1

, =

| , 1 2 5 + 0.083*+ 0,008*

4,33

= 0,035

= 3,5%.
, i i . . .
,
, i i . . . .
lt

4.2.4.

' (. 4.15)

.
i = f {), U = ii, i\ = h,
i = 0

.

" (),
, .3.2.2,
,
. , (4.20) ,
h = i , h k
h =0
I , I
1 ,

3

/ , 1

. 4.15.


93

:
'ml-

(4.21)

m3

('x = 160 i = 95 ,

2(160 + 95)

= 170 .

1602-95

= 10 '.

, ,
1
1
10
- == 0,059 = 5 , 9 % ?

/1

"

4.2.5.
. .
i f(u)
, -

. 4.16. ^


U <
i = i = 0,
. 4.16, , = ()
, .
-
t ,
.
"

,
. . 4.16,
, i > 0 1 , .

4.

= 180 - = ^

, i
, $ 180,
i > 0, , = u {u>t = , . . . ),
i .

i = f(u ) (. 2.5)
i = / ( )
i = f(u ).

,

0180 "' ,
.
,
, t>0.

. . [8],

' CADB (.. 4.16).
. 4.16 ,

Maii

cos V =

(4.22)

,
U


& < 90 , > 90 .
BD :

i U -U,

- (

= U cos , a U = U cos &, ,


m

I, (cos t cos )

1 cos 8

'- =

...

(t).
T


.
\ ( )
9

2*

.,,
\ id (ID t)
2* J
'
1

h (cos / cos 9)

1 -

cos 9

d(wt) = sinft cos 9


'
(1 cos
,,
K

95

. 4 17. ,

. .
0

' ,

2

k-ik
2*

;'i (cos f cos 8) cos /

COS ka>td(u> t)

I mk

cos 8

. .
(4.25)

sin k 8 cos 8 k cos & 8 sin 9

k{k I) (I cos 8)

(4.26)

k- .
I , I
/ , . . . .
i U 0 . 4.16.
.
cos = cp

lt

>

Um

. 4.17 ,
0

96

.
2

:
/
J

ml

1~0
"1

(4.27)

= M l

m3
h 3
, ij = 2 , U = 50 L'j = + 30 ,
I . 4.13
7

30
cos 9

50

= - 0,5

: = 0,218, Oj 0 , 3 9 1 , = 0,276, = 0,138.


, - (4.22), : J
=
0,436 ., 1 = 0,782 , I = 0,552 /
= 0,276 .
,
, , =
( . 4.16)
i .
0

cp

4.3.

4.3.1.
,
|
| .
[ ,
, , [ , , Q .

( ), teKa.M . , \
, . .
. 2
\
.

.

4.3.2. '
,
,
JCIHHX ,
JKOM , , , ,
.
1237
97



(510%), ,
,
.

,

=J-U
,

(4.28)

am am

"-^)

:
romp
'

, =

U^
1

=
9

'

(4.29)

'

U I
am

am

/ / ^'
/

(4.30)

I
( )
, a U
1
.


.
(4.30)

am

!j = ^

(4.31)

Uao

*.

I am

(4.32)

:
.

(4.33)

^jihl

< 1,

< 1'

(1' ^i ),

acp

] < 0,5.

,
50%.
4.3.3.

,
( )
.
U


.
98
{0

,
, ,
- '
(. 4.18) ,
. 4.19.
,
,
, I ,
>^
Pj,

Ln

'


.

,

. 4.18.
-
'

, ,
90 (. 4.19), ,
, .

i :
a

In = + Is cos t

cos2u>
1*3.~

^ 2 - cos 4( t + . . .(4.34)
3 5 rc


,
(4.25) (4.26).
(4.26) & == 90 ",
,
a .= 0
k, k 1.
,

, a
= 0,5.

( 9 = 0
& = 180')
. 4.19.



.

0 < & < 180,
. 4.17.
,

7*

99

3.2.2, (

),
.
, (4.34),
( ,
. 4.19)

,
1

=0,785:

=
2

- -

( 4

3 5 )

) < 0,785,
(4.36)
. . 1,57 , .

, ,
. ,
,
, (. .
) ,
,
,

/
1

=-L/ .

, ,
. . . . [32],
34 , -

.
4.3.4.
.

,

(. 4.20).
, ,
,
.

100

I
/ >
(. 3.17),

.
oCp

. 4.20.
'

4.3.5.
,
,
, , -

. 4.21.
'


90 (. 4.21).
,
, .

. ,

= ,

(4.23) (4.26), 2 9 ^ 0 ,
,
] 1 ( - 0).

, . ,
, ,
,
.

4.4.

4.4.1.


.
()
.

. 4.22. () () .
Zj , Z

2


. . [11], . . [43], . . [41] .

( . . )
,

, . .
Z\ (. 4.22)
Z .
.

() ,
. ,
,
R r
. .

, 2

it

(102

ax

.
(
)
:
h=Y 0i
h=Y U +

+ Y&,
Y U.

11

21

(4.37)
(4.38)

22

Y . . .
.
,
, :
K Ui/O-i (. 4.22), =
= OilEi ( ),
Z = Ut/'li, Z
') .


(. 4.226).
Y = /,/>! , = (foj0 ) .
(4.37) (4.38)
. (4.38)
, h Y V% (. 4.22) ),
u

gx

ex

mx

o6p

Ut =

4" 2

-it

,
=

v
^ i

(4.37) U 0
2

= Y

(4.39)

+ KY

(4.40)

,
r

<

Y
(4.37) (4.38) U
. 4.226 IilYv
, / 0
/ :

1 (

) . 4.22
,
.
103

, ,
(. 4.22.)
=^=~

"

( -43)

)-
2

1 2

2 1

()
. (4.39), (4.42) (4.44) ,

7 1

=4^- =

(4.45)

(4.46)

. .
=*-

( + (* + )

4.4.2.


- , ,
. 4.23.
()
= U /U.

0
0.
. 4.23, ,

Za

~f~

Zb
a

Z ,

ab.
/ Z , U ,j
ab

ab

. 4.23.

ab

V-UZab
Za

~f"

Zb
a

1 4--

104

Z + Za
c

Zab

Z + Zd
c

ab

c + Z

Z + Za

1+ ZY
u

+ ZY
c

+ Z Y -Z Y
u

(4.47)

ZY
a

Y = \;Z Y = 1/Z .
' (4.47), ,
. 4 23,

.
b

rf

4.5. ,

4.5.1. .

. 4.9
,

. 4.24. ,
; p.U , ; SU
5


,
. 4.246,

(4.48)

Ri + z

I = ~=

.
, (4.48)
,
105-

G
SU
R ,
. 4.24s.
,

SU =I

+ i,

(4.49)


= ^

(4.50)

Ri

Ia

(4.49) (4.50) / , I

, = - ^ .
1 4- ^ -

(4.51)

Ri

/'

S U
=

'Uc

Ri +

Za

i^^r
Ri "T Z

Ri


SU
,
.
. 4.9 4.24
,
.
.
* , ;
, (. 4.25) :
,
.
, , ,
,
,
: 1)
{. 4.256),
,
.
, , 106
r

,
, ,
( . 4.256
, R
) , , ; 2)
,
, ; 3)
, , , . .
.

. 4.25, () ()

"
, , ,
= ,
=
= .
1 , . , :
=(1 ,
= = .
g , g g .


(4.52)

ac

aK


,
).


1

(4.53)
g
,


[76].
CK

107


,
- },

.
, i
~ 0, , -,
i , \ *
, ,
)

(6, 61 V
-)
..
fea
.

,
, g g
4
-~0.
,


oc

d i

ac

ac

g a n

( 4

5 4 )

i ~ T '
^
'
'
, ^ "
g ., ^
o
, ^' \

:
(4.55)
V = g + i ,
0

, a

= g
&

4-icoC

oc

^iiwC ,

'

(4.56)

(4.57)



. 4.26.

. 4.26. ^

Y , \
, Y , S
\
'
\ ^
^
,
(. 4.266), (. 4.26)
( )

,, gi =

Ri

i w C . ,
, (4.57), Y _
~
. SU
0 .
(. 4.26) ,
Y , Y^
; (. 4.266).
, . G
.
a K

AK

l 5

4.5j2.

.

. 4.27. , . 4.26,

. 4.27.

, ,
.
/ /
(. 4.22); SU

0
. 4.276 ,

I^Y^U.+.YJU.-U,)

h=Y 0
a

SU -Y {0 -U ),
1

ac

109

'!* = (S~YjU

(Y +Y )lU.

aK

ac

(4.37) (4.38), ,

Y^=Y

+Y ,

CK

(4.58)

ac

Yu = -Y

(4.59)

Y*i=S-Y ,

(4.60)

Y =Y +Y .

(4.61)

tt<?

ac

22

OK

ac

- (4.39) (4.42),

:
= =
Y

sx

=Y

CK

^
Y

Ui

aK

+ Y {\K)

CK

K . = *. +

(4.62)
V

+Y

ac

=Y

an

+Y

'

+Y

~ ^ f ^ r .

ac

- ^ T y ^ F

(4.63)
(4-64).

' 1 ' ac "T ' l

'"
- (4.62) (4.64);
, :
S\Y \,
\Y +
Y2\Y ,
ac

ac

I ^

">- + v , + y
a

:
^

sx

=Y

CK

' - '

+ Y {\ k) = Y +Y
ac

CK

Y.u*^Y * aK

( 4

'

+ i<oC .

mt


.
, .

= ^ - =
,

aK

-Z- + i>C + Y
1

aK

'

(4-66)
(4.67)

(4.57), Y ^z|Ri

Ki

6 5 )

2
1-f ( r ^ r ) .

ac

i < ,

(4.68)


.
Y =Y
+ iwC ,
(4.69),

an

4.70)

+Y

T t

,,
U =U
=
180\
() ZJ(Rl + Z ).
Z , U U
(. . 4.6
. 4.24).

, . 4.24.
, . 4.24, ,
2

fl

SU

(4.70).
.

- (4.66), (4.70), (4.55) (4.56), ,
Y

ex

= Y

CK

+ Y {\
ac

) = g

CK

+\o>C +i<oC (l+


CK

ac

^
(4.72)
111

, , (4.69),

, . .

(4.73)

b.
a

(4.72), = g.,
Ri

V
1

=
;

+ ia,C + i o C

f1+

e e

Si +

8a

(4.74)

+ i^a

Y ,

.
x

'

8'

(4.75)

* ,

J ^ : :

1+

( -7)

' , 2

(gi + g ? + bi

( -77)


, ,
,
. ,

(4.78)

,
G (. 4.27) (
) ,
: (.4.28).

(4.78) ,
S g = ,
g .
, , , C = q(f).
( 0)
( ~i ")

t

ex

g/

(gi + ia)

V- a

Si

Ri +

(4.79)

- (4.78)
,.

c (i

(4.80)

+.

e e

(g 0, 0)
- (4.80),
| [ a

(4.78) #(1COS?)

. | | < 45" > 3,


| | < 6 %,
.


*ftr


.
. 4.28.
=


, ,
(4.70),
. = (/)
(. 2.1 2.2)
,
, .

( = 0 Y = gj; ,
(4.70),

Ri+
+

Ya

,
, = (14)R /( = (0,5 0,8) ..
,
,
.
, , 62 [i = 55, = 5,5 =
= 0,35 . = 0,6 (, . = 33 = +
(1 + ) = 5,5 + 0,35 (1 + 33) = 17,4 .
-
: ;i = 55, = 5 5 = 45 .
= 0,6 [ = 33,
t

=" 55 4- 45 (1 + 33) = 2035 .


;
R > , .
250.

8237


,
64, 6} .
100, = 0,0035 0^=5,5 .

= 5,5 + 0,0035 101 - 5,5 + 0,35 = 5,85 .

\
6 : . = 11 = 1 .
~ 16,
= 11 + 1(1 + 16) = 28 .

,
,
(1 + )-
,


(1 + ) .

,
,,
-*
(4-81)


g , (4.52) (4.76),

ejr

. = g * + ~

due

+ /

(gi +

* ,

(4-82)

gj -rb*

gen ,
,
,

.
, ,

< 0.

di

, =0 = 0,

g .
,
= 0 g =0.

> 0 g > 0.
< 0 g < 0, . .
.
d

114

, ,
,
.
(),

,
, ,

[22].
, . .
,

.
g , ,
.

,
, ,

,
, .

, ,
. , ,
) .


,
.
,
,


.
, i = 0,

. (4.67),

, (4.65)
, Y + Y , Y
. aK

') , , ,
'
, . . (. . 284.
0

115

, , ,
Y = Y -f- i ,
a

gi=~-
Ri

, , : g , i i a C
(. . 4.26).
i

i i K

4.5.3.

.

. 4.29.
.

. 4.29.

. ,
. . . ,
( )
. . 4.26,
, SU , SU
Y .

SUx
U
. ,

. (. 4,296) ,

h = Y

eK

U + SU +
1

Y {Oi~O )

ait

I ^ Y ^ - S U . - Y ^ - U , ) -

(4.37) (4.38),
, :
^1 = 5 + ^ 4 - Y ,

(4.84)

aK

= -Y ,

Y = -(S
Ya Y
21

116

aK

+ YJ,
-f- Y .
ac

(4.85)
(4.86)
(4.87)

'

(4.39) (4.42)

= =

, = Y

+ S+

Y (l-k)

= +

eK

"

(4.88)
Y

llp^l " + *

, (4.89)

, , Y , 5 +
+ . (4.57), = 4 i ,

S + K = 5 + + iwC .

Rt
1

(^S -fS+F

j > ( ) ,

~ S + -L = !ii.

4.91)
f

, [- (4.55) (4.56)], ^ = g . +

+ iu)C

= i w C ^ . , ^ 5 +

-~j >

2-

^ (^^ " ^) ,
(4.88) (4.90).

(4-92)

~ ~ 1


Y = Y + \(C
a

aK

+ C) = ,
ae

(4.93)

117

,
180\ .

,
. 4.30.
.

- (4.89) :
s

Y.

+iu>C

( +^)( * + < )

u c

+ Y +

(4.95)

i(C +C )

aK

ae

(4.92), Y + i">
- (4.95) ,

* =

+ {Y* +

( - 96)

)-

17~

"

. 4.30. ,

:
.
, (4.72) (4.96), ,
| ( 1 ) \ (4.96)
I {Y + i . ) \, | | | YJ = < .
", ,

Yr = g
t

+ ib .
ex

g (4.96)
- (4.94), Y IfRi ^ - j - f - i 6 gi. , , (4.93), :
sx

Bex

4-

( S

cy;>

ex = <C

gK

118

8 i ) [ g a i g i

g l )

~ "

) f

(4.97)
(4^98)


, = 0.

(5 + ft) \g (gi + ga) + 6a ( a

{gl +

)\

(4.99)

gaT+bl.

b ,
a

.. \

-ga(gi + ga)

"

<

(4.100)

ga(gi + 'ga) <

, ( )

> g lg - f g).

, (4.93),
Y =ga + ib =Y +iu(C +Cj=g ~nb yi(C +C ),
(4.101)
g 6 Y (Y
,
).
(4.101)
a

aK

aK

ac

= + <

+ ).

(4.102)

(4.102), (4.100) :
/

a (gi + ga) <

<

,
g
, . .
'

.

, ,

,
,
" ,
.
/ , (4.98), , . .
" , ,

119

.
, Y


Y , ^,
Y = g + i ^ , ,
(4.90) ,

CK

" -

-***

Z=
x

( 4

L 0 3 ,

Y\

(4.103) ,

Z
^ R i + {l + v ) Z
(4.104)
t

l t

. 4.31. ( )

, , (
Z ^ R i ) .
e u x

4.5.4. ( )


.
. 4.31.
, ,
Y
. Y , ,
, ,
.
SU ,

aK

i] =
i\-(] .
, Y
, ,
.
,
c

l'i = YacUi +
120

Y (Vi-U*)
CK

h = Y U -S(U -U,
) - YcK(Ux-0,).
(4.37)
, :
Y =Y +Y ,
aK

11

CK

(4.38),
(4.105)

ac

Y = -Y ,
Yn = -(S + Y ),
n

(4.106)
(4.107)

CK

CK

Yn-S+Y^
Y

+ Y^

(4.108)

- (4.39) (4.42),
:

K,Y .
ex

eur

=^

Y = Y

iI
S + Y

+ Y j l - * ) -

ac

'

'

CK

_
Y

+Y

+Y

ac

+
+

; ;
a

,(4.110)

+ Yi)

_i_
l~

*~

(4.9)

; ;

CK 5 +

V + Y)IYv J_ V

A K

4.111)

'

, , ,
Y

|-1 .

Ri

=^ - ^
U

.
2

aK

(4.112)

+Y

S + ~+io>C

Ki
,
1

'

Y ,
K

^ Z
1

= =
S +

R,

- * - + Z

(4.113)

1+

Z, = .
*

Yk

, (4.112) (4.1 ]3),


. 4.32.

(7 <(7 ).
2

121


180;
Z U
U ,
K

. 4.32. ,

11
(J , tl U :

(J = U -U
c

(l-K)U

(4.114)
(4.115)

1 '

. = g - f i ' Y =
= i(oC , ^
:
= (1 - ) + i [ + (1 - )}.
(4.116)

CK

oc

' , , ,
.
i

Y ,
, . .
=S + (4.117)

ib

(4.113) (4.116) (4.117),


g n b :
ex

ax

e [(gj + g )(S
CK

+ g )+

b \ K

(4.118)

{S^gi+g y+bl
K

+
gt
12?

( ' + S ){S

+ gi +

C K

4.119)

(S + gi + g f +

g )+b

{ = 0)
(4.118) (4.119)
:

g.x = gcV - ),
b

sx

,C

a c

i o C

(4.120)
(4.121)

( \ - K ) .

C ,= ^
e

= C

(4.122)

C j \ ~ K ) .

)

\\< (gi + g ) (S + gi + g )\ -(4.122),
,

.
( > 0) ,
, ,
.
, ,
.,
, g .
.
^

' Z

eux

= . , Y

. ,
~!
Y =g +
+ icuC . , (4.111)
., S-4-K ^ S ,

^ ^

c)c

+ S = ^ + i C , + S - i - + S = = i i i - . (4.123)
e

^*

(4.124)
1 4-

.
123




S, Z
.

mx

, ,
( ^ ) ) ,
1

~ Y

S Y a c

- .

(4.125)

' ' '

\Y \<\Y l

,
ac

CK

' +1 ,

(4.126)

. .
1
, .

4.5.5.

,

,


.


.


.

. 4.33.


,

, (,
Ri). ,

G, G , (. 4.33)
G 2

124

) ,

.
.

, , . ( ),
, (~1)
.

, ,

.


5.1.

5.1.1.
, , 1 (t),
) ,

1

1 (0

=U

l e p

2 Vlmn COS ( 0)

- ]>),

(5.1)

'

, f
.
.

^ ~ r \ u { t ) d t ;

(5.2)

-
nf )

arctg^-,

(5.4):

) . . (t)
, !
u (t) uj(/ + 0) (t0).
1

126


Vlmnc = 7~ j

Ul(t)COSnb) tdt
c

(5.5)
U

lmns

=jr j " l ( 0 s i r i C O ^
c

,
,
.
(5.1)
cos(nK< ):

' ("<-+)

- i (V-+)

(5.6)

i(0 -

+ %

['<"^> + -

^ ] .

(5.7)

,
,

, , .
:' of , ,
.
cos(na> t ), cosna> t sin noi t, (5.3)
(5.4), :

(5.8)

(5.9)

, ,

(5.7) :
x(0 = - f J]

^ ' ^ -

(5.10)

",
00

I(0

= Y 2]

(5.11)
127

(5.8) (5.5),
i-mnc

ino> f

W lmns

(5.12)

(5.12) (5.11),

into f

into J

i
> =

(5.13)

(5.14

to - ,
:

Ul(0 =

iu>(

(5.15)

.
,
,
t,
ti t . ,
, T = t t .

, ,
+
0 + .
\
, , ),

),
, .
t ,
.
(5.15)
, . (5.15) ,
Ui(t) .

2

2,1

(iV

+
1

- )

^ | () | di

128

-> , !

, a S (5.15)
.
, -> (5.15)

dt
X)

Vol

(5.16)


+ 00

() ' " ' dt F () " ^


-

F (i ) = - i - j "

U l

(5.17)

F(w)
().

(5.18)

(5.18) ,
0 >
,
,
dUim F((o)d(D

(5.19

(<), .
=
= 0 = ,
. , (5.17) (5.18)
+00

i(0 = Y J

F{i*)e d<*

J F(.)e'[

, 4

(5.20)

. .
= 4- f

0 5 [ ^ ~ (a,)]rf
?

+ 00

4- ~ - J F H sin [to t ()] d .

9237

129

ty

( ) = b (), |
F

cos ^ d = 2 |

cos d

jsintordu) = 0,
(/)--= j"/ (o)cos[Q)r ,()] d<o.
?

(5.21)

, F () d
. ,
F ()
dU

d .
F(u>) .

lm

i(0 = ^o-l(0

(5-22)

.
. 2.9,

.
,
~~ ' , (3 > 0,
:

u (t) = U <r>'-l(t).
l

- (5.17).
!(/) = 0,

/<0

ia

F(ia>) = -1 J' u (t)e~ "dt=


i

^ - '~

dt,

. .

F(1) = -

(5.23)

(5.23) :
F

^..(..) = a r c t g - | - .
130

)
(5.25)

-+ 0,
:
F(i

)=

(5.26)

(5.27)

70

(5.28)

(t) = / ' 1 ()
, (5.18) F (i ) [
(5.23)],

+ 00

f J

' = cos /* -f i sin ,


,

M 0 + i-0=

COS ( /

sin t

'fi

<o COS t

d<&

2:

4oo

c7

2-

fP

2: J

2:

++ co

sin
2

'
2

+ co

d cu.


}l

(t) = U e-

Ul

8 cos

1(f) =

, < f sin t

3 + co

J
0

p^+co

^ ), / > 0

cos /
2

!) . . . . . . 4-, III, . 2,
. 223. , 1953.
9*

131

(t)

Ul

= U "" 1 (0 = . ~" + ^ -

d .

it J

(5.29)

(5.29) (3 ->- 0,

1 (0 =

(0 =

+
2

<*

(5-30)

U ,
,
,
0

i f ^ d
7t

i ) .

(5.31)

5.1.2.

F (i ) ,
it),
.
F (i ) = ( (t)
.)

_ 1 (

dt, (t),

F(ico)= J u(t)e~ dt.


ia>t

(5.32)


F (i )
, . . F ([ ).

sin
]

) , t > 0 \
J
0

00

/ < 0
132

sin
J

/ =

1 ) = 0 .

1(f) = 1,

,
1/

0 to) = F (i ) = J (0 ~ ,
(5.33

(i ) (t).
^ u(t)
(i ).
- (5.16)
, 1 Ui(t)
, (5.32),
iM

u(0e~ '

ia

e "d .

(5.34)

J
(5.33),
- f

j <p(ico)e ' dco.


1

u(t)=

1<e

i
,

+ i

m = f (i ) 'd (i ).
1

2: i

(5.35)

J
ioo

u (t) Ui(t) /((ito).


, '

i (i ) d = F (i ) d = dL\ (i )
2

,
.
, ,
(i ) , . .
; (i ) d = < (i ) /((i ) d = dU
2

im

(i ).


'f (i<o) [- (5.35)]
2

1- i

(0 =
2

*,

J tf2 ( i " " d(ico),


ISO

133

,
+i

u (t) = 1_ /(I>)i(i">) 'rf(i).


2rc i J

(5.36)

5.1.3.

u(t),
. (t) ' , ,
_

?l

j | (t) [ ' d t . u(t)e~ , ,

(5.33)

'

(4))= J u ( f ) e

_ p f

_ w

= + i ,
,

.
(5.37)

00
pt

p(iu>) = j u(t)e~ dt.

,
( t ), (i )
(()

p,

U(p)=

j u(/.)e~ dt,
(5.38)
6
U(p)
u(t), - (5.38)

.


() U (),
.
,
u(f), ,
[ U ()] .
, Ui(t)= \(t),
,

1 - ' ' d i ,

, . .

( ( ) - 0 =
134

(5-39)

, u(t) U().
(5.34),
u(t) ( / )

u(f)e"

(5.34) (5.38)

2 , 1


' -f- i = ,
9

"(0

^1

U{p)^di

(5.37) , = ( B)/i d^ = (dp)/i;


,
,
3 + iso
U

(*)=-L2 i

pt

U(p)e dp,
J

(5.40)

.
(5.33) (5.38) (5.35) (5.40), ,
i ,
= (3 -\- i .
,

= 3 -4- i , , 3 -> + 0, . .

= lim(3 - f iw).

,
: , ,

135

i (t), ,
' ) .
,
,
i ,
.

,
, ,
, . . - ).
,
, :
)
(t) U\ () - (5.38)
2

(7!()= j

( " ' ;

(5-41)

)
U (p) = K(p)U (p),
2

(5.42)

()

{) = / ( ( ! ) ico = ;
) ( 0
U ()
(5.40)
2

(3I
, ,
, . .
(t) U () .
5.1.4.

p + ico
(0 = ^
2rc I

f U2(p)e 'dp,
p

(5.44)

J
ico

)
.
) . . -.
. , 1862.
2

136

,
,

.
,
, {)
,
Ui(p) Ui(t) =
= 1 (t), tii(t) = at" e' 1 (t) {n ),
(t) = cos t e ' 1 (t), Ui (t) = sh a t\ (t) . . .

U (p) = K(p)U (p),
1

,
, . .
()
(5.45>
V*.(P)Nip)

() N () .
,
(5.44), () (5.45),
:
2

M ( ) e*

*) =

2*i

Pl

f ^ - ^ d
=
J Nip)
'
p1 C>
t
M (p ) e"/
P

a o ( p ]

(Pi-Phz)"2--

Ps) iPi-)"
1

a ( Pi)
ci"'-

(Pi Phi)" (Pi Pt)


M (p) e*"
1

1)!

- 1)!

p , p ,
t

rfp.-1

(P Pi) (P Pi)
M (p) ept

-n ) '
(P
Pxif

p=p

a (P Pi)(p Pi)---(P P,a) '


n

P2

k2

(5.46)

N () = " +
0

+ ... -

( Pi) ( ) ( ^ ( "
2

-0.

(5.47)


.
1. , . .
Ui{t), ,

Uiip) = \ ui(0e~"'dt.

(5.48)
137

2. (),
(), ,
, i , . .
*(/>) = [*(! <>)_,
3.
U (p) = K(p)U (p) =
2

(5.49)

()

(5.50)

N(p)

4. N(p)~0,
(
..) (
...)
.
5. - (5.46).
.

5.1. (1
,
Uj (t) = U e~ '-1 (t),

^1.2

1
1 +

.
1
" '
V () - (5.48)
1

tVi

()

(0 e~

pl

U l

dt

=J

U '
0

-^' = -

+ 1


1
1 +

{) = () * ( ) =

( + )

4. V() = 0
, ;
V () = 0 : p = -[
1
! = n 2.
s

X
5. (5.4 )
-7'
_ (0 = K U
(2-1)!
+
. dp
a

( t)
T

138

(2 1)

"*'

(-1)

(X 1

5.2.

5.2.1.



.
. . [25], . . [85], . .
[2], . . [80], . [9].


. , ,
- ,

.

,
, ,
,
(, .).
,
;
.
,
,
,

.
5.2.2.

:

.
,

.
, , ,


.

, ,
(<) (>)>
. .


.
139

,
, , -, ,
(">) =
,
() .
, ,
, ,

i )

= - ,
(,

'

if , 3-f-i a, a I
. , "jf =
= i = i j ^ L i C i , L C
,
x

1?<)

. (i >) = / (">)
, () =
= LjC^ ,

. ,
/ v~, <?(/) =

2r. I

f,

= ,
2. f

. (/) (/)
. 5.1.
, () = const,
,
. 5.2 ( R = R ).
< Z Z , . .
3

0 = ^>i
z + z,

-<.
z

3 +


(1)=^140

= - i .
z

(5.51)

Z = R Z
x

lt

io)C,

,Z = R n Z = R
3

# ifflC^/?!
3

/)-

(5.52)
R = R
3

it

i / ? .,

1+

(5.53)

1 C # i
2

(5.53) ,

const,



,
,

,

1

~''

/ ? 1

= (1 i U) /?!) ,
2

1 + i C Ri
2

,
() = 2 arc tg ( C Ri).
2

(5.54)

if) <(/), . 5.26,


, . 5.1.
).
0,5

. 5.2. -

, ,
, 141

/(() = const (p(to) = var


,
,
, {)
= + '
.

, . 5.2,
,
, - . . -, -
; ,
,
.
, ,
. 5.2, (5.52),

() =

(Ri + RdO + pCzRd

() = 0
= = +
0

,
Ri,
, R Ri , () ,
. . 3 = C RiRi/R , , R R
.
R
2

(. 5.3), Z -- - (5.52) i =
i
:
4

()

( - /?,)
4

(1 + pC ff,)(l
s

+pC R )
a

. 5.3.


;
142

()0
,
.
(. 5.36).
, ,

=

,
.

,

(. 5.4),

Z = R i , Z = R2 + i L +

-, Z = R ,

-j

i to C

Z = R^
4

(5.51) ,
,
:
i ,

(i ) L C7
3

{1

. 5.4.

(R R - RiRi) + 1

(5.55)

)
2

( 1+ ~
\
A3

l(i ) ^ + ' i (R +

+ 1]

(1 -

i 0)

L C )
3

~R!

/C(i">)=1

+ 1

)1

tt2

(R Rs -

RiRt)

(5.56)

A ) + i < (/?,

R,)\

A3 /

/()
= , : 1 <^ = 0 # / ? ~
RiRi
= 0. , RzRs^RiRi,
{)
.
, R R = RiRi ,
(5.55) ,
0

()

PL

= {^ >) =
1

+ 1}
3

1L

\P *

-!- 1

(5.57)

~ (R + RJ + 1]

, /(()
+ \\Y L C ,
j , ,

.
.
1 2

143

, , R R = RiRi
(. 5.3) . (5.55)

2

+ ~

(R R - RiRt) + 1
2

() =
( 1 + ^ )

WLfit+pC^Ri

+ RJ + l]

: R R > RiRi R R < RiR+.


() = 0 , ,
2

-(R R
2

- RM

(R2R3 RiRi

1,2

2L C
2

R Ra> RiRi, p p
, , -
, R R <^ RiRi, . . ,

.
2

, > =
0

'

v

._

I *? - R& I
(Rz + RtHRi +
Rj'


,
,
, . 5.5-
,

, . . 180.
,
- ,
. 5.6.

, :

, / ? ^ / ? + , ^ (/?, + R ) + ( d + ) R 4- 1
2

fCiC&RfoR,

(5.58)

+ * + + 1

= CiC R (Ri + R ) + (, + C ) RiR +


3

= (Ci + C ) R + C (Ri + R ) + C Ri
3

144

C C RiR
2

(5.59)

K(f)
-0

=5
(1)u&

ni.
-U,'t

K(f)

ni
-vj

(2)

R =0,5R,,Q=W
2

too'
0

a6

0,7

0 8

f(f)

09

1, 1

(1)

v 1, 5
%

1, 75 ,

-IOD
-reef

-300"

4(f)

-350'
. 5.5.
(1) (2)
. 5.4

. 5.6.

237

()0 ,
,

.
, [48],
. . . ,
, () b p -\-bip ~ -...+
+ _ + = 0, J> > 0:

=
2

*>

h b b
3

b b bi b
0

(5.60)

6i b b

0 b b b
0

6i b . . . 6
3

b b
0

2 m

_,

2m2

0 0 . . . b
b, , ,
. , , . . . ,
, , ,
() = 0 ,
, .
& . ,

1(

^ = b = C C R (R
l

= -
2

= dC R
s

+ R ),

(R + R ) R (, + Cs) t

CtC&R&P,,

'6i b 0
3

= bo
0 6,
0

146

= b b b = .
x

! ,
R ( - f ) (/?! - f R ) < C R R ,

.
R (\ + ) (ft 4- R ) > R R , = > 0
.

2

(Ci + ) (/?! + /?) =

(5-61)

, ,
(5.58), , ico.
,
2

V [l^o

C A / ^ T T W T ^

! ^ ! + )

R ^C C C R R R \

(5.62)

/? (/?! + /? )
3

C!C C /?i/? /?
2

(5.61).
, . 5.66,
.
, . 5.4 5.6,
,
,
. 5.5.
,

,

,
.
5.2.3.

,
() dp, ,
(">) ?() ,
: 1) ()
(), 2) () ()
,

, ,
&
[9,80,:

10*

147

fx =

Jncth^l^,

(5.63)

du

(5.64)

(5.65)
fx

(5.63) ,
\
= (/) = (f)
.
, ,

,
,

(5.66)

/-fx

f=f , . . =0
(. 5.7), .
- (5.63).
x

W-lncthf

--ln\l^t

OJ 0,15 0,2 0,3 Oh 0,5 0,7 1fl 1,5 2

3 4 5 7 W

<

. 5.7. W

K
=ty(/),
, ,

==

148

( )

XHen

, =const.

(5.63) , ,
lncthA
J

r f u

^ ,

(5.67)


(5.68)
= Fi () = <f = F (),
, . 5.8.

U--ln\

. 5.8.

, = In ,

fx

In = In , , 1
f X
. ,
, ,
, . . 6,0206 ^ 6 ,
10 , . . 20 .
= 1 ,
/- = 20 lg / 6 ,
,
< = ~ const. , = 1
=

~ ~ const.

- (5.63)
,
. 5.9. 0 f - = 0,

f
= , = In

f,
149

(5.63)
,
= -1

(5.69)

= In

. "



.


.
X - .

/-

*
-


In
. 5.9.

1 +

dx

(5.70)

fn

(5.70) ,
.

, = F ( ) = F
) , = ^ i ( ^ ) = ^ i (j^
= 1 . 5.10.

90


70
= {f) (
0
),

. W

/
[80].
to'

(f) =
= (0) const 0 02 0,6 0,8 1 0,8 0,6 0?
f 0 f
a(f) = / ? ( ) = const
. 5.10 <f ,



( > f > / )
?

150

(. 5.11)
/
= /
ifr> fh

_2
( 0 ) + ?(>) m

^ \ 1

(5.71)

2
'/
<f = ( ) arc sm .

(5.72)

a)
nenl

_ L

1^
-f
(. )

tj

f^c

( )

- i
. 5.11.
= const = const

, . 5.116, if) = () = const


(/) = (0) = const,

:

- {)-\

9(0) 1

- M ' - i

, (5.73)

fx

fx<fl

? , = <p(0)arcsin -ffx>U

7 1

(5.74)

fx

5.2.4.


( )
, ,
,
.

() :
- = ^ - =

-,

(5.75)

D , a F(co)
.
151

(5.75) :
= *. =

(5.76)

/ = | - = const,

(5.77)

(5.78)

=-^==,

(5-79)

, J
0 U . \
2

'<?

===

= / f (cos . + i sin p)

' _
1+ i

- (1-!)
2
I -t-
0

tg = .

(5.80)

(5.79) (5.80) ,
__

,
/ =/ cos?.

(5.81)

,

, . .
=

= cos .

(5.82)

= ~

4- . =

= = 4- 90 = ~ =>= 0; = 0 =
= 1 , , = , = 9 0 ' = 0.
,
90, 152


.

- , (. 5.12).
)

0$?-

. 5.12. -

,
. 5.13, (5.76)
,
,

^ ,

(5.83)


.
, -
, . 5.13,
.
/ , t = 0 0,

(? > 0).
- > 0
, (. 5.12).
/ /

, = 0. -
,
3 < (. 5.126).
/ / / >i .
cp=s0, -
(. 5.12).

153

. 5.13. ,
: /, , / / ,
, / / / ,
154

/ /> ,
: f ,
0

()

/ - (K)
.
(5-85)
f4c


.
(5.83) ,
j_
2 \
f 0 i = f = , = 0.
(5.76), (5.80), (5.81) (5.83)
,
:
4

= % =

1 + i ( cox -

/ =

(5.87)

= / cos ,
1+

(5.88)

.
1

cp^-arctgfcoT,,-- - ).

(5.89)

, 5.13,
: , * ,
f
.
/ , * , .
, 1 (. 5.13)
R

- V

+ , . .

<7
1 7

ico +

1+i \

oiCR

(5.87), ,
= 1, =- CR = 0.
1

) / , ,,
0

".
155

, -

(4.47)

1 + ZJ

+ ZY
L

+ Z Y -Z Y

ZY
a

, 7 (. 5.13) ji = 1, Z = R, Y = ico ,
7
v
Z. =
, Y ,
0

rt

CR

(7

C Ri

(5.90)
1

4 i

CxRx

(5.87)

(5.0)

1 -|

\-

CR

CiR

R
^

Ri

CiR

'

CR

CR \

(5.91)

(5.91) (5.87), ,
1

/ =

4-^-4--^
/?

. .
10 (. 5.13)
.
.
, ,
. '' =
0'
7
.

.
= - , , (. . ) =
2

.4*.

156

'
'".

, 10 :
.
U'
' = =

" =

1
=

. / 1

U'

]
1

1 + i ) Q / ? !

i ,
1
K = ' " =

,/?,

,
, . 5.13.
, - ,
/ / / , ,
:
0

/
1
~~ = - =

1
,
\ /

(5.92)

Q , a /// /// .
(5.87) (5.92), ,

Q = \f
'

2jl

, -.
0

= ! .
<

(5.93)

(5.93) R,
, . . . ,
0,5,
( Q < 0,5 , ,
).
, , / / / ,
,
, . . .



< .

() " MV2 =
= 0,707 ( = / =

)-

, [- (5.79) (5.83)] =

1
1
= = :
:, X = "
.
157

1 + *
0

. 5.13, , ,

, = 0, , =

(5.94) ~=,

(5.94)
1

1 +


(5.95)

, =

fur
= ,

/-

(5.96)
',

(5.97)
2nz

.
(5.89)

cp = a r c t g ^ (5.98)

70'

Mi

60'

SO'

30'
20

U9I

/
1

0,03

> 02 QJr 06 I

2 3 >t 68 20 hO k

. 5.14.
,

^=20

1gA _ioij 1 +
=

15S


45 ( 45"

,

).
(5.96)
(5.98)

/.

,
. 5.14,

,

(5.99)

,
, ,

(5.100)

(5.101)

-arctg - (5.102)
lac

'
(5.103)
2.

.

,

(5.100) (5.103),
. 5.15.

/,

cpedt-ue ,
,
: \
\ .

5^5
-
,

= (

= 1 . f :

f*<=ikiV
^ = i ( /

1 0 4

^ - ^ - '

I '

( 5 0 5 )

+ ~

+ )-

; < 0 , 1 ~ ,

1 % f

HC

/ ,

= -f- ( 1

f = -

1 +

Ho

,
159

:
1

/.- -.
2

f,c-~-

(5-)
2.-.

, ( <^ )
, ,
:
, / < / = \ - , - (5.94) (5.98) . 5.14

, f > f ,
(5.100) (5.103) . 5.15.
0

,
z 4x ,
(5.107) (5.108):
'
H

%w = 2 0 I g - - = - 1 0 1 g ( l - ) ,

(5.107)

< = arctg*,

(5.108)

x = Q (/// fjf),

Q = /1*.

/, =

I
2rcVx x
rt

.
s

, . 5.15,
f/f
,
, < 0 > 0 > 0 < 0. , Q = 0,4
/
= 0,5 = 0,6, . 5,15 ^ =1,3
fo
= + .
ee

,
6 /,
90,
. 5.14 5.15.


6.1.

6.1.1.
,

, ,
.
, , .
. 6.1
, ,
, .

,

.
.


-2

,
ifi-uem)

. 6.1.
,
.



, , .
,
, .
11-237

161

,
,
/
( ) .
.
, ,
, ,

( ),

(, )
.

, .
,
.
, , :
1.
,
( ), .
2.
.
3.
, ,
.
4. , ,
, .

,

,
. ,

,
, ,
,
.
-
.



, . 6.2.


. ,


.
162

,
, [
,
.
0
U
(~)f,

0\ \

~\ \:-:
-\
(-)

(~'

l-fe

(/} -uf"tl\

^T^n

rrb.

3"

\

[ft -)

. 6.2. - :
() () , () ()
.
.

,
- ,
:
Z
, :

, .

. 6.2 .
,
,
()
.


.
. 6.3 -
.
, . . I*
163
2

,
2, 3)
{4, 5, 6) .
. 6.3, /2


h
Z , 23
2 ,

13

. .

, . 6.3


( -)
,
,

. 6.3. -
. 6.2.

2

6.1.2. .


= . -

(. 6.2).
, -


|3-.
[3-
,
- (U ) ,
,
0=0 +0.
(6.1)

, . 6.2,
U U .
,
(, U ;
.
x

-
(3,
, . .
(6.2)
164

, ,

" = ^ - .

(6.3)

(6.1) U

0,

0 , :

=^=-^~.
(6-4)
U
1-/
(6.4)
.
. ,
. . ,
.
-, 6.2,
,
. (6.4)
3
, , ,
.

= \ = $

(6-5)

, ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

=/ = /

1<

(6.6)

,

, ,
,
( ),
.
Ui .
165

, ()
(. 6.2) ,
, U ( = 0),
, ,
. . KU,
-. -, . .
( ), ,
0 = U. ,
U 0 ,
/ , . .
3

= / =

(6-7)

(6.6) (6.7) ,
U
- 0 ,
( 0 0) -
( 0 0 ), . .

= V

(- )

(6.7) (6.8)
, U\ = 0.
, ,
,
.
(6.4), ,

=1

/ = 1

(6.9)


.
=

/ | = | 1 _ \

(6.10)


.

?=0.

(61)

, (6.4), (6.5) (6.9),


=

= -^

(6.12)

/ = 1 .

(5.13)

=\~
166

,
? < 1.
(6-12) (6.13).
" ? < 1 K > ", ,


.

:
f S

< =180,

(6.14)

= 1+/= 1+.

(6.16)

im .
, <s
0 180,
a

? = ' * " = A"P(cos<p + isin


e

? e

(cos <f + i sin ) '


a

. .
=

(6.17)

">
,
=

l-2Apccs

? a

+(Kp )

(6.18)

,
,

,
,
.
,
. : >
< 1, . .

|/l-2Apcos9

+ (AP) < 1.
167

,
a = KP<2cos<p ,

(6.19)


"|3 = 2 cos cp ,
,
. 6.4.
,
ft

fl = A-3>2cos'f


. 6.4.
,

(6.20)
,

* ^ = 2 COS <p

(6.21)

,
; ,




.
. 6.4 ,
, 9 0
( , ),
, ,
/ < 2 cos? .
,
, , "
, 90 < ? < 270,
" 2cos? .

,
,

(0- ).


-. -
, . . tp = const,
= 0
180",
.


.
a


,
, , . 6.2.
.

, 168

.


,
(5 - . .
,
,
,
.

.

, .

. . . [87].
, , ,
. 6.5,
.
] Pi ,
, (6.4)

ice

(6.22)
1-Kl


:
(6.23)
1 KtfeKz ?2

. .
Ki

(6.24)

. 6.5. -
.
, &i
,
> , '

,
,
,
, ,
(. 6.3)

. .
169

6.2.

6.2.1.

,
.

,
, ,
,
.

,
, , ,
.
,
, , ,
Y , Y , Y \, 2%
Y ,
,
, ,
.

. 6.6,
)
1
i (+)
(6.25)
1
n

i2

(6.26)

(ft.

(6.27)

. ,


U,
. 6.2.
S U (
, 5 H[x
"

.

PHC. 6.6. -

170

(6.28)

, 180 (,
), S p
/ U
. ,

,
.
, , . 6.6,
:
v

SY U

(6.29)

+ 2

(6.30)
0

;+2

r + Y*

6.2.2.
. 6.2 6.6,

(. 6.7), -,
, Z .

f i

. 6.7.
.


, , , -
.
.
G ,
( ,

171

,
(fS =
)
(. 6.7) ,
, t-
- )

-.
, , -, ,
(6.29) .
, Z x ^ O
(6.31)
U=Ui + U ,

3
2

0= 0
z

(6.32)

+z.

U= U + = + Z / .
1

(6.33)

(6.30),
/

/, + ,/,) _
% "" ^2
(6.34) /
=

(6.34)

VyUi

(6.35)
1 ~

(6.36)

"
7

(6.37)

!) . . , \Z

+ Z

) Zj
Z
Z :
(Zy\-Z ).
172
tux

ex

tx



. (6.35) (6.29), ,
2

\
Z
,

- (6.36) (6.37).
,
\>. ,
, (
) \2 \
, . 2
,
. ,
U ,

m x c e

, Z ,

, .
,
, ,
.
, |Z |
, ,
Ui = const, /
U Z ,
() 2
.

Z
U = F (/ )
(. 6.8),
2

|Z.J = U,
2

U,2
dl.

U, - const

I,

2xjl

1 .
1
,


. . 6.8.
(/)
U , U < U ,
(2)
/

, ,
. 6.2, Z = 0
. . 6.8 ,
Z

Z , . .
2(3

2xx

2xx

2xx

2 v 3

HVXce
ejx

'2
<

173

,
. Z
,
.
(6.35),
. 2

Z
2

Ui

CVj

8bix

-f- Z

(6.38)
Z . ,
(\2 \<^ |Z ') ~
. . t\ Z ,
.
2

C8

,
,
.
()
ji R{, ,
(6.36) (6.37),
fiy Z
( )
fi Ri. , , ,
()
; . , j Z | <
< \2 \

4 w r

(V
Z-

(6.39)

^2

( ? = 180)
, |. - (6.16)], = 1 + '? > 23
? > 12. [i > , ,. $ )>. 1,
(6.36) (6.37)
0

Z .
eblx

\i

ce

gux

V-ce -

(6-40>

1
Z

c e ~ -

*)

(6.41)

SyP
') ,
, S ( -
( S = S)
(6.41) , Z

, ( i , ,
t7 .
v

6UXre

r e

174

(6.40) ,
, . 6.7,
0 ( )
Uj


. ,

,
Z = 4 - .

(6.42)

, , . 6.7,
/ i = ~- ,

(6-43)

(6.31), (6.32) ,

= o + = + $ = (1 +
L

(6.4),
\ - \

0=[\

+ - ) #

(6.44)

(6.42), (6.43) (6.44), " Z .

gJt

z =z {\-kv)
eXce

ex

= zHXA.

(6.45)

< 1,
, | Z , , J < |Z |, ( .) we
, ., > 1.

, , ,
sr(

jX

To ,
13 , |Z||< |Z .|,
eA

,
1 ,
(.6.1.2) . 6.2 ,
a=Kh
. .
a

^ z J _

>

( 6

4 6 )

=1

? = 1 .

(6.46) ,
Z
( a = ^),

Z = .
2

r r


, , Z
,
Z e
.
,
abed . 6.7,
(4.39) (4.46) . .
:

e x C 8

6blXc

1 =

\ + <?Z Y
A

'

ar

l+^Z Y
A

21

ex

S + $

ex

1
22~

p(i+s z )
y

Z (\
A

+ ?

Z Y
A

e A

. 6.6 . 6.7,
\i - (6.32).

[5-

VhSy
=

( + ) (1 + Pi Z Yex) +

+ ? h Yex

Pi H-y Ze Z^
(1 - P ) Z ,
x

= (Ze + Zz){Z + UlZ )


UX

176

ex


Yi + ^

2 , -f- Z

eX

,
u- S
.
v

6.2.3.
fi-
Z ,
c

. 6.9.
.

. 6.9, ,
. 6.2 . 6.6.
, Z ^ 0
\Z \ > |Zc |, , . 6.9, ,
t

EX

/ =

(6.47)

Z)blX ~\~ Q -f- Z j

0 = Zch,

(6.48)

0 = 4- U, = Ox + Z

/ .

'6.49)

U ~0 - (6.47) (6.49), /
3

/. =

^
%

(6-50)

+ 0 fV^c+ 2

(6.50)
.
Z

eUXCe =

12237

8UX

{l

fV)Z

C)

(6.51)
177

Z

V = i v
(6-52).
eux

(6.50) :
/

2=

( 65 3 )

+ ^2

(6.35).
(6.51) (6.52) ,
1 , Z , . = \>-
. ,
\Z
I > \Z 1 / ( \Z \
Z
z
I ). ,

.

'Sv
-const

VS. .

, . .
U / = const.
I
\
N.

-J-J>
^>
/.

(. 6.10),
,
,
. 6.10.
(1) ' h < 1 .

eurCK

ebttce

eblx


(2)

>\z

&

'2

,
, ,
Z
1 ,
U .


, ,
,

.
(6.50)

2

fy

(6.54)

z.ux + 0 u- )z + z
y

178

- (6.8)

1\

,
=

till
Z

(6.55)

eux + c " Z

\h = ^ - .

(6-56)

' {3
f-,
,

Z .
,
2

= $=
Z-

(6.57)
-f-

, /

bc

\ ,
' *

\
%
+z I
.
,
(6.45),
' . ,
Z xce = Z (\-\K$\
(6.58)
c

ex

" - (6.55) (6.56).


(),
, ,
, JZ | < | Z | ; , \ Z \ ^ \ Z
\ .

eux + c + 2 ~ e :
2

h l

- S

(6.59)

t-HUX

= 1

^ 1

(6.60)
(6.61)

*-

%
Z

ex

12*

ebtX

8X

.S
ZQ

(6.62)
ZQ
)

c )'

(6.63)
(6.64)
179

(6.59) (6.64)
.

-
- (4.37), (4.33), (4.33) (4.46), ,

(. 6.6 . 6.9) :

C x{Sy

Y )
Rr

' = ' +
Z

1 ~" C ( Sy +

Yex 4"

Yex Y

Y )

Z (-S +Y +Y )

l+

4- ZQ Y

eX

eHX

gx

eux

Yn

( - S

0+C
Z

1
\ + Z

( - S ,

Y +Y )
ex

ebtx

Yex)

+Y

"

Sy Z 7j

1a =

(Yi + Yex) (

Y) +
2

[ Y
t

(V

Y )
tux

Yex Y

(Yi+YJ)

V-y C
(Zj -f- Z )
EX

(Z

-4- Z ) +

EBIX

ex

eux

ZQ (Z

EX

-j- Z

T I T X

, ,
S jxy ^ .
Y

6.2.4.
-
Z ,
. 6.11.
, ,
, . 6.116,
( . 4.27).
, ,
Y , Y , Y . 6.11 Y , Y ,
D

CK

ac

aK

ex

K , SU
S U S = S,
.
(4.62)
(4.64), ,
e w r

180

,
:
(6.65)

+ ) +^2
Y

Ul

~ I

Sy -}- - -4- ;
D

' - >

1/

S.y - -f \
V J V j sT

>

(6.66)

" 2

j_ _

/-

(6.67)

<[

~y,

r w .,

ft
. 6.11.
. (x l/
SyU
v

, ,

(4.45) (4.58) (4.61),


:
"

I/,
.
l

^ (Sy + )

(ex + + Y$ [

(6.68)

+ Y,) - Y

(Sy +

Y)
D

. 6.116 , t\ 0. ,
, ab
0 = (, ),

181

S G,-.
0 , ,
S U Y ,
end.
,
2

cd

' cd

'

v _L
" ' a +

_L

( V

'

Y A X )

ft

'cd _
SU
y

Y ,)
Sy Y,(Y

Y "f" Yi +,
+ + Vi
1

c/
, ,
, 0. ,
2

0 ' = 0 =

Y
( + V + Vi) (Y
D

MX

+Y

ax

+,

+ ) +

(Ysx + Y,)

,
0'

SY
=
?
. (6.69)
V
(Yex+Yi) (Y,ux+Y,) +Y
(Ysx+Y^+YM)
(6.69) , , ,
= 1
Z = 1 / K j .
,
( \ )
,
.

, . . ,
, / , -.
V

. ,
, ,
=

=
,

(6.68) F i = l / Z i = o o , Z i = 0 0 =

'
Y~i <
,
, , .
,
Y
, 8

ai

182

, (6.69)
. Y
, , ( {) .
Y .
ab
( Z ).
: \Y |
< \ + \> \Y-,\S , [, + Yi\ S ,
,
:
D

= =

= ^? =
Y -\-Y

ebix

,
ux

Y,rce = V * + Y V-k),
s

(6.71)

= ^ . ( 1 - ^ ) .

r_.e

(6.70)

Z -]-Z

(6-72)
(6.73)

Y,x +
K

Y+i
0

= ^ - = ~ ^ ^ .
i

(6.74)

:
(6.75)

ex + Y +Y
U

S Y
y

(Yex + Y + ) (Y
D

8UX

+Y)
T


- (6.72)
,
(. 6.2.2), :

= ,

'

- 5

(6.76)

6.2.5.

, ,
.

, ,
,
( S )
, ,
.
, 183

.

, . , ,
( )
,
. .


,
,
. ,
, , ,
(. 6.7 )
.

(. 6.11),

, ,
, .
,
,
, ,
. (. 6.9)

,
, .
,
,
, ,
, , ,

.
:
.


,
( Z\)

.
,
, .

,
;

.
184

6.2.6.

.

,
.

. , (,
)
,
.

,
,

.

,
,
.


,
, (6.4),
:
.

(6.77)

1 -

, (6.6), ":
= *.
180
= /,

(6.78)

" ,

(6.79)


= |1_| = 1 +/

(6.80)

185

(6.79) , " (
)
,
.

,
dK iK ,

cg

ce

dKrs

dK

(6.81)

,

, , ,
, ,
,
.


,
.
, ,
+10%,
2 0 % . , + 1 % ,
,
, 20.
.
1 ,
0 , 5 % .
20.
+ 1% -
20 =400 .
2


", %2> 1. ,
(6.79),
( 6

8 2 )

^ = ~ , (6.81)
,
? ,
180 .
,
,
,
.

,
(, , . 6.2.7),
,

186

, = 180=const
(6.79) (6.80) .
a

,
.
,
(u. ,u , Z
= r , $ = ),
( Z , ' = k ).
, . 6.6,
:
v

eu

a u x

?-

+ Z

-j- /?

(6.77) ,
.

R,

1 +

R*

~\~

R*

,
, ,
-

R i

, R

R '

, U !U j
Ui = const
:
TMUH

IMAHC

tMaH

7 =

, " \

\ ^ 2

iMal(C

Ri.

iu, = const
/(7i=const

+ (1 + ) R t a ' A

/?
R^MOKC
2

+0

"f" -

fO

.(6.83)

RtMan]

4 * = 1

=1 +

F-y R j

ft

(6.84)

(6.83) ,
R i

1
7

"

Ri.ua

=1

(6.85)

1+

7,
:
1

^2
R ,

(1 -

(6.86)
R i

187


-. (6.84) (6.86)
:

-1

~R~

%*

V ~ R
\

(6,87)

**-
')
1

2" "

(6-88

(*
)

, (6.85) (6.87),

rem, ^2

1 .

6.2.7.


,
, , , ,

.

(6.4)

,
, . - *
-=

*' ,

:
= - $ .

(6.89)

,
fJ
, ( ^ = 0) ( ^ = 1 8 0 ) .
= 0 /U
< ,
0 0 .
,
.

2

= ^=()
188

+ \ ,

(6.90)

<

? = 77-.

/
i. % ( )
?(">) = arc t g - i ) - '
: ()


= arc tgje.
(6.90)
, ,

<?(">)= arc tg

<

? (>) :

= ? ( ) + :.

(6.91)

0 1,
2 , 4 , . . . .
(0 1),

,
,
, ( )
.
Ui V, =0,
\.
,
(. 3.3)
, , )
.
U ,
180, ,
, = 1 <? (">) ^ ("') + 180.
( ) =
= - (ui), <s (w) = (<u)-f- 180 . .
(. 3.2)

.

c2

. ')
.

189

, = <?((<>), & ,
, ? = - < = + 180,
). ,
= 0,

< =<+ 180,
(6.92)

, , ,
180; , ,
= .

(6.93)

. 6.12. (^ = 0 )
(, , ) (, , )


(. 6.12), (6.89).
= <,

1
=
1

" *

_L

_ i
e

) /
(. 2.1). / = 0.
0

190


. 3 = 0,
?

, ~- (. 6.126),

-}- .

. "
(. 6.12), ,
<
,

. ,

3 (. 6.126) \

~-,

, ,
.

,
, = 3 .
.

- (6.89), ,
< = + 180" (. 6.12).
-4- ,

(. 6.125). . 6.12


,
:
= ; + 1 8 0
(6.94)

=
(6-95)

,
180 . , -,
. 6.2, 180,
0 ,
. . cs , 180.
,
<' , . .
? , :



' ,
2

cg

191

, . . \v' | < | ? |. <s'


; (
, ) &' .
,

.
, . 6.12,
,
/.
) - 3
,


.

, . 6.1.
ce

cs

6.1

- f

fee

<fc

.

.

=K{cos<o - f isincpj
K

/ (6.4), , = ,

. . = ,

"

(cos -f + i s in <f> )
1 '(cos VK + i s i r u p J p

l-K\

,
. =
:

(6.96)
>/l-2/(Ficos

+ (' )

(6.97)
1

1_
cos<p

') ,
. , -
.
192

| < | < 90
(. 6.4), . . | < ? | < 9 0 ( < = 0) c c s > 0 ,
(]tg [ > | tg < [,
.
= < -f+ 180 , (6.96) (6.97)
:
,

, ,

V 1 + 2

, , , .

cos + ( ^ )
tg?

(6.98)

1 +

(6.99)

COS tp

(6. 99) , I
tg 9 I tg = tg .
(6.96) (6.97),
. 6.12

,
,
.


, ,

.
, ()
() :

1+

ix

X = .
,
,
(), . 5.13.
N , ,

(6.100)

(1 +

"
^/- f
( f = /, < = 0).
(6.100)
0

Kce

*
1-/

13-237

193

= 3,
:

^ - ~ 1 + > + ] ( 3 -

<

601

>

- (6.101)
.

(6.101)
=

^
(

(6.102)
+

* -
^
, , -,
( f = f , . . = 0)
,
=1+*
(6-)
0


, , -,

= ,
1_= Q(1

Wo
/
, Q
. ,

0

c a e

(^ = * A )

.
=


.

( )

.
,
,
, , . .,
(6.101) N

. N = 2 N = 3
. 6.13. 6.14. JV=2
, = 1 + " 8 >2;

( > 1 , 5 ) .
0

194


= (f)
N > 2
, , f ,
180,
90 (270) 0 (360), . .


~


;
(6.98) ,
\ -

1

^

[
, f = f (6.98)

\
= 0
].


x=ojT,
'
=
= F(x) = ( / )

X--U>7g


, -150'
&
. . - . 6.13.
,

.

[87].
.

6.2.8.

.
-
,
= 3
= 0),

,
, ,
). 1

) , Z Z
A

13*

. 6.7 .
195

( -
, ,
0.
, ,
_
,
( )

=
= ' (f) , ,
.



= !

= (?)
,
"
=
,
/5

,

.

. 6.14.


.


.

< ,
. 6.4, ? 180,
, 9 0 < < 2 7 0 . f ,
,
= -f 180 180,
. f,
/- |?| 90, | |
.

, 1 -

{3 , . 6.15.
196

(6.104)

- ( )

, ,
-. , - > 0
> 0,
'
, . . sin
, sin ^ - '
"~ sin
-

' ,
.
, , ,
, .


.
, .
/'
6.15, ,
/ I

,
.6.15.

3,

{3,
'

. -

. 6.15,
f
~ / = / ' '
'
'. ,
. > 0, > 0 '

. f f" " ",


,
< 0, < 0 <?' < 0.

'

6.2

197

,
. 6.2.
. 6.15 ,
' .


.
-

K = K(coscp + isincpJ,
x

8 = (cos ? + i sin ),
. 8 (6.4), :

j,
<

A" (cos <? 4- i s i n y j


l - A ' P ( c o s , + isin J(cos^ + isin

f p

. . \ '
>

(6.105)
, =

)'1

(6.106)

V 1 2: cos (? + ? ) + (Ktf
K

tg? = tg? =

COS f

6 0 7

8 COS

(6.106) ,
, = < -{- ^ , "
= /
= ,

(6.106) (6.107).
? = 180
(6.106) (6.107) :

(6.108)

^ 1 + 2/^8 cos ( +

)+(/Cp)

f?

P sincp

tg?
C

tgy , = t g ' =
g

y R

s y

8 cos ?p
COS CO

!) =

A + iB
7- ,
-j- iZ?


_
< g

198

(6-109)

* ~~ AC + BD '

" -

, <

Vr

*' ,

< =

( fee) 1
d

, , -
!? | < 90 .
. (6.109) ,
,
sin sin < _
, 3- ,
( )
, .
= " 8,
. | + | 90,
,
fj , ,
(/)
= '/)>
.

= (/).
. ,
, ,
.
- ,
;
,

,
(">1), (6.4)
:

1--


(6.4).

, (/)>
. -
- , . 5.6 , . . " = =* const.
, ,
-

1=/?==2^ =^
2

(6.110)
199

C = C = 0 , 5 C = C,
1

(6.111)

-, (5.58) (5.59)
= i , :

1
1

(<

CRY
(6.112)

CRf + i 4< CR


z=u>CR

10

(6.113)
/

-
2

1 + i4z

0.1

too

(6.4) ,
* == , '-

Z=/7/
. 6.16.
(). - ()
(')
0

(1 4- 14 )

'

(6.114)

(6.115)

(1 + - ) ( 1 - ) + 1 4

(1 ) + 16 z

(1 + / ( ) ( 1 - 2 ) + 16

(6.116)

(6.114) , -
=1, . .

/ = / = , , 2 CR
, ,
"- z , ,
0

. 6.16 ,
- ' = 9. ,
(/) / ( 1) .
0

3Ke

= -

, , , ,

.

') , . 7.5.5.
200

6.2.9.

,
. ,
( )
,
,
, ,
() .

. ,


4
4,
,
LL

U (.
6.17).
0-

,
U , - . 6.17. -,
U ,
t/ ^c

U
, h0 U , -
.
,
0 ,
- , ,
V =
= bU , , ' ,
<.<1 = ^O = K\$U .
,
() U U ,

2k

2h

24ce

2h

2h

2hce

2flce

2hcR

2hca

zh

2h

U..
2ft

2 '

(6.117)

,
U^h

U 2h

(6.118)

(6.118) , -
,
, ,
,
. , ,
< 1 , , 201

, > 1 ,
,
( = /).
-
U
(
),
( ) <, . .
U, = f(U ).
, ,
,
,

<7.
U , .
, ,

U ( / ) .

,
, . . . U U
, U

U .
, (6. 118)
,
,
( ) ,
(6. 118). ,
(<? = 180 $ = ),
(6. 118)

ih

2/t

2h

2ftce

2h

U i h

U =

2hce

(6.119)
v

1 + /

- ,
(U /U >
0,05 0,1),
= 1 -4- , , . .
(6. 119) .


2h

= + -f + . . .
2

,
= 180 = 0 (. 6.2 ),

= '+ = + 8 ,

(6.120)

. . [87]
Ui (6. 119).
2

202

. . , ,
, ,
,
,

, (, du,

&*-).

, -

du

,
. 6. 18,


, . .
.

,




. 6.18.
,


.
,
.


20

du*

k ~

du

%=\ ()
,
.

,
u = f (),
( ).
,

2 = / ()- ,
180 (
. 8 )
.
203
2


,
,
,. = 180'
= 0 (. 6.2 )

! = + .
(6.121)

=/(")> ,
u = F(u ), , (6.121)
i = F M + Bu = F > ) ,
(6.122)

, F(u ) 8 '
F ( ),
= f {ui),


,
--05
.

1/ wvV'

1 ty

1

i
. 6.19,
//


//

=
1
= f(u) .
0,5 1,01 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 '
,
,
,
. 6.19.
= f
( ),


).

= f (Ui)

,
.

(. . ),
,
U
(
) ,
, (< = 6,7 .
0 1
= 51,7 ).
, , =^? = ,118
2

c3

cs

ce
1

ce

2mb

2/1

k = 0,0323, . .
3,65 ,
zce

*) ,
(. 2.6),
.
204

^ 0 = 1 -f- k = 4 & = ( = 6 0
0

\ du )-0

3 =0,05J.
6.2.10.
.

. 6.2.9
,

(. 6.19).
,
,
.

,
.
, ,


7,
.

,
, . 6.20 6.21.
,
, ;
, 3-
, . . ,
- ,
Y ; , ,
,
- .
(. 6 20),
,
. ,
U ( ) (+) ,
U
, 0 - R
(), . .

U,
, . . '.
, (6.74)

ex

* -

P i *
1 -
205

. 6.20.
: () (, )

. 6.21.
' ,
6
,

' ':
,
ab ,
R = , . . Ei = ili R = ( = 0,
);
() ,
<7 '- ;
Yi -
;

206

l/coC <^ R , ,
c

/?,.

Ra

(6.123)

Rc

/?. ' (
MR'. = 0);
Y
(. 6.11);
,
Q

= ;-

(6-124)^


^-, . . . (6.72), (6.123) (6.124) , '
:
1

Ro
1
R

1
R

Ri

(6.125)
/?-,

"

Rlac

(. 6.20 ),
, , 0,
, Ui 0 ,
U .
U 1/ <^
<X
+ B .

U s

^2

(6.126)

, , . 6.20,
, ,'
;
.


w.
3=

(6.127)
-j-

, w"
, , w' ,
(), ,

{

207

().
() LJ2 ,
^ ' \U \ .
U , |/ |>
L
/?, .
. 6.21 ,
, 100% 6'

| , . . , _U = 0
3

l0

30

(6.128)
= 0 = .
Z = Z ,
(. 6.21)
' .
( )
.
(. 6.216)
, . (
, ),
.
(. 6.2ie) ,

.
U (J ,
. 6.216,


;
R .
( . 6.21) , = /
R
.

.
, . 6.20 6.21,
U
U ,
U ,
U .

, ,
. .

s0

a0

(6.129)
208

, . 6.20 6.21,
:
ux = u ^ + p u ^ ,
e

(6.130)

_

.

'4

. 6.22.

,
, 66,
. 6.22.

(U = U = 250 , U = 12,5 ).
, -
,
= + 2 5 . , . ,
, , .
, , = 0,1, = + 25 = + 2,5 .
,
.
, ,
. . . , d, , f . . .
fedAabc a0

s0

c0

14237

209

.
,
, . . ^ = 0 ,
, 1 = 0 (
U ).

= -4-2,5 , u = U
, ~
12,5 + 2,5 = 10 .
, f d , a ,

= + 2,5 . ,
. ,

; .
(
) 3.
8 ,
8 (
) . .
6.22 = 0,2
= 0,05,


^. (
) , . . =

= R ,
,
(6.36) (6.37):

cu

1}

1 -
1 -


:
1 + fxp
|Z.J=rf-=*..

(6-132)

,
,
. 6. 22.
, ,
(!,,, < ^ ) ( ) 210

,
.
,
: ji 147, Rj~
35 5 = 4,2 !,
= 0,1
: ( = 9,4, R . 2,3A , S , 4,2 /.-
>> R, $
- (6.131) (6.132)
. , S
S,
.
,
,
, ,

,
\>. R
( R

). ,
,

, ,
, . . ,
. 6.19.
.

,
. ,
, ,
= 1
. ,

( 510 ) .
, (6.131) (6.132),

lf

ce

ice

ice

1+

(6.133)
+ .

** = 1

7-

( 6 3 4 )

(6.134) (4.124),
. ^
. Z =
= Z . = , (6.133) (4.113).



, .
. 6.23 ,
. - 14*

211

R , ' ,
Z .

abed (- 6.235); abed
,
,

i =
a

("i>

'j-



= con t
. 6.23. '

i
,
, . 6.236,

'

U\

"

Rc

(6.135)

i,
a

(6.136)

+ # <r

, 62,
. 6.24 R = 1 .
= 0 < = 2 AW,
(6.135) = 0 2 1 = 2 ; i = 2 = 2
= 64 ( ), (6.135), = 64 -j- 2-1 = 66 .
0ji , '.
c

. 6.24.

212

^ i = 4 ,
', ' . . ''' . . . , U] = 0 = const.
= 4 , i = 0
4 0-1 = 4 ,
~ = ( '); i = 2 , = 4 2-1 =
a

6 s = 143 (

=143 + 2-1 = 145 ( /') . .


~
' . . . , ~ = 4 = const . .
JJ > 20, , .
, R =
const, . ,
fee = '9, Ri =
33,2 S = 0,573 /,
: = 19, R = 13,2 S = 1,44 /. ~ , (6.51) (6.52) ,
Z

R , [i
, , , . . =
(j. :

re

e u x

(6.137)

Zeuxce = Rice=Ri

Ri +

+ Rc(l + l>),

Rc(

(6.138)

v)

#
''' . . . k'I'm' . . . , R .

2.11.
, 13 .

U U^H, , U

U
, (6.117):
2N

2NCE

2NCE

=0 + Kp ,
2

(6.1.40)

inct

_ ^ _
1-/

(6.141)

.
'

> 1 U
<.U ,
. , ' ,
, 2ncg

2n

213

, (6.4),

^ *
Vi,

1 K't

(6.117) (6.118) (6.140) (6.141)


,


.
,

,
, .
,
U = 10 U = 1 ,
U lU
10(20 ).

= \ 5 .
U = 2 U =0,2 .
(72=10
U] , . . 5 (,
,
,
). 1)\
U' =0,2 ,
10 : 0,2 = 50, . . = 5
. , ,
,
,
.
, ,
, (
),

/ .

,


, , ,
, .
, , (
)
/. /
.
, , ,
, .
2

2n

2n

2n

214

(
),
- ) , ; ,
.
. 6.25
- .
.
6- d,
Z (. 6.25),
(6.141).

. 6,25.


(. 6.256) -
0 ( )
(J-.
= U
-4- Uco>
U
U
,
. .
Z , , U , -
.
(. 6.25)
, ,
'"" , ,
2
. . , ,
,
(6.141).

2 n c n

c0

2 n c e

2n

6.2.12.
,
,
k(t) = u (t) iix(t)=\(t),
. .
' .

k (t)

2

ce

215

, ()- ,
(6.4)

= 4(1,)=

iw =
:
)

( 6 4 2 )

r i r

Vi ()

() ? ()

, (5.39)
/, = 1 ,
i/!(p) = .
(6.143)
(6.2) (6.143)

(6.144)

(0> ,
k (t).

U*{p) = KMU {p)=


1

cg

.
6.1.
,
,
. 5.13 3.
:
/

Km
1 + IX

= . , ()* =
= iw =
v i
\

*()=(1

, ?(1>)==(/) = j3=const,
, ()
.
(6.144),

Ii .
=' 8 /<
.
11 () :
0

() =

~2;

216

PiPPz)

'
{

. 6.26.
.
,

= 1,
( , / = / = 0),
(0 , .
(/) = 1 + 1
. 6.26. , = 1, ,
. . 6.26 ,
,
. , :
= 10 35%, = 2 4,3%.
0

6.3.

6.3.1.
, . .
, , ,
217'


.
, ,
,

()
,
2 (t) [ k (t)] .
,

()
()
; , ,
,
.
, ,
,
, . . ()

, , ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,

,
.
,
,
. . ,

,
, , ,
. 1876 .
. .
,
.
,
,
(1877 .) (1895 .). 1932 .
,

,
.

;
, ,
218

. . .

,
. .
,
,
.
.
,
, ,
,
.
'- (. .
) (. .
).
, (
?
. .
1892 .
,

;
,
,
.

,
, .^
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
,
( , ,
).

, . . ,

;

.


, .
219

6.3.2.
, , ;
, ,
.
,

, . .
, , ,
.

( )
.
, . ,

u (f)

= Ul

(t),

U .
(0

0

(6-146)

U*{p) = Kc.(P)Ui{p).

, (5.39),

U (p)~,
1

K (p)
cs

.
, , ,
(6.144) (6.6)
:
I
() =
).
'
(6.147)

p\l-K{p)Hp]

N{p)

N ()
, , (5.46),

(0 = I

(nj 1) !

_|_

"11

(, 2 ) !

' ' '

1!

+ Cie""'

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,
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1

220

N () = 0
.
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{)=\-{)=\-{)

(6-149)

() .
, (6.144), (6.147)
(6.149) .

,
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* = ! '
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() Q () .

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+ hp ~

+ ...+

_ -|-

= ,

(6.151)


,
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, . . .
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& , - (5.60).

,

,
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,
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< 5.
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221

6.3.3.
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2

()

/((/?), (/?) -
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[N (p) = N (p)N () = 0
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a

Q(P) = N (P)M,

()- ( ) ().

(6.154)

- (6.154)

() =

1-

() / ()

N () iV () -

N {p)N (p)
k

() ()

N {p)N^p)

(6.155)


N {p) =

N {p)N (p),


'Ng(P)-M {p)

{)

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()

(6.156)

N (P)
a

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(6.157)

pi, , ..., , , , . . . ,
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[ ()]
.
Q(p) = N () {),
. 6.27.
(6.152), (6.153) (6.156), ()
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2

()=

1_()= 1

(),

() .
223

i ,
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i M

0"-Pi)( ->
(i , ) (i ) . . . (1 *)
2

(6.158)

. 6.27.
N ().,()=0
N ( p j = 0

i w /" ico ., ,
. -4-
+ (. 6.276),
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,
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.
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i w p
A (i ) 1 a (i )
- f .
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(6.158),
o ( i a i ) = / C ( i w ) p ( i w ) = 1 + [([)].
(6.159)

, M ( l , i O ) -
, . 6.28.
/4(iw), , A(iw)
-j- , .;
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.
a

224

= 0
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w = 0 w = ,


.

. 6.23. -
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0 90 \ >
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= 270, 0 180 .
90.
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15237

225

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III . 5.13
. (1, i 0)
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1000) .
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6.4.1.


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229

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230

6.4.2.
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= a (i to)
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. [9], m .

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232


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tf -10.
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6)
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6.31. [ ()* (&):


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-,
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0].

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6.31 . 6.32
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0

6.4.3.
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.


.
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, (1, i 0)
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II III . 5.13, - (. 3.4), 3() =
= = const < = 0.
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= ? + <?> ~ <?,
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234

+ 180,

,
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4- 180

(6.163)


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N - 0 , N
, .
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if = fo) 9 0 (j-ao),

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0, . 6.29.
, &
90, .
,


f .
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= / S = -
100 ,
.
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f = f f = <
0 180" 180 0', ,
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a (ico) (1, iO).
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. 6.31 . 6.32 , &

D, -
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,
D, (6.163),

3

J<? = ( ? - 1 8 0 ) =

180
2

(6.164)
235

,
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cos .


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:
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2


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0

= . 3 = / ( cos -2- = a c o s - ^ - .
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Ha (6.164) , = & = - 1 - ,

&

= a cos ~ '
m
i

8 0

= sin ,
l

(6.165)

sin

= 2 (6 ) & =20
= 1 6 , 6 , = 1 +16,6= 17,6
=25 .
,



( = 2 8- = 2 0 ) ,
25 .


.

(5.76) :
0

05

1-*

(5.83)
1

236

(/ > f )

1/ ,


b , ,
is

.2

i bx

/
K{iu)

kiKt

(6-166)

(1 + 1)(1 + 1)

=" 1020 f = f .
(6.166) 3
, ' , ,
a (i to)
0

^ ( i ) = /C(ico)3 =

??

(1 + i ) (1 + i bx)

(1 + i x) (1 + i bx)

D, . 6.31, a(ito) ,

&, . .
a(iw)=

(1 - f ix) (1

= ,
+ i bx)

,
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,
,

= _a^sin

(6.167)

1 +

, a , b, &,
0

\*%\? = (1 -4 a c o s 9 ) ( l + bf,
0

(6.168)

,
. , = 2, = 20 b =
= 10 ( > = 0,1) (6.168) = 48,4.
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, b = 22,8 . ,
. 6.296 -
,
- M ( l , i0) 6 = 1 , = 2
< & 8".
6 = 23,4 ( 6 = 0,0427), a(ito)
( = 2,
= 20 ).
0

0(

237


,
(. 5.15) f
= 1/2 -
6 .
6 , . . U = 6/ 6 > 1;
,
6,
, .
90,
6
(. 6.33), =t 90
0- = 20. , ,
,
6 /. = 1

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12 /*-{. 6.34),
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. 6.33 . 6.34, , ,
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= 24,4 , 6 = 1 .
lec

sc

ec

. 6.33.

. 6.34.


(. . ), ,

,
(/).
(. . 6.2.7).

238


.
(6.165)
1

= cos

180

2
.
cos"

180

,
1

(6.169)

180

(6.161) (6.162), =9
(
m = 2,82) % = 30 = 1 , 3 4
) = 7.4 . ,


( = 2,82 9- = 30),
, 7,4 .
, ( = 1
& = 0') , (6.169),
8 (. . 6 , = 2,82
9- = 30).
,


.
, , f ,
f
, ; ,

,
- .
f ,
\ \^ bfi >

lec

(6.170)
1

2.3


. 6.35. ,
(6.166) (6.168),
239-

,
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> 25, . .
> 20 , =
= 9 ft = 30.

, ,
b
,
f = f



90',




(90" 9),

45

* - \ . 2

(5.102),


. 6.35.
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f f ,
;
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:
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ID

(6.171)

ft,


[.
- (5.81)], f
D

K,K

= K K oCOs (i5
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f (5.100)
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tftr

1+

D
, ,
m
240

. .
2

=.-. - ' - - /(, /\' r( 3 cos ( 4 5 - -J-) 4 ^


0

20

30

= ' cos (' 45"

'/

2 !

(6.172)

(6.171) (6.170), (6.172) f


, , &

lec

cos

6=

45

450

(6.173)

~)

= 2,82 (9 96) 30, (6.173)



= ,1

(6.174)

,

20 , = 9 ' 33,3.

. ,
/
f
, -
.

f , {2 , . . . fi , f , . . .,

,

, . 5.14 5.15.

,

,
,
(5.96) (5.100).

0

lHc

ec

ec

2ec

i +

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16237

241

N , ,
, . )
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f
(. 6.31 6.35), 1/,
& .
, (* > 3)


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,

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a

6.4.4.

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+180 0 ( fo)
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.

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cc=-j-90 ( / = 0),
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90, ,
0

) N '
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N > 1.

242

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f = ,
.
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, (. 5.14 5.15) + 6 /
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+ (180"
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+ 10 /
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f f ,



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243

360 0.

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245

K(P)

U"(p)_

Z(p)

L" (p)

R + Z(p)

l+R Y(P)

Y(p)

Z(p)

R +

,
ab.
,
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() =

( I
\ CR

Rn
0

- CR

- .
1

R
0

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(6.175)

1
f

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0


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(6.176)
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CR
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4

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+ CR
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(6.179)

Co R (p -r <>,) (p r v)
0

-> > R

1+

1 + i

(6.180)

,
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246

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1 -

i -.

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.

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b

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=
0

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arctg -4- arc tg


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247

. . f , f f f :f : f (
f ).
,
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(6.183) (6.185). . 6.38
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f - / f ,
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f <f
U ~>f ,


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f
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248

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fc hsc ( - 6.39),
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35;
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),
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a


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1 +

1 + 4 -

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f ( f > fb fur) f .

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f , f f ,
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+ V
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c

1 R + /?!-/?,
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1

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9, ygg.
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()
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1
P +
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(6.183)(6.185).
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fbf

fa

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fc

arc tg
f

+ arc tg
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arc tgi-

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fa

2iz \
1

C R<o
c

CRKco
r

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C

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r

C R'
C

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ro

(6.200)

+ CR'

1
2

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C

C R
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R'

+
R'

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C RQ R
C

- -
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^ = 2 0 I g 4 4 - 4 lg

101

1 +

fb

fafc

-lOlg

f t
(6.202)

1 +

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fc

-f6 1 (+20 )
f (. 6.43),
d

f =

(6.203)

fb

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253

. f
f f ;
: f < f' < f .


P'Q',


90'-,



; ^ 180" U = const
(
,
20 40)
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,

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b

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, .
6.426,
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R'
R" " (. 6.42)

: =
"

('

+ )
(6.204)
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' =
" +

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(6.205)

' + "

R' =
254

-- "

R"

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6.5.

6.5.1.

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(, ),
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255.


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6.5.2. ,

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256



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.

,
,
[89]. ,

.



;


.
, () ,
,
.

,
. ,

17237

257


,

,
, ,
.
, ,
,

,

,
.

(5, .),

.

, ,
25100 ,
.
,
, .

;
1015

.

;
.
6.5.3.
.
,

,
, , ,
,
.

,
, .

,

258

, -

.
,
,

.

(
),
.
.
,
R
(. 6.44). (. 3.3),

R
U


.

U,
,

R
(
).

6.44.
.

R
,
/. / R

K

c0

cb

, , . 6.44,
U . ,
V
; U U , . .
s

U^U.

+ Us^U.-Rj.:

(6.206)

, , 0\,
,
R
,
, R
Z ~ 0 .

,
(4.48)

Ri + Z

'


R ,
I

Ri + R*

(6.207)

+ Za


, , 0 , U ,
(6-207) 0 , ,
U , U / , (6.206).
- (6.206) (6.207), ,

/ =

*Hl

Ri + {l + p)R

(6,208)

+ Z

,
,
R ,
,

/ =
+
(6-209)
K

,
. 6.446.
, ,
,
62, U = 150 U =
=6,5 . = 20 R = 15 .
/ = 2 , ,

a0

c0

_ ^
2

3>

25 ,


:
# i = #/ + (1 + V)

= 1 5 > (1 + 20) 3,25 = 83,3 ,

. . 5,6 , R, 15 .
,
. R = 0
1
c

Ri + Z

260

JR 0 I , U
K = UilU\ ,
1
/ , 1 - (6.208)

ca

Ri

+ (1 + ) R + Z
K

(6.210)

Ri + Za

(Z ) . ,
, ,
:
a

(< + )

(6.211)

Ri + r

, 62,
150 , U = 6,5 ( = 20, R, = 15 ),
cQ

R = 3,25 50
K

(1 + )
Ri + r

1
. +
. 0 + 2 0 ) . 3 , 2 5 = 2,05.
15 + 50

1,5 2,5.
Q



)



;

->\ 1



. 6.45. "
()
()
,

(
, . 6.29. 6.2.10.).

, : 1)
R ; 2)
R ; 3)
, [
|71).
.
, (. 6.45) 3

261

Z =

(6.212)

f>f
,
f>f .
2
, .

R (6.211)
K

Z =

. -

, ,
= 1+

=\ +
Ri+r

1 ^

(R<+r )(l

+ UC

(6.213)

R)

(6.213) (6.211), ,
= \

-'

= ^

l+io>C /?
K

( 6

2 1 4 )

l + i*C R

'

= = > 1, =

= 1.
,
Z , Z = 0(f = ) 4. = 1,

=

(6.215)

, 1

I 0 < / < # > \Z \>0,


, /( , . .
0

1 + i ">
/ = = =
(6.216)

(6.216)
, . 6.455,
Z = r (5.211) (6.215).

a

( 6

fb^-uh

2 1 7 )

fa = MJ

= -^TR-'

262

(6-218)

k _

(6.219)

, , ^'
,
C R ,
, . . :

* = lg 1 +

t)"J

| i

(6.220)

,
C R ^:

? = a r c t g A _ a r c t g ^ .

(6.221)

"
= (f) <. = F (/),
. 6.45 / , ,


, <

,
^
^
,


20LgM _

-
f.
%
36

Kg

= fbVM^o,

(6.222)
3,1

fco
ISEfa

<

-9d\-

(6.223)

. 6.46.
. 6.45

arctgf- b

(6.224)

^ 's ~F(f)
, _
K

f=fcp

= V.fJbh

[- (6.221)]
=
(. 6.46)

(6.225)

263

,
:
f , l/2ic C R , ,
2 f = 0 (. . f =
= 0).
,
,
M .
=\
2,5 w

11 25.
5
.

,
f ;
(
f -- )
f .
b

h0

KMaice

(6.216),

- (6.226) ,
:

"*

/ %-~
V

- 1

M

,

1,031,12,
(. .

) 0,25 1 .

,
, f ,

(. 6.46),
.
,
, ,
,
.
.

.
Ktl

cp

6.2. 6
. = 26 /?; = 16 ,
59,4 R 2,7 .

(. 6.45), .

264

f = 50 , ,
0,2 , f , f , f
f
(. 6.46).
^,
- (6.211)
H

cp

KMllKC

(1 + 1*)

1 +

(1 + 26)2,7
= ! + 1 6 + 59,4 = 1,97.

Ri

0,2

- (6.227)

1,02 (20 lg 1,02 = 0,2);

j_

,/

22

1,97
- 1,02
97

Mi
0

- \

6,28-50-2
= 9,9-

- 6

1,02

= 10 . f ,
- (6.217), (6.218) (6..222):

^C R
K

fa = M f =
KO b

fcp = 1bV~M^

6 i 2 8

. -1< -2700

cp

= 5,7 ,

1 , 9 7 - 5 , 9 = 11,6 ,
= 5,9 / 1 7 9 7 = 8,25 .

<?
>
(.225), 19.
/
, , / =
= 0.

,
R
I
,
. 6.47. /<
R , / + ^> ,

U R
,'

.
. 6.47.


,
R
Mrf) .

c0

, (. 3.8 3.17)
R , R ,
,
.
K


.

R (. 6.48),
R .
, I R,
K

265

U ,
0 ,
. 6. 486, Z Z
.
!

.
R ,
()
; , R
3

. 6.48. () () ^

,
(, ),
.

(
) ,
,
. 6.48,

. ,
,

.
,
.

,
, ,
:

i = ft

=!^

.
266

^.

(6
0 3

.228)

^ .

(
3

.229)

'

() ,
= 0; , ,
, ,

= ^=0 ^ 0 .

Ri

A i
.

(6.228) (6.229) :
a

L=S U

+ S 0,;

(6.230)

- S U + SjJ ,

(6.231)

tl

21

S41

d'a

~ .

>42 ; ,

&

021

&

^.//)

/ >\

2 ~

0 0 ,
(. 6.486), , I / , ,
. .
U = U -Z (I
+ I ),
(6.233)

+ l )-Z.I .

U.=-ZAL

(6.234)

(6.230), (6.231), (6.233) (6.234)


/ , I ,
0

0,

1 :

HiV-bS(Z
+ z )\
" ~ 1 + s z + S Z + S Z SZ '
s

i2

4 1

S41

S = 5 4" C>21 + S42 + 522,


, . 6.48 (6.212), (6.233) (6.235)
Z Z
:
0

4 1

1 + 1< ,
Rs

>

(6.236)

1 + i >/?

= /? = 0 ( / ? 0 #
0,


) , Z Z , 1

/ = SuUt.
(6.237)

" 4 i

267

(6.235) (6.237) , f
Z Z
K

'

S Z

2^a + S Z
U

SZ

6 238

- - ~ =
+ (. +
<' >
f = 0 = , = 0
,

\ + bS(Z

+ Z)

M 10 30 (20 30 56).

(6.238) (6.239) .
, 5 ,
, , S < S - S
,
S = S + S - f S + S S i 4+ S i , . .
S .
(6.239) AS 0nS S n S S

M = 1 +S Z + S Z,
(6.240)
f = 0
= 1 +S R + S R .
(6.241!
nQ

22

41

21

i2

iV

22

22

S = d (i -f- i )jdu
S = 6Y, / )
:
K

?0

S=S

+ IsO
?0

(6.2421

S_ =
U , U , / , /
, a i
, U , ,
.
(. . )
S 3 4.
,
\Z \, S
, | Z J .
, S.
(6.212) (6. 236) (6.240),
:
a0

a0

')
, . 7.1.6.
268

1 + i-. ^

(6.243)

1 + iC ,
e

(6.244)
(6.245)
4

' - / [ ' + 7+

i + (-

) J

( A ^ - l ^ C , ^ |

(6.246)


, f ,

(6.247)

. 50 200.
(1,031,12),
1
1 > 1. , = > ,
' ( R ) ^. ,

[(<C R f, ,
S

).

(6.246)

2
: - 1)] + (!,,, - 1 + { - 1)]
\ -
1 + (

(6.248)

=
Ra

R
3


II , , ,
(6.243),
269

:
1
= -

^ ~^~'

.~2.,

< '

2 4 9 )

U . -

t ^

* * *? ^ ' ' J - M J K

(6-250!

(6.219) (6.220) (6.221)


:

lg

i + (^)] + ioi

g
1

-10Jg[l +

( ) ]-

101g[l +

- 7

( J")]..

(6.251)

<p = a r c t g - ^ - f - a r c t g A arctg-^- a r c t g A .

(6.252)

R (
3.16)

(. 6.2, . 264), ,
(6.211) (6.244).
,
C R (. 3.25),

3

(6.245),
,
.,
.

6.3.
61,
. 6.48, , f = 50
0,34 ( = 1,04)
:

= 230 , 6 ^ = - 1 , 5 , U = 64 , /

s0

= 0,8 , = 0,2 , R =

R = 820, S = 1,73 / S = 0,011 /.


3

270

1,5

= 1 = 200 , (6.241), (6.244),


(6.245), (6.248) (6.247), :

= 1 + S R
K

+ SR

= 1 + 1,73-1,5 +.0,011 -820.=J 2,6;

= 1+ S R

= 1 + 1,73-1,5 = 3,6;

= 1+ SR

= 1 - 0,011-820= 10,

mR,

200-1,5

0,366,

820
2 \ -

1 + ( -

1) ] + \

1+ n(

- l)]

3,61 + . (10 1)1 -+ [3,6 1 + 0,336(10 1))"

1 ,04 1

6,28-50-1500
6

= 4 8 , 7 - l O ~ 0 50 ,

, =

50

= 0,25 .
200
^

f,

. 6.49. ,
6.3

. 6.50.
R R'

, - (6.249) (6.250),
: } = 2,1 , f = 0,8 , f = 14 j = 1,5 .
,
C R C R , - (6.251) (6.252),
. 6.49.
(,
} < 1 5 ) ,
, ,
, ,
/ 1 (. 6.50), RR'
R /?, = R+R'
,

.
271

, ,
, .

. ,
.
,
, , , ,
. 6.51,

, / -

. 6.51. Z-

t

Z . , ,
U

.

,
N-
, Z
/

U
, ^ R , R ,
R ,
lt

al

cl

0z
c

Ral

Rjn

Ra

Ra

7\
/
n\
\
RnJ

1
1
iC R
c l

& >

>

c l

,
, I'
aNf

272

. K _
{N

l}

dN

U,
c2

" . . . /<' _ [
2

1)

, a S

JI . ,
dN

= ^

= - *, K _
(N

, '.

(6.254)

T /

, ,
,
Z, 0.

.
, , ,
,
/ = 0 / = ,
, (6.254),
Zi .


( ).
-
[31] Z ,
0,1 10 , . . ,
, .

,
, ,
, , .

.
, ,

,
.

,

/
aN

= , = |1oij.


,
(

1+<

< 1 .

( = 0
180 ),

18-237

273

=\ ~\\,

(6.255)

0 , 2 5 1 .
,
, ,
, . 6.52,
= 2 0 , 5 , ^ = S = {I lU )
=3,36 xa/e /
= 1,12(1 ).

d3

ma

mc

, f 50
^ H


I
\_ ^

. 6.52.

, (6.253),

Pi~

'
1


,
1

0,18
1+-

= \
(6.254),

\Z \ =

1,0

(6-256)

0,18
1 +
1,0

l/R

tl

= 0.

0,847.

1| = 1,12 1 = 0,12, , [

a j i

1 2

=
. . _ ' . , , .,_ = 2,06 .
20,5-3,36-10~ 0,847
2^d3 Pi
- ,
, 2,06 50 ,

t

= =

274

\ i\

,.. -

314-2,06

= 0,00154 = 1540 .

, , (
)
, . -}- = 1 ,
16 ,
700 , . . ,

.
( , ,
*-
) \ Z \ =15 ,
2,06 ,
.
:
1)


, \Z \
.
2)

,
,
;
-
, ,

,
, , , .


/?-,
,
.



. ,
,
, ,
.
,

,
. 6.53 (, , ).

,

18*

275

,

.

. . 6.54,
,

+8 ~-'"
,

25

\
6C"JfZ1
, / \

|
1

^
/_

|
{ k

f 1

' 1

!
ft 1

. 6.53.

(. 3 . 5.13), :
1

(6.257)

1+

1>


JIi (. 6.53),

, t\ .
. "6.51
. 6.53, , U , , ,
0.,
I

, ,11;,
|
I
, (6.254)

. 6.54.

,
I + i < [*

, . 6.53,

(6.258)
276

, (6.256), 1//? ^0
(1

y i + i ^ c ^ F i

'

'

( ) ^>
1.
, /

(6.260)

(1 + - ~ )

20 ,
f =- 50
1Z,| ^ 5 =
1
_ = 159 .

6,28-50-20-10~

= 0,12 (
= 1,12)
= 20,5, S = 3,36- /, # = 0,18
=- 1

- 3

d3

=
e

" (

+ "^)

3 6

1 0

' - ' - " -!

5 9

= 0,246 .

0,12.314^1 +

,
1 , 7?^
35 ,
= 33 ,

^

^ 2 4 6
33

=
3

- 6

,

1540 , + ^
28 .
,


.
JV=4 . 6.55.

,
. . 6.55,
, . 6.55 , ,

277

. 6.55 .
,
. 6.53 .


,
)
. 6.55


,
,
,


,

,


.
/ > 3

,
.
,
,


. 6.556,


, 24
34,
. 6.55. , ,

di

-f. K. S
3

(, ), -

() ()

* ~ 23

: -

di

|ZJ ^ +

|Z | 3 t\ ,
a

(6.261)

rf2

3
,
(6.256), | Z ; | ^ ,

2 ,
f = f (6.259), S
.


,
. , ,
. . 3.25,
:
H

278

d4

(6.262)

c R'
2

(6.263)

>2

R
Ra

Ri , R
Ki
a S
.
,
(N
3) ,
,

,
, (0,2 - 0,5)/. ,
. .
(C R ),
(C^i?^),
. ,
,
.
, ,
. . ,
,
, ,

, ,
-
. ,

, ,
, 2 .
,

,

.
,
,
S .
tl

d2

7.1.

7.1.1.

(. 3.2.1) ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.

. 7.1.

1. . ,
R , R , R,
(. 7.1), ,
, , , .
2. .

0,5 0,25
a

280

-
/ > 10 20
,
/ > 20 50

(. 2.2) KJ .
3. .

,
(. 5.13),
90.
,
, .

.
4.
,
- ( R , R .,
, ).
5.

.
. f
, ,
.
, ,
-
.

:
1. .
7075, ,
,
, 150250,
250 .
2.
,
R .
, R
50 80% ,
/
/,
RJ o>
.
3. U

;

R .
U

. , = 250
U ,
40 60. .

0

c2

aKC

c2vnKC

ciM IKC

281

., .
,
200 250 ,
0,75 ., . . 50 75.
,
KJ - U
= const
.
,
f , 10 50 ;
, , ,
R . ,
, ^
(61, 62, 65, 68, 69 .).


(. 3.2.1). . 7.1
. 3.3
, , . 7.1
.
0

ciH

KC

7.1.2.


(. 7.1),
. 7.2.

.

2 ,
,
/?,-
. 7.2.
pU . . 7.2;


, ,
, , ;

C i
.
1 = ( ) .
(7.1)

rl

>
, . . ( )

. ,

(7-2)
282

(7.2) ( ) ^

- (4.80)

()

= [+

(1+]

(7.3)

, .
. 7.2
, . 4.23, ,
Z R , Y
i C i . . , :

Z = Ri, V
a

= ~ + i<C

Ra

(7.4)

Z , Y , Z Y
- (4.47); , U =

U2 = 0 , . .
n

= ,

(7.5)

(4.47)
=

(7.6)
1 + ZY+
u

ZY

+ Z Y ZY +
a

ZY

(7.4), (7.5) (7.6), ,


^ ( . , R)
. ,
Vz
=- ~

^
+

1 + Ri

i . C j

-f- i C

Rc

Ra

i w C

+
f

(7.7)
+

i (o C

Rc

Ra

Ci C
10 200 ,
5000 , (7.7)
, d/C 1 \
(7.7) C i / C = 0 / = 0
2

Ci -f- ,
0

(7.8)
283

.
=

U2
C

Ra

Rc

)(7.9>

Ral

i - C Rc
c

C + C = C

, . .
0. :
t

= ( )

+ [ + (1+

)] + ,

(7.10>

, . . ,
,
, .
(7.9)
:

, (7.11)
Ra

Rc
1

= arctg

<o C Ri

1 +

Ri
1

<uCcRc

1
C Ri
0

p I
Ra'aCcRc'

(7.12>

1+ ^ - +
Ra

^
Rc

(7.11) (7.12) , <


,
= (f)
).
v.
f = / , *so'
/f
I
fx

,
*
1
(7.9)
,
/

, .7.3.


, ,
. 7.3.

(7.12),


2

i +

Ri
Ra

(7.13)

CuR.CpRc
1

) , ,
180.
) (.5.2.4),
, = ^ (/), . . Q, 0,5, ,
(/) .
2

284

Ra

Rc

f - (
) f f .
f = 0 { = ,
4- 90 90.
0

(.5.2.4) (7.11) (7.13)


:

(7.15)

< = arctg (

) ,

(7.16)

/ = 7 = .

(7-17)

, 9 . 5.13 ,
/ =

'

"

(7-18)

(7.19)

](

1 +

Ra)

.)

(7.20)

,
C

R \

- (7.18) (7.20)
, C , / C CJC,\
, (7.18) (7.14), (7.19) (7.20)
:
f

15

11^

(7.21)

'

(' >

1 + -^
Ra

-^~
1 + +
Ra

7 22

Rc

(7.8) C , - f - C .
2

285

7.1.3.
,
f (. 7.3).
, ~ = const < 0.
(7.14) / ,
,
. 7.4.
,
0

6}

. 7.4.
(/ / )
0

. 7.45, .
R
,

lac

iac

Ri

Ra

cl

Ra

iac

(7.23>

Ri

1 + +

Rc

iac

= SR

Ri

Rc

, U 2 = SU -R ,
c

R i

1
1 1
+ +

Ri

-.

(7.24>

Rc

SR = , (7.24) (7.14)
.
,
- (7.14) (7.24) ,
. R ( S R )
R R . , ,
, . .
U o, U o U o, = const -
R , , , 5, R ' = const
R . U , , . . . .,
R . . . R , R R
1 , . , 286
t

a0

R .
.
,
R (. 7.1)
U , R
, ()
, .

, a R , , 100,
1000 , (,
),
R
.
,
, , , .

,

(

),



R

;
,

R ,
$,
. R ,
,
,
^
, .

R .
R 3 4.
, R
~ const R = const. R , , U ~E
=
= const R (. 7.5).
R ,
.
, '
R
c

c0

o0

r0

287

R ,
a

/ =
1 +

EL
Ra

,
, E lR ,
1 = ( 1 ): R ;
/
R .
(0,7 0,8) .
re
, gj= 1//?,-=^0,
(7.24) :
l0

(7.25)

SR

R /
, S, R > R
R.
,
R
R .
, R

500 .
,
U'
R .
. 7.5
R R , ;

R , R .

U

R R . . 7.6
.
, ,
;
150 ( )


.
U


.
a

0 >

c2

aKC

c2MaKC

,
.
R , ,
/ , ,

U =
,
a

a0

RJaO

W8\ RQ=250KOM

150 75

82
.}

, '\
,
U ,
U. I 0

v^

50

,
, / "
U.
.

50
W
150
200
250
300
350

0 .
1
. 7.6.


U0>
_
U . ,
, / U
,
&
-
, . 7.7.

6
,
'2,

U


;
U,
,


. 7.7. .



.

\U \ , U

/
U , -
.
, aQ

s0

c0

sQ

cQ

c0

19-237

a0

289


, R R
, .

R ( 500 )
15 20 ; R
U ,
100, 150 250 ( ).
U ,

.
, U ,
R R , -
. ,

,
i = f(u ) ,
U . ,
,
(. . ),
.

a = f ( i) = const, , U. = 20 ,
U = 40 . .,
, U
( /
100 ).

,

.
0

i0

a0

u0

u0

sQ

sb

7.1.4.

,
f
. ,
f > f .
0

(7.9). = = 2* /
, ,
, , C R/ w v
1 - f R;/R, 4- R IR .

,
/ ; , . 7.3 ,
3002000 4, *.<?
' . / , , 5/,
(7 9) 5 , 5
.
0

290

,
(f > f ),
, ,
1/> . ,
,

.
1/ = 0 (7.11) (7.12)
:
0

= - arc tg

^Bi
1+

(7

.< 7)

+ ^
Ra

Rc



, . 7.8,
, . 7.2 ,
{pU ,R ) {SU , R ).

. 7.86

.

. 7.86 ,



, . 7.8.

cl

cl

(/ > / )
0


.
:
w ,
C R
(. 7.86),
0

iac

\Yo\=

uC

7 28

| / ( ^ f + (' ) -

<- )

SU , ,
| Z | = \/\Y \, U .
, | | |Z |
U ,
= U lU , U
.
cl

c2

l2

l2

19*

cl

cl

291

C R

, , SU
0 ,
. , 0 U
(
/>/).
,

f , = / 2
= 0,707 = 45.
f (7.26),
. 7.86,
,
0

iac

cl

cl

ec

ec

SU

c2

SU \Z \= "
Vol
cl

( m C o )

|V |

cl

l / ( _ L V

(7.24) /( = SR ,

K o

=
, =

iae

iac

/1

Vl+(<CoR )*

- =

ac

= <oC R =
0

"

(7.30)

+ ( CoRi j

1, ,

iac

( 7

- 1 - -

3 1 )


( )
. (7.31) ,

C R .

R .
( ,
),
(. 7.1), . . .
,
( ^0)


=
,
(7.32)
0

iar

iac

, 0,

292

-\- .

,
, , ,
R .
R

(. 7.4 . 7.8), . . (7.23)
0

iac

iac

L
_L

_L
Ri

Ra

_L
Rc

R

R , R R .
l/R^O,

^ const. , R ,
R . , (
) R , R ,
;, ,
U / , a
S ; R
E = U + RJ
U I . R .
,
.
R
,
,

f . ,
(7.24) (7.31),
iac

a0

aQ

a0

a0

a0

iac

ec

(7.33)
,

.

+ - f
,

6 ,
710 . (7.33)
1>

, , ,
:

Kofsc-

(7.34)

f

, .
eCMaKC

293

f
,
. f

. 7.1.
ecMaKC

ecMaKC

7 1

68

162

61| 64

61

69 | 6 5 69| 65
1
9
17,5
30,5
11,7

S, /

1,65

3,2

4,8

4,9

4,8

11

4,35 1 13
1

4,1

3,8

2,45

21

15

14,6

24

12,5

34

52,3

59,6

,
0

5,2

10

8,5

16

7,5

2,5

3,5

2,85

12,8

28,5

18,5

64,5 65,3 77,3

18

24,9

155

195

. 7.1, 65,
69 65.
rsf . 7.1 f


, . .
. , , 61
/ = f = 10 ,
(7.34)
6,45
BCMaKC

ac

64,5

= 6,45.

10

,
, () ,
R , . R ,
J , U ,
, ,
R , (7.33) K f , = 5/2
, K f . ,
6
U = 120 / = 7,5 ;
= 300 ,
R ( )/1
= 24 .
R > 24 < 300 U 1 ,
S.

. 7.9
a

u0

uQ

0 l)C

294

aQ

,
68 = 250 , R = 500 ,
* =
> ^1
= 7 ( = 20 ).

; f

,
6 /

S/2-fC .
5
( , =
= const),


(
).

R
. 7.9. , -
f

.
. 7.9
,
tic ~ W^CoRiac0

ec

7.1.5.
, ,
/ - 0 f = f -

(. 7.2)
,


, f <
</o C =u)C = 0 ,
, = 0.

. 7.10.
0

U)

(/</)


,
,
. 7.2, . 7.10.

295

(7.11) (7.12) :
=^ =

,
1

Ra

(7.35)

Ra > u>C R

Rc I

<p = arc tg

^
Ri

(7.36)

Ri \

/ < f , . 7.3,
. ,
f
, / (. 7.10 ),
U = RJ ,
R ,
R . ,
C R
0

c2

c0

R ^/

R% 4- ^ J , . .

Uq

j_

Rc

, C R
R 1/<
R > 1/ ,
1 / = R 0,707, ,

r

37

(- >

2zC R
c

,
,
C R ,
R (7.37)
,
R R ,
. 7.10.
0
(. 7.10) , . 7.10 6,
. R U /(Ri 4- R ) 0 .
, C

29G

cl

Rt R , ,
0 . 7.10.
U , ,
U = const , / .
/ = ty (f)

a

ci

Rco = R +
c

RjRa

(7.38)

Rl + Ra

l/u>C . , 1 > = R,
0,707
1/ = 0, ,

c

(7.39)

1. C R
C

2. (R

(0

RiRa
Ri + Ra


R > R > R , R > /?,/?/(#,- + R ),
R zz R (7.37)
.
R <^ R
, R R /(R +
R )^R .
c

c0

Rto =

fnc

Rc +

1
2K C (RC
c

ir

(7.40)
(7.41)

Ra)

To ,

,

. /
. 7.10
U ,
0 2

R ,
,
. 7.11.
/ 0 .



. 7.11


. , [ ei

297


"
.
/ . f

HC

. , f

HC

= - ,

= C R , f
,

(. . 6.5.3),
.
f , ,
- = /? ,
,
0,25 0,5 ,
. f ,
(f > 16 ), 0,003
0,04 . (
) 0,01 0,02
fuc = 8 16 ).
c

c0

HC

HC

(0

7.1.6.
,

, ,
:
, . .,
.
( )
(. 7.2),

U ,
.
( )
R , , 3 4.
, : f
f ,


, ,
.
" .

,
,
,
. *

, .
2

298

,
. ,
R ,
(62, 68, 61,
6 .)
.
0,70,8 -
. , ,

, - ( 20 97,5).


.
,
, ,
. 6.5.3. ,

(. 7.1).
, , . 7.1, '
,
U . \U, \
, ,
' = , .
]
-,
c

l0

= (0,8-0,9) .

(7.42)

R
,
- (7.10), R .
(7.30), <
<u, , . .
a

iac

(7.43)

/ , a ^C R

(7.31) fjf , :
0

iac

ec

= ^

= V 1+ CR f
0

iac

= | / 1 + ^

) ,

(7.44)


.
( ) ,


, :

= 20lg j , . = 2 0 1 g = 2 0 l g '

(7.45)
299

,
/

= 10

(7.46)
037

, =0,75
, , = 10' = 1,09.
(7.44) (7.31)
R :
6

iac

Ml - 1

"

Riac =

"
=
2^ fecCo

2TI f Co

48

(- >

,
, ,
.
7.1. ,
: f = 50 } =
= 10 000 , = , 5 , = 1 0 20,
= 265 , (. .
) U r
10 .
61
(,. = 7,8 , = 0,95 ); 61
H

c2vaK

(*), =

1 6

' -

,
61, | = 26 = 1,1 .
(., , . 6.53),
.


= 265 , .
- (7.10) ,
6

= ( )
0

+ [

(1 4 )]

= 1,1 4 7,8 - f 0,95 (1 - f 16,8) 4 6 = 32 .


, f

ec

Ri

ac

- (7.46) (7.48):

_
. =

2 0

05
=-- 10

Ml-

V
Riar =

= 1,06,

10 000
1

28 800 ,

> i.

"
=
6,28-28 800-32-10"

000 .

12

2r.f C
ec

20

. 7.4, R
< R:, 61
11 , .. ,
Ri = 172 . R
R
<Ri < 11 , , , R > R
iac

ac

iac

300

. R
(510) Ri ,
Ri

(. . Ri
= Ri ,
). , R R (. 7.5).
61, 3, R < 0,5 ;
(. 1) R = 0,47 .
61 RiHOM ~ 11 , R = 55110 ,
R = 68 ).
a

MM

HOM

H0M

1-

Eac^BSB

. 7.12. ~ , ^ ( 7.1)


^ (. 7.12), ,
. 4.1.2, R .

~ (. 7.12 6), ,
0
9 . ., ,,1 ,
&.

0

" + ,,

U =


= I.
8

1 + ( - 9)

,,

"

=5

: U

ao

= 144

)
, ,
. R
/ = 1,8 ( ), P
68-10 ( l , 8 - 1 0 ) = 0,22 . ,
0,25 .

a

301

(
)
RaRr
68-470
,, = Rac =
=
' = 59,4
R + R
68 + 470
a

(. . 4.1.3),
, ,
:
= 64
, = 216 .
(. . 4.2.2), ,
U = 4
U
= 76 (U = 54 )

l M a h

rm

am

. = - ^ U

= =0.026.
76

am

, | / 2 - 1 0
; 14 , ,
.
- (7.14)
A (U = 5 ),
16 . ,

c0

26

=
0

Ri
Ri
1 + +
R
R
a

16
16
1 + +6 8 470

= 20,5.

C
c

. (7.35)
R'
R \
-f---f--)
Ra

Rc

I +

(7.14) (7.33),
=

(7.49)

1
1 +

R.

= :

(7.41) j

(7.50)

HC

~T~Z
2 : C R o
c

I/

1+

i j^)

(7-51)

! =

* -\

1
2* /
302

(7.52)

(7.53)

() "
.
,
= 0,5 (7.46)

20

= 10

(7.54)

,
. ,
,
(. 6.45).
, R > R , ,

(7.55)

M M ,
CN

KH

, C R
= 1,04, / = 1,02

(. . 6.5.3).

/, = /

1 = 5 0 ^ 1 , 0 4 - 1 = 14.1 .

, , R
= 470 , :

co

R
c

2^f R
MC

6,28 14,1 -470-10

c0

= 0,024-

- 6

0,025 .

= C R, = 0.025-0,47 = 0,012 .

R
K

2,7 .

1,8

'


(. 6.2) = 10 .
,
(5.99)
(5.98):

'-

lg

(7.56)
/

<f = arc (

(7.57)



(7.56), (6.220) (7.57), (6.221), . .


i 1

-~

101g

1 +

- lg 1 +

<f = arc tg + arc tg-y

+ 10 lg

1 +

arc tg y - ,

,(7-58)

(7.59)
303

/, / , 6.2, :
/ = 5 , 9 / = 1 1 , 6 . f , - (7.41),
13,5 .
, - (7.56)(7.59)
. 5.14. y^g f
. 7.13.

ft

HC

7.13.
7.1

1/^^= (/) [tfF(J)


(5.101) (5.102), :
10 lg

=
6

L) ]

1 +

(7.60)

? = arc tg

(7-61)

. 5.15.
= 3 2 , #,= 16 , R =68
(7.23) (7.31), :
0

R,

Ri

Ra

' Rc

68

4-

16

6,28-32- 1 0

tl

- , z

12,6 :

470

2r.C R
0

16

1+

1
=

16

R,-

R,

, R =47Q ''.

. 12 600

392-10

,
, -, .
( =0,5
/ = / = 1 0 000 ), ,
- (7.47), f
28 800 .
f 392 28,8
61 ,
. 6.53. ,
(7.31), :

er

i =
0

1
2. fee Riac

1
6,28-28 800-12 600

^=32 , 406^390
0

.304

438.10~ .
12


<, - (7.60) (7.61),
. 7.13.
,
,
:
3

/ = -

<

62

>

/ = 13,5 /,,=28 800 , / = 6 2 0 .



.
7.2. ,
: 5010 000 , =
~0-5 , = 2 6 5 ,
61 20,5;
, U

23 ,
! > 1 0 0 ;
, .
,
,
(7.42), (0,80,9) , . . 210240 ;
= 2 3 0 .
/ > 100
, .
61, =25
.
- (7.10)
, 61 = 1,38 = 1 , 3 5 ; .
6 .

c2

- ( )

+ [

(1 + )) ,

= 2,45 + 1,38 + 1 , 3 5 (1 + 20,5) + 6 = 33,8 .



, - (7.46):

2 0

= \0


Riac 1- (7.48)]

R,

n r

= _1

=
, 150-10 .
6,28-10- -38,8-103

!
2r.f C
e

1
4

= 1 0 = 1,06.

12

61 R = l
,

.
,
(1//? *0), (7.23),
, R/ ~-Rac

ac

Rg Rc

_ .

^ ' R I T R I -

'

Rc Rac
R

=
Rc-Rac

20- -237

-'Poo-'50

180 .

00-150
305

, -
^> Rc Rta
Ra< ,~
U
,
, ,
. 7.14.

c2MaKC

% UTb,

]_

. *

Jo

..

. 7 . 1 4 .

<7
, (/?j=9 R ) (/? = 19 /? ) .
Vi . R , R , R R
,
(. 1).
R , R R 10%, ]
R + 20% ( , + 10%,
, ). R ,

, .
V , ,
, -7 -2.

R R ,
= 1
/ , 1
U
,
; / 4001000 .
1

c2

M a K C

: R R
.

( ),
. U ,
U 0,050,1 .
, R n R ,
, , .
R R ,
a

R ~- ^ ,
CK

01

10 , , R
0,10,5 .
/? ,

3

306

,
R R ,
U . .
*
( ) , ,
/7 . .,, ,.
^
U ,
.
, ,
.
- .,
U
R R ,
, -
.

R ,

,
, . 2.1.6 (. 2.5).

: = 2 3 0 , / = 1 , / = 0 , 1 , R = 180 R =
= 1 ; :
# = 1 , 5 , # =820 , / = 0 , 8 , / = 0 , 2 , (7 =18 ,
U =3be
( ^ 2
2 3 );
18 5 , (
) 1,8 .
#,=0,1
1,02 ,
R 5 .
;


U
18
K

r2

67

el

c2

M a K t

aMaKC

CK

c2

* = ^ = , 7 =

1 8 0

, R R ,
(6.244) M (6.245),
3

i0

= 1 + S ,
K

-- 1+

SR.
3


18
A V - y

= 3,6,

18*
/VI. ^ = 10,
1,8
, S =- 1,73 / ^ = 0 , /.

, ,

K

- 10

2 0

1_
4 0

= 1,06
307

= 1 , 0 4 = 1,02.
- (7.52)
11

! = fc Y cu

R + Ra

1 =501/1,02 -

1 = 10 .

(7.40),

/?<.= 1000 + 180 = 1180 .


- (7.53)

1
6,28-10-1180-10

= 0,015 ,

= /?

12

13 5 0 0 . 1 0 ~ ^ -

HC

= 9

= 0,015 10 -1180-10 = 0,018,

.
,
(. . 6.5.3, , 6.3)
(>: = 50 , = 0,25 = 10 .

, (7.58) (7.59), :

ioig 1 +

= -

+ 10_lg

-Wig

-lOlg

1 +

(t)

' h \
v

- ^ + arctg-^' /
f

fc

arc tg

(7.64)

1 -f

- a r c t g ^ -arctg

. (7.65)

,
. 5.14. (7.64) (7.65)
(f 9 ),
6.3 : f ~2,l
, f 0,8 , f =
= 14 * f = 1,5 .
if
- (7.60) (7.61) . 5.15.
,7.31) f :
HC

gc

1
2 R
0

it

6,28-36,6-10

150-10

29 000 .

/, - (7.62),
510 .
61 . 7.15.

(.

i )
,
, R (7.63); ,

, 7.15.
7.2
(. 7.12)
,
= f ( ),

( . 4.2.3).

7.2.

7.2.1.

. 3.2.1.

,
ho

(. 7.16).
/?! R ,
2

,


. Wi w
. 7.16.


.

( /? = ) ;

"

309

Rr,' U R = R = oo
jx; ,
.. >'..,-,\ .
;
= ^ .
(7.66)

cl

Wi

^
. szU /U ,


. , . .
= .
(7.67)
c2

,
,

. ,
, -
, (
),
f
100, 200
.

-

. ; /
1020 ,
.

( 100200 ), ,
,
,
;

(. 3.9).
,
,

, 1020 .

,
.

'
(1 7?,- (611, 62, 61, 6 .).
, . . [47],
, ,
' Ri C R
,
.
,
R\ .
3

310


,
:
1.
;
,

(R ,
R,
).
, ,

, ;

,
, , - .,
.
2. , , ,

. , ,

. , ,

- -

, .
3.
-
,

.

(
).
4.

.
,

, (. . 6.5.2).

,
[89].

,
.
, -, ,

(,
), -,
, -, ,
,
.

311

7.2.2. .


. 7.17. ,

J*l

jj?

. 7.17.

1 0 \,

, , Ri.
\
, L i-

, ,
, Li .
,
, , ,
, >
, , ,
.
(. 7.16)
(. 7.17) , , R%,
,
:
s

U = -

(7.68)



^ = -
L
x = L ,

(7-69)
s2

s2

s2

^ 2 = ^ - -

170>


, ;
2

312

C
{ )

=
{ ) + .
jp

(7.71>

^
, . . [89], 18 250 .
, :

, ,

= \
2

(7.72)

C = C +(CJ +C
1

J}i

(7.73)

MU

,
( )
.
>
{

, 0 , . .
2

0 2 = ^ - ,

= 0: .

(7.74>

, . 7.17,
,


.
,
L L
,

.
,

- ,
+90
270. L

- ,
, 270.
,
500 (
/>100 ) [67].
,
,
;

sl

s2

313

- .
, , L ,
, a L
/ (. 7.16).
. 7.17
;
. ,
,
.
L i L L
Z. d
, L H Z /
L ,

(),
lt

s2

sl

As L i + L L -fs

s2

(7.75)

sl


,
% 0 .
, R /? .
.
-


. ,

Rin

Ri

(7.76)

\.


- . 7.18.
. 7.18.
. . 4.23 7.18, ,

:

f ct

Ri > =
H

i L,

Z = i(oL + r ,
c

Y =*\u> C .
d

(7.77)

. 4.23
' (4.47), = b\!U. ,
U = 0 U = 0 ,

cl

314

= " ,

. .
=

^
1 + ^ - + (1 ) I , + r,)i S> , +

(i ^ I , + r ) i +
2

i <*

,
3i i i ? - -
2

/K

Z7

IT

^ L /L

,
, /:
s

= ^"

1-

78

(- )

^L C +l(^C R ~^
s

le

= + r = R + r + r .
(7.79)
(7.78)
:
2

= =

"

}/"(1-

) + (

(7.80)

"

Li

? = arctg

(7-81)

(7.80) ,
,
. . 7.18 ,
f LiC' .
, ,
(7.78), . .
0

U =

'??!- .

'

(7-82)

R R . f ,
(7.81),
; f
500 = 2000
.

L C ,
, , .
ia

lH

3J5

(7.83


f .
Q /.
R LC
,,
Q < 0,707, . 7.19.
e

le

, 7.19. ^ .

7.2.3. *

, ,
/ . f ~ f
(7.78); / ~ /
u> L C' <^ 1,
1 L C
1
(7.67)
( )
0

= -.

/? ,


2

= ^

(7.84).-


(. 7.20).
,
,
; R , (510) R ,
(0,80,9) . .
0

ie

"V"
fa

. 7.20.


(/ . / )

. 7.21.

(/ > /)

7.2.4.

/ > f .
. - (7.80)
0

Rin .

; , ,

Li (. 7.18),

, .
2

^ 0,

[ (. 7.21),
(7.80) (7.81):

fi

(7.85)

]/(1-^ ) +(
5

^2

arc t g -

CR )
2

IE

(7.86)

<aL

Ri

1/;

(7.87)

^2 Rie

VL C
S

an

(7.88)
317

. .
.
, ~\f -Q~
,
, .
, . 7.21,
R ,

-^f,

ie

,
Q

(7 89>

-iy%-V%-

'

(7.88) (7.89) ,
,, = v-nQ = KoQ-

(7.90)



Q . (7.90)
, Q.

(f = f ),
f <.f
.

f7

(7

'

91

- >

. (7.67) (7.89)
(7.85) (7.86) :

=
(1 _

(7.92)

<2

= arctg

(7.93>

Q(l >)

(*) , ,
= ,

(7.94)

~-

4?

(7.95)

4 ?

(7.94) , Q>0,707,
, f

318

ripu'Q, 0,707,
f
f
(. 7.19). (7.95) ,
, . f

f,

Q; , Q = 1
f = 0,707 f
= 1,15


. ,
f . ,
M

If

Ip

f> f

to

(. 7.21) ;
U

c2

nU' =^
c2

>

,
. , f^>f

fI

, 12 /,
( - ) <=180 .
f
(7.83), !
, ,

ir

LC
S



(. 7.19);
35. , L
,
.
L ,

[89]. , ,
( ).
,

.

(. 7.19) .
. 7.21 , , f , s

319

, . . :

0 )

< 0 , 1

, , 90.
90, , U U
0 > > 9 0 \
1 pU
9 0 .

, 90,
180. ,
. 7.2.2, ? 500.
2

cl

7.2.5.

( 0 / )
mL .
. 7.18 L ,
, . 7. 22.
(7.80) (7.81) :
0

(7.96)

1+(.<4*.-)'
(7.97)

= arc t

/ ,

.
,
I
R I . U
J;JL U R I \ -

.
,

(. 7.23). L
,
I ,
U ,
. 7.22. U 2 -
(/ < / )
R .
,
=
0

iH

cl

iH

iH

. , .
320

. 7.22 ( ' = 0)
2 . 5.13 ,


(
).
f , /( = 0,707
, ,
R
C B L J , ,
2

HC

iH

^ = ^ -

. 2: L

= -^(7.98)
1

"

,


.

.

(f=j )
( 1 3 ).


.
(. 7 . 2 3 ) ,
H

, i =
H

7.2.6.
,
, . . ( )

0'
,
f , f -
.
,
' (
, )
. 1 5 0 2 0 0 ,

5 0 .
2

21-237

321


, , L ,
\, % L[ , ,
.


. (7.92) ,

: f
^ j j
{

f/

Q. ,
.
Q < 0,707.
Q = 0,707, L ,
. ,
s

Q = - ,

(7.92) -

V 2

(7.99)

Vl+x*.

///

f = , -j-,
1 , . .
=

1/,

, /

f,

f=

->

(7-100)

, (7.46),
_

2 0

= 10


- ,

f , .
(7.83) (7.89),
:
0

2*

(7.101)
hi

(7.101) Q = l/j/2^
322

Ir

(7.100). :
|

2 ^ - 1

,
= ,

. = >

(7-103)

i7,
(7.102) :

44/ C g
8

1,22,

, ,
,
yS
. ,
,

1 , . . ,
2

. , = 1,26 (2 ) V I =0,935,

. = 1,06 (0,5 ) \ 1 = 0,768.


,
,
S. ,
yS ,
. ,

R'

f = , , f
L

R ,
HC

MC

.(7.105)

q , 1,1 1,5,
.

LJ ,
. .
,
1 , /

, .

. H

21*

323

, R = q R , (7.102),
,
, ,
= 1,
. ,
U
U ,
, U

.
, Ri

.
Rx ,
. 7.17,
, p'U
R'.,

ie

c2waKC

a0

c2M2KC

cl

( 7 1 0 7 )

, R > R

( x ' ^ i ^ A =SR

(7.108)

it

R'^Rv

(7.109)

|x' R , / ?
, . R (

=h 0

#i

(7.104) \' S, . .
= const .

(7-)

,

5 . Rx
L const R
, or RJ , Rx^ .

,
. 7.2
.
. 7.2 , ,
62,

lt

aQ

a0

324

(*i=)

V*
V
V
V

'

26
27
35
37
97,5
55

61
65
61
6
62
62

2,25
3,5
3,2
4,9
2
12

= 1 0 )

52
90

61
65

5
9

Ws

Ri
1
(/) 2

0,242 11,6
0,307
7,72
0,335 10,9
0,425 7,55
0,442 48,8
0,812 4,58

Ri /

0,432
0,4940,688
0,44
0,258
0, 965

6, 1
8
8
7,7
2,3
14,5

Ri I

10
10

0,563
1

7,5
10

')

55,7
70,5
77
97,8
101
187

(//

0,52
0,9

/0

7.2

115
207

0,15
0,6
0,6
0,35
0, 345
0,4_

0,175
0,45

) - (7.104)
= 1 , 1 2 , / = 10 , = 200 q = 1,5.

(/?i );
( RJIQ).

1/2 62, Rj\o,
/?, . < 1,
L
,
, .
, 1/2 62
.
, .
uS
Rjlo,
,
.
1 , U 6%.


x

a0

U2
l

MaKe

= ^ n ^ ^ -

^ Z

^ '

(7.111)
325

(. . 8.1.3),
50 . U U
, 1 U .
U ,
U ,

a0

c0>

a0

c0

U=

c0

[V2U

clMaKC

clMaKr

+ ( 0 , 5 - - \)].

(7.112)


Ri \0. . 7.2
65,
,
62. ,
, Ri :
^ - U

/?
.
,
\fRxS
= S v'Rx,
Rjlo,
,

U , / . ,

c2MaKC

a0

(7.113)

U

,
( ).

1 .
, ,
\\. R / R. = /?
. , Q = 0,707 f
- (7.100).
- (7.71).
q
q , , q q

, [. -
(7.79), (7.103) (7.104)].
:
q = 1,1 1,5 q = 1,2 2,0,
0,70,9 = ' = 0, . .
an

/ 7

<7* = <7 = 1 (7.101),


L -
(7.89) (7.101), :

326



.
f^f
(7.96) u>C' R ;
, (7.67) (7.98),
H

te

=Jk===.

(7.115)


(7.52),

7116

fc = L y K - i >


.

, [ = ,

2<

= 10
.
,
,

M = M M
(7.117)

nH

LHt

M
, , ,
, 1 = (0,6 0,8) ( 1).
f
LH

HC

(78)

^ = ~-

(7.102), (7.115) (7.117) R R


Rj (7.103) (7.105).
- (7.119)
(7.120), (7.69), (7.76), (7.79), (7.103)
(7.105):
(7.11)
ia

= (, ) #<

(7.120)

r = n r'
2

iH


.
7.3.
, : } 70 , / =
- 7000 , ~ 2 , 1 ,

327

2
= 90 , '
" = 150 . 64, '
= 330 .

\Ucm ',
158
--= = 2,55,
62

64
: =
= 7,5 = 16,5 .


64:

. 7.24. .
7.3.

(),

\ +

(1 4-

+/01 . = 7 , 5 + 16,5(1 +
+ 2,55) = 66 .

, , -
.71), { )
= 66 ) , (. 7.24)
( 0,5 ( ) = 33 ,
2

+ 0.5 ( )

= 150 + 33 +

10 200

, [ 62.
:
, = 7 , U = 3 U 180 |96J. Ri =
6,6 fj = 55.
f (7.100),
(7.46),
/
7000
= 4
=
+
V Ml - 1 V U * - 1
0

cn

a0

If

/ / ;

9 8 0 0

q =\,5
= 1 , 2 5 , Ri ,
-, , , L ,K, /
L
(7.103), (7.105), (7.101), (7.114)
.67), (7.116),(7.117) (7.118),
Rie = QeRi = 1,5-6,6 = 9,9
R =
= 1,25-6,6 = 8,25 ,
e

lt

iH

= _,
_ . _==- =
- = 3,4,
Y2r.f C R Q
, 28-9800-200-10" - 9 , 9 - 1 0 - 0 , 7 0 7
QR
0,707-9,9-10
in = 5 5 - 3 , 4 = 187.
=
= 0,114 , K
2r.f II
6,28-9800
|2

II

le

ie

0 =

/
M
= M , = 2 1,26, ,

LH

! = ! V \

- 1 = 7 0 V l , 2 6 1 = 53,3

8250
2* fHC

"6,28-53,3

= 24,6 .


0,114

= 0,0046

24,6
1

,
,
).
, (7.119) (7.120), :
1

1 = ( Rt = (1,25 1).6,6 = 1,65 ,


' = (<? ) Ri=(\,5
2

1,25)-6,6 = 1,65 ,

= n V ' = 3 , 4 , 6 5 = 19 .

U 180 , - (7.111),
. 7.24,
aa

-/)

2U

(18050 6,67)3,4

1,41

: 200 .


.
rj
=
= 1,65-7 = 11,5 ; ,
R (. 7.24), 3 ,
,

0

' = + + \U \ = 180 + 11.5 +


+ 3 = 195 .

lt

,
= 360 , 165 ;

%,
0

= 22 .

165
= = 23,6
7


| / | _

RK

.
7.25.


0,43


. 7.25, C R

. 6 456 (1 +
.
.

)
, . 7.2.7.

329


,
:
1

< (0,050,1)
',

- - < (0,05 - 0 , 1 ) o.L

(7.121)

= 2,03 4,06 ,
112 224 .

, (. 6.2); 1^
.

(7.91) (7.93), , (7.92),
(

lg


- (7.56), (7.57) (7.98)..

</cW <
:

/ ' VI - I 0 1 g (/ \
fb

ig

. + ().

VI

l'

} - { ) .

+
(7.122)

< = a r c t g - ~ - f arc tg";


Qi

(7.123)
2* [(1 + P) R +] \

1+

V-) RK

-t- /?*

(7.124)
(7.125)

ofb + / l .

(1 4-

/? 4- /?


C R C R ^ ,
[. - (7.58), (7.59) 6.2],

Rm
!

330

2KL,

Ri +
2KL,

7.2.7.
R
? .
R , -,
, ,

,
.
-, R ,

,

(. 7.26).
-,

. 7.26. R


L ,


.
-, R

,
, , .

2

r^ +

eX

Rt

.
,
,

,
.
R
. , /
%
0

[ - (7.84)]
(

=
0

, Hi*

i -t-


,
, R'
2

33!

(. 7.17). * R . 7.27.
/<",

R , fn Q,
[22]:
2

IFL

RtH
1+

Ri + r

* + R'o
i

7.27. <
Ri

/1

2,

, (7.126)
hC

j/' if

R = R, -f- r, + /-;,

(7.127)

R = ^

IB

c = n*c

R , , f, Q ,
, R , L | .
, *
,
is

-?- = 5-0
Rie

L , - (7.126) (7.127),
L R . , 7.3, = = 0,0046. s

, , L 0,114 ( ), 1 ,
= 0,041. R , s

. - (7.126) (7.127), :
n

'

6,28-9800-1

2itf,,L

J? =

R, =

1
Q

9900
6,28-9800

ie

2K(L

1,41

, ,

j , 9,9
39

--- -

rrz = 1.3.

6,28-9800/1.200-10-12

2^f,,\l C
5

9900 = 39 ,

R = n R = 1,3 39 = 66 68 .
2

*;

39

30% ,
/? = .
,

, ,
r =
= R = 2>9 ;
.
2

fl

7.2.8. -
-
. 7.28. ,
R


R
.



,

.
^

- _ 28.

333

,
;

L ,
L\
. ,

L[ ,

.


:

^'

,

/=0

+ 9 0
+ 180.

.
-

,
. 7.29.
-


() , ()


()
,
.
. 7.29
.
-
, ~ = 0
< ]

-1- = 0.


,
, ,
. 7.296,
+ ri +
Ri +

Ra
Ra
Ri +

334

Ra

r'

2>


, . 7.21, .
-'; , - ,
.

L = 0
= 0,
(. 7.30 ),
s

* = irzir -

+ ri

(728)



= -^=

= |i'
RIH

,
+

i <> li

I ) C.J

L A

(7.129)
:
=
,'

= arc tg

- .

f =

(7.131)

L A
LJCJ

j =

(7.130)

i-i ( 1

(7-132)

+90.
,

hi = ? = = = - .

-133)

20?
2Qf

ft-V -

7134)

, = 0 .
d

335

f f < f
( 12 /),
+ 1 8 0 .

. 7.30.

s

. 7.30. -

Qi Q

. ,
,

1~

-. '

(7.135)

4Q?

( /? )
2

(7.136)

= ',
0


Q i > 0,707.

Xi

(7.133),

==

(7.137)

(7.130)
=

(7.138)

'(7.85) (7.92).

Qi < 0,707;
336

Q = 0,707 (
L ^ . (7.138) Q = 0,707,
x

= .

(7.139)

L ?! -
Q = 0,707 ,
(7.132), (7.134), (7.137) (7.139),
x

0,707 >,

L,i

"

2r.f [/ 2
H

2Ij

(. 7.3),
f = 70 , --=1,26 {
= 2 )
R = 8,25 , L = 24,6, .
7.3, :

iH

0,707 8250

L
x

= 15,3 ,
1

4
6,28-70 | , 2 6 1

1 =

-6

Hi^
8250

o , 4 5 - 1 0 .

L\ 1-6 (24,6 : 15,3);


0,0046
0,0075,
.

7.3.

7.3.1.
(. 7.31)
,
R L.
.

, .
1. 1
. ,

a0

22237

337

(U = r I ) / ,
. , [ U /

..
[ .
2. ,
> - .
| .
:
1. , ,
: ,
R .
2.
Kfc
,

-

.
(7.33)
0

a0

a0

a0

0 e

Kof

. 7.31.


,

, ,
,
C . ( f )
, , R

S .
5, ^ ( 5\5)
0

i)
L

>(i)
i

\ ^0

'

f (f > 1550 ) ) , ,
5 ,
f = - , ec

er

ec

2 CQ

.
3. . ,
,
3

L
( ).
4.
, 0 < / < /. 90,
10.
5.
.

, ,
-
; ,
90;
:
1) ,
, 2)
3)
, +90.

, , -,
,


;
; ,


.
7.3.2. ,

. 7.32. ,
: ,
, r
, ,

Co = {C )
aK

+ C + {C )
L

ex

La

+ C,
M

,
.
. 7 32
,
,
,
. , , ,
() ,

22*

339


r
Ri
, \/ = 0.
. 7.32 , L
,
e

( 7

-'

4 0 )

.
, f .
,
0

-- < R ; = 0. c

L C r f ~ f

,
R .
,


(. 7.33),
,
0

(7.141)

Ri + R

. 7.32.


K^SR .
C

(7.142)

" / .
.
(f > f )
< ,
(. 7.336), 0

. 17.33. : /. ;
!, '
;

.
340

R ;
lac

= R ,

iac

lc


R; ^R .
C

(7.30), (7.31), (7.60) (7.61), ,


, . .
=

(744)

1 +

= a r c t g - i - ,

(7.145)

.
, (f < f )

,
(. 7.33).

(. 4.23)
(4.47). :
0

r
, = 0 ,
:
L

/ = ^

- ^

LC Rr

ib>L

(7.7)

:
1

f =

'

__ ,
j/l+g-

Qi = j c -

X l

= tf-

(7.148)

( -

1 4 9

(7.150)
341

, (7.138),
-

"-

(7.151)

(7.138) (7.151) ,

r =0 ,
-
.
L

. 7 34. (Q ) (<)
r = 0
x



(7.147),
, (7.148) (7.150)
? = arctg

Qi(i-*?)

(7.152)


. 7.34.
, ( )

R < R ,
. R ,
R ( 5'10 ), "(/)
.
c

342

7.3.3.
.
7.4. ,
: / = 50 , } = 10 000 ;
- = ^ = \ ( = = 1,12);
( ) ^=\
;

-~ 363 ; C = 160 .
, .
-50,
U <~ 1000 , = 9,15 = 40 .
= 20 ,
= (C )
-rC +
( )
+ = 9,15 + 160 + 10 + 20 = 200 .
(7.47) (7.146) ,

a0

aK

10
fee

= 20 ,
2

VtA\-\

.12 -1

Ric

40 000 .

6,28-20-10 -200-10 12
3

, R, =r R
Ri
r

jtr-

-U -700 6
ao

. 7.35.
7.4
R

39 .
V2

. = 1,414-363 ^ 5 1 3 .

R = 39 ,
:
c

513
39

= 13,2

,
, 1 . , , 1 = 30 .
,
U = 150 .
700 ,

y0

343

u = u
= U U = 700 513 = 187 i = /;()
(. 7.35).
25 ,
a

aM

a0

am

Uicm ~ 6

.

:
t7
513
= ~
- = = 86.

lcm

86
5 = = = 2, 2 /.
Rc
39
'

L
, :

a =

Rc_
Ri '

- -

(7.153)

t.C .
{})
, Qx < 0,707 (7.149)
c

/
=

. (7.149)
R,

1 ,

Q <
Qj.

x

{754)

^ [-wv^--

?
\

- ,

= - ; ,

Qi- Qx = 0,707,
L, (7.154),
= 0 :
= Q j i ? = 0,707-39 = 27,6 .
c


//

LC

(7.151), -, = .
/

' ' - ' / - ( ) V(it- )'**-'

Qi = 0,707
4
1

344

756

>

f = 50 = 1,12, 7 / = 35 .
L - (7.148)'' (7.153):

27600
= 124 .

2//1/1--

2*

6,28-35-1
1

- 6

= 0,163-

6,28-35-27600-1

{, 1 -i-

. 7.36.
r = 0 = 1,5
7.4
L

,
(7.141), (7.144), (7.151), (7.145) (7.152),
. 7 36 .
, r (. 7.33),
, ,
, / . /
, . 7.33, ,
- (7.122),
:
L

fb =

2KL
'

1 +

(7.157)

2* f i
'L

Ri_

Rc
,
-
(7.122)
r = 1500 ,
. 7.36 , ,
.
L

345

7.4.

7.4.1.
, ,
, , -
.

:

.
, ,
.
-
,
()
,
.

, ,
;

.

,
= (f).
.
,

: ,
, ,
.
,
: , (
)
(, '
,R,. $ L ). , / ,

> ,
Kof ,
/ :'
^ R const ( L = const)

R , R#, L . .

146

,



,
'
; ,


. . ,

. ,
,
,
. ,
,
,
, , . .,
, ,
,
. . .


,


.

, .
,
,
,
. .

.
,
,
. , ,

,
, ,
,
. ,
, . .
, , , .
,
. ,

. .

347

, 1 ,
' . [ , , .
,
, ,
.
, , .
,
, , , . 6.37, 6.40 .
,
/- , ,
| . 6.2.8, . 7.5.1.
, ,
,
ie , 1,
[ , ,
. . ; ,
: ,
1 . 9, [.
7.4.2.


1934 . . . [13],
) [14, 17] , ( .
1933 . . . [ [91, 92], '
\ . 5], . . [44] .

:
L . [73] . . [54].

[ , . . .
, <*>
, 48

) . .
,
/() = /

/ ( )

*>) +

(<> -

li

( -

2!

)* +

. . .

(- )" + / ? .

(7.158)

-
nW=

i!r ^

(M_Mo)

!+!

(759)

' '

< ^ < , ,
,
f (), . .
[f ( ) ]
= ).
f(co), ,
:

= 1

/' = f' ) + ^

( - ) +

(-1)1

_,)"-'

) +

<L_ ^1 _

(<> -

- ' ^

(7.160)

*.

(7.161)

. . ,
f () ,
/()
,
0

/' =

= ,. (7.160)
(7.161), f () = 0 ,
n- , , /' ( ),
f" ( ) , . . . f ( ) .
0

n)

() = () = . . . = /

( )

= 0

(7.162)

,
.
, . .
2

+ _
"

n-i

+ ^

+ _ + . . . + ,

_ ^ 4

, + _ * + . . . +
2

- + .
0

349

,
= + (,

(7.164)

- (7.163) :
/(2

-2

"-

Z J

. (7.165)

1 +rf _, <* +rf _ + . . . + ^ w- + d ,"


1

. . [16] ,
(7.162)
(7.165), . .

,=d

,
~
d __
m

n-2 ~

(7.166)

, ,
(, /( , .
(I , =
(7.165) ,
, . .
2

\-
2

" = 1

. 4 - . . . 4 - < " ~ + "


4

< +

^^

(7.167)

^ . 0 ,

j
l + D

j
J

^ - + . . . -

- D

( .168)
7

, (7.167) (7.168)
paeewm .-. - , . .
2

n4 ^ - 4

, . . ,
/ .
,
, , , 1 .

f
, :

=arctg|-

<f = a r c t g (

| ,

(7.170)

(7.171)


, /,
, >.

, , . .

/> = 0,

-_ =0

(7.172)

()
,
f , .

df/dui. (7.171) ,
JV
<
0

da

1+ S _
N

+ S/v4 <"*-+- S 1

jj- .

(7.17.5)

dy

>, . .

du>

,

:
2

RM-4

N - *

(7.174)



.
, ,
, ,

,
.
7.4.3.
, - ,
351



(. 7.19, . 7.30 . 7.34).
/
, ,


.

,
,



. 7.37.


.

,
.

, ,
(. 7.1)
(. 7.37).

. 7.33.

, . . ,
, .
,
. 7.37
.
L
, .
, .
,
.
. 7.38.
.
0

352

, , , ,

. ,
R > R , l/R =
, . 7.386.
- (7.10).

, '
LC R .
,
c

J,

.
l

+i"Co-


su

su

^2

cl

1
-f- i u)

R ~r i L

1">L\

*<L_Z

K = i ^ - =
U

.,

1 + i <u C / ? - f i u> Z. i C

cl

(7.175)

:
/ = 5

(7.176)

x = u,C /? ,
0

(7.178)

(7.175)

_ ^

1+kix]

\ + ix

k(' f

'

lX

k .

:
= =
=

L ^
2

,
2

arc tg[(l k)x

( 7

80)

1 + (1 2k)x +k x*

'

(7.181)

k*x*].

(7.167) (7.169), ,
,
= ( R f
(7.180), . .
= 1 2k,
2

23237

353

:
k = V2

1 = 0,414.

(7.182)



(7.173).
(7.181) ,
36
2

d<f

(7.183)

dx
1 + (1
+ 26>(1 k)x* + k*x*

,
,
,
k = 0,322.
(7.184)
(7.182) (7.184), ,


.
, , ,
,
,
0,414').
(7.180) ,
:
*=2* /. = /*+2*-1
0

( 7 8 5 )

_
A o

/
4

(2*+ 1)

'

(7.185) ,
k 4- 2k > 1, . . k > J^2 1 = 0,414.
,
, -
k L.
,
. 7.39, (7.185) (7.186),
k
2

)
,
, ,
. . [53], k, 0,35.
. 9.
354

R , f
,
.
KoppeKTHpvfonj,efl
(7.177).
,
, k
1.
k (7.180),
a

y = f

= -

= -

"

(7-187)

3 + 2j/2+x

. 7.39.

2 fC R

x = 2f CoR (7-188)
0

, , , , .
,

-= 1/
V

(7.189)

1+
5,83+

, - (7.189)
x

(7.190)
23*

355

.
, = 1,41 (
= 3 ), f = 5 ,
= 20 5 = 9 !, - (7.190) = 1,72;
(7.188) (7.176) , R = 2,7
= 24,3. , (7.177) L
60 .
,
/>
L k = Yl 1.
(7.J76) (7.188)

= - ~

(7.191)

, , l/R l/R \/R ,


(7.23) R = R , (7.24) (7.44)
:
i

iac

Ko = SR ,

(7.192)

M=-^-^V'\+MRj.

(7.193)


x = 2f C R
e

= VM* -l.'

(7.194)

,
(7.191),' (7.192) (7.194)', .
, = 1,41
= 1,72; ,
(7.194), = 1; ,
L daeni
Kof 1,72
= 3 .

. 7.39,
k = 0.

J^JU^PP.

>

{ )

(7.190) (7.194),
. , = 1,12 {
= 1 )

; - ^ 2 2 . = . 2 , 3 , = 1 , 0 1 2 { . = - 0 , 1

(*)

. .
356

) ^ ^ = 3,96
()


,
(Kof
^ ) ,
.
,
,
.

f , ,
N.
N
.
(7.176) (7.189)
. yV-
, " ,

o n m

Kio = VK^=SR ,

(7.195)

= VK

= V ^ - ^ T -

(7.196)

- (
),

, = 1 +
|

=
.

(7.197)

2-5,83

'


\ ^

1.

(7.198)

(7.197) (7.198),

1 =

*'

(7.199)
v

2-5,83

'

, (7.188), (7.195), - (7.199)


, :

In

,-66 v

/ s C

' Y
s
/

NKiF 0

(7.200)'
'

. .
J^L'
,
(7.201)
i ? m

0t

dN

."

:
W = 41nrV=0.46K ^
o

(7.202)

0 d

=' *-^\\ .
11,66 V

(7.203)
'

357


.

20

4*=>933(i^)4

(7.204)

N
4 In , KQ ,
( )

0nm

10

= *

= V* = 1.284.

(7.205)

, ~

, ,
N

= VK

= 1,284.
,
, =
N

= VK =SR ,
M =VM,
=Vl+x*
= 2^f C R ,
:
N
= 2lnK = 0,23K ,
0

lt

omi

9d6

= 2.72(-*4^).

(7.206)
(7.207)

= VKo = V* = 1,65.

(7.208)

(7.206) (7.208)
. . 1934 . [13].
(7.204) (7.207),
/(,

f , ,
.
,
.
6

7.5. ,
: = 1000,
^~ ",7 / = 4 .
: , .
(7.204) (7.207) ,
S/C ,

. 7.1,
61, S = 5,2 / = 12,8 .
0

358

,
.
. ,
.

(7.207)

= 2,72 I

= 2.72 { 6 . 2 8 - 4 - 1 0 ' - 1 2 , 8 . 1 0 - ' ^


\

5,2-10~

Mgg

=

0,7 , .
:
MUH

N 4

< 0,23 -

(7.209)

(7.188), (7.195) (7.198).


N N ,
(7.206),
onm

= 0,23 ;

onm

= 0,23-60= 13,8 14.

0,624 =0,7
'
N N .

N, (7.209), 9.

10

V WOO = 2,15,

= 1,65, .
.
, .
, 7 , 6 ,
,
. = 13,8 .
- (7.204) (7.202),

N :
0

* . = 0,933

. iV =0,46
o

[J-J

onm

/atf = 0,0011 ,

0,46-60 = 27,6:= 28.

M gg
0,0011
M $g = 0,7 , ,
4_
e

MUH

W C ^ < 1,34

' t

. - ,

(7-2)

^2 /


N .
(7.210) ,
onm

4
N

-'

1,34-0,7
< ,
,
= 47500,
/',28-410'-13,8-10~' '\
2

5,2-10~

N = 3.
359

, | 9 3,,
, ,
! .
, .
N _

=//(

= / 1 0 0 0 = 10.

= = = 1,92 .

R = 2 L (7.177)
a

12

L = kC Rl = 0,414-13,8-10~ -2000 = 2 3 , 2 - 1 0 ~ .
0

R . 6 1 , , , (2050) R,
. 0,41 .
(. 7.37) , .
7.6. -
/ N = N
, : /( = 100,
= 0,25 ,
(S = 9 /, = 10 , = 2,5 ), = 7 .
:
c

onm

+ = 10 + 2,5 + 7 = 19,5 .

f (7.204), f

4
e

1 6

1 f "

2*

(JV = N )
onm

211)

I-J

V 0,933 /

'

<j<r= = 0,25 .

(7.211) ,
4
9-10
, / 9i
/- =
/
= 20,6- 10
- 3

6,28-19,5--

1 2

0,933-40

1 - (7.202)

'

N nm = 0 , 4 6 . = 0,46-40 18.
, / ,
(7.207) = 18,5 , 3,72 , . . 5,5
, , , 9.
0

7.4.4.
3 1934 . 1940 . . .
16], , L R ,
0


(. 7.37). ,
,

).

. 7.40. , ,
L\, R
1

, , :

Ci =

+ .

(7.212)

+ ,

(7.213)

.
, 1/ =
=0, , , \/Ri \IR
\IR . , , :
1

(7.214)

C i + ,
2

L
k = ,
^

(7.215)

L l

1 -

(7.216)

CoR
= T.>

(7.217)

= .

(7.218)

= SR ,

(7.219)

(7.220)

= > C R
0

. 7.40, :
/(

' 1 kkytnx* + i (k + k m) x
t

l(^ + V + V ) * H

t o

i(l{(l+Vn)*[^i +^i( ")1* i '


(7.221)
m

.
, ,
w = arc te

(k+k )x
im

; arc te
1kk mx

(1 + k

_ JL _ l"I/"
/
=

im)

- \kk + V (1 -rc)]*
i

im

,
\{k+k m-\-k n)x -\-kk n{\n)x
x

7 .222)

l1 +
^-+
f a
*
+ aQi*
**
2

( 7

23)

) ,
i , ,
.
36

a, = & + k]m*
a, = *
b = (1 + ^ m ) 2 (k +
+ 6 )
6 = (6 -j- + V ) + 2 kk^n (1 )
2(1 + &i m) [kk^ m + k n (1 )]
6 = [fc^m + 6 (1 ) 2 6 V (\ n)(k+k m + V ) l
2

.(7.224)

6 = ^ (1 - )
4

, . . , ,
I . . [. - (7.167), (7.169) (7.223)],
=
1

(7.225)

-
(7.225),

k, 6j = ,

. 7.41 ).
. 7.42
, ,
6 =
= , = ft ,

.
(. 7.406)


IC. 7.40.

(. 7.40).
, (7.221) (7.224)
1, (. 7.406).

6 . , . 7.42, (. 7.40)
: 0 0,403 0,5
597, 0, 4 0 3 ^ :S-0,5 0,597.
,
>
R = + ,
1. 7.43. . 7.43 , , ,
1
^670 = 0,317 / , ,
/ / 1,7 , 4
.
,
^, > . ie , ' L L 1

') (7.225)
, k [24].
52

, . 7.40, ,
, , [60j.
, (7.202), (7.204),
(7.205) (7.210), (7.223),
, :
A/ = 0,92K
m

(7.226)
2*/

.
.
. . .

10,9

. 7.42.

\,
6 6
2

N _
10

(-

(7.227)

. 7.41. k,
k m

(/ )

= / / = . / = 1,13,

(7.228)

N= N

0,23

NK,

(7.229)

wso w too
3

-4



.
-
7.7.

1

-7, . 7.43. :

:
Jf , 2 ,

= ,

3
6 5 , / = 3 0 , / , = 30 , = = 0,4 .
, Q , , Q ,
0

363

, 4 ):
Q =

= 2,5 + 4 = 6,5 ,

= 1 0 + 4 = 14 ,

= + = 6 , 5 + 1 4 = 21,5 ,
0

Ci
6,5
= =
=0,317.

20,5
0

= 0,317 (. 7.40),
. 7.41 . 7.42 : fe = 0,207, ^ = 0,86, = 0,259
6 = 0,00146.
(7.229) , .
, N = 4
4

9-10 -

l / ^ l M

4
12

6,28-20,5-10~

= 30,4.10 .
4

0,00146-4

100

, (N = 4,
/ = 100, = 20,5 , ^ = 0,4 56) f 13,4 ,
/ 3,36 .
, .

0

/ =
10

/?

VK =
0

/
0

3,16
= -- = 3 5 0 .
9-3

R = 360 .
a

.! ^

(7.215), (7.216) (7.217):

L = kC^R^ = 0,207-20,5-10~ -350 =


12

0,55-10~ ,.

Z-i = kfioRl = 0 , 8 6 - 2 0 , 5 - 1 0 - - 3 6 0 2 , 3 - 1 < ' ,


R
360
/?,==
= 1390 .

0,259
|2

R 1500 .

- (7.223); b = . = , ,,
. 7.42. ,
, . 7.43; ,
y.=)g 4.
7.8.
x

)
14 , .
364

7.4.5.

,
. , . 7
, 65 3

f 50 ,
3,24.


-

.
, ,
R .
1
,

> /

y^2~

am

. , R = 360 ,
50 I ^ 200 .
(6, -29, -50)
.


, , ,
, ,
\, L\, L
,
. 7.44.
a

. 7.44.


R
R , ,
.
a

365

L
.

,

, R ,

Su t, .
,
,
,
.
,
,
x

.
, . . [73]
, , -
61, 2,8
, 0 200 .
,
,
.

7.4.6. ,


,
, ,
.
(. 7.45)

(. 7.46), ( R ^>R n
> R ),
c


( /? =

S(R

+ r J,
p

)
L

. 7.45.

LCR
366

. 7.46.


Ko = SR .
a


.
, ,
. R
,
, .


,
:
, .
, ,
,

, , .

LCR (. 7.47). ^/

( 0 )
SR

/ =
R

, f

VLC

:
=

V
R

'

. 7.47.

LCR

RaRc
R (Ra

+ Rc)

,
, / (. 7.48).
= ]> (f) / , Q.
; Q
." Q, .
0

367

LCR
(f , y ),
A (fx, ).
0

. 7.48.
LCR

, / = 1000 , </ = 5, / = 200 ( / = 5000 ) </ =


= 4 (. 7.48), :
0

h
/
200 1000
, =-=

= 4,8,
/

1000 200
0

Q =

J*>

/ ? = 100
=

=
(f/o 1) [Ra + Rc)
(5 L =

1
2K[ QR
0

1,35.

= 470 <, :

_ - . /

QR
2/
=

=
0

: 20 ,
1) (100 + 470)

1,35-20-10
6,28-10

= 4 , 3 ,

1
3

6,28-10 -1,35-20-10

= 0,059-

- 1 2

6200 .
7.4.7.

,
.
,
,
. 7.49.
, 368

R .
RC
R , / ? .
,
-
.
. 7.49 ,



RC

.

c

, . 7.49.
RC
,
Z
R , ,
( / . 7.50).
, ,
, / - >
.

> .

"

.
7.51.

- -


\ ,

7.50.
(. 7.50)
. 7.49

.



1 I 1

. 7.51. ( '
f l

.
)

3 0

. 7.49
24-237

C D e

369

. 7.516,

Ri

= SR,

Rc

-.
Ri

(7.232)

Rc

. 7.516 ,
1

/ = i k , =

(7.233)

:
/ = /

yo = ^

^ - ^ .

(7-234)

Rj

+ f'

235

(- )

d=

(7.236)

2*f C(R +R)


H

iac

* = ,

(7.237)

.
R /?
, R

- d ,
, =
= / f yi = Ki/K _ f
.
, ,
6 S = 1,2 /

R R 180 1000 (.
7.2), R =
150 , = 180. ,
= 3,16 (10 (56), f = 50 , y =- 1,2 f = 300 .
(7.238) x=^f /f = 1,
/ = 1,2 =
= fn'f = 300 : 50 = 6,
1 (

iac

lt

rac

370

d :

-I -

(7.239)

(7.240)

/ =

(7.239) (7.240) , d = 0,893


/ = 4,6. (7.235) (7.236) :
R=-

150

/.

(/ -

41,7% 43 ,

4,6-1

1
3

2 t / ( / ? + /?)<*

6.28-50-1S3- 10 -0,8S3

0,018-

-6

0.

/(", - (7.234),
40.


, , ,
(. 7.2)

lg

1 +

(7.241)

lg

, (7.233) (7.238),

2* CR

= !*-.
"
f

f
[. - (7.60)]
2*

1
Ri

1
Ra

1
Rc

.
R

R
2 . 7.50.
,
.
.
R 0
, 3 2. ,
/?(0 < / ? < < )
ACDE.
. 7.52
,
. 7.49, , , 24*

;371

ab (. 7.51 * 7 53)
. ,
,
. 7.52, -

. 7.52.

. 7.53.

. 7.52

( . 7.49
R I
, R
R
).

, . .
,
.
if) y(f)
,
. 7.53, ,
.
-

(. 4.23) (4.47).
(4.47) Z = R , Y = U[R + /{\ + i t o C , / ? , )
Z = -! , Y ~ , 0 U :
0

cl

id) Q ,

(7.242)

(7.243)
(7.244)
372

d+(\ + )

a(\+c

_^(1+)+

(7.245)

+ d)

(7.246)

(1 -4- + d)

x=

C R ,
e

(7.247)


.1+6

IS

(7.248)

-
x

= =

v.

i +
(7.249)
+ (* -2)~-+

= arc te

(7.250)

1 1

A(l+b)
1 +

. . [, - (7.168), (7.169)

(7.247)],

1 4- ft\

, ,
=

^?
CR
r

(1+

, l + 26 + 2(l+ft)(c+rf)r

(1 + )

(1 + )

,
,

'

'

(7.170)

(7.172),

(7.253)


1+

1 +

,
\jx = l/(wC R ) (7.249), :
4

CR
C

Ra

Rc
373

= RJR;
: b = RjR t,\ , ' ,
). RjR#, ,
R,

1

( ' < 300 450 ),


R
< ^SR ).
, , , ,
. b < 1 (88J.
, (. 7.52) (7.242) (7.253)
= RjRi = 0.
R
R , d ~ R /R ^0.

d = 0,
:

1 4- 6 \

(7.254)
/
(-1) +

= arc

(1

+ b +

+6)4"

tg -

fc

(7.255)

= 0 ,

C R ,
C

1+ 6

(7.256)

- ab + / < ? 6 +<1 +- 6) (1 +26


2

- )
2

*)
.
74

7.56.

(7.256) ,
< V1 + 26,

(7.257)


(7.252), = d 0 :

C Rr

Kl+26=]/l+2^.

(7.258)

:
(I + bf

(1 + bf (? + ) 2 + 2 ++

6) (l+2T=aV

(7.259)
(7.254) (7.255),
,
, , ;
~ R lR0
0,05^ . . 7.54 a

6)
80'

3'

4*^

. 7.54.
. 7.52:
1)
2)
3)
4)

= <= ;
= 1,1 ;
= 1 ;
=. 0(8,
1

^ ) ,
,
[- (7.258)]
[- (7.253)|. *) b 0,1 2
7.
375

~ >


. 7.53). ,
,
< 1; .7.54.
,
, ,
( = ) .

.
7.8. 65,
,
: = 0,4 56 [ 30,
/ ? = 360 (. 7.7),
=
,
R 1 .
65 3.
,
, 300 . R$ = 10 R = 3,6 ,

ao

+ * ) ~

(a

RK (, + )

= 300

(0,36 + 3,6) .10 0,16(10 + 2) = 241,2 .


U = 241,2
,
.
C R
C R ,
.

a0

R,*

3600

7
, .
=
= Y1 + = 1,09 = 0,1, ,
0,1 , . . = 1/1,012=
= 0,988, = 4> C R 0,45.

,

Aii = = -

(7-260)


= 10

2 0

,
, . .

= 10

= 1,048.

376

2 0

6 2

(7.254)
(7.261)

- (7.254) = > C R :

(\ f\M^

-\)

(1 + )* {%-1)

+4a b*

-1)
(7.262)
,
:
+b

onm

{?

C Rc =
c

(7.263)

. .
0,45
= 0,0024 ,
6,28-30
0,0024
=
= 0,0024 = 2400 .
1
C.R. =
0

(7.243)
=

aC R
r

1,09-0,0024
:

360

= 7,3-10-V

,
' = 1,024 ( N = 4), ,
(7.52) (7.53),

= /

= / 1 , 0 4 8 = 1,012

CB

= R = 1
c

:
Q =

\.

= 0,034-10

6 .

27t//? KM^1

6,28-30-1-/1,012 1

,

14 .
.
C R ^
7.
b ( 0,1 2)
,
, , = 0,1 0,7.
,
, . .
/ > f .
= F(x). , b = 0,1 = 0,7 = 1,
= 1,3. ,
,

1.3

,
6.3 (. . 6.5.3).


377

65 : S = 9 /, 1
=
= 10 / = 2 , S = 10,8 /, S = 0,09 /, U =150 , R = 160
(. 3)
= 300 R 75 . m = / =
= 100 = 150 . = 1,5 .
= 1,
1
C Rc~

6,28-30

s0

= 0,0053
0,0053
=
= 0,0053 .


0,7 Ra 360

aCrRc

_
. 7.55.
7.7 7.8

0,7-0,0053

360
=10,3-



. 7.55.

^
=
= 1 -)- 2 - (7.264) (7.266), (7.254) (7.255)
(7.64) (7.65):

10 lg

1 +

+ lg 1 +

+ lg

1 +

f)

lg 1 +

10 lg 1 +
(7.264)

(a-l) ~

+(!

+ &)(-.

= arctg

a + b+

^ L A+ arctg^ + arctgi2

,f \

Hr

a +

arc t g A _ a r c t g - ^

1
f HC

(7.266)

2 C Rr
c

378

(7.265)

, ,
,
- , , ,
.

.

. 7.49 7.52
,
. ,



(
)

' . . . 7.56.
[15] . . /ip- Ri_C

[19]

# ( . -

) .
,
(. 6.21)
,
, . 7.56 [55].
0

it

7.5.

7.5.1.

, , ,
(
,
. 9)

,
,

.


. 7.57.


R C R R
. K

379

. 7.57,
R

.
R
R , ,

.
. 7.58. ()
, () R
, R ,
K

. 7.58. , R > R^ (, )
N

< RK

(, )

I . ()
C' R' , (),
R ,
R ,
R'R",

.


. 6.5.3,
R ,
,



1+1*
(. 6.44).
. 7.59.

,




. 7.59.

Z (1 + .),
,
/,
. 6.41, = 20 lg ^ - .

380

,

- (6.183) (6.185), ,
. 6.40.
,
( = 0)
. f , f , f ,
/</*</
fb<fa<^fc>

(6.188) (6.189), :
a

267)

Rj + + ) RK
Rac

* = ,

(7.268)

= CR
8

( 1 + + + (1-f p)R ],

Rac

(7.269)

( 7

" -'
= ( ) +( ) + .
0

2 7 0 )

(7.271)

,
,
0

(7.272)

Rc + (1 + !>) R* + Rac

,

. ,
,
R . ,
(6.188), (6.189) (7.267)(7.269),
R ,
:

ac

= > (o C%Ri % ,

= R

:
R = ^ r \ ^ C
1

R - ( \

1+ f L b

iw

bRx

+ | i
Rac

331

R R
,
.
ac

,
= 100 , = 100 ( 62 U = 120 ,
U = 1,2 1 = 0,3 ), = 20 , f = 25 , ff, = 2,5 f =
= 500 ), R
: = 19,4-10
MOM, b = 6,6 = 10 . R = 17,5
# . = 3 2 4 , ,
R ,
. , R = 17,5 R = 10 , = 6200 , =
= 1,55. R = 3,9 < R ,
. 7.58 7.58.
a0

ca

ac

ac

ac


, ,
(6.240), Z =0 (. .

)

M =M =
n

l+S Z ,

S , Z
R . ,
:
K

sz

Ur2

(7.273)

1 -1- S Z
H

:
Z =
Z =

h i<C

(7.274)
0

(7.275)

1 + i (o c R
K

a R C (7.270) (7.271).
(7.273) (7.275)
:
ac

(mC R
K

[1

<" C R
h

+(C R Y}
0

1 +

ac

SRac

1+

(7.276)

1+

SR
K

(7.277)

SR
K

,
- .
') ,
. 6.41

382

(. 6.41):
f =

(7 278)

-ir'

f =

(7-279)

( 7

'

2 8 0 )

- (7.276) (6.183).
(7.278)(7.280) , R R
( - ) /,
f f S .

ac

, 6, ,
S = 5 / S = 6,4 /e. = 20 <,
f = 500 , ft, = 2,5 f = 25 (. 6.41), :
K

R=

= 1,4 ,
6,4

=
^
"
2Kf R
b

ae

= 0,05-10- 6J

6,28-2500-1400

Ra + Rc

=
t

=
0

, =

6,28-500-10 -20-10-

SR

2*.f C

1+ S R
K

1+6,4-1,4

16 000 ,

12

R = 200 < R =H00


. 7.58 7.58.
K

, -



.

, . . . . ,
.
(7.276)

2

( C V U + ( ~ ^

= ( ) -

= 1+ S R ,
0

(7-281)
(7.282)


(7.281) :
CR
K

= ^Mk^

(7.283)
383

(7.276) 2icf

(7.283), f.
< , (7.277) (7.282)
e

**-

= ^ F ,

l + SR
K

(7.284)


= / ,
S/C
8

Kf

1 + 1 / 1 +

(7.285)

= {\ + S R ) n

(7-286)

-V +
1

- ikV

(7 287)

(7.287) (7.192) (7.194), ,


R =

= Yl


(7.288)

. , ~3

( = 1,41)

g 1,1,
= 1; 0,5;0,25 0,083
g= 1,27; 1,42; 1,61 2,01.
,


, ( )
( ).
(7.276), (7.283) (7.284) ,

:
6

= 1/ 1

"

(7.289)

(7.289)
; 384

\ ,

] /

(7.276) (7.290)

"'4-

( 7 , 2 9 0 )

'

>4

, N ,
, , N,

/, 5 , (7.200),
0

4,31 * ( 2* , , V

' ~%~\

'

NK

(7 291)

'

,
=N ,

onm

' V = 41n/Co = 0 , 4 6 / C
0

OJ6

(7.292)

\
_

22

4 -

( 2*/

(7-293)

03

(7.202) (7.204).

4
=

/V = N
- y V ~ 1,284.
(7.200) (7.233) ,
,
. gg M g

=
=
23,3 , ] onm

ei)

MUH

j/23,3 = 2,2 .


,
, R

f .
f
, ,
, .
,
.

()
, . 7.60.

( )
^

LCr,
/ f ,

0 1

25237

02

385

f \ .
f o ~ ^ / j ^


, R ,

.

/ ,
(7.272),
H

V- Rac

Rl + (1 + ) RK +

[(7.294)
. 7.60.

Ra Rc

(7.295)

Ra + Rc

(7.294) ; ^ - (7.284) ).
f
, ,

r = r + Rt (r

Li).

,

(. 7.61).
f

LX

Ll

01

1 ~
I Rac

Rn

. 7.61.
,
. 7.60

Ri + (l + ri-

+ Ra

(7.296)
, , (7.296).
Ri

*) ,
, , -
SR;, a (J -f-fx) S R
,
.
K

386

lt

iB ,
.

.
.

(. . )
(
),
,
,
.
.
foi < / < fo2

Z = r + \(u>L
1

*> , /

(7.297)

(7.298)
Rx + Zr

:
x = -L tL,
I
/

(7.299)'
Rac)

Ric (Ri

(7.300)

Ri + (l + V-).R + Rac
K

(7.297) (7.298),
:
=

= 1/

lQi

*"^

(7.302)

Kl

Ri + Q + V)R

Ri + ^ +

R^

(7.303)

^-R-TT^+'Ra

( / < f )
: f , ,
Q, f
,

0

01

25*

01

387

Qj ,
A (f ,t/ ), . 7.61,

=1 & .

(7.304)

/01

Ji

- (7.302) = Q,
:

(7.305)

, R , R R ,
. Q
(Q J
\
- (7.305)] , ( ) [
- (7.300) (7.303)]
a

l 3 K S

+ ) R

(1

2
K

1)1*1+)*

(1 -

23K

+Rac] '

i ( Z . ) (7.301).
L (L )
2

|
1

{i +

riR

Ri(R )
,
, = j
~ - ^ 1

/ o i ( f o 2 ) 10 20% ,
f . Ri(R )
(1020)R .
2

7.5.2.

,
,

.
,
(. 7.62),

..
2

388

,
:

(7.306)

V\ - bi

~ "" ~

S (S, R l ) r

(7.307)

# + ' l + "" Si ,

II

\"2 fcfl !
'

2 I

7-62.

2dC

, / ( + ) + ( + r )

/4

# + i + r% + S

/? + ' i +

CiCzr,r R

<"! +

r,r /?
2

+S

r
t

(7.308)

4- 5 n r
S

(7.309)

j '

1 = (,, + (^ + ,

c =
2

ri =
r =
2

^u2

a Sj S .

,
,

2

[! (# + /-) +C. r {R
1

= 2C C r r R{R
l

lL

+ r )f =
1

+ r + rt + Sr ri)
lL

(7.310)
389


.
, , (7.306) ,

= = K*-=V

1 + b u>t .

(7.311)

(7.309) (7.311)
:
ClC

=-.

rir R

Vm

*\

R + h+ H+

>~

f\

(7.312)

">s

, , , S , f ,
, R;
- (7.3) (7.312),
,
.

(7.313)

- (7.310), (7.312) (7.313)


:
ri =

a=

m*C cJ /S .
l

Y-^(m+ l)CaC

m (C + C m)S 1

c = -{C + m*C ),
1


m(Ci + C,) r

m Q C r (Ci+Ct
2

m)

. . , [54], ,

m = . m ,
r

(Ki), ,
(); m

U
.
2

c2MaKC

390

' [
, 10100 ).
,
, \
m = 1, . / 2030% , = .

Kofg

(
),
.

,
:
1) (
) 35 ;
2)
.

.


5 , ,
(7.308) (7.310), 61 = 0.
,
,
, .
. . [54] , C/Ci = 0,05
20%.
,
f .

.
, ,
,

2,
.
,
S ,
,
. , ,
.
< ~180,

) R (. 7.62), ,
=,
,
, 50100 = , .
c2

391

[
=1+,
(6.16). *
3
ia
= ,= 1+
R+r +r
x

7.5.3.


,
, ie.
, , - . . ,
, .
,
,

,



, ,
,



.
,



-^Ueno 8

. 7.63.

,
( -10)
.

:. 7.63.
,
.

Ru
R

,

.

(, ,
. 3.10),
.

J3 -
.
.
30
100 000 .
2

7.5.4.


, , ,
,
[93].
. 7.64.

7.64.
( 9-2)

) -
.

393


,
,
, ,

R\ + R .

,
, 3040 ,
.
,

CR,
- 90 ;

T: = C R .
( . 7.64

5 .)
L, ,
, ,
,
200 (
30 ).

, .
(
) -
.

, 1 0 %
() 2 , 5 % .

.
2

7.9. ,
< 10, 100 1000
30 500 ,
- 7 .
1 0 %
3 % .
, 1,5 .
,

. ,
;
, . 7.63 . 7.64,
,
.
(
) 65,

, 5

-\-

6 5 5 9 2 / [96];
10% 1,5 .
394

,

9
- 1 , 5 = 1,93.
7


, ,

1030%.
1,6,

-^=1,6 4.

(6.15)
, :

K.WUH

~~

1+ ?

1+KV

. ,

1+"|

(1 +

/ {\)1,

= ( - ^ - - ( - ^ - .
\
)\
)

,
. ,
= = 100 (40 ), = = 101.
,


,
, . 7.65.
,
:
0

U =Zc ( )

+ "/),

0i =

U 0

I =SU i,
al

U t = Si Z i
c

U z $2 Z <i U 2
c

Uz

Z3
a

I-

c/g,
395



5( S S Zc\\ Z 2 Z z
z

(7.3141

-76

J_

- 7.65.

^ J
Sy S% S3 Z \ Z Z
2

1 - [S, +

R T 3

(7.315)

S)


, .
, ,
(7.314),
S j S S Z j Z i ZQ
2

tJ

1+(SI +

^2 ^ 3

S*)Z

~7~

Z\ Z
a

+ Si -j- S

(7.3161

1 +-
0

' 20

SiRai
I + (Si + S3)

S% R ,
ai

(7.318)

SR ,
3

Rc
Ra

396

(7.317)

a3

(7.319)


100,

=1000,

=1(1 + ) - 1 1000 _ 101 000 ^ ' '


0

3-
/ 1
=

~=

= 0,00099 = '".
Uo
"/
\ 1000
101000/

= 100 / f

/ ' == 10 100, = 1010, 6" = 0,0099 ' = 0,099.




0

c e 0

= 10

=
0

2,5 + 10;+ 7,5 = 20 .

+ + '~

( ,
7 , , , ,
, 10 .) g
, ^ .^ R ,
2 C , = 22 ,
, ; / ,
] ,
62 ( -50
700 ). = 84 .

, ,
( = 1,01).
k 0,414
R = 9,1 { = 10 , L = 685 ),

0 3

O3

tfso-

SR
3

= 9-9,1 - 8 1 , 9 .

C3

(7.319),
6: R = 00 , R = 90 R = 9 .

,
, 100 (" = 1010, / "=- 101 000).

,
,
.
5 =- S = 9 /, 5,
, 100 , ,
(7.317)
C

S'iR

i + (s'

0,01

al

*>-

s )
3

R c

Sl'R

A L

~ I + (S; + S )R3

397

I + 5
S

\l

(S'i'+S )Rc
t

Rr
1+9-0,9
- 0,755
100 | l t (9 f 9)0,009|

0,9
9

Male.


i ' l = 1,5 /.
, ,
, ,
,
/
( ).
, f
,
R ,
0 (. 7.65), l / S j 1/S,t
.
1
3

zec

< ~ 2

{R +

S l

Sa

: /

= 20,5 .

/ " = 4 1 , / ' = 245 .


,
9 ( = 2,82)
* = 30 (. . 6.4.2)
(6.170)
3

^2.3

flee

2,3

(6.174):
= 3,7 = 3,7-100 = 370.
0

==20,5 , , ,
h =

= ^

'

= 0,0554

9 / = 0,5 ,
, , .
6.4.5, RC
(. 6.37)
.
/ , ft
f (. 6.38).
,
5.15 ( .
6.33 ) ,
c

') UR <
C

fi

398

(7.316),

Si S

= ^ + i .

, , < (. 6.38)
, 180 v,>
v = 30". |-f | < 150,

,^_ , . . , R ,
S,
0


.
/
f = arctg.
/
3

, yen
, (6.184), f/,
fJ.
fclfe ;
} f.,
,
. ,

= 17,8 f , f = 56,2 /,,,


135 .
f = 1,25 f = 0,625 , f = 11 1 / = 35,1 .
n

,
, . 7.66, ,
v 30

11 , .

, 9 ,
^
fe
% *
*38
/ , , 0"^ ,1 0,1
rt
( "10
ISO" -J0'

,

,



f--30
.
!
(6.176 (6.178)
<f0 0Ro==Riac~ Ra' R
:

Ra = Ro '

fb
2/ / C
e

ft

fb

2* (fc-fb)

(lb-fa)

c =

2*//?'

,
R = R
=
= 4,3
, = 360 , =
= 43 .

,
(7.317)
(7.318)
,

al

10

a2

= 0,332 /0> = 33,7,

. 7.66.

( . 7.65):
1 =
(R = 900 );
2 , = (\. = 90 \
3 / - = 1000 (R =
9 );
4

= 1010,
. - 1050.
10 100
0

30

399

, 4%, ,

.
.
, ,
,
, R R .

,
.
,,

, , / , , , v.


-
. 7.64, ,
/ 0 180.

f
.
R C,R

,
(6.252), . 6.49.
(- (6.251) (6.252)! :
f , f /<,,
[ , (/ )
(/i) . 6.46|.
f^,
fdvfaif (6.249) (6.250)

. ,

, (. - (6.243;], , ,
, S, S
(7.316) , . ,
,

ni

ct

[1 +

S )R ]
3

(7.320)

, f -* 1, -*1(
Z = Rc) (6.243) :
c

"i'

R\

$1

K3'

>3

Kl<

5,3
t

400

R,
i3

31'

S R,

R,

R,
i3

is $ Rc ,

(7.320) :
(1 +

+ ) (q -4- ) ( + ) ( + ) ( + )

==

N () .
N {) = 0 , , q , q

it

(1 + , + ) ( ^ - + ) ( + ) ( + ^ ) ( - +
0

BI,3

\ ]

' \ I (

; ;

<?i ) ( -

\ 1

/ \

'1,1ft)

; j

' \

j ;

322

- >

Qi 11 - <7s ] I r ~

,/ \ 1 U)

/ \

= (1 + a i + , + ) (1 +
e

0 3

-f- + ) Cos
3

(7.323)

q* .
(7.322) :
1
>2^-2

I
/?

1_
/

" 2.x
_1
2- ,

'

1
" 2 R
1

'

a]

'

1
/</8

2m C

R,

l3

s 3

:
1
fal

/cl

2. ? !

2. (?

'
/
2: ?

2<?

3 1 .
,
, ,
i , ,
.
,
,
f , . . . f , /
/
,
] , 6 5
S = 10,8 /.
fn = 30 , , - , I/S =

al

d3

\-

'

= 200 .

\'

1
1
= ~

= 22 200 ;
S
0,045-10

= 1 .
3

26237

401

, ,
160 , 1,9 .
, , 4,3 -10-= 43 . U = 300 ,
350 .

,
2,
2-108=216 .
R (. 7.67) 216(150+
+ 1,9)=61,1 , 2 , R
30 .

R , R
f
fdi (
i = 1 K\ - 200-10-6.160=32-10~ = , R \ = 1 - 30-10 =
30 10 ), N(q) = 0
.
,
350 (150-)-1,9)= 198,1 100 ,
= R = 3 2

a0

TL

3L

KL

}1

ol

- 6

KI

^i~C, R =
100-10~ ;
, N(q) = 0
.
,
R
RTR ,
, ,

- 3

<3

J3

t4:C?i3 = 3 2 - .
150 , R = 51 R =
= 82 . ( =
= = = ^ = 32 1 0 ), N (q) = 0
, , (7.320),
, , a , a i , (7.323):
S

03

(1 + + ft + ) (1 +- + +- )
]
= [(1 + a i ) ( 2 + o + a4) + (l +a )(2 +
+ )] z
^ (\ + -\- )

\
01

C3

01

02

03

= 32-10~ , ft = =

S R

= 10,8-10~ -160 = 1,73,

_3

KL

a = SJ','/? = 0 , 0 4 5 - 1 0 - 3 0 - 1 0
2

K]

= 5 /?

= 1,35,

= S R = 0,045-10 - - 3 2 - 1 0 = 1,44, = = S ' , " ^ = 3 # c = 9 - 1 0 - - 9 =


= 0,081, { = 1000),

I
3

0 1

02

/, - f d i # -

-6,28-32-- ~

:
I
/, =
=
'
2-ft
]

1
/
1

402

=
2,(?

= 26,5 ,
^

=
-

I
6,28-0,006

= 23,5 .
6,28-0,00677

26*

403

S j
9 / 1,5 0,755 /, , ,
R
910 430
, . 7.67;
5
, N (q) = 0
ai = 0;
0,00815 0,003 /.
0,215 0,09, a i
,
Ki

U2 5 b&efcJtjL/tl

. 7.68. '
(. 7.67):
1 = ; 2 / =
0

; 3

= 1000

- (7.321), "
R ( 90 900 ) = 0,135, ==
= 0,68 ' = 0,81 = 8,1. = 1 , 7 3 = 1 , 4 4
.
, , ,
:
c

01

0 1

/ ^ = 18,5 ,

/!,3 =
404

1 2

>

>

/^

10,8 ,

/'rl,3 = > * 4 -

0 1

, ,
. t = const, ,
.
, ,
(6.249) (6.250) S = 10,8 /, S = 0,045 /, R =
= 160 , = , = 200 = 1 ,
:
f = 5 ,
f = 1,59 ,
/ = 10,4 ,
f=
4,7 .
K

bi

d2

0 2

c2

, . . .
N ((?)= 0,
(7.322),
:

, -
,
, ,
30' / , f

3,16 0,316 (. 7.68), R = Rc2 =
= 1 = 0,05 = 0,5 .

.
,
, , 9 = 3 0
, ,
14, 20 30 .
f

.
.
, . 7. 67, R R
JIi ,
( {) ,
R . Rs
. R Ri
,
. Ru -
, ;
,
R
( )
, (),
.
,
1,5 ;
AR , 1 0 0 ;
, ,
&C
( , 4 0 )
,

f =500 2 /,
0,5 .

2HC

2HC

gx

405

7.5.5.

-
;

,
- (. 5.6),
.


/ (. 6.16),
, .
,
,
( Q > 10)
f Q
aK

aKe

= -$-^~,_

= ,

(7.324)

f = f f .
/
,

1/ | 2 = 0,707 ( 3 ) F f Q
#

F =

aice

(7.325)


50 ( ),
. , / = 50
Q = 50 F 1 .

, f ,
, LCR
,
,
RC ,
.


, ,
/ ,

. 7.48, , ,
f , -

0

gKe

406

- ,

(. 7.46) (. 7.48)
, .
,
, . 7.69.
, ,
,
|.

, . 6.2.

- [3.

U -,


,



3- f
. 7.69.
.
-
,
(4.89) , Y = Y = ,
Y
=
Y = MR ,
2

ac

RaRc

Ra =

(7.326)

Rc

5 5 ,
2

R/2 ~\~ Ra

' 2

(7.327)

+,*2

, ,
,
2

7,


,
, , . ,
\,
, . 4.32,
:

__

Rn

' !
1^1

1+1
407


,
\

'

- f

>
. 6.16. (4.88),
0

/ = 1
=
*

I Ul >9-0
R + Rac

K = SR .

(7.329)

i2

(7.330)

AC


(6.4), ,
- (6.115), = -

=$

$ , =
0

(6.112) (6.114).
, R ),

(1 + . ) R
(. 6.44), R

.
]

K0

RK

K0

, 0
, , 1 + - .
, , , | / |;
= (3 =
,

,
(7.331)
3

(7.332)

I
.

S R Rn
2

V+rtRK+Ra

) R
R ; R
R . 7.58.
K

Kt

408

(7.333)

1 +o?i

(.6.2.8)
, R = > = 2R = R = = 0,5 =
= -
x

1
U,

(7.334)

(7.335)

? =
/

(7.334) (7.333),

(1 _ 2
2

_|_

]
2

(1 -* ( 1 - ) + 1 6

(7.336)

1 +

V '+|4*1-)

(7.337)

, (7.337)
,
,
, , ,
Q

3Ke

=~

(7-338)

(7.334) (7.337), , ,

= 2> = R | ] = = 0,5 = .

/ ,
, .
/? = /? = /? = R, = = 0,25 = ,
<1>= \/]/"2CR (?,. = (1 - f d ) 3 / 2 = 0,235(1 + ) .
, ' = = , R
R = 4R = R,
= V2ICR Q, , 0,236(1 + ).
2

KS


_ J _ _ J

- , f ~ f f ,
0

(7.337) (7.324).
409

, -
, ( [3-
. 7.69, , ),
(R R =
2R = /? = = 0,5 == Q
:
2

1-

/? (1 + i 4)

"

f
0

/ = 0 / = F
= 0 , = 4/?,
8-.
p g x

Ri = R = R == = = 0,25 = 2

( )

^ -+

) _
/

, , = = =

G 0=

Ri=R =\Rz=R
3

)_
f

i "VT

+ ^ (7

P G J C

F =

_ _6_

"


(-, ,
. Y^
, R ,
R
10, 5 . ,
-
R = R = # = 2R > ( 5 10) R .
(7.340)

ex

ac

ac

2R 4- R
,
3c

, 68 = 250 , 6 ' =
= 30 , U, = 1 / = 0,5 /.. = 0,13 , 5 0,9 /,
R = R = 220 , R =
,
R, R = R = 2R ,
550 1100 . R = 1 , / =
=500 , / - 1/2* CR = = = 0,5 = 320 ,
2R + R
2,22 , . 68. ,
, 62 ( 112 68), U =
= 250 , U = 8,5 /,, = 7,5 20 R = 8 ,
R 1 , - (7.330), (7.332), (7.338),
(7.325) (7.328), : = 9 9 , = 79, Q = 20, F =
= 25 = 0,555.

/
2

ac

a0

c0

:i

' = ^ " ^ " j


0

410

= 99-0.55 = 54,5.

9K8

- ,
,
. 7.70.
. Q

, ,

3Ke

-'(2),.,.,

Rii ,

Ut \

,-2

Rac

R (7.326).
,
:
ac

Ri2

' =

^3

"f" Rac

1 + , -
D

ft"

_ '0

+ ) Rac
Ri2+Rac

:
Pi (1 + ) Rac

= '"
0

+ ) + +

(7.324) (7.327) (7.333) (7.340)



. 7.70.
, ,
69 , : U = 80 ),
U = 1 , / = 0,25 , \ii = i>2 = 70, R = R = 100 ,
R = 330 R = 470 . R = 194
R R = R = 2R 1 .
: = 1 , 8 4 , = 131,
0. = 30 F = 15 ( / = 500 ).

a0

c0

i2

,
-
. , 1

) U

U , 90 69.

aa

KH

411

, -.
, . 7.69 7.70
0 , 0 .
3

0 = [ ,
(7.333)
, :
3

(7.341)

1 + $

$ (7.334)

I \- _

0,5

. 7 . 7 0 .
- ,

0,6

0,7

0.6

0.9

IJ

. 7 . 7 1 . ,
3- ,

(7.342)

I,

- z = u> CR = f!f .
(7.342) , f = f Kc
, f 0

0

, 0

(7.343)
1 +


, (7.342) (7.343)

'
K Q
C6

412

, | 1 +

( -~

(7.344)

,
2 1 , 2 2 f/f , A f = f fo , ' = f (z),
(1 4- )/4 (. 7.71),
(7.338) Q .

-
. (. 7.69 7.70)

,
,
. -
, U .

,
U .
,

, f
= U /U , , ,
. 5.5, , ,
.
(/C )
, )
.
,
, -
/" ,
. (K ) =

, .
, -
(K ) ^
(. 6.16),
U -, . .
(
).


, -
, , , ,
,
. 5.2.2
0

3rs

C4

f=fn

ce

fc

Ci+C,

>

RiR*.
Rt (Ri +

(7.345)
R)
3

) , .5.2.2, R (Ci +
4-C3) (/?,, + /?,)
KC^R.
2

413

7.6.

7.6.1.
. . 3.2.2 ,
.

U\ U (. 7.72).

. ,
,
, , ,
-


.
,


,
. 7.72. t/.



,
, . .

(. 3.9, 3.10, 3.26 7.24).

;
(. 3-2.2 7.2.6),
(
. 8.3.2).
, ,
,
;

(. . 9.3.3).
,
,
( ,
,
.)
,
.

, :
1) , 2)
3) ,
.
c2

414

7.6.2.
(. 3.10) ,
,
R

, . ,
(. 6.45),
(1 4- .) 2 . , ,

)
Ja

I
" "

- 1

. 7.73.

,
R , , R

4- (1 4- i ^ Z , .
,
. 7.73, /
0 .
<7 0'
,

, . 7.736.
:
a

tl

' = ~( )

+ [ 4- {\

+ '. + ,

(7.346)

**+

- 1 + ( 1 + ) ] , + , (7-347)
/,
(7.10), ,
(
R R ) ,
,
5 15 .
. 7.73 ,

Z = Z , R = R
'

lt

415

C = C' .
(. 3.10) ~'^
- ^(,) .


0

~ ~

= ~ (

+ [ + ( 1 + tf)U + .

+ )

(7.348)

R ,
a

+ I

(7.349)

Ri + ( + V) Za
2+

,
, . 3.10 ( )
,
: -
^ ' - . ,

U , 2 U ~
U^-^Ucu
, . 7.74,


(. 7.2),
21

.
+
' ,

[. - (7.8)].
1
,
. 7.74.

,




. 3.10 1

,

c2

c2

V-c. =

2
2+

(7.350)

^1

R,2 + (* '

(7.351)

, , (7.14), 416


(7.352)
EL
.
1
/

2-C

2 + f

Rt

Rc

(7.352) ,

(
).

, ,
<
( ),
R , ,
,

. , ,

R ,
.
, -,
\
,
.

U
(. 3.246), '
R ,
,
,
U don
90100 . -,
U

,
. -,
U
V'
,
, ,
.
, ,

i c e

KH

(2

c2

510

(7.353)

2* //?,.
'27237

417



R' (. 3.10).
c

, R

)

t

".,

'

k,

k, ,
,
, 1,051,15.
R
.

, . 6.2) .


r

' R*

R,-

" /?,

Ro

Rr

= .
1

(1

'

R'
c

(/

Sr..


:;1! I

,
: : , ., (. 7.72)

(
).
,
1020%
U , U

U'

cj



X -
.

7.6.3.
,
. 7.75, '
, 180"
. ,
, ,

X
. 7.75

"

/ .
' . .
, /?, , \ .,
.
, , ,
, ,
2

)
{

'
27*

j,

.
419

'
(-f-)- ,

/ / R'
, 1' .
' (); (+)
( ) , ,


.
U
R R ,
,
R , . . 0, "
(). '[ ,
1
I" .
R" .
, " (+)
(). '
\
(-}-) [ R ()].
,
,
180. ,
' , (
/7',) 180;
"
( \ \),
180, 0.
" ] 8 0 ,

0

c2

K2

.
U" U' ,
R R .
,
,
.
, U" U' c2

c2

420

:
- ^ K = l

(7.354,

' =~=

U'

R
Ra
t

(7.355)

R,
Rc


'[ " R\.


,
. , ,

- -

U a

A n -= 7 7 -

Ra

, ,
:
" .

, :
1. ,
- '[ ,
: ,
, f /
f . ,
0 ,
.

.
2.
'[, ,
(7.354).
3. ,

,
.
0

42!

\
R , R' ,
(. .7.1.6).
" (
, \) ,

.
(.8.2.5),
f f , . .
,
'[.
: < < 36 | < | < 5 1 0 ' ,
(
' ' ),
( < 35%).
a

R Ri,
, . ,
Ri
( , +
Ri-.R .


, Jl
. .
.
x

]t

'
[- (7.355)],
, (7.354)
, R + ^2 R'.

, 7.1,
f = 50 f = 10 000 , ,

6 ( U = IOOe, U
1,5),
( = 37 R i = 10 , R = R = 47 R' = R^ = 470 ,
= = 30
H

ca

R
470
,
R, = =
: 16
D

30

^ 470 16 =

454 .

/?, 470 ).
( R
= R
= 8,25 = R
C' C j =32 =
= ) f
620 .
f , (7.61), 10 , e
0,016 = 1 , .
i a c

i a c

sc

ec

) R R 5% + 10%.
x

22

i l l c

"
f , (7.57), / = f
= 50 ? = = 4 f .^3,5 . _
- (7.53) R ^R'^
470 ,
: ' ^0,1 .

NC

HC

c0

,
.
,
;
,
\ '[
. R
,
.

.

IC

7.6.4.

.

RiR
.

, , .
,
, -,
,
()
, , -, ,
, .

. 7.76. , \
/ "
.
.
/
( + ) ,
I
, R
R ,
R,
" ().
I"
, R ^ R"
lt

423


( ) , ,
R'
U" , V ,
R
.
c

c2

XT'

*-
; 1
1

. 7.76.
"


. . [74], ,
.
.

.
. , ,

, . 7.77,
. 7.776,
| = ^ .

(7.356)-

R' =
ia

^ R

R R

'"

(7.357}

,
= ( )
[
+ (1 + )]0

424

(7.358)

. ' R' ,

0

ja

(7.359>'

R'+ix

1 i... 0

R'

. 7.77.

. 7.77.


. 7.76


'[, :

Ria +

Ra

R'iR'a
*,

Ra

(7.360)


. 7.78.
, ,
:

Hy'O =(R' y'+-Lcl

ia

oy"U=

R'i ,y"+

Rc I'

:\i'+u

R:

U = Ryl'= Ry(J'r
U 2

(7.361>

U
425'


l b

(-1

c2

_ _

(7-362)

>


= [ , + (1

)\ +

(7.363)


, .
- (7.361),


:

7"
. 7.78.

. 7.76

{R + Ry)(

II

R y"

ia

) + R Ry ( f

J ' T 1)

ib>C

Rr

R y"
ia

(7.364)

\Ry

r9

"

f
Ry

R"ia f +

~ + "c + ( >0 " + 1 )


i u) C,.

Rc

~ -'- R,

(7.365)

)Ry


"!',

U' K
C2

0 ,
2

k . ,
A

Ry

. (7.366)
' R + Ry ) f R' ,y" + + <
c

i <> C
426

j+

(I + i'o if

(7.364) .
, Ry (. 7.78)
I = Ii / ,
\0\, ji , j / 1 ^ j U [.
(7.364) Ry = 0,
,

2

* ~ =

c2

(7.367,


U=

2r.C R
c

fee =

--.

(7.368)

(7-369)

/?+-"'-" -.

Rt -

R.

=
J_

R]

(7-370)

!
_ L

_ L

Ra

R'c

(7.371)

(7.366) ,
,
.
.
' ', , ,

, = =
1,
0

R +R){R'
c

' ^

+ R" ) +

ia

(7.372)

R R{l+Vo)
c

k = 1 , ,
R, R R" . / ? ' R
R'
A

R, = R:

-^-
1

+ .

Rr

37

(7- 3)

427

,
-, (7.372)
jig - + ., R' (7.373)
, , , (. ' ) ,
:
c

(7.374)

, k

R .
(0,31) R" ,
,
, ' " ,
. , , ' ^ R' ,
R"^ 4- 2R , R >
3.

. - (7.366)
A

1/wGV = 0 , ',
0

, (7.360) (7.362).
(7.373)
( 1/. ),
k
, k :
0

'
1

(7.375)

? = arc tg

428

(7.376)

,
,

R,
. R R'^
.
,

R' '
(. 7.76),
.
.
(7.366). = " = 1,

R (7.373).
, ,
:
c

"

; ' '
I
R"

- ,

(7.377)

R
'C R
C

Po

1 -

= arc tg -

+ arc tg -prpr^,

<> C R
c

,u

C R
c

fi

(7.378)

, \i' R
.

.
Q

7.10.
. 7.76, .
JI 6
; = 3 7 +7,4, Ri = 10 , = 2,5 , =\,4
, = 1 , 3 .
6 1 ,
(. 7.1) = = 3 2 .
0,95 1,05,
: / = 50 ,
< = 4~ / = 1 0 000 , = 6 \
i

, R

= 47 .
, R

= R'

R,

+ 2 R

R g ,
c

on

6 1 500 . R, ,

(0,3 1) R

= 150

429

R = 150 (7.356), .357), (7.3;;0) (7.373),


: \i = =30,5, R =R
= 8,25 R ^ 130 . ,
(7.374), : ' =7,4

1,024' 1,15,
.
<jme ^!.
-. > i: :<:
:
..,
_
.
37
^
Q

ja

ia

i
= 1 + {1

>

' 150

47

- ')1 - : - = 2 . 5 -

1 ,?(!

29) - ; - * 50 .

c . j - (7.376), , / = /',.-' 10 < - , - 1 , ( ) ; m


(0 A W f ) . ,

, : / -/ , = 10 , , = V; =- ('
60 .
, - (7.378),
= , = 4 0,07 , :
1

R
2 +

2T.f R
5 : 0,025 . . . , .
.
c

7.6.5.

rH

. ,
. 7.79, ,' .

'

R.

().

U ,

. .

U .

V" ',

>i
" (. 7.76) 23 .
130

,
| = 0 II ,
f~f ,

.
, - (
, . . R, R
. .) 0!\
, '
. Bet
HC

. 7.79.

, "

,
,
R .
,
.
,

. .
'
R , / . ,
. ,
. = / -;- .
, -,- ' ,
R
R' , ,
r

ic

1-4 1


.
, '
/' = / -f- 1" , I
R . , ,
, R ,


, ,
, . 7.58 . .
0

. 7.80.
. .

- R
,

/ = 2R l ,

,
U , 100 . ,
R
"
, ,
.
(
) R (. 7.80)
. . [73, 74].

\ R
K

K a0

432

( k') ,

,
.

R . 7.81.
. . ,
:

f = 0 = 0 (
' " ),
,

0

',

. 7.80,
,


.
,


(. 7.82)
. 7.81.
R > R
,
U ,

0 U -

,
K

K0

CJRI ,
. . (. 7.80).


) , . 7.81.


(. 7.797.82) - ,
, , ,
. 7.79.
28-237

433

" ,

=
Ra+Rc
Rg

Rc

R'a+R'c

'

(7.380)
DO
"
, [. - (7.327)],
. 7.82.

, =

(7.381)

R , R
,
K

, RK

(R'i+

+- R

Ri + Rac + (I +

(7.382)

fi")R


\ :

< - + ( i + f ' ) i ?

T l ?


/-

(7.383)

(If

fi')(Rl+

KC) RK

Ri + Rac +
Ri + Rac

+ 0 + v")R



(7.384)
Ri+
434

Rac +


*= U i

RJ R

*' + ^ +

Rt + Rac +

-(7-385)
K

7,
;
~
Ri + Rac + (I + -") #

,
, ,
, U . ,

1
?

fa

(!+(*")/?

(7.386)

Ri + Rac + + " ) R

'a

(7.383),
U"=R"
2

1" =

+ ") R

{R't + Rac) [Ri + R'ac +

(1+

R Ui

7.387)

ac

RK ] + d + I*')

+ Kc)

,

, . '
U" U

lt

U c2

'

+ "

=
Ri + Rac

. = fi' = v.", R = R' = R;, R


T

ac

.
, .

= R

ac

Ri

~R!

(7.388)

Ri

= R" ."
M

R
,
K

[ (7.385)], _
,

2 (Ri +

0,5 .

(7.386)

R)
ac

= JklL =

=
C2

28*

Rac 'a

iLt!^^
[R"t + R'ac + (I +

. (7.389)
K

Rc
a

435


.
(R = R" ~ R
. .) R k
k 0,85 0,95,
R
ac

aC

ac

= _ A ^ i ^

(7.390)

, k = 1,

#"=-

-^^

(7.391)

(1

, (7.389) (7.391)
, (7.374),
:
k.

1 +

>^

,
", R R! - f R' .

.
,
. 7.79 6
: U = 100 , U 1,5 ,
1 3.5 , . 37, R = 10 . ,
, ,
K

ac

a0

f0

JM.
Ji2-3,5
L~ 0,22 .
2J
=

aB

R = R' (
R
R^ , {

), R' R'^, R' = R" = 25,6 ,

a

ac

( 1
k

^ L i M i ^
[10

-f

"

""c

25,6 + (1 + 37) 0,22] 25,6

.
436

ac

19

k = 1 R 1/0,19 = 5,26
, R = 4,96 R = 5,1 .
R [- (7.385)]
A

ac

ac

. = 2

= ^ =

2.37-4,96

17.

(1 4- 37) (10-1-25,6) 0,22


10-}-4,96 4- ~

10 + 25,6 4- (1 4-37)0,22

,
,
. 7.81, R ,
= 245 ,
R < 27 , R = 6,8 .
R R' = 25,6

K

ac

ac

33^8,25,6

(10 + 25,6 4- 38 6,8)-25,6

k 1 R
: 25,6
# ; = 25,6-0,88 = 22,6 ,
A

oc

R = 24 = 2U /U
a

i2

- 42,5 ).

6
2 0 % [- (7.392)]
1 0,024, .
.
, , ,
,
k ( > 0 , 8 0 , 9 ) .


A

= ( + )^

4- ( 4- ) - + ,

(7.393)

R ,
.
.

K

Z =
K

1+ io.r

(7.394)

*) . 7.81.
437

,
- Z" = Z'

R,

(7.395)

1 + i ,

Rac

=
\ +

(7.396)

\*C R"
Q

a C C ' (7.358) (7.360).


(7.389) R , R' R'
(7.394) (7.396) Z" = Z' ,
Q

ac

U.2

k {l+i*CoR )
A

^ ' R'ac R* R'i

. \ + (W)R
-4-1
:
K

I
Rl + Rac +

ae

(W)R

R,

+ R'ac

Rac + (

+t>")R

)c R .
K

(7.397)
, , : JJ. = 37,
=
= 10 , R = R" 25,6 , R = 6,8 = C' = 32
= 40
ac

ac

f =
'

1
+ +

Ri

(7.398)

Rc

* * Riac

2C

1 ,
2,8 k

(7.397),

,
(k = 1),
A

Am

1 + i
CQ
-\
438

a c

n c

R'I - u l +ti")R

RK Rj

K +(l+n")R
c

} Co

Ri + R

+ R' )
ac

+v-")

CR
K

, f f = 1 , R =
= 22,6 R" = 25,6 ,
= 5,5 6 ^ = 0,98.

(C R <C'
R' ),
,
. 7.81

;

ec

ac

ac

ac

ac

>(20-[
1

(1+)] ...

.
,
. 7.80 . 7.82 , ^ ,
R ,
,
CiRi,
.

, . 7.80,
(
) / = (*"=: [j, R. = R'i = R :
K

Ri Ra r
n+

+ IT

(l

a J

[(i + v) R

(i +

"i

[ ( l + ^

\ , ,

, u = 37, R = R = 27 , R = 6,8 , R = R =
= 0,33 MOM, f = 50 <f = 4 = 0,07 , ^ !
0,04 .
a

. 7.82
Ri

-f"

Ri +

ac

+ v) R

ac

Ri + Rac + + ) R

C Rt
x


,
,
,

(/ >0,5 1 ).
,
" R .

, .
3

439

, ,
(1 -4- ) S R ( - SR^

. , ,
(7.385) (7.392)
:
K

i +

l+S

AS"
S"

SR

l +

, ,
. 7.79 7.81,
R " R' ,
. ,

, -

(f 1.).

,
Rx R R R ( )
.

8 . 1 .

8.1.1.
, , ,



;
,
,

, .
(. 1.3),
, ,
.

,
, ,
.

,
,

.
,

, ,
,
, .

. , 441

,
,
( -12
200 ).

(, )
.
(. 3.16)
,
36 ,
(. 3.17 3.18).
Z
(, ), ,

2 ^ , ,
.

, , ,
= w lw
2

Z ,
, ( )
, Z .
(, ) .

.

. ,
,
,
(, ).

- (64 .), (6,
61 .), (69, 614 .) ').
,
(1, 613, 67
. ) . ,
( 2>50100 )
,
.
2

aonm

ft

)
(, ) (. .
, , ).
442

( 4.3),
,
] ( ),

,
.
( , ,
24 )
,
.

.
, ,
.

< , ( , V / /.
, ,
S, R , . :
R
( )
2

Z = r + i .
a


:
U , I , U I , 1 ..
V ,
U' ...
rm

am

^=yt/

(8.2)

k =
{

' '

- ,

(8.3)

(
) 1

, , ,

Pno =U ,I ,
mp

acp

(8.4)

= *-;

(8-5)

"

.'.

(8 6)

') 1
.
443

COS

,~

(8-7)

Pnomp

= arc tg .

, ,
.
2

8.1.2.

. ,
(. 3.16) ,

; Qm

'

5)

. 8.1. ( ) ,


. 4.1.4. Z
Ri, . 8.1,


.
(
)

L] L
(. 7.18) ; '
,
R , , R =R ln
, 1/^.

. 8.16,
. 2

444

r '=r
a

+ r +R

= r + - ^ ^ - .

(8.8)

,
.
,
,
S , .

. ,
p

cm

U ( , ),
.
S
(. 8.16), ,
cm

( 8 0 )

' ^
/

am

= r J

~ '

^ ^ ^ -

(8.11)

(8.13)

Ri +

= ^ - =

He , _ ( U = const)
( U )
cm

'

cm

>
-Ri-

(8.)



. ~ S
:

^.

cm

'

(-

>

445

S
,
, ,
. , , 6 . =
= 135 S = 6 /, S
= 100 /* U = 1
^ = 0,1 , , 64
: . = 4,15, 5 = 5,4 /,
S
= 2,8 / U = 6 ^
0,1 .
pMaKC

pMaKC

pMaKC

cm

, r = R

,
, ,
.
, r =R , ,
:
-,
,
R .
a

IR

IT

8.1.3
,

~ ()
|,
,
~ |.
,
,
. . [71. . .
, , ,
,
, .
. ]

.
~ 7j
, ,
U ,
U U .
,
U const . , :
,

;

.
cm

a0

a0

446

c0

, =0
(. 8.2), ,

fj.

(8.17)

/?, = ctg

(8.18)
, ^
.
'
( ,

),




EDu .

U
(. 8.3)

GF



. 8.2. , ;


'',

a0

r (dgb
a

r ).
a

,

, .
. 8.3 .
U = |(7ol> I < -
I = l $, U <i\U \.
,
(. 8.4) 0 = \0 \ I = 1 ,
, [
{U i f am' ^ am) .
_ , i\

cm

am

cm

cu

cm

U , , . 8.4,
:
U
+ ' + U
(8.19)
= 21 = 2^
(8.20)
am

Ri
447

(8.19) ',
,
2Ri

(8.21)


:
am

or,

(8.22)

/go '

.' ]
2

fl">

2(Wi +

(8.23)

r?
a

. 8.3.

, . 8.5,
,

,
,

= 2/?,.

(8.24)

(8.23) r = 2R ,
a

Wao

(8.25)

16/?,

(8.25) ,

.
, ,
R 64 (R = 840 )
613 {R = 460 ).
L

448

,
: 1) c/ ,
(8.22), ~ / , ,
= U I ,
;
2)
fl0

a0

a0

. 8,<4.

. 8.5.

,
U ; 3)
U
,
' .
,
,
, (7 .. (8.22),

aQ

111
u

^ 0 a0

^(^ '

(./)

0 ^ , ,
IKi -

o v
f i

U = U , ,

a0

" * = V [ +

r = 2R
a

}
,

(8-27)

=!"("+

V^

+ ^PaoonRl)

(8-28)

,
.
29237

449


U , ,
aK2>

P^BHO 2R
, 64
= 15 , R 840 = 30 ,
U' = 240 . ,
U < 240 , / "
2 / ? = 1680 ,
^, = ~ ,
- (8.23)
U 240 , 3,28 .

.
a0

aQ

a0

= ^ '

2 9

( - >

^= ~U I ,
am

um

-q = -L4ss.lHL
2

L/

AO

= UJ ,

acP

(8.30)

=yfc.

(8-31)

,
(. 8.4)
/
( ) / , ,
,
1 . ,
,

TJ = . = J - g.
2

(8.22) U

1 =

(Uo )
/

(8.33)

(2Rt + )

,
= 2R ,

nm

(8.32)

a0

(8.21),

1 = ^ ^ ~
4~

34

(- >

25%.
,
,
r = 2R
, 15 20%.
.
. ,
a

it

450

,

U , (8.28). U > U
. 8.4,
r = 2R ,
, , = ^ ' /
.
) <7 / < ,

2

c0

aK2

^ = ~ ^ .

(8-35)


(8.22)


l l

) rj
<i-

U)

(U Q

/ \

lt

<i

'

(.)

*~

, 64, , U = 240 ,
U 360 ;
U = 360 , = 30
15 <
/ = 41,7
*
2

o0

a0

= ^ ^ - - 2 - 0 , 8 4 = 6,24 .
41,7

_ , - (8.23),
5,42 , [- (8.33)[ 36,1%.
50%
/ - > ^ ,
{ J)
0,5
.
0

nped

.
. ,
.
U ^. ,
, ,
.

U
(24 ), ^
.
,

, , .
i
(
)
, ,

2

AN

A0

.
, ,
,
.
'29*

451

= const
= 0 (. 8.4), ,
. , (8.17) ,
( = 0)
2


ia=

(8-37)

- (8.17),

" +

"

"

| 1 + I"

,-

1 + fi/rt

;
1
:
(8.38)
/?; = ^ - ,

(8.39)


'

(8-40)
K

, - (8.37), ,
. , ,
=
, 1 . . . ,

R . ,

2

"* < V'ar =


2

( ' + V

' + ^'

) ,

(8-41)


-
, , . .

I am Ia0' ^

(8.21)

(8-42)

= .

(8.23)

(8.33),

U ,
am

r :

(Uao-U )r
;
+
n

Uam =

4S2

( -43)

(U

a0

P~ =

n)

2(2R +r f
t

1
7)=-

(8.45)

(8.46)

(^aO

"n) a

;
(2^

+r )

, 64 ( = 30 , = 15 ew,
,- = 840 .) (7 = 110 < U = 240
= 2R =
= 1680 : ~ = 0,476 , = 18%.
/2 = ^=4,15 :

ail2

' ), = 15 , /?1 = 420 , '

= 1 6 6 ; U

ao

< U , r
aK2

a o n m

= 2R =
t

= 840 , _ = 1,34 , = 22%.


.
. , t 7 > ( 7
1 - (8.41)],
. . [7] .
, . . "
,
. 3- 4-
, 1- 2-, R
' R , (8.38) (8.39).
2

a0

.
,
. ,
U _ ,,

( U > U ).
, -,

i = F ( ) , -,
, . .
. , . 8.16
,
e0

a0

aK2

= **- =

(8.47)


~
,
KjK
= rj (R 44- ) r -co 1, , . .
rjRi, . ,
rjRi = 2 /
= 0,67, r lR = 4
/ =0,8
. .
,
, ,
( ).

tf

453

\Z jRi\
,
Z , .
, U

(U = \U \);
, (8.21) (8.47) ,
aMa

a0

cm

c0

^ +_ ,
2R

V-

(8.48)

. 8.6.
64 ( 8.1)
8.1.
, : A i 64,
U = 250 . ,
< 7%.
, = 0 (. 8.6)
*, = 30 R; = 840 . , ,
=
= 15 , - (8.28) U'
= 2 4 0 . f/ = 250 > U ,
2-MV
, (8.35) (8.36):
n0

a0

a2

15_

0,06 ,
250
250 (250 30)
:

(U

(U

2Ri =

15

2-840 = 2000 .

U = 250 / = 60 U = 45 ,

: R = 880 ,
.

(. . 4.1.3), = 2 .
U
\U \ = 45 , .
.
i ,
lacp,
lam,
1' [. . 4.12 -
454
a0

r0

cm

CB

(4,14) (4.16)], , U ,
S.
P,n omp " V

am

K =
a

UamlU

cm

r = 2 . 8.6 :
a

h = i = 1 3 0

l3

I =

iaMuK

60 ,

4,6

:
_ ^
( + i _ 130 + 2-60 + 4,6
+

lacp

1304,6
2f + !
2

= 62,7 ,

130 2-60 + 4,6

^ami


3,65
62,7

I,am
1

Uam

a^am

pg

lir.q.%

20

45

,cm

= 3,65 ,

= 0,058!),

125,4

125,4

= 2-62,7

; 63,7 ,

J
= 2,79,

15

1 2 5 , 4

U am _

0,5,

250

10

5
125,4-62,7-JO

-3

= 3,93 ,

.
5

Uao^a 250-63,7

. 8.7.

64 U = 45e = const (
8.1)

= 15,9 ,
3,93

, =

,247.

>

cm

\ \,
45
" ~, ( = -zrz. = 0>8 .
I
63,7
" '
. 8.7, , (
U
= const) , , .
k = 7% 1,8 , = 4,1 , = 24,5%.
,
- (8.49), (. 8.6),
?

cm

( '

) (*'

( -49)

') -
.18).
455

8.1.4.

.
i = f { ),
.
,
( i )
, . ( . ^const),
, , ,

.
, - Ri,
, .
,
,
.
,
( ' . 8.8)
U

,
,
' (8.49),

'''.
a

cm

. 8.8.


, , ,
(. >.
'''),

[ ,
(4.18), ].

456

.
"", ,
,
.
,
,
(
),
,
.

, .
,
U ,
, -, ( = const)

^0 U ,
, -, i = ,
1 ^21
,
. (. 8.8)
, ,
= 0 '
.
,

U' ,
X = U /U

aQ

am

am

a0

_L. . . { M L ) .
2

Uau

(8.50)

I acp

U , I ,
,
( , ,
. , 64 < = 250
& = 5,8%
= 3,93
_ / = 3,93/6,3 = 0,62; 61
_ = 4,41 = 10,2%, _ /
1,57, . . 2,5 .

.

U
, ,
. am

cmt

*) , ,

_1

UamJ

U (I ~ I)

, ;. [
1 -

457

U , U , ,
, '


(. 8.1).
. 8.1
.
0

cm

8.1.


6 64

:
I 64

250
250

2,8
6,3

4,41
3,93

1,57
0,62

84
50

38,8
24,7

10
5,8

Sp

Ucm

2
Ucm

/*
12,5
45

28,2
1,94


,


,
,

61

U -U -2S06
, -

,






/ .
,
I
.
,
. 8.9. - ,
61
r: (1) 0,5 ; (2)5 (3)15 .

ie

458

S- ,
(. 8.9).
( =0) , , l

.


;

,
,

=0 (


). . 8.10


k , & &
()

am3

10 12 14. 16
11
I 1
om3 ~
4

= V4

+ kl + td

. ,8.10.

61
U
= 12,5 const ( 8.2)

(8-51)

cm

.
~ , .

(8.47):

--

Ur.

Ri +


Ri>

(8.52)

Sr .
n

, ,
, \2 \ < R >

K~S\ZJ.

(8.53)

(8.53) ,


.
. 459

,
46 ,
,
, . .
. , Z ,
.
\Z \,> \Z \, . 8.10,

.


\Z \
.
. 6.2.2 ,
()
(). , (
)

5 ,
I

.

. 6.2.6.

Z
= | 1 1( |,


U (. 6.2), ,
(6.10)
(6.44),
.
,
,

,
,
. 8.11. -
, - ^-

RC,
(. 8.11).

,

460

, RC-
,

.
. 8.1.5.

.

.
U U , rj ~ ,


. U
,
,
. ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
/ U
(
69 ) ,
R , , , . 3.25.
.
,
A i ;

U = > 24110 .

.
a0

a0

8.2.
: 61,
U = U = 250 , = 10%.
,
, ,
, u
= 0. u .
,

" *'> , .
=
,
' = / ( ) u = U .
,
.
61 ( 1
. 8.9), ,
25 ,
1

ali

>

c v a w

CVUH

a0

c0

0 ~

25)

= _ 12,5 .

U ,

< = 12 ,
--= 2,5 ).
c0

461


, / , , = 42 1 = 3,4 .
:
0

61 (. 8.12),

30

- 3

= 250-42- = i0,5 em <


= 250-3,4-10~ =0,85 em <

P ,
,

adon

. 8.12.
61 ( 8.2)
/ = 12,5 .
. , ,
(
=,
,
).

, , = 92 = 460 ,
0

:i
''
2

460
92

5 .

,,
[. . 4.13, . 4.14 - (4.20)).

= 87 ; i = f = 42 i = i
= 9 .
. 8.12: 1 ia
= 6,25 = 18,75 ,
( 2 . 8.9), =

= 68 / =20 . - (4.20):
3

a0

+ ) + 2 (, + )
4

'

( 1 's) +

462

(87 -4- 9) + 2 (68 - 20)

(' h)

(87 9) (68 - 20)

= 45,4 .

42 .

(i, + i ) 2 /
s

96 2-42

3 ,
78 2-48

(h '5) 2(/ 2 4)

('1 + 's) 4(t2 4- it) + 6t 8

96 4 - 8 8 + 6-42
=

'an t~-'mt

12

12

0,33.t7.

, =

'12 + ' L s +

'ami

+ + 0,33*
42
5

Uam = r Iam =
a

'42 =

210
' 250

210

= 16,8,

12,5

0,84,
=

210-42-

Uam'

- 3

4,41em,

2
UaoUcp = 2 5 0 - 4 5 , 4 -
^.
T

i =

: 0,101 ~ 10%

- 3

= 11,35 em,

4,41
11
= 0,388.


1 > ,
. I

; [
. 8.12:

1 = = 24 ,

' = so = >
h = '

= 0,4

'
.

- (4.14), ,
I I '

/J + 2J2 + J3

24 + 2-3,4 -1- 0,4

= 7,8..

, ,
^.* =^< />=250-7,8-10

= 1,95 em

,
2,5 .

4,41
Uao (hep + I scp)

250 (45,4 +7,8). 10"

= 0,332.
463

RK

l^ol

12,5

~ 0,24 .

lacp + hcp

45,4+7,8

,
, ^ .
. 8.10,
, = 5 i ,
, ,
.
Ri = 50 ,
1,2 .

- (8.49) . 8.6.
- (8.49) , _^ ,

,

,
() .
,
_ , k \ U , U^, U r .

, . ,
,
, -

.
0

a0

c0

8.1.5.
.

.

(. 7.18).


.
i? = R /n .
, ,
R
1/ ).

. 8.13, L , L
, (7.75),
2

) ,
, 1 / < / ? ( R ,);
, . 7.2.7. . [89].
2

464

(. 8.1).

, 8 . 5.13,

,

(. 7.3).
,
,

- 8.13.
, - .

.
.

. ,
/ , ,
,
8 . 5.13 . 8.13,
:

,
(. 8.1). ,
')

ri + +

(8.56)

" U U .
, . 8.16
im

Ri + r

Ri +

p. rJ(R + )
= V /U ,

am

cm

= ?-1 = ,

(8.58)

') .
30237

465

. , ,
f=0 f~fo,
mL ^0,
,
,
.
. 8.14.
s


,
. 8.146,
R

Rl + ri + r +

r = r + r + R ,
a

(8.60)


K^4m.=,

"

R s K e

cm

i u > L l

i ( a

(8.61)

= arc tg
466

(8.63)

0,707
*- = 1, , (7.98)
f

(8.64)

2 L j

,


<fi L$ rj


I
1
; I U
.
I '

,
. . 8.15.
7.23.

(/>/)

.
, / ,
.
1/ Li = 0, ,
. 8 15,
. 8.156.
,
0

im

(Rj + )

/ = = i L

+ R + r
t

1 +

Ri +

(8.65)
r

[
:
=

* ,

,;,

(8.66)

... I

<? = arc tg

(8.67)
Ri +

, =[,0,707 />
L = R 4- , . .
s

Ri +

(8.68)

. 8.16
,
30*

467


.

.
* ^
f } , Kt$4 R +r --55K0M

Ka

ff


R ,
=
= U /U ,
, S, R ,
SR


. ,

-q .
. . [891


(~ <. 1 )
t\ 0,6 0,8,
. 8.16.
~ = 1 --10
0,750,85,


, f\
,
,
.

,
;
(2-4) , L
,
. (
L I
Li/r )
, r , / , L , L ,
= LjL

.
. . .

.

(8.56):
t

an

cm

(8.69)
(8.70)
468'


ri==r =0,5ro, \
,
rj

* . ,

,
. ::
2

! = .

(8.71)


0,250,5;

:
2

;= -!

(8.72)

= \

(8.73)


,
(7.116) (7-118):

Lj =

-\,

he =

J&s-

(8.74)

(8.75)

2 f V M

2* he

Lli

'

M
,
L
,
:
L H

=10

&

=M ^M .
n

(8.76)

LH

,
,
, L
f

(8.66) (8.68), = Ko/M , a f >f ,

ec

-1

(8.68)

*--2VL7

469

,
(8.60) (8.75), :
- 1 ) | % - 1 ) ( , + )

{Ri-t

(8.79)

ri)[r r )f
a

r , . .
ri = br , b = const,
v

V Ml-\)(Ml-\)

(Ri +

(Ri +

br )(l-b)r f

r ff,

(8.80)


. = /?,/(1'2),
r ^R,-.


.
, , R (
),
,
,
, , ,
. . fJf e

, L - (8.73)
.
,
, ,
( . 8.12),
. ,
, f ,
a-iL , ,
, / , / ,
> , "> , ,
, R -f-

RiMtiH + a- / , . (. . 2.1.7)
, . . / + f
.
, ^ L < RI UH + ,

lt

Ri

(. 8.12).

,
, . 6.5.3.
.

.

. 8.3.
611
8.2 (Ri = 50 , R
= 1,2 , = U IUr
= 1 6 , 8 , = 5 , S =
= 4,5 /, R 220 , / = 42 , /,, = 3,4 ), :
/ = 50 , / = 5000 .
= 3,5 ,
= 1 R = 2,5 .
: 1UUH

470

am

,
(8.69) (8.78), (8.58), (8.60)
.

/ _ ^
IT

/ _ A L _

rr

\ = 0,8
(8.81),

"

0,8-5000

0,025,

" = + = (1 , ) = (1 0,8) 5000 = 1000 ,


0

= = 0,3-1000 = 300 ,
0

r = = 1000 300 = 700 ,


2

= '
2

= \

/<

= 0,025 -700 = 0,44 ,

16,8-0,8-0,025 = 0,336,

^(-)

(50 + 0,3) ( 5 - 0 , 3 )

= 4,3 .
Ri+r
50 + 5
R 0 (. 8.1), =
=
.

= 3,5 Z-i 3
< M = 1,41), 0,5 56
(. . = 1,06).
, :
<

LH

/ = /* \ -

\ = 5 0 1 ^ 1 , 4 1 * - 1 = 50 .

Lj =

R,

ke

f
.

/
I, =

= 13,7 ,

5000
= ~F=

4300

' + "

" = 10000 ,

(50+5)-W

= 0,88 .
2nf
6,28-10000
,
, L , ,
-

ec

RtMUH +

L <

2*f

1,2 + 5

=
aj 0,2 .
6,28-5000

= L /L
= 0,2/13,7 = 0,015
( > 0,01),
Z. = 0,2 . )
^, (6.227),
(6.242) (6.244), : C = 50 .
,
(7.121).

(7.122) (7.125), . 7.2.5,
(7.60) (7.61).
s

*) L , ,
= 20 l g
.
s

471




(. 8.11).
. 8.17. ,
\ \ ,

, . .

|z | = r
fl

= /? = r + r' + / ? : =

(8.82)


~

. 8.17.



?-_
J

(8.83)

(8.82) (8.83) ,
,
.
, = 5 , R = 2,5 , = 0,25 , 7 ] ^ = 0,8,

= ]//? /
2

= 0,025, + = (1 ) = 1000, 1^= Z . / n =_0,4 .


2

L =^lLL
t

2H

2 K ;

=1^.2,5.10- =l
2

-=
2

= 0,06- 2

5000

R L
, a L
, R
. .
2

2H

8.2.

8.2.1.

, , 472


.
,
,
, -'
,



<23 .

,
5 ,


. 8.18.

(. 3.17
3.18).

, . 8.18,
,
:
2

" = U ^

c0

= U

c0

cn

sin wt j

^
,

,
,
^ , . . i" _^
1" .
\

.


, . . ,

.
,
W\I2 ,

473

i i" :
;
,
I" . , i' i"
,

a

aQ

(8.85)
i = i' .

. ,
d

= i'a 4 =

a0

-+

'a~

"a~

_ [

"


i.

. I'

4-

i"

, / =
= ' , I = 0
0

d0

ia = i ~ + ~
a

(- )
8

86

.
, , -
,
.

,


L\,
a = L lL
,
. , , s

474


.
,
,
, . .

,
(. . 3.2.2).

<(. 8.18) .

' -= /(") = /( + ) = /

+ ^

4- \^ 4- ^ -{-...,

(8.87)

/ = ^

"

= f ) = f ( cb
U

Uc~)

a0 ~

0,|^ <\^ + ... .


(8


i =i' , , (8.87)
(8.88), ,
d

h = i' -i
a

,
i = 2(
d

(8-89)

= U cos cot,
cm

fll

= &~ + ? ~ + 2 ^ + -

a U\
b

+ 2 (-f a V; +
S

+ 2( A a W
b

+ A a U* + . . . ) U cos t +

cm

^ \

cm

+) U cos3*t +
cm

- f . . . ] (V cos5cot + . . . .
rm

(8.90)


(. 8.19),

(*;~> =

5 ~

( ~< =

0,

(8.91)

^ = U cos ii

cm

Z* +l*m. cos * +

cos 2*^ i ^ -

cos 4c*f + . . . (8.92)


475

, . . (8.92)
t t + .772,_
f = 'jSLllULcosut + - ^ - C O s 2 c o i + - ^ ? L COS 4(0* + . . . (8.93)
"

1-3*

3-5

. 8.19.
'

, i = i' i"
( , )
d

cos * ).

(8.94>


.
1. (

)
, .
2. ,
,

.
, >
, 1 ,
. 4.3.3,
, -
,
.
3. ,

, .
,
^,

) , k ,
(8.92), 43,6%.
z

476

.
=

, ,
, .


. (
.) , . . ,

. ,
() ( ,
^> UM>)
' " (. 8.18), i i ,

, .

,
,
. .
,
, i ,
(. 8.19),
. ,
{8.87) ( _^ U cosa>t)
,
i i , 2 f, 4 f
,
, . .

cm

'a =
=

acp

a c p ~

$ <** +

, COS

(ot + I

COS

COS

am2

2urf
2u)f

amS

COS 3lD*
COS

4- . . ,

3wt + . . . .


to =

i' +
a

'a =

2 l

acp

^>2

COS

2ut + . . .

(8.95)

.

, ,
,
(. . 6.5.3),
. .
,

, , .

.

,

477

, ,
Uco U o . .
,
1 ( ,
1
1 ,

2 0 % .


.
.
c

8.2.2.

( ).

, ,
, (#2
. 8.18). , :

?
, \ '
,
.
,
i' ^ V .
2

,

:
, , ,
, ,
.

' ^ " ^
. ,
, . .
, ^

,
i' ^, i'^ .

,
0,5
; , ,

478



.
,
,
,
(. 8.2.8).
, ' ^ ,
(. 8.18)
, . 8.20.

(-"" *' (

6)

. 8.20.

. 8.21.

.
_ = " ^ ^
, .

(8.86)

=~+^

(- )
8

96

. 8.206
.
, 0,5
^ , ,
.
( )
, . 8.20 .

,
, . 8.21, r ,


,

; ,
,
Rl

ad

id

p. ,

. R r

.

, . .

d

id

()

= Y

ad

97

(- )


,
, . . 0,5: 2 = 0,25
r -f- R , .

= w :^n

= 2 = 2,
w

(8.98)

^ +^ - -

(8

99)

,
, . 8.206,


(RJ =R,

(8.100)


-
, 0,5/,
R
, .
2

( ^-f

+ -~^-'-

(8-1)

. 8.21

u ^ = -r J
(8.102)
a

am

= rJ .
dn

(8.103)

8.2.3.
, .
,
r
ad

480


(. 8.21).
, ,
r , . .
ad

' = 2 ( r J = : ^ + - * ^ ,

(8.104)

,

0 , 5 / , , , (8.96),
1

dm

0i5/rf

I am

,
,
, r ^ .
.
, ,
;
, (8.102),
,
,
, . 8.22.
at

. 8.22.

_ ,
,
, i ^,

31237

481

. , , ,
.

''.
,


, ,
. 8.206 8.21, r

.
, ,
, . .
(4.15)

ad

/ am_ =

, . 8.22,
,
hm

am =

h -

(-

>

, !
B'DE
^ =

(8.106)


,
(4.14) (4.16) ,
= / ' . .
0

'

- -

'

2/ -f- ' .

1

^g

107)

'

am*

2/

-f- i

M t t H

I Qg^

B'D' ' [
^, r = 2r :]
a

ED
'

= 2 ^ ~ .

ad

(8.110)

(8.105) (8.107)
.

, , ,
482


''
, . 8.23,

i" i i' i" .

i
,

.

''
(. 8.22)

,
'

.

,

,

a

8.24).
, ,

= ( ,
. 8.23.
AF .

. 8.24
', be, b . . . ,
' = ', bh=hc . .
', b, b , ,
b,
b,
', \ , , \ .

ul

lv

11

8.2.4.
,
^

(1" =0),
i
t
.
,


1

dMaKC

^dm ^

3'*

*</

aMaw

{8.1

483

,
, (8.102), r i ,
,
ad dMaiiC

Vam ~

ad

(-

8.24. ' , , '... ',...',


. ,

(8.111) (8.112) ,
. 8.25,
.

. 8.25.


< 0, B^, ^
> 0.

484

p f^p.

(8.113)


, ;
.

. 8.256.
,
,
,

' (. 8.19).
i
^


id f( c~)-
1 ,

,
d

, .



: U , r , _ ,
.
, ,
,
a0

~=

ad

~U J
a

= \r

ma

a d

d m

(8.114)

, ,
:
Pn

Omp

= 2U I .
a0

acp

(8.115)

(8.92) . 8.19
=

(8-6)

= ~V l .

(8.117)

Pno

mp

a0 am

(

), ,
485

(8.118)

(8.114) (8.117)

^aO^dm

(8.119)

~~

ad\dm-

(8.114), (8.115) (8.119) ,


^,
. ,

,
(- 8.26),
.
(8.119) ,

(8.120)

Idm*

(8.121)

**'ad

,
(8.114) (8.115),

(8.122)
4

\ 0,9,
70%. ,
_0,5 ( Y J < 40%).
, I =
hmK-i -
(. 8.26) .
, (8.103) (8.122) ,

adld,
(8.123)
a

dm

Uao


I dmic

dm

2_Uao

. 8.26. , ~

486

,
4 U

a0

ad

,5.

(8.124)


I = 4irj/it
1 = . = = 0,637.

(8.125)

,

0,637,
,
, U = 0,637 U .

0,637, ,

a0

=i?2-

(8.126)



. (8.114) (8.126) ,

<*m dm

^-]=-?

=
1

if?.

= .

(8.127)

^0

,
( ),

,
= 1

(828)

( ) /


, 1 ^ 1 ,
,

II I

P ^ = ~-U I
lr

am

P l

am

a m

~ ^

= -J ,
a0

(8.129)
2

,
, =

! 1..
=

(8.130)
487

,
,
5. , ,
,
, ( ^ ) ( ^ ) 5,
.

\ ^,
,






.





(i = i
R =R),

. 8.27.^ . 8.27.
,
. ...^
( B )
,
, )
2

ia

RJ

(8.131)

= !" + 1 +'

I dm U am.l ad'
r

dm

(8.131)

(U u ) r
a0

Ri +

(8.132) *

ad

ad

:
(U

a0

U)

ad

Vao(Ri +

ad

u,am

I dm

Uao "n

ad

5U

(8.134) *

Ri + ad

Q' amIdm'

(8.133) *

r )

P-*L
2(Ri +

ad

(8.135) *

r )
ad

) , ,
*, Ri Ri,
= / ( ) >
= 0.
d

488




) =

^
-
^ ) ad
/ j q g \ *

a0

U ,{R
a<

r)

ad

(8.135) , '
U = const
^

a0

= , = .

(8-137)*

#~

ad

>*

= R
t

- ^ 7 7 ^ < '

M'at-Ri

838

3 9 3

'

<'

139

>*

, (8.136),
r ,
, R = R
, r = R ,
U = const.
(8.135) (8.136) , U = const,
_ f\ ,
,
, .

4.
,
, (8.127),

,
, r = 0,785.


. , (8.126) (8.133) ,

, R
:
ad

ia

it

ad

a0

a0

- = ^

+/

1 ^ + ? - <

(840)

"

,
-70 R, = 1500 , = 80 ,
= 125
U 1500 % = 0,9 r
^ (8. ) ,
U = 4300 , U

a0

gon

489

U = U
= 1500 ,

r


<
.

%,
, (8.133), r . ,
> 2/:, . . r ^>r ,
, (8.133),
a0

adon

ad

ad

ai

adK

*' ,
2

a d

(8.126). ? <
P

(8.119) (8.134)


in

(8.141)*

1,75

UgO (Uao

(UgQ

it (/ ad)

4 (ft;

nf

ad

i \*

rad)-

(8.141), (8.126) (8.142), r ,



=
= 125 .
1740 S, _ /],
- (8.133), (8.135) (8.136), ^ = 168 , = 0,51
1 = 0,4.
, U = /
= 1500 , r = 30 000 ,
-
I = 0,9 TJ = 0,7, - (8.135) (8.126)
, _ = 30,4
7,6 .
, _ ,
fj
, . ,

.

.

=
,
(8.143)
ad

a0

ad

UaMUH

1,5 3.
.8.1.3 ,
\i = / ( )
= 0], ,

(. 8.2 8.27), ,
a

490

JMH [(8.38) (8.39)]:


I +

1+-

( = const)
, R
' U , /
, u ,.
.
(8.133) (8.136), B

u ^ 0 :
2

a0

i(

1+

.(8.144)*

^dm

fad

Rt + r d(l
a

(8.145)*

1 +

ad

Tt

4
Ri +

ai

"Wad

l+

(8.146)*

1 +

(8.147)
Ri + r d[l

. (8.114) (8.130)
.
, , -70
;< = 6,7; R, = 1500 , U
= 1500 ;
= 125 )
U = U ; " , r ,
(8.126), 1830 .

^ 0,9, ,
(8.145),'
2

aflon

o0

ad

1+ ^

Ri

=
1

5 ad

(8.148)*
491

1 4 - = 7,38, ,

= 1,05,
. _ ,
- (8.127) = 0,9
=
= 125 ,
500 . , ,

, .

) =

= 0,785-0,9 =0,7.
U = 1200 e<U ,

_ , ij,
J c
0,6,
, , ,
a0

adon

la

(8-149)

= 0,1-^-1, ,
. ,
U

i
= J ,
I .
,
, U
U .
, . 8.27.
(8.17), i = 0,
oB

dm

c0

cm

(U )
c0

Ua

=-

(8.150)*

B i
(^J

= l^ol=-^

B l

! L

v-

(8-151)*

, U

U ,
. 8.21, R = R ,
2

cn

am

id

= ^

"1" <^ '

d m

<&

(g 152)*


, B , .
. 8.2.
t

492

8.2

, -70
(Ua = 1500 ,

= 125em, R = 1500 , = 80 , = 6,7, l > 800)


t

ad

=s

"

Vao

cn

1'

^
3

125
125
7,6
125
125

4300
1500
1500
1500
1200

vi

500
168
30,4
500
500

15
1,74
30
1,83
1,17

0,9
0,51
0,9
0,9
0,9

0,7
0,4
0,7
0,7
0,7

1,05
0,60

630
212
212
212
167

630
212
212
367
367

256')
438
45
740
922 ;
2

. 8.2 ,
.

,
,
.
.
2

8.2.5.

,
. (. 8.206), .

*. ^~'


,
-

( ,
.

1

"* = cm

'

-
,
,

'

= 1,

8 5 3

(8.154)

) ,
U > U
.
) , i
> I,
, = 0,6 .

a0

aMaKC

493

:
( <
).
,



!
3f , .. . . ,
\f
f\, \f
2f\ . .
,

CUZH

CU2N

cUzH

i = ao + aiu ~ + chul _ + \ ~ + . ,

(8.155)

,

, . "
(8.55) .

= * + "

0-15>

" ~ = +

(8.157>

U.
n

(8.156) (8.157) (8.155),


i i , ,

i = = 2
d

4- 4 ^

4- 2

3
, sin t sin t

4--^-cos2u><

4- 6
3

4- . . .
(8.158)

1
'sin t, a cos t = 42

4 '

(8.153) (8.154)^

(8.158) :
i = (2ai + -j
d

4- 2aJJ U
cm

ncm

4- 3a U U ncm
2

cm

aU
3

cm

4- . . . j U

sin (>

cm

1 o ^ s i n >

+ (o)t + 2a U U

sin (>

4- 2co ) t 4- 3a U Un

sin (

sin (

sin
2

+ ...

cm

cm

ncm

Cm

t 4-

w ) t 4n

2u>) t 4-

(8.159).

,

.
494

\f
2f \
, \f
f \,
:
caiH

cum

16

= U + f.

(8- >

flo.6

= fc-fn'

(8.161)



. , (8.158)
, . . 2
, 6 ..., 3
,
3

i =2 { \
d

+^u ju

ai

cum

, (8.153) (8.154),
i =2a U (l+^U^costo t^mu t.
d

ea

(8.162).

eiull

(8.162) ,
m = U

(8.163)

nem

f,
f *


, .
. . ,
[63], ,
, ,
, f,
50 100 , 24% (2%
).
,

), ,
i ,
f
=\
+ f f'
=f
f .
.
CU2H

K0MS

K0MS

cu2H

') , .
,
( ) .
, .
495

,
, ,
/ .
.
,
,
.
,
(8.163),
U , (8.159)
.

( 23 ) .


, .
,
,
, ,

(8.155) :
CM

Sd

Idm

(8.164)

S = 1 /U

. (8.164) (8.163),
d

dm

cm

m = 2-^c/
2

n e m

= - l - ^ ^ .

(8.165)

,

:
1
"'22
2 2

'

"

1dm (Unrm
'""

a0

{ U

cm

i Unam
-

^v.U ^
cm

.
-

V-a^n:
-

v.U

cm

'

du,

=R ^

(8.167)

<=const

\du


.

, ,
,
,
.
496

,
,
, ,
f , :
i

Ai

= S"

na

na

S'

+ & ,

g'i

,
i = i ina .
,

ni

na

Ai =(S'-S'>)Au -(
nd

nc

gi

g-)r Ai .
ad

nd

,
,
/

(S'~S")Uncm

!+

(8.168)

(*;+*;>'

,
, . . , ,
. ,
S + S ,
:
S' =

5 + S,

S"

S' S" =

= S S
2 S.

(8.169)
(8.170)


- . , .
(8.171)

gi + gt

Rt

Ra

, ,
J

S' + S" _ 25_

Rid

fi

. (8.172)

(8.168)
ndm

"-^237

(8.173)
S

Rid+ ad
497



I .
= l ll

, .,
(8.152), (8.173) (8.166) ,

dm

ndm

lnilm

dm

^ / Unrm
S

<dm

cm

_|_ Umam
\>-Vcm

? U

I -Ucm

'

,
. S/S,
, 0,2 (+ 20%),
5/5 < 0,1.
(40-^-80 ).
, -
, ,

.
, ,
-100, U = 5000 , / =
= 0,12 a, U = 475 , I = 1,15 , \>. = 18 4 S/S =
= 0,15 . = 2 % , =0,03% (70 ), (8.166)

u0

cm

, U

4- U'

4,9 . ,
(V + U
= 0,9 .
f

, ,
:

U = 0,707 U
nc

dm

ncn

(8.174)
0,9
75%

= 0,16 U = 0,707 V
na

= 8,6 .

,
,
,
.
, ,
. , = 10 (20 )
=1,6
/=86 .

,

.
, ,
,
.

498

, ,
,
,
.

.

(. 7.72)
'
2

k 1
- .

A

Kid

ad

(8.92) '

'

dm* 2 2 = (1 ^ ) / 2 = (1 k ) I m, (8.178)
A

/
U

em

Idm ,
l" =k
l' ,

= V2U' .

im

C2

dm

=~- ^.

(8-179)

:
I

4 1 k.

=-=

>dm

(8.180)

k
A

k 0,8,
, 4,7%.

, (
), < .
. A

') (8.92) (8.177)


.
. 32*

499

<? ,
cos'f^,
.

1

sin ^

- +

= / s i n ( t o r + K + ),
dm

2 /
:
( Qy = - /
e)af = ~

(i

cos2u)^,

cos 2 (<> t - f <? ).


A

d i = -7-sin

^/,

on

,
l

k i

= fH = A
'dm

s i n c

(8.181)

3 6
2,3 4,5%, .

.

,
.
,
,

fi~f
/ < /
.

, , ,

500



/2.

7 =1// .

:
,

< =

-1? 1-

(8-182)


/j :
l

sin

( 'd)/i = ( dm)fi
s

= (/d/n)/i[ i

n(0

i^ s( ?m

t + < sin 1 + .. .) =

sinu>

2 r - f - . .)+cosu>iisin(itp sinu> f + ...)].


m


cos (a sin b) = J (a) + 2 (a) cos 2b + . . .
0

sin (a sin b) 2J (a) sin b - f 2 / (a) sin 36 - f - . . . ,


/ ( ) , Ji(a) . . . ,
f (I )a ( ? ) .
f
= | / i /|
t

dm

Y(^ )/i2A(A<pJ.
m

,
, (<? ): ^o{^fm)> -

(8.183)

,
- (8.183), ,
=
~ 6% )
5 10.
,
,
.
,

.
,

) ,

.

(2.22),

501

,
.
, i
=f(u )
, ,

, .

a

/'

'

'dm

<JdV

cm

S + bS

I dm = S U
a

= I

cm

i m

I dm I dm
,
. ,

= ~ (I'dm - / L ) = ~

(8.184)

dm2

= f - ^

'dm

'

&

( -18 )

>->

&S/S 0,1 0,2,


4 8 %.


.
,
, ,
,
.

( )

8.2.6.
,
,
( ) , (Bi ) .
, ,
23%. ]
,
(37%). ]
,
.
2

502

,
,
,
.

, , ,
, , ,
.
510%,
;
.

. ,
,
1540%, Bi3060% 5070%.


.
,
.
,

, ,
.
.

,
. , B i
,

.

.

,
R
(. 3.17). ,

,
, ,

.
,
Bi
2


R ,
( ).
K

503


.

,

(, 67, -5, -27, -431,
-433 .),

= .


, .
1. A j
,
,

, 510 .

.
2. B i
( 2050 ),
, (
)
, , ,

.
3.
- (
1030 ),
,


. ,
,
: ,
, 12
, 13%.
2

8.2.7.
.
, ,
.
( 2050 ) ,
-. A i ;
(21,
61, 6, 69, 614 .),
(64, 613 .),
, 504

.

(-29, -50, -807 .) ') ].

.
, , ,
21,
(-70, -100, -5, -431 . ) ,
(-50, -71, -80 .), (
, -807, -27, -29 . ) .

, .
, , ,
, ,
,
. . ,
, ,
.
1- . .
,
, U , U ,
U o )< I o< I o> a> ^ am>

r = 0,5 r ; ,
, ,
.

, . 8.22.
(J
ED DC,
U , U .

r r ,
[. - (8.106), (8.109) (8.110) . 8.2.3],.
i
,/ i
.
i
(. 8.24),
i
(. 8.23),
.
, , . 8.22,
2

a0

a0

ad

a0

ma

ad

cQ

aMaKC

aMUH

')
.
,
.
) ,
' ,

( --20%), ,
.^. .
2

505

= 200 , ED \b{) ,
r

_ 150

'

~~ 200

ad = ^ = ; = 0,75 ,

= 2r

_ =
n

= 2- 0,75 = 1,5 ,

ad

-'

150 0,2
=
2

15 em.
1

1 = 41,5,
= UJ
= 300-41,5-10"-
= 12,5 em < 15 =
.
,
''
""",


, . 8.23, ,
:
/, = ' = 200 ,

a0

1
I

, . . - (8.107) (8.108), :
1
=73>
1 = 41,5,
= 31,5 .

1 0 2 0 % ,

1 2 (0,2-0,4) [ ,

. . 6,3 12,6 ;
I ll
3,15 6,3%.
dm2

dm

, ,
:
U
= rJ
= 750-0,2 = 150 ,
_ = 0,SU [
= 0,5-150-0,2 = 15 ( ),
= U : U = 150:300 = 0,5, = U : U = 150 : 60 =
= 2,5, ) = PU2U l
= 15/2-300-0,073 = 0,34.
an

am

am

dm

dn

a0

am

cm

a0 acp


R = R i2 = 460 .
id


,
, ,
R = iikL
(8.186)*
t

R = 390 .
,
,
K

506

/ ) , , 1 .
U I ,

.
, , . 8.22
( 7 / = 1 2 , 5 ,
( 64 =
15 ),

70 21 .
.
,
( ),
A(U^ , / ) ,
U I (0,65
0,8) .
,


,
1,21,5
1,1 1,2 ,

0

a0

a0

a0

a0

R =

Ua

(8.187)

1 )

1' ,
, (
, (- 8.2).
2- . ,
! (, ) ,
.

, . . ,
,
, , .
,
,

.
.
,
.
^,
.
.
,

) /

^ .

507

(
)
:
- (61, 6, 69,
614) 0,8-+- 1,2, ,
0,3 - 0 , 5 0 , 8 ( 69),
(64, 613) 1,6-2,2
(-807, -50,
-71) 1.6-*- 3.

i
,

U ^U ,
,
, U .
,

=0
. . 8.28
,
=0
, . ,

, A (U ,Q).
a

3U

3don

a0

u0

ta.l

{80 120 160 200'240 280 J20 360 ] 410 -40 \30 -20 ] -10

;sos
f)\

. 8.28. , ,
Bj ( 8.4)


1
(. 8.28),
U U
, ,
, ABE,
. .

_ =

UanJu

(U

508

(8.188)

'


^ o~;

f l

(8.189)

L7 ,
: 1) U < U >
2) U < U ,
3) U ^>U , 4)
^ P go
5)



u0

aQ

aoon

BU

3don

nQ

iu

ad

V m

U a M a H

(8.190)


Uam

. U

/;

Q1

'

\ > 0,637,
- (8.126),
% < 0,637 :

'

II
U

^* ~

(^ "

;
0

<*

'

,
(

'

m m
'

(8.119).

( ) :
(8-193)

~\UJsMatC
9

1
i = f(u , )
=
(
= 0) =
.
3


'
( ^ , U ) .

23 .
, ,
^ ,
,
, (, )
() .

(. 8.29),
_ = const U ,
(8.189).
, ,
. : U <U

<
[

, , . .
(8.190), (8.191), (8.126) (8.192)].
3U

a0

a0

adon

509


.
(. 8.28 . 8.29)

i
(. 8.286)

0 .

.

(8.194)

U 0>

~ *

^'cm

'

\UC0

|-



I , U , ^
I 2, Idm3> l cp' I ami'
nom > i> , Ri , , R R .

"

l
I

. 8.29. ,
.
,
!
i ,
= W

(t ),
' (. 8.286),
( ^ > -4- 0,5 U )
,
, t* i f (
=
dm

am

drri

dm

dm3

lt

cm

aQ 5

= f(U

c0

f05

o.bu y).
cm

(4.21) :
2

(i-a

Idm ~

(8.195)

3
la

2L

(8.196)

Idm3

, ^, 0,5 U

cm

, . . l = i i = i - ,
d

" = U 0,5 U

c0

cm

. i'
1

0,5>

' = =

510

0|5

" =U +

a0

~,

- -

2 8

) i"

i ^ *' ,5'
au

U 4- 0,5 U
c0

cm

= U

a0

_,5.

' 0,5

:
U

= rj

am

d m

I = U /U ,
an

I ,
:
^

-'

I ami

~ -

0,bU J .
a

I , l

1' -

a0

am2

(8.197)

dm

dm2

25

'

Id

>

, (8.198)

I ~i ,
(8.116), (8.177) (8.184).
:
dm

dm2

aMaKC

-4-

I
'

>

1dm

1U 1

'

(8.199)

,cm

(8.200)
2 (1

"~

21,

CP

R

R

=
(. 8.28), . .
(8.201)
{Rid) ~ i 0,5
id

l<j5

0 5

8.4.
: 25 ,
400 , 2 0 % .
, , 6
= 300 ,
= 20,5 ,
= 2,75 ).
(Ua -, = 400 , U
U: , = 300 , (. 8.28)
= 60 , L
= 160 .
(8. :
189),
2_
2-25
+ 60 = 373 .
0,16

U 400 . ^, = 27 . ,
(8.190), (8.191) (8-126), , r 2\2Q
5 = 0,85
7,6 . i
f { ' . " ) = 25 ,
a0

ad

300-0,025
,

^50

= 1,88 .

U < U
U < U. '
U>U
, ^
<
< , ,

.
, ,
. . 8.286, U = 33 U = 33
. 8.28 , = u
= U + 0,5(J =
= 33 + 0,5-33 = 16,5 i == 81 = 1 .
^ ('
( (8.195) (8.196), I
= 161
' = 0,7 .
a0

s0

c0

em

c 0 5

c0

cm

dm

511

(8.197) (8.201)
. 8.28, : U
340 , 0,85, ^. 27 ,
1
= 51 , 1 = 13,6 , = 8,4%,
= 40,8 , , = 66%, / C i =10,3,
/? = 300 , R = 8,2 , R = 76 .

: | = 63,3%.
, U I
= 400-0,023 = 9,2

= 20, .

id

a0

a0

,

.
1^,
, 1 , 1 .

R ,
U ,
.
U ,

,
V

.
hU ,
(0,050,1) 7 , R
RR' (. 6.50)
,
,
(
) ,

s0

s0

&Q

2(1
/ ) '
\' '>


U
:
a0

^_

RR'

R + R'

2('-')

R' =

V/

,
R' =

U.in

UJR

Uao
Uao Ua

I)

. ,

'

Ugp

R =
(Ugp ~

512

Uao) U

/)

, U

400

^ '

">

25

= 300 ,
"> I.
'

= 6,25 ( 8.4), 1 2 t/ = 20 ,

3 , i?=13 . ,
R' R, ' = 3,5 em, = 7 em, ,

, 35 .
,
R
R R' ,
: .
0

a0


, B . ,
,

,
U d , P r>pn< Ri,
I (
), U , r $,


i> Uco, Ucm,
, .8.2.4.
,
B j .
.,
,
.

(8.135)
t

o n

aB

- .
ad <<i

"?

{Ua
4RiP-

1 +

ARiP,

(8.202)

r
,
.
,

, r
r ,
, (8.141). , r
1,75 /,-,

- (8.126), r < 1,75

(8.142)
, ~^ = 15 ,

64, ^ = 15 ,
U = 360 , Ri 840 ( = 0), 30 . 4,15. 11 =
=U ct = 360 (8.202), r
1500 .
r > 1,75 Ri 1470 ,
- (8.126),
-
= 8,75 < ,
, <^=
' 1500 . ,
, - (8.116), (8.117), (8.132) (8.134), (8.136),
;(8.150) (8.151), : I
. = 141 , U
= 212 .
\ = 0,643, , = 5 0 , 5 % , U =- -80 , U =80 , = 2,65, 1
45 , ,
~ 32 .
ad

ad

adK

ad

ad

on

ad

ad

dm

ca

cm

am

3- . 2-

, - 1^ -
100%,
0,61.
; 0,9, ,
2

"3-237

513

(8.127),

:
P
>(0,25-0,4)P,
(8.203)
f f ( ? o

.
,
. ,
(8.203).
(. 8.28 . 8.29),
.
, , ,
.

, ,
.

, ,

~
( U U = const
~ ;
, 1
,
. , ,
,
,
i = f(u ) ,
.
U ,
(8.189).
(7 , 1
'

(8.188) !)
,
:
2

a0

a0

a0

)
6)

4) ,

> ,
<

;
,
, 1
,
-
.

= const

(8.188)

= , = 2 ^ ,
.

514

r , 5,

,
2 [- (8.190), (8.191), (8.126), (8.192) (8.193)].

U U .
U ,
2, . .
i (. 8.28), a U
(8.194). , . 4.17
cos fr =
\U \: U' .

:
ad

cQ

em

cQ

c0

cm

1 =

(8-204)
(8-205)

1*

= 0.5f/ / +
e m

U J%,
C

206

(- )

: I , I , U ,
_, / , / ,
-> > , 2.
dm

dm3

am

8.5. ,
: , 5 ,
6 ,
1 ~
=300 , 15%.
,
5 - 6 , -100 (
= 1 ), -5 (
= 2,5 ),
-5 (
=3,5 ) .
^ , = 5 , (8,203),
(0,250,4)
P_j= 1,25 2 ,
2

-5. ,
-100,
. ,
, 2,5 .
U 6 , -100 U
=
= 5 , U =5 ,
.
: 0, 250
' 500 . . . i ,


a0

a d o n

a0

~=

= 2 , 5 =

st.

2
MN
(. 8.30). ^ ,
i =!I.( , )
. , ,
: =225
,
i 11^0 ,
1 5

1 =

-.

2=15 0 .

) U

CB

, .
515

U =4335
am

ad

Uan

4325

1,15
5000

^0

, $=0,865, ^=0,68,

3750

3,14 3750

:675 ,

. . < < ; < = 1 0 0 0 .

U & ,
. 8.28, 250 , / = 1 2 0
c

". = "

<7, = 225 0

(-250) = 475 .

. 8.30. , ,
( 8.5)
2

' ] ,
1 , - (8.204)
(8.206) . 4.17, : cos & = 0,527
= 0,210, , = 0,335, ]
= 48 , 1
= 26 , =5,6
.

-100 ,
.

516

, , 8.4,
,
< = i
0,5 i
.
Id *i ld a
~ 0,
U , > ^ ~ )
. , 1
= 366 , / = 2 4 5 , /<j, =73,5 , & =6,4% ,
= 3660 em, / = 9,1 , , = R
= 3800 .
.

: _ = 2 - 2 , 5 = 5 ,
= 2-3,66 = 7 , 3 2 , /
= 2-120=
=220, 1 =0,732
, (
= 2-125 = 250 , 1
= 52 , 1 = 96 ,
nd = 3750: 2 = 1875 Rm = 3300 : 2 = 1900
U
= 4325 , U = 225 , U = 475 , = 9,1 .

,
. ) ,

.


i = 0,9
0 0

0 > 5

aMlKC

aMaKC

am

0 5

cm

k=

= 1
(8.207)
Is
, ,

(8.208)
"

(8.126), (8.127) (8.145)

Uam

AD

a0

= - =
' dm

,
'

(8.209)

,
:

~ ^ ~

(8-2)

* '
U

=-~.
'
1

Ri

U {l
a0

(8.211)

(8.207)(8.212),
< , U < U o n ,
< / j > 1 (,


, _ ) , (
,
I,

aMaKC

Uadon,

Ri .) .

, -70 (
I = 0,8 a, U = 1500 , Ri = 1500 . = 6,7)

=
= 125 , i
=I
s

aMaKC

=125
,

= , 8

* )
, , . . [4].
517

i ,9. (8.210)(8.212), , = 500 ,


U 1400 1 j - fx/n = 8, 58, , = 0, 88.

= 1, a U < U don,
U , = U
= 1500 , '
.
, i =0,
74 = 1,05;

500 , \ .
, 0,9, ,
-<\, ^,. (
,
) .
, (8.209) (8.212),
U , r , U , U , u
, u . Ka.
- (8.150), (8.151), (8.209) ,
.
(8.149), ,
, (
-70, -100. = 0 , 2 0 , 4 , -431, -56
. =0,6~1).
'
, ,

- I , I

,
.
a0

aa

aa

am

ad

ra

rm

c t n

c c p

8.2.8.


. ,
. 8.21, . 8.206



il'Jbm
,
wJ2.

,

. 8.31.
,

,
,

, ,
L L , . 8.31.

(. 8.13) ,

, , ,
.

518

(8.69)(8-83)
V 2 U , U' , 2 V , 4 r
4


. 8.13 8.31 ). ,

- = 1 =

.
,
. 8.32 8.13.
,
:

nit

e r f

=y+

+ #2 .

(8.213)

In

ad

(8.214)
r

ad

(8.214)

(8.215)

. . (89] . 8.32.
,

0,840,98 10 <
< < 100 , 0,92
0,96 < 1 , 0,950,98 < 10 0,97
^ 10 .
(8.213) (8.214)
2

o = r

+ ~

= ( -\)>-ad-

(8-216)

4
'

2

= (2-

2)

-^

(2-1) .
0

4 -

[89], (8.214)
(8.216),
:
(8.217)
= 1,172(1 r )r ,
iT

= 1,656 (1- )
2

ad

(8.218)

= 0,414
'17

') . 8.1.5.
519

, R, > f
(8.58), (8.60), (8.74) (8.75):
0

= ^

2 /,,

KC

- = V

,
(8-219)

(8.220)
r

Rid+ ad

(8.221)

-1

I
4/?

4/?.

(8.222)
2

2 "/

2nf VM ~\
H

- (8.68),

:
X

Rid +

{Rld+r d)VM\a

2/

(8.223)

(8.223)
L

.
,
. ,

,
,


[66, 70, 94].

(
),

. 8.33,

.

. 8.33.

,

,

, f ,

.

sn

' ^-^.

Rid + r d

m .
520

(8.224)


L

,
,
.

[56, 69, 89].

L

(8.224), '
sn

sn

2 /

k'

0,030,07.

8.6.
, ,
8,5 (#^=1,9 , '^=1,875 , = U /U =9,l),
: f =
=50 , / = 1 0 000 , = = 0,5 ), /?,= 12 =0,96.
- (8.215), (8.217)(8.224),
:

am

cm

^
=

= =

i/X /ZfI
=

wi

4r r,
ad

= 0

0 4 0 8

4-1875-0,96

0 = 1 , 172 (1 j r =\,

172(10,96)-1875=88 ,
10,96
# =0,414
-12=0,207 ,
0,96

ad

tf n r , =9,1-0, 0408-0,96 = 0,357,


a

r
r

" ~

2 /

n =

(1900J-44)-(187544)

~ =

' =

Rid+r
!

L, =

945

1900+1875

ad

"
=50Vl,06 -l
4 ,
4-945
=
2*/
6,28-17,3

= 1 7 , 3 ,
35 .

L ,
, = 0 , 0 7 :
s

_ ( R i d + T g h V
2nf
=

(1900+1875) ^^"
6,28-10 000
= 0,021 ,

Zid+r )k,

3-3755-0,07

ad

= 0 , 0315 .
0,4-2r;/
0,4-6,28-10000
L 0,021 ,
sn

sn

)
,
,
.
521

, L L =0,25L

= 0 , 0 0 2 4 ;
[89|.
, L

Z.J (. 8.9).
sn

ln

lt

sn<

8.3.

8.3.1. ,


- (. 1.3).
,
,

. ,

. ,
.

,
2U
( U )
+ i
( i
).
,
2 U (U )
i
(i ).
U i
,
, ,
.

,

.
, , . .
,
, ,
^ i = 0 (. 2.5)
= E sin mi,
, i 0, , .,
, . .
i 0
^ = -
1 .
(8.225)
2

cm

cnt

cm

CMaKC

c n

cm

cm

, ,
,
522

" ,

(8.226)


.
) ,


, , .
, ,
(
),
C R
.

:





. 8.34.

.

,

,
. 8.34,
,
(8.227)
= R n + in + rt,

in

R
, = w !wi , ,
,
.
,
,
.


.

.
in

) , .
523

, R , ,


R
,
.


, ,
C R (. 8.35).

. 8.35
c

, = /?,-.

(8.228)

. 8.35.
: ,

(. 8.356)

'

1 + V-n

(8.229)

n
S


, R' -j- r , r
.
,

,
, ,
.

, ,

.
K

524


,
,
, ,
, ( . 8.3.3).
, .
,


,
.
,
, A i
B i ,
.


.

8.3.2.

.
,
, . 8.34.
,
, . 8.36 8.37.

. 8.36.

. 8.37. ^

R , ,

,

M

525

. ,
,
R ,
,
R

.
R ,
1530%.
,
, ,
, ,
.

:
1. ;
,
.
2. ;

, , ,
,
.
3.
; ,
,
, ,
, =0
.,
:
, .

:
1. ,


.
2. ;
,

,
;

.
3. ;

.
4. -
, , m

ul

526

,

.
5.
,

;
.

.
,

, ,
,
.
,
,
,
. 8.34, . 8.36 . 8.37,
, Ri, u ,U
,


U ,U
i
.

,
:
*
1. .
2. ,
.
3. .
.


k , ,

, ~

nn

ando

c0

Cm

CMaiiC

2n

= J^s-.

(8.230)


'
,
, (. 8.38).

, :

r J^L..

(8.231)

c==

527

2n

<1

(8.232)

(
), ,
'0', :

/?^ + ^
, (8.227),
+

/ ?

'

= Rin + + .

,
.
(8.227)
(8.233) ,




8.33. '
. ( )
,
, ,
R

, . ,

, ,
( < 1 ) .


,
,
, .

,
,
(. 2.5) :

= F
i
=
U

in

-~

'-cm

' c
l

cm

'


. 8.39.
528

^
,
U .
U - ,

(..4.2.2),, :

Cmi

Cml

.,

'

Ucm2


,,

'
1

rt.,


'U =
^

'
1

'

(8.234)

2U

. 8.39.

, ,
U
2

cm

_/? /'
2

= i?=- =

~"

2R

2n

235)

\/r

tTn

( 8

2 3 5 )

_ 2,
_

(8.236)

r
, :
lTn

(8.237)

iTt

ry n" + r + R.
2

ir

(8.231)(8.234) (8.237)

f n=R2 !n ri
.
2

3 4 - 237

Tn

529

:
,

Jr = -

2 k

I \ \2

+ /

>

(8.231), (8.235) (8.236) ,


,
, U' ,i
% r ,
( ) ,
. . ~ k .
, (8.238),

.
- k

> 2, .


.
R\ ,
,
.

&,, r = a R ,



(U uJ /Ri, . . . ,
, (8.23), " =
R :
Cm

lTn

!n

an

in

a0

in

Van " ) _. _ *

/ () = >

(8.240)

239)

= 2.
,

. ,
(/? = ) (8.238)

in

= (1- 2 ) 1 ^ = 1 '

( '

2 4 1 )

,
k

, > - ! - .
(8.242 )
1 2 k,
m

, k, 2% -
n

530

(7

0,96 . .


,

.
(8.239)
23.
, -
, :
|2 -,

\(V U
M

> \

,
| j

.
Jt

"* ^ " \
*

(8.243)

U , , U .

U 1
(
), / /.
k , r ,
, )
a0

adan

Cm

!n

iTn

>2^1

r , R , . >
"
, (8.243).

(. 8.1.5),
L-.

.
) ,
,
, . .
.
,
,
. ,

\\, ,-
/, ,
.

\\. ,
,
c

2n

*) ,
.
- - , . ,16,
1937 " 5
938.
34*

'

31

(. 8.38),
(8.231). , , i = 0
( ). ,
1/ .

,
, /
,
, ,
, ,
,
(. . 2.1.6).
,
. 8.38
<oL ,

L ,
,

, .

,
,
(o L , i 0(1 / 0),
,
L = 0, i 0(l/r 0) L = 0,
1 0(1/ 0).

, . 8.38,

v-n

(8.244)

:
(8.245)
'

,(8.246)

].

<8.247)


(8.248)
.
, .

. 8.36,
. 8.40.
- II i
;
' 0,
, \i , ^
, R n ,
,

aMarx

in

, , Rui R . , L


,
, . .
' 0.



, . .
. . 8.40.

( )


. ,
- (8.234), ,

2n

(8.249)

'
12 U

V*.


, ,
. - (8.232)
(8.235) :
Ucm

R
2n

( R

4 r

(8.250)

1+ 4

r IR
c

/? >8/" .)

(2U Y
cm

2 R%n

(1+4 / )

(8.251)

. 2t

, (8.236) (8.238) ,

=
533


(8.252)

, " + 2 + ,2

> _

(1+4

R , ]
m

1-

r IR

(8.253)

l+4r /R

^ > ~ -

<

>

(8.243), ,
.
, L :

L,

+ 1

^ | - _

+ r re + 2 r
t

(8.256)

, (8.252),
l

rin* + 2r, =

^R .

(8.257)

,
67,
U = 300 , U = 35 i
= 12 ,
R, = , k, ~ \% ?)7>,= 95%
,
, : =2,9 , R = 11,6 ,
=0,21 em, ^ = 0,22 em, = 15,6
= 17,526 .

= {^ n) lRt
, , 6
, U
= 300 , ^
^ 3 5 R;zz;2,8 ,
= 2 5 .
,
, ,
23 ,
=0. ,
R = 2,5 2,8 = 7 , ,
2

a0

cm

CHaKC

!n

3 0

2Rt

1+)

3 5

2.7(1+15,6)

,4 ,

(8.258)

. . 5,7 ;
1 ) = 5 , ,
534

6,7 , ,
. = 15,6, =
= 105 , U = 2^
= 215 1
= U fr ^2
,
( ^, = +U )


{U< \) , - (8.69)
(8.257), : n=w /w =0,34,
r n 2r
=
=610 .
,
- r =-const ,

ann

amn

an

cmn

2j

= 0,414 r

an

(1 |)

*
, = 0,293 _Lz2iZ5_ / ?

0,293 (r + 2,),

<

\ 2170 = 179 .
, (8.60), , R
= 8,16 .
I L L (8.75),
['(8.256) (8.255). , / = 50 , = 1,12 (
=
I =1 ) 7 = 000 , :
I i = 52 , ~1,4
L = 0,026 . L ,
| ,
2

3Ken

[
[\
\
t
\
\
I
|
I
I
I
I
|
I
t
[
[
j
i

L = L :[ ~J
S

=0,026 : 0,17 = 0,9 ,

. = LjLi = 0,017.
, L . L , , , (. . 7.2.6).
.

. (. 8.37) ,
, . , .

.
,
. -, ,
Ri

s

535

, ,
, (8.239) (8.243), R
2 /?, 2 . -, - (8.243)
:
(24-3) ^ (2 + )
.
(8.259)

in

-,
:

am

Va*=VPZSal,
/

(8-260).

=^

(8.261>

an

8.3.3.


. ,

.
, ,
. 8.35,
(
R),
.

, . .
.
i 0

(. 8.356), ,,
,

(8.229)
Rin
l +

1
S

^n

K = U lU
.


.
.
n

536

cm

lmn

^

:
1. . '
,
, ;
, .
2. . ,

(
),
,
.
3. . ,
, ,
.
4.
.
( 90)
.
( +90)
, ,
, R + r
(
. 8.356), ,
.

5.

. ,


.
6. . ( )
,


. ,
'
.
"

i f ( )

,
.

.

e

537

. U ,
U U .

,

,
(. 8.356)

().
, , , ,
,

. ,
,

, ,
i

U ,
,
. 8.46, '
< 0.
lmn

cm

cmn

CMaKe

cm

,


,
, .

, , ,
,

' .

.

, .

. 8.41.
r ,
,
i
L

CMaKc

R'

RtJL

, 1+-
- r ,

Rjn
V-n

1+

1+
.538

V-n

(8.262)

31

(8.263)

Mr

(8.264)

- . 8.41.
. , ,


1 ,
1 on,
, .

faO

1 +-

CP

2
1+ ^

1 + fti

(8.265)

On

4
hep

+!%



R
R (. 8.42),
1 ,

,

, (R )jj .
1

U '

K2

. 8.42. ,


R

8HX

R ,+
K

R.2

Rftl + 2 +

'

(8.266)

{')

539

. 8.42,

,
,

= 1 +$

+f

,
' 0, (6.37),

( ^ )

= - ^ ^ - _ ,

(8-267)

\2

R
' [ 2
R
(8.267)
].
(8.265)(8.267)

AE

AE

I =

I,

. .

Ki

(1 + -)

r (1 +
L

fa

I -

(8-268)




. ,
1
/ ,
1 ,

(. 8.42)

1 = / +

(8-269)

'.

(8.266) (8.267),

"

R k 2 ( 1 +

971\

. 8.42
R
.

R i + R
(R )jj
. (8.267)
N 8 B L X

K2

eblx

,+2

) (
1

^ _

+ ( 1 + ( )
2


, 540


,
~4- . .
f

ntlhl

I + ft, Win + r (1 + (*)


L

( 8.272)


I

, ,
. 8.43.
,

/ '

(8.273)

, . 8.43,
.,
/
zzl
.
(8.274)

'

,
,

2,
,
, ,
,
+ 2# ):
.
(8.275)

()

RK2
*1

* 2

" ,
(R )u
R + R (. 8.42),

ebix

K2

(Rin + 2R ) (R
ae

Rin + 2R

ae

ul

R)

+ [R + tf

Ki

Kl

ft2

(8.276)

(1 + |i)]



, . . (8.229)
Rin

,

,
.
541

, , >
, ,

8

Wa^RneuJco

( '277)

. 8.44.

(8.249),

, '",


'0,
:

k, = " *
n

(8.278)

3 U

cm

R
R , (8.268),
(8.270), (8.271), (8.275) (8.276),
. ,
. 8.44, '
R

R ( R < 0,5 r* ,
Kl

ui

542

, 0,5r ),
L

, ^

f,

(8.279)>

R

.
(. 8.446):

ce

= - ^ + 2*

(8.280)

, , , . 8.44,
RiR :

^RtRcn

(8.281)r

R2
K

L
2

2R,R

Ri + Ri^

(8.281) , ,
' ,
, R R .
2R (R -f- R )/(R +
+ Ri - f R ) , , .
0,5r , Ri/(Ri + R ).
, . 8.44,
,
;

.

R i,
;

,
.
R


, ,
R\R .
,
,
.


ce

ca>

ce

ce

neb X

543

R , , ,
. 6.21. ,
R

,

* ( - -41
- ' )
U
\R .

/ / ( ,
) ,
(. 8.45).

,
.

U on = E
+ \U \
(8.282)
3

4 3

cm

0n

c0


U =
+ \U1 - . ^
(8-283)
.
.

I II



,
0,11 .

(8.229),
(8.268),
(8.270), (8.271), (8.272)
(^.276)

0

c0

R ^oo

in

.->;

,

R , -


. 8.45.
( 0
, . 8.45) S
s

SKll
1 + S R ;
:

.0.
1

Rn '

3n

3n

3n

(8.284)
544

Rm 4~ Rz

(8.285)

i +
SKFIRK

2 +

(8.286)

' '

Sr

1 +
1 +

^
SfcnRfCjIc rp

Iancp

(8.287)

1aOn ~
SH/IRK

1 +

1+

S nRan
3

(8.288)
(8.289)

Rn
S/cnRK

1+-

1 + SanRan

(8.273) (8.274) .

U , U , U ,I
, I ,
k,
\W /U \
f.
,
(. 8.44) L,
' L 2 ' Ran, Rl' Ri' ^ aun> Iancp, Rn * /
k \U !U \.
,


"/tc nSea CMOKC
,

f , f f .

,

,

. 8.46,

/ , (0,6 - \)1 ,
8.46.
,

Un

U

, , /? ~' R
a0

f0

c0

c0

em

cm

!n

!n

l0

lQ

Hr

Sc

0:

CQK

R , r ,
2

35-237

545

(3-15)

315

(8.290)

1 + ftj

8.44

e c p

(8.291)

"'

4 6

r i .

( . 8.356)

cm

an

(8.292)
(8-293)

= 0,

s i n u>t,

neux rMaKC

neblx c

^,

( - - )
, r i

-,

+ ^' ,

&1 ,

0-" .

10 +

/",

+
1

8.45

,
, &i' ' . 8.41

R,

/oi = ( 0 , 8 - l , 5 ) /
1

^lmn ~ Ucmn ~^~Pcm

0 1

546

'"

"

an

'

anMm

f ( )

8.285). ,

(.
0

'

(0,1

-0,2)/

-,

""! -

8.46.

8.43,


, , r

, ,
[- (8.278)]
,
L

__ Rn ?

294)

U0
L

510%.
L ,
.
,
,
+^/,
. .
1

_ 2Ucm_

Lm

<a L

<

I /

^'a0n>

,
(L) >

' +

blaon)

(8.295)
,

, ^

L
.
I , , l ,

Lm

uQll

(8.296)

(L) >^f3-.
<"'
B

L
, ,
,

[95]. ,

= l / l +

( ^

L
L>

J ^ - - ,

(8.297)

1,21.6 (1,64 36)


,
U
U

L .
(8.297) ,
. R,
, ,
, 35*
547

cm


Ucm

Ucm

<\ ,
. 4.17,
2U,

(8.298)



,
:
1

1 + l b .
iu>L

~2R,

1 + fti

1 +

,
^=101g[l

101g

1 +

I HC

arcig - f arctg

(8.299)

^- ir(i +l 4>
2

f =
6

(8.300)

2itl


,
^0 ~

()

+ C + C + (C ) +C ,
(8.301)
C , .

< (7.60)
(7.61),
f =
.
(8.302)
L

KH

tx

JI

1 +


.
8.7.
,
, 8.5: U = 475, U =
cm

) (8.302) Ri
- .

548

cQ

= 250 ; i
= 250 , l
= 52 , 1 48 , U = 5000 , / =i
= 50 . ,
3 % | !11
\ < 5%.
( ojHofl ) U = 475
, 7501000
250 ,
. -50
-71 , , [ -13, -807, -29
( ), .
-50
( ), 00 S = S = 10/$
( = 0). , ,
1500 ,
(8.284)
c

ao

cm

1 1 +S r
= ~7.
^

s 2-\-S r
n

'

= 0,094 .
10(2+10-1,5)

.1,5

3 475

3%, ,
-50 .

/
= ( 0 , 6 - 1 ) / , = 0,6-52 = 30

u i ,
U
= 700 , U = 250 , U = 45 , ,
1/ 30 , 1
= 6 S ~ 0,1 /. ,
. 8.45, /?
an

oon

an

a0

con

30

3n

0 2

= (0,8 1,5) 1

= 1-50 = 50 .

. 8.45 ,
r

Uc0~

^>2 "f"

'


U o+

2 '

R =

250 + 0,75 (30 + 6)

= 5 , 5 .

50

02

^ Rl U + >)>

Ucon
~~2
R ,
U , :
t

con

Ucon

'

] =

2/ + >

0 7

36

= 0,14 .

2 36 + 50


, U ,

c0

549


" +

30

~^>

= 1,5

L2

. = 250 + 0,75-6 = 250 = 4,5 .


, 0
(. 8.45), R 0 , 5 = 0,75 .
Jn

( 2

R, r

, R , R ,

3n

3e

0,5 , R ,
R , R
', ",
Fancp* ia *

/- //. |, (8.2J2), (8.263), (8.281), (8.285)
(8.287) (8.292) (8.24).
S ,
S = 4 /
( i = 50 ), 1 =
= 1,2, S
= 5 /
Kl

k2

Kn

Kn

2R Rr
i

L
Km = ~ ~ +
2
'
r

2-5,5-0,5

R + R
2

ce

^ '

0,9 +
+ 11
0.9
T
V
51

i +
+ R
Rv
Ki
^

S
R,,

2R,R
1,5
2 0,14-5,5
. , , , n ^ + . ?
= 1 ,
R + R + Rc
2 '
6,14

'

- 0,14 + 5 , 5 + 0 , 5

1 + -

1,9
= 75,65
~ ^ : = 0,336,

1 + 0,1-0,75

kin
L
a

'

_ i ^ L ;

^_

/ " = lc

j _|_

u n

v i

1+

f 1 + 1 0 1,5)250

'

, , . .

2 +10-1,5

^00 -WZ,

'

n'L

S R,
K

2+Sr

2+

ti

Sr
n

=
c e

"

(1__-.\ *.
52

\5.65

2 + 10 1,5'

S R
9n

an

/ , = /.+

=
1 +

30 + ^

= 76 ,

SgR

3n

lan = / + ^aon + = 30 + 0 + 235 = 265 ,


= ' + Maon

= 30 + 0 15 = 15 .

, . 8.47,
tan = 265 ' = 7 ;
1
0,01-250 = 2,5 ,
, 4,5 ,
.

550

= 0,336 ,
Rneuxlcco

0,336-52

: 0,07

250

U ,

5%.

2R

R* i+ #2= ~~~ +

(/?, + fl ,)

*i +

2 +

Rce

r , R R
, . 8.446.
L

lt

cs

tan,

S00
400
300

,200

ffrfWOt

. 8.47.
8.7

(. 8.45).
:
1 = 21

= 2-78,6 = 157 .

Eon = Vaon + = 700 -

250 = 450 .

^ :
/ = 2 /
= |V

+ / 2 = 2 3 6 -4- 50 = 122 ,
+ U | = 45 + 250 = 295 .

im

c0

, ,
.
U , = 45 7 = 38 ,

rn

t / = 33 + 475 = 513 .
l m


(8.265) (8.298), = 1,25 (2 ),

"

L >

2/
< U(on

L >

2-475

314 (30 + 0).


2-475

- 3

100,
= 84 .

48-10-

.314|/125^
551

L = 100 , ,

L
,

100

,067
1500
.
, Rin
1
, (8.299) (8.302),
1 + Fn
S
i
, S 2 /;
400
=

~2r

ac

6,28-100 210-

'

'

,
=
W = 800-10 .
2r.C
6,28-400-10~
n

}
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1500
=

12

8.4.

8.4.1.


, ,
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(. . 6.4.1),

.

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(,
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8.4.2.

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1 4.

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W-662 W - 6 6 3 ) .
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8.5.1.


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100500 ,

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()
.
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(),
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560

(8.303)

= *
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. 8.5.3.
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c

0,667

(8.34)


().
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/ 1 ,
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36237

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+ lJi .
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(8.305)
561


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= lH

+ lB .

(8.306)


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(0 =

SI n

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, ,
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s


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= wB q , 10-. (8.307)
m


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. 8.58.
()

a)

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. (8.308) ,

'

V' - (8.307),

L = fwq \0~
c

wq \0
c

- (8.306),
1__ _

562

__}___

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(8.308)


0,4 *a>V10~

MIL
B

I,

B H ,
,
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m

L =

0,4

TTfj.

- 8

(8.309)

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0 , 4 ^ 4 . 1 0 -

wq

(8.311)


-
aw = ^
u

.(8.312)

3000

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%%/

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. 8.60.
,
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^ 0, = const. Q

36*

563


(aw = 0)
. .

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0

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0

+ /.
0

(8.314)


-
0

0 , 4

=0,4< .

(8.315)


,
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3

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, . "8.60. ( aw



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.

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0

const l .
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2

(8.317)
1 +

,
-. 564

1 - f - - I , (8.309) ,
[ (8.310),
. \>- = f (aw )
. 8.61.
, 1 ,
),
[89].
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l =
c

+
2

\\

800

600

2 +

(8.318)

*-

--

10

20

30

SO

tO

. 8.61. \x

-3, 4
45
z

(. 8.56)

2h

(8.319)


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(8.320)

2h + 2b~^-

) , ,
; - ,

I q,

- .

q
c

, .
565

8.5.2.

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666


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(. 3.86 8.37) - . 8.63,

)
. 8.63.

.


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,
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,
[95].


(. 8.66).
567

. 8.64.

. 8.65.


()

(. 8.65).

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/=4
,
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,


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()
, ()

.

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. 8.62, 8.63, 8.65, 8.66 h b ,
h , ,
5 (
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/ (), . 8.68.


H

1 ^2({+ )]+2,9
0

(8.321)

i
43

0-

-0

6)

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1 ~2(
0

+ )+
2

1,5 ;

(8.322)


/ ~ * (1.064 + 0,35 ).

(8.323)

, . .
,

, . 8.5.3.
,
(
).

Ln

(8.324)

569

-
f

1(

(*"

, 1 ()
= 0,01 W 1 (CM).
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- /,

o6m

1,75-

- 4

(8.325)

( \

. (8.310) (8.325),
(8.324)
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q-i

1.75-10"

l l

0,4[^(7 10~

1,75
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,
5

=7,18 10~ ^ (w + , + .
(8.326)
. . . (
).
wfli -f- w q + . . . , ,
100 k bk, 6 , a k
; (8.303) ^ ,

iqi

^<7,18-10- ^>^^ .

(8.327)


(8.304)
^
570

< 4,79 1 0

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(8.328)

(8.324), (8.327) (8.328) ,



()
,

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()
> ,

= 7,18-

- 3

(8.329)

4,79- - J i M ^ L .

(8.330)

txk

bh

< f^

(8.327) (8.328),

*

>

V =

- = + +

(8-331)


, . 8.5.4.

,

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.

(. 8.62 . 8.63 )


I (

0,4*fy^'o r

/
(

, +
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2

(8.332)

L
, .
k
0,8-^-0,9; k = 0,7
0,8.


s

0,4: V(0,9-) ~
1 0
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(. 8.636
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571

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+ 2
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k


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100 , 80,
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2

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em

1
4

3
5

10

30
7

100
8

300
9

1000
10

3000
11

3000
12

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0,5 .
k


U.
U <300 k
0,140,25 (

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3 k = 0,060,15, U < 10

k 0,08.
,
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, v 80 0,10,15
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a0

a0

a0

a0

574

8.5.4.
.
(8.331),
,
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d (. 8.57).

, ,
. . [89], . 8.3.

8.3

1.5#i 0,65

(. 8.54)

= 0,421 d
= 0,707d 0,9
= 0,907d
(. 8.57)
t / 4 = 0,735 d
2

0,651/! 1.8t/i

1 l . l t f i

(. 8.56)

1 )

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5,67(/i 6,88ft

%
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2,752/! 10,8ft 6,7ft

2,25

8,88

4,3

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1 , ; 1
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.

()

(2<200 -500 ).
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- ,
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: \, #2=2 \,

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3<

) 1 / (8.318J8.323).

575


(8.329) (8.331),

2

= ^f cu

aA

'

(8.336)

5 ,
F

=7,18-

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(8.337)

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^>

(8.331) .
F ^,. > F
,
.

,
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2^f,
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2.
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,
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0

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^2

2m

^2 +

^Lm

, R = R /n

2

r = / ,
2

1+ ^ -

E" Lm =
Lm

576

^V2P R .
2

(8.338)

,
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(8.338), , (8.56) (8.70)
(8.72), R , \ = ,1
2

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-
(8.307), 2 -f , ,
:
hm

^ ^

= [1 - ( 1 -

) \ /

(8.339)

,
const -w . ,

. = +

= 1,75 - /, (t)

22

l9oi

(
+
\ ^( )
2

n q (MM )
2

100%,

( ) = ,

q =

q q
, ,
01

02

= 1,75-0

= 1,75 - 1 0 - / ? (' + ) . (8.340

<7
01

02

q i + q<>2 = kobh.

(8.341)

,
(8.71) (8.73), ,

' 1

. .

"4l

1-

<?02

(8.342)

(8.341) (8.342) ,

j_
q

01

1 , 1
oi
02
37237

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1
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'

1
a(la)q<>

02

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1
a{\a)k bh
a

577

(8.340),
1,75-10~ LxiZ
6

(8.343)

a{la)kbh

(8.304) (8.343)
- (8.339) :

29,8-10i[l- (l-T )]/Pgr

f l

i r

\ V a.{\.a)\ {\ 4 ) k bh
,

,
.

iT

29,8 [1 (\ r. )]VP~t
3

fxB k
m

^~

(8.345)

(1 ) (1 , )k
1

, 5, ,

G
> G*)
(8.346)

K0Hcmp

I/

'

,
. 8.32 <nL = 0 (8.216) (8.218),
, :
sn

42, (0,707 + ) )

1 /

1 \

(8-347)

ri (\~r )k b
T

[T

4 2 , 1 - (0,707 + )
1

/
fu^m^c

] (1 r )k

IT

(8-348)


(8.346).
, 5, -
, ,
,
- (8.349), (8.350) (8.351),
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,
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578

2,32-

10

11 a (I v ) ] 2 p

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fl

ir

(8.350)

Jlbl^k,

17

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; (8.350)
, (8.351) .

.
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(8.338)
(8.336) (8.324) >).
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,
,
2

1,75-~ 1 ()

q { )

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. .
k

= "^/"

b h

L
R

(8.352)

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(8.352) (8.311), ,
3

21,05- 1 0

U .
,
5
(8.346),
m

<?..=

2 1

- -

1 0 3

5
, (8.355)
]

) ,

37*

L/r

579

(8.355), (8.353)
, . 8.3

1,16-10 U
2

*)

(8.355)

k k~r

()
( > 100 500 ).

. , ,
.
, f , , - , k , k
. , . 8.3,
(8.347) & t/it/ = 0,667 k d ,

( ) :
2

(8.356)
. 8.3.
d
:
(8.357)
(8.353) . 8.3.
(),

.
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,
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(. . 8.45) r (8.353) (8.354)
,
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) . - ( 8.355)L

580

, (8.309) (8.317),
:
2

0Ar.p. w q
z

- 8

i^i-i^

..

(8.358)

'

(),
, ,
|* , . 8.61,
I (8.312)

aw = - - ,
Q

'

.

(8.358) /,
1^ =

0 , 4 ^ ( ^ )

1 (

(8.312)
2

LJ = 0,4| q l ( )
0

- 8

(8.359)

,
, (8.70),
(8.71) (8.73) ,

= + = (1 , ),
= ,
= .
0

, (8.324)
,
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L
2

lt

Lx

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(8.329)

K0Hcmp

718-10~

(8.360)

Ml-)

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h '

>

M l - )

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581

(8.359) :
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(8.362)
(8.363)

= 0,323-10~ " < * ) < / ?


i

(8.362) (8.363), ,

(8.364)

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C = 3.10 ft ftb(l-fl)ri/g
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.
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1,

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to

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to*

/* D

. 8.69. D 4

(8.364) (8.365) (8.363),


{ a W o ) i

-=

(8.366)

D =

0,323-10~ k (la)
n

.
582

(8.367)

\i aw , aw
(aw ) /u. = D. aw = f (D)
.
8.69 8.70.
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,
k k
5, z

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1,3 3 S7
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lfiZ3

57
1,5 Z 3 5 7 IJZ3S7
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tf>35
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45
0

= 1,5 \ =
:
2

= -10 *(1 ) 1*

*)

(8.368)

L = L, r r
t

= 0.
583

cud,

\ ,
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(8.318) (8.321) . 8.4.
2

8.4

d,

3,53
3,00
2,64

= 1.5 )
\ = 2

0,252
0,323
0,376


. 8.69 . 8.70 aw =f(D)
(8.364). ,
5, ,
( 1\ = \$)
-
(8.364).
,
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\ 5.


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(8.344) (8.345)
.
0

. 8.71.

,
( 8.71),
(8.312) (8.316)
b (MM) = k w I {a),
z

(8.370)

k , z

584

) ().

. , 4 -3 k 9-\0
,
XBU k = 7,5- , , 45 = 1 0 ~ ;

(8.374).
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- 4

8.5.5.
.
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. (8.310) (8.307),
,
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T7rnr>
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(8

372>

jx =
, (8.338),

-VPtRf

(8.373)


W\.
(8.371) (8.372)

.
, , w (8.312)
x

*.

(8.374)


w = nw
(8.375)
2


.
,
(8.325),

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og

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l- M*)rf .

8.376)

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585

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( ) , (d>0,8
1,5 )

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, -1, -2, -1
. ) .
: ,
0 0,27/0,31,
( # ^ 3 = 0,31 ).

[89].
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, w
(8.371) (8.374).
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x

0,4( 1^ 10

- 8

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8.5.6.
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)
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586

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8.5


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0,25

1,5-2,5

1,5-2

0,3-0,5

0,5

2,53,5

22,5

0,5-0,8

5,5-6

2,5-3

1,0-1,5

5-6

3-4

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6-8

4-5

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79

810

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18-25

10-12

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(8.372),
k ,
.' .
,
,
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.
Q,
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0

587

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= ^M(do6 -usf
_
(8.377)

k
. 8.6 [89].
w

O6M

8,6

U3

0,05

0,25

0,65

0,6

0,5

0,1

0,8

0,7

0,7

0,6

0,2

0,85

0,25

0,75

0,7

0,5

0,9

0,8

0,8

0,75


(8.378)

h ( . 8.62).
,
(d>0,150,3 )
, :
H

d 6M-u3

( -379)

(8.380)

>.

, ,
:

= (1,2
1,4) [ .
+ ( - 1)].
(8.381)


0,020,2
,
.
, ,
:

, =

+ +> + .

(8.382)



. ,
8090% .

588

.
h
(. 8.626 8.66). ,
- (8. 377),

( -383)

,
+ + \ + 23 < h,

(8.384)

m %.

.

, ,
,
, .
, . . ,
(. 8.65),
.
s

= - p f -

ln

(8.385)

h d
, w
.

(. 8.5) h h .

lu3

"1
, . .
d = ^.
25^1

(8.386)


, (8.384),
^

=^

+ { -\).

(8.387)


(8.379) (8.381), ,
w ,
1,21,4
.
, ,
. 8.65, :
2

589

= 0,05 d + 5 - f + 3 +
2

+ ^ )

(8.388)

,
< (0,35-^0,45)6.

(8.389)

8.5.7.
8.8.
61, ,
(. 8.2)
(. 8.3) : U = 250 , ^ . = 4,41 , 1 =
= 42 = / , v = 0,8, / = 50 , = 0,025, = 0,3, = 300 , =
= 0,44 , L = 13,7 ,
L 0,2 .

a0

L^l = 1 3 . 7 - 4 2 -

- 6

= 0.0242 -

. 8.5.3 , L l\ < 0,01 0,03 -



-3,
(Wo > 0,01 0,03 - ) .
Lj/g 0,03 - ,
. / = 50 < 150 , 0,5 .

= _ = 0,8-4,41 = 3,53
x

10 , 6 ,
.
k 0,93.
U o <; 300
0,14 0,25.
,
; 3,53
U = 250 < 300 . ,
, & =0,25.
, (8.368) (8.369) . 8.4,
D 1,5 ( = 3, d = 0,323)

a0

=-10
D=

d-10

- 3

(1 a) V i ' o = 3-10 (1 0,3) 0,25-300.0,042 = 280,


2

(1 a) / t V i C
0,323-10~ (1 0,3) 0,93-0,25-300-280
-=
= 90.
Z-!
13,7
5

. 8.69, , aw = / (D) = 12,5.


, (8.364),
0

, =

()

280

12,5

= 1 , 8 .

=\&

19 ( 5), .
: 28 , = 12 , h = 33,5 ,
= 12 , 1 = 10,73 / = 12,8 .
1

) 0,05 d
.
590

- (8.374), (8.375) (8.376):


aw4
- =
/

12,5-10,73
77.
= 3200,
0,042

w nWx = 0,025 3200 = 80,


}

Il2340f^j7

d, = 1 /

, /

2 j 3 _ 1 0 ^ -12,8-3200

2,23.10- ^

300
/ 2 , 2 3 - 1 0 - -12,8-80

0,44

6 0 0,18/0,2
0 0,72/0,78.
. 8.5,
1,5 0,25
, h = 30 (. 8.62).
1,5 0,3 ,
= 1,8 . U < 300
0,3 = .
, , . 8.5 ,
k = 0,75

3200-0,2
,
H

o0

0,75


'
Qi
168
, = = = 5,7 .
h
30
H

= -~ = ~
d

iU3

0,78

= 38.

.
= 0,1
, = (1,2+1,4) \
+ ( 1)| = 1,2|3-0,78 + 0,1 (3 1)) 3 .
,
2

= * + ^ 1 + + = 1,8 + 5,7 + 0,3 + 3 = 10,8


90% b = 12 , ,
, , k
.
- (8.332)
:

(M.feXMO-

1,256 - 0 . 8-3200 -15,2-10~

('
L,
= Z-i

0,57 + 0,31 \
0 3

0,172
+

13,7

)=>

= 0,0 26.

, a L
0,2 , .
S

591

8.9.
, L L ,
, 8,5
8,6, : U, = 5000 , Rid-= 1900 , r d = 1875 ,
_ = 5000 , / = 50 , / = 10 000 , R = 12 , = 0,96, = a>/a>i =
0,0408, ! = 88 , = 0,207 , R
= 945 <, / = 17,3 , L = 35 ,
L
= 0,018 , = 0,002 ' = 4%. ,
= = 0 , 9 6 - 5 0 0 0 = 4800 , 3 , = 1 2 000 .
x

sn

3Ken

sn

,
, ;
4 (, = 400) 0,5 (/ =
= 50 < 150 ) , k = 0,92.
k 0,1 -
(8.356)

/
d =

-V

8 , 7 - (0,707 - f r , )
r

/
9

8,7-10 (0,707 - f 0,96) 4800

= 10 .
0,96(1 0,96) 50 -12 000 -0,92 -0,1
5

, . 8.3,
: = 42 , 71 , = 91 , / = 73,5 , = 90 ,
= 2 2 5 , 1 = 88,8, / = 43 , q = 0,667 k , < = 0,667-0,92- = 61,3 .
- (8.372) (8.375)
(8.373):

+
1

0,0408

10

0,2074

5960-10

4,Uf B q
H

/
V

12

4,44-50-12000-61,3

3640,

> = , = 0,0408-3540 = 148.


2


0^ 1 L, =
1
;

1,256-400-3640 -61,3-10
:
88,8

_8

= 46

, L = 35 ,
, 0,5 (4 = 1,06)
/ = 50 . f 13,1
0,32
( 17,3 0,5 ), . . .
, ,
, , - (8.376),
: d = 0,63 d = 2,62 . 6
0 0,64/0,86 0 2,63/2,96. ,
(. 8.65),
0 2,44/2,54'), 74 ! 188 ,
x

HC

') 2,44/2,54, ,
, , . . 74 ,
. ,
, 35 , ,
1 = 43 .
0

592

h = 191 ,
. 8.5 (. .8.5.6), s = 10, h
= 35 , = 41, = 5, , = 9,4 ( = 0,1).
, , f> =
= = 7 = 4 . (8.388),
, 35 , 0,4 b = 0,4-90 = 36 .
, .
, - (8.335)
5 = 0,7 , 8 = 1,87 , = 0,94 , = 0,25 (. 8.65),
L = 0,057 ( = 0,005), ,
,
2,8 12,6%, 0,5 4%. L

, 5
8 = 0,7 , L = 0,035 ( = 0,003), y $g=
= 1,3 & = 7,7%.
-100 , r d/Rid
( 8,5 3750:3900 = 0,96)
( ).
H

]n

K]

sn

sn

sn

38237


9.1.

9.1.1.

7.1 . 7.4.3 [- (7.192)
(7.194) (7.206) (7.208)].
, . .
. ,
(. 2.2),
/, k(t),
, t^s. )
s , e, T
(. 2.10) , , ,-(. 2.11).


t s
.

,
,
, . . 0-*-/ ( )
/
( ), f ,
( )

) .

,
, . 7.2.
/=0 1

cn

cn

*) ,
, = 0.
) /
. /
, . . /
.
2

594

,
,
\
, R ,
. , ,
,
R ,
.
, \ -Cj
-
, ,
. ,
\
,
(. 7.8).

.
,

,
.
,
( 7.10). ,

,
.

9.1.2.
.
. ,
(2.35), k (t)
U2,(t) u (t)

U\ (t) = (t) = 1 (/},
U i(p) (5.39)
1/,

c2

= =

(9.1)

()

LV ()
,
(5.46), (5.49)
C2

()=[(1<)}^ .

.
, ()
, . 7.86.
38*

595

,
U (p) = SU (p)Z(p),
1

,
c2

cl

Z(P)

K(p) =

"

W
0,9
0.8

0.2
0,1

1
1

0.6

^f{=SZ(p)
U ()

f \'-

>

()

S Ri

1
1

*/\/

1
1

1
1

, (7.23),

. 1

\ 2 3
\.

1
\ 7 . T

J_ + _L

Ri

_L

Ra

Rc

. 91.

\ = CR ,
0

(9.2)

lac

x, ,
()

SRiac

(9.3)

(9.1),
()

SRL

N () =0
1
=

(9.4)

N(p)

i)

= 0


- (5.46), (9.4) SR

[- (7,24)],
iaC

*(0 = [ .(0] (- =

1'-
1
0+

+'

1
-

,
:
k(t) ,
N

596

= K \\-e
0

(9.5)

,
, . 9.1 , N=\.

. (),
V=1 [- (9.3)],
(SRiacf

(9.6)

1
+

,
2

()

(SRiar)

(9.7)

N () = 0 ,
: p = 0 =
Y

= 2. (5.46)

/ = (SR )>,
(9.8)
(9.7) (5.46)
1
1- '
k(t) =
(2-1)!
1 \

loe

0 1

. .
t
N=2

1 + ( 1 +

^0

(9.9)

. ,
()

:
3

() =

(SR r)

(9.10)

ia

1
+
3

(SRiar)

(9.11)

K = (SR )\
(9.12)
.V () = 0: = 0, \
0

iac

. = 3, :

597


1 +

1 /

2!

t \^

(9.13)

' .
, N, :
*() =

1] ln\
UMP) -

(SRiac)

(9.15)

(9.16)

(SR ) .
iac

N,

, =

Pi = 0, .

(9.)

\N

(IV-1)!

(t) =KA\N

1
(N -

(9.17)
1)1

x.


N . 9.1, ,
t (. 2.10)
. 4 % N> 2

y

/, = 2,5x,VTV,

(9.18)

(9.19)

/V = 1
= 2.2 .

(9.2), (9.18) (9.19) ,



R ,
. , (7.33), (9.2)
. (9.19) ,


lnc

feet ' _ ^

2 CqRiac

598

2,2

CR ,
0

lac

fj

= 0,35.

(9.20)

,
N=1,
, f
,
/V- 0,707 , =
(SR ) .
R

-
t , S

iac

iac

(9.21)
ty

2,2

2,2 CQ

2,2/?/


S/C . ,
, , 61, 65,
69, 69, 65 . (. . 7.1).

,
(7.32)
0

-f

-f .


t , , R
,
R .
l/R <^\/R
\jR \jR .
,
R = R,
(9.22)
\ = CR,
(9.23)
K =(SR f:
(9.24)
y

iac

iac

= const
JV = 1 ,
. , ^-
(9.18), (9.23) (9.24)

t = 2,5 YN = 2,5 C R VN = 2,5 ^ - V VN.


y

(9.25)

(9.25) , ~~> 2 N = 1
N = 2 ,

(9.18) (9.19) >

~ 2,3.

t = , , const >
v

599

> 2,3,
N = N
> 1,

0

cU

2,5

dN

,
N

0 n m

= 21

2/

= 0,23

(9-26)

(9.26) (9.25), ,
U

= 2

^(9.27)

, N = N
(7.208)

- ^ = -

= { )

(9.28)

,
= const ,
1,65.
, 65,
S = 9 /, = 10 , = 2,5 , = 6 ,
= 18,5 , = 100
(9.19), (9.20) (9.24) :

2,20^
S

J ^ - '
9-10~

<

f -5^-<"*

/ < = = = 11 .
S

,
^ = 0,23 ^ = 0,23-40 ^ 9 ,

, (9.27),

ty

MUH

= 2 - ^ / * = 2

1 8

5
9

1 0

^ '

4 0 = 0,026- l O " ,

f 13,5 .
:
ec

= SR

=
*!?
S

600

L67 _
9

= 1,67,
0



, . 9.2.1 9.2.2.
9,1.3.
. k (7)

, . 7.106,
,

ia

= R Rj(R
i

+ ~

+ Rc

+ R )a

,
(7.38),
Ucl(P)

C Rco
c

{) = ^ - ,
+

( *

^)

(9.29>

.
R <^ R R <^ R

% = CR.
(9.30)
a

(9.1)
U (p) = ^
'
iP
ci

, 1
+

N{p)

(9.31)

- (5.46), SR , ,
- N () = 0
iac

pi =

1
k(t)

N=i

= K e~~*.
0

(9.32)
601'

N = 1
. 9.2.
. N = 2
:
(9.33)

{)

p-f
P (SRlac)*
1N
P+

pKo

(9.34)

1 >

P+

(SRiacf- N () = 0

;
:

0.8

* W - 2 =

0.S

dt

1_

' J

(_

1 -

(9.35)
. ^ -

.
0,2 0,4 0.6 0.8

1,0

k {t) _ = 1 2 - f

. 9.2.

VI

- .

(9.36)

/ . /
:

(N-\)

Nl

pt

dt

,
Nl

Ht) = Ko
=

(Ml)

(9.37)
( N l M)\

(SR fla


(. 9.2) ,
. k(t)/Ko 1 0,7
, 602

(9.37)

(9.38)

CR
C

= l - i - + -L('J2! V
, t/x ,
, 1 + (N 1)
(~~^ + . . ., . )

(9.38) ,

(. 2.106)

(9.39)
, N = 4, T = 1500
:
t

NT

R.

: R=\

4-1500-
0,05

=^

0,\2.

5 %

0,12 .

>

/i-

+,


'
[0]

- ,

S)
+7.


f = 1/ (. 9.3). i
u (t) . 9.3.
t -
, t > 0
, . .
.
, u (t)
, . . ,
(

cl

c2

!) N=3, (9.36), k(t)

1 2

t
3
603

Q = Q . 9.36 u (t).
(9.32)

l t

c2

t__

" (9 = (0)

0<<7>

(9.40>

,- u (t)
> - c2

(0 = [/ (/) - ]

u (t)/Ko

cS

T < < ,
t

(9.41 >

, .
.
i_

(,) = (0)

"

(9.42)

() = [( )-1]

"

- ,

(0) =

_ ^ - =

V"

"

(9.43>

(0) /(7"^) (9.40)


(9.41) :

.^}!
0 <

",

(9.44>

< T

1-

'

y(t)=~

"

(9-45)

1-

,

(0)-( )=(0)[\-

(0).
604

(9.46)

u (t)=\(t):
cl

)-(

(9.47)

(0)

/-
, (9.44)
* 1 + -f+. . . .
(9.46) (9.47) :

(0) =

1--7-1(1-^)
4

( ) = ( 0 ) ( 1 - , ) =
(

= (0)-(7 )=(0) ,
<

(9.48)

(9.47)

yW-y(T,)

(0)

N T

CR'

/; = 2, . .
- (,
), :
1

(0)=

,
2

l ^

(9.50)

(9.51)

= ^ -

(9-52)

, N = 4, = 20 ,-= 1,5 ,
, = 0,1

NT

4-1,5-j.

3
n

- 0,06 .

0,1

') (0)
, (0) = 1.
605

(. 9.36):

(0)=

= 7-77^ = '
_ _

9 7 5

'

10.05

(,) = (0) (1 ) = 0,975 0,9 = 0,877,


= (0)
= 0-975 0,1 = 0,0975.
(. 9.36)

= (,) 1 = 0,877 1 = - 0,123.


0

9.1.4.


(. 6.5.3)
, C R
CJR (. 6.48)

(. 6.49). ,
.'
C R ,
(. 9.2).
,


CR
CR


.

(6.240)
= 1 +S Z + S,Z ,
h

, (6.238),
Z = Z = 0 (
)
/.

, ,
, . .
K

Ia

U
Ua

,
(
C R \ :
C

() =

=
()

606

^
l + S Z (p)
K

(9.53>
+

S Z (p)
3

, (6.212) (6.236),
UP)

Ra
l+pC R
3

'

(9.53),

/(1 + 1 * ) ( 1 + )

Kip) =
2

-\

-,

(9.54)

(9.55)
(9.56)

' $ RK> ~ S</Ra>


= CR,
=
CR

()
U (), (9.54)
a

()

{1 + * ){1+)
0

_()

= '^1,

(9.57)

**(.)()

(P)

(1 +

1+

(9.58)
.
N () = 0 Pi(pi = 0),
(5.46)
2

4( )^'

M( )eP <,

L ( ) (0 )
( )
(0) = 1, 4 ( ) = (1 + ) (1 +
2

Ps

]. - 59)

( )
),
( )
2

= (1 + ) ( 1 + ^ ) .


, (6.241) (9.55)

1+

(9.60)

(9.60) (9.59), ,
)=

, .) (1 + * ) - , (1 + ) (1 + *)
2

(9.61)
607

(9.61) , t = 0 ,
, 1 +, + = ,
{

k(0) = K .
0

t , < 0 < 0,
,
2

() = _$>_,

. 9.4.
(9.61),
, ,
.



, 1020%,

2 3

pJ

1 +'p t, e
2

. 9.4.
,

, C,R

1 + p t.
3

(9.62)


, (9.61)

k(t) = 1

'-t

(9.63)

(9.38) N = 1.
, , R .
T
K

^ = 7 ^ -

(9-64)

C R
a

* = ?Y

(9-65)


,
, . 7.1 (
),

,=^(C Rc
c


08

+ !+!*)

(9-66)

N ,

,
NT

[-L-

+ JL+S

CR
C

).

(9.67)

= ! +

C Rc

= -^s.

(9.68)

NT i

; ,
,
-
. , N = 4, ,- =
= 1,5 , = 5%, R = 1 , S = 7,4 /, S = 0,07 /
( 61) (9.68)

1
, 5 _ , _S,
s
0.05
^ 5
JL

cn

NTi

4-1,5-10

25

3 '

=
:
= ^

/,

= 0,36

= 0,36-7,4. ~ = 266-10" = 2660 ,


= 0,36-0,07-

- 3

= 25,2 -10~ =

2,2.

2000
30 /<#, ^ 0,5 .
= 3000 , = 30 0,3 .
,

.


= l/C R
,

- =
l

l/C R

+ SJC

(9.69)

SJC

(9.67), (9.49).

9.2.

7.4 ,
, /,-
f ; s

39237

609

f, , = 0,707 /, (9.20), t =
= 0,35//,. ,


t

,
, ,
. ,




,, , ,.
,
,
,
, , ,
.
y

9.2.1.

.
R L (. 7.37)
, ,
,

(. 7 38). , R ^R

R <^R ,
(7.175),
u

()

, -

1 + pC R

+ p-LC

(9.70)

(7.176), (7.177), (9.23):

= SR ,
a

= c<>R

(9.70) ,

UM

= m

(9.71)

N () = 0 : = 0

.^

I-

^ ~
2k

610

1+Kl-4

(9.72)

(5.46) , . .
,
(0)

k(t) =

(2 )

( )

^ -

2 3

( ) " '

(0) = 1, ( , ) = 1 +

( ) '
2

(0-p )(0-p )
s

><.

+ "

k(t) =

(9.73)
Ps

(9.74)

2 3

. X

24

7k

2 k

ft(0=/C |l
e

,
,
sh -2*

l 2k
J/1 4*

, /14fc
i

A -fen 2*

\e

i
24

75)

/<0,25,
,
,

V= Vk < 0,5.

Q =

k 0,25 (Q = 0,5) .
(9.75) ;

= hm(ch )

=1,

,,'-0

& = 0,25
* ( 0 = / [ 1 - ( 1 + ) -*]-

(9.76)

' , k > 0.25 (Q > 0,5)


. , &>0,25
\ 1 4&
l u-k^iV^k
39*

1,
641

sh iz

. .

= sin z ch l = cos ,
f

126
/4k

. /4*1
.
4k 1
,
sin
,
x + cos
x)e
2k
2k
r

. ..
2k

. (9.77)

k (t)/K =
= f ^ j = f(x)

.
9.5. k 0

(L 0), . .
.
. 9.5 ,


, k > 0,25
.

dk(t)ldt, ,
0

mi
.

0
k=0,5

It--Off

0.8,
0.6

0.1

0,1

PHC.

9.5.

2k
yw=r

arctgjAife l)-

(9.78)

(9.77) ,

arc tg ift- 1
ik

k(t ) = K {l+yke
M

,
(. 2.10)

V-

(9.79)

arc tg 4k1 it

=Yk

(9.80)

.
,
, . 9.1.
612

9.1

ty

ty

ty

ty

Q>

Ra

2,20

0,5

1,12

6,7

0,25

1,51

0,6

1 ,04

11,3

0,35

1,31

1,0

0,8

0,96

22,0

0,414

1,21

3,1

1,0

0,90

30,5

13%,
k = 0,35-^0,414, K /t
(k=0) 1,68- 1,82 .
N- /..
k(t) . ,
N = 2 k > 0,25
:
0

6+1

(k \ ) x \

-f- V

- f -

4k 1

COS-

Vk~^l

) sin Lz2k
X

2k

ix
(9.81)

/ = (SR y
a

x =r
C Ra
0

,
[55, 81].
N=1 &~0,35
1 % ,
. . (. . 2.2.2).

N-
= 0,35,
(
1%). k
. , & = 0,414 (

) ,
3,1% N=\, 7% N=4 12%
N = #.
613-

, ,
jV-
, (9.18),
t

= t

y l

VN,

t i .
k = 0,35
y

(9.82)
,

i - 1,31 , = 1,31 C R VN.


y

(9.83)

(SR f,
a

N,
S
0

= 1,31

(9.84)

CYKi;VT.

,
/ = (SR )
= const,
(9.26)
N

onm

Q,23K .
0d6

(9.26) (9.84), ,
ty . =

(9.85)

(9.27), ,

. (9-85)
, . ,
65 = 7,5
/ =100 = 20< N ~9
= 0,35

'04

^ir^

onm

^ 4 0 = 0,014-

-6

= 0,014

( 0,026 ).

TV

SR

= VK

= V

100 = 1,67,

. . ~ = 1,65 [- (9.28)].
= 1,67

614:

K
S

bW~o,18
9

, ,
(7.177),
_12

-6

L = kC Rl = 0,35-20-10 = 180 = 0,28-10 .


f =f ,

/,= 0,707 * , ,
- (7.180) (9.83),

t

/= f

ec

2.V

ec

( = ]/1,414 = J, , k = 0,35

)j =vm

(9-86)
y
N < 3 , ,
< (')
0,35. N ? (N)
0,37.
(N = 9, k = 0,35, t =
= 0,014 )
y

0.-37

f, =

0,37

= 26,4 .
0,014

9.2.2.
, . 7.4.4
,
//,, ,
/ t .
. ,
k k
, 10%,
.
( , k)
,
, Ko/t

, //

. , ,
. 7.40,
(ia))
[. - (7.221) (7.222)],
,

' .

[18, 37, 38, 55]


, . . [18],
t ,
.
y

615


,
,
, ,
.


, =0.
() ,
k, k
(. . 7.4.4) n = CJC
tJC R , ,..

. 9.2 (. 618) 9.3 (. 620).
. 7.40.
. 7.406
1, ,
= . / [. - (7.212), (7.213) (7.218)].
Ci/C <0,5,
. 9.2
9.3 ,
. 9.69.9
.
9.2 , ,
.
,
, /= 100,
65 (S = 9 / =2,5 ),
,
, = 1 4 ,
! = 4 0 (7.212), (7.213) (7.218) :
2

= 2,5 + 4 = 6,5 ,

= , + = 6,5 + 14 = 20,5 ,
0

=^

= = 0,317.
0

20,5

< 0 , 5 ,
(. 7.406), 10,317 = 0,683
(
=0,656),
. 7.40, , = 0,317.
. 9.2 , 0 , 3 < < 0 , 3 5
t iC R
=0,18,
, 2,12,7%,
.

616

. 9.6 9.8, ,
, tjC R ,
k k: = 2,1 %, t /C R = 1,09, k
= 0,735 =- 6,49.
= SR = 100,
0

/? = = = 11

r = l , 0 9 C R = 1,09-20,5-
y

- 1 2

11 10 = 0,226-10~ .

= 1% r = l , 3 i C R
= 3,1% t 1,21 C R , . . 2 0 _ %
.
. 9.2 9.3
=/
= 2xfC R y

QJ5 06

W .

. 9.6.

k S >

"024 0.3
. 9.7.

_

.
: , . 7.4.4.
9.3,
/- , ,
,

.
a=(t i'C R )
, , 2, 4, 8 . . . (t /C R )
, g-, q ,
2, 4, 8 . . . , . .

t =
y

aC R K0

(9.87)

6:17

9.2


. 7.40,

=1,0

1,5

=2,0

(x=mC R )
0

* = 2,5

* = 3,0

* = 3,5

0,700

0,535

0,380

0,122

0,511

4,3

0,93

0,960

0,122

0,514

0,020

4,1

0,95

0,956

0,903

0,815

0,672

0,496

0,351

0,122

0,511

0,189

2,4

1,11

0,936

0,853

0,721

0,566

0,416

0,300

0,122

0,537

0,357

1,6

1,17

0,921

0,822

0,680

0,518

0,385

0,280

0,122

0,566

0,470

1,2

1,20

0,910

0,804

0,653

0,491

0,352

0,269

0,122

0,622

0,531

1,1

1,22

0,904

0,788

0,630

0,472

0,348

0,263

0,122

0,688

0,572

1,1

1,22

0,903

0,784

0,621

0,465

0,341

0,262

0,122

0,774

0,584

1,0

1,23

0,908

0,796

0,630

0,476

0,348

0,266

0,122

0,893

0,574

1,0

1,23

0,914

0,810

0,653

0,494

0,362

0,275

0,122

1,057

0,536

1,0

1,23

0,923

0,834

0,695

0,523

0,386

0,287

0,913

0,835

0,143

0,581

10,2

0,89

1,000

0,995

0,950

0,800

0,560

0,345

0,143

0,574

0,164

5,6

1,00

0,969

0,927

0,826

0,643

0,466

0,311

0,143

0,580

0,331

3,3

1,06

0,943

0,865

0,740

0,567

0,401

0,287

0,143

0,605

0,454

2,2

1,11

0,924

0,819

0,685

0,526

0,364

0,275

0,143

0,658

0,529

1,7

1,14

0,912

0,791

0,647

0,498

0,348

0,269

0,143

0,740

0,559

1,4

1,17

0,904

0,780

0,625

0,480

0,345

0,268

0,143

0,844

0,561

1,3

1,19

0,902

0,779

0,620

0,472

0,351

0,271

0,143

1,000

0,533

1,2

1,20

0,903

0,783

0,621

0,474

0,360

0,277

0,160

0,623

0,098

10,4

0,93

1,000

0,992

0,926

0,740

0,515

0,316

0,160

0,620

0,177

7,5

0,97

0,977

0,942

0,856

0,718

0,500

0,320

0,160

0,624

0,328

3,7

1,04

0,954

0,886

0,768

0,601

0,425

0,291

0,160

0,650

0,446

2,5

1,09

0,940

0,853

0,721

0,541

0,394

0,280

0,160

0,718

0,510

1,9

1,12

0,930

0,832

0,096

0,520

0,382

0,283

0,160

0,820

0,534

1,6

1,15

0,922

0,820

0,680

0,512

0,383

0,295
0,311

0,160

0,960

0,525

1,5

1,17

0,917

0,811

0,670

0,509

0,393

0,180

0,694

0,191

10,7

0,99

1,000

0,989

0,900

0,680

0,470

0,290

0,624

0,454

0,315
0,296

0,180

0,676

0,314

4,3

1,03

0,955

0,908

0,792

0,180

0,696

0,442

2,7

1,07

0,932

0,850

0,725

0,566

0,415

0,180

0,770

0,509

2,1

1,10

0,922

0,827

0,697

0,537

0,402

0,289

0,180

0,893

0,510

1,9

1,12

0,920

0,820

0,680

0,525

0,400

0,300

0,200

0,808

0,251

11,2

1,01

1,000

0,986

0,879

0.647

0,439

0,276

0,200

0,823

0,362

2,7

1,05

0,965

0,888

0,765

0.613

0,393

0,248

0,200

0,876

0,441

2,4

1,08

0,939

0,849

0,729

0,590

0,441

0,311

CO

CO
CO

ID
CO

CN

CN

CO

L O

CO

L O

=(>

CM

CO
ID

CN

*f

>

ID

00

1^

ID

t--

ID

CN
CO
ID

CO
CO

ID

CO

ID

ID

LO

ID

00

>

<

ID

CN

CD

00

ID

00

1
>
-

CM

ID

rj<

LD

LO

ID

C N

ID

ID

620

, ,

L O

'

ID

LD

L O

L O

CN

CD

ID

>*

LD

"
CO
CO

C N

C O

C O

00

CO
CN

CD
LD
CD

CO

ID

ID
ID

LD

ID

LO
)

^J/~2~
j / .
q

\gN

(9.88)

= lg 2
,
K

(9.89)

= ( S R f .

(9.88)
:
N

(9.90)

t = f(N)
(9.89) ,

y

0,23

" '

0.3

(9-91)


N

. "9.8. k\

k >

: 0,79 .

(9.88)

(9.92)

V2 :

s
V=N .
onm

.
9.1. ,
, , = 100 t
0,02 .
"65 ( S = 9 Male, C,. =10 = 2 , 5 ),
= = 4 (7.212), (7.213) (7.218),
,
] = + = 2,5 - f 4 = 6,5 ,
= + = 10 + 4 = 14 ,
= ' + = 6,5 + 14 = 20,5 ,
6,5
0,317.
20,5
0

iY

. 9.3, , cxeva
. 7.40, ( 10,317=0,683
) =0,317, ^ . 9.9, = = 1,4% = 1,17,
ft = 0.H3 j, = 0 . 8 , = 0,515, , = 1,376.
,
KJty, N ,
q t
:

onm

W 0 , 2 3 ^ = 0 , 2 3 - 4 0 = 9,
o

'pW
1*9
= - = = 3,17,
1P2
!g2
4

621

20,5-10-12 i 1,376 \ 3.17


\ _
^40(7-77^]
= 0.012- 1 0 .
1,414,
9 10
r

- 6

0,79-1,17

t
< 0,02-10
,
. N < /
(9.88) (9.90).
' = 2 , <J=1 / = 0 , 0 3 7 - 1 0 . N = 3
y

(7=1,58 t = 0,0204-10" , ,
/ = 0 , 0 2 . (9.89) ,
y

SR =

= =

VK

/100

4.64,


:
2

L=kC R
0

L^k^Rl

4,64
~ 0,51

(7.215)(7.217),

=0,1435-20,5-

- 1 2

= .-.- = 4 , 2 5 -
Ra

0,51
0,515

510 = 0,765-10
- 6

= 1 .

. 9.2 9.3 ,
( 1 ), 0,656.

0.9
Cj = 7,4 =
=21,4 , = 0,344 ,
. 7.406,
= 10.344=0,656, =
=0,93. ^ = 1 , 2 9 6 = 4 , 3 % .
/ = 3
,
,
1,3
(^=0,0154- ) .



0.0233
. 9.9.

. . 1,16 1,5
=

.

, ,
] ,
K /t

1050% (, ,
, 4,3%).
0

622

9.2.3. ,
,
,
( )

(. 3.13)

, *


,

.

,
, . 9.10.


,
,

/ R,
(. 9.10)

t/i=!Zi/i

(9.93)

,


,

.
. -,

. , = 40
0,04 , (9.19)
(9.94)
t = 2 , 2 = 2,2 CR
/? = 455 .

,
. -, R
,
,
. U =UiK
U\ (9.93),
. . ,
:
(9.95)
K = K V\
+(2*fCRr
2

,
623

,
,
U = Rh.
(9.96)
t

, ,
,
,
,

G ,
. 2.8. ,
( /
0 )
' ( g ~ 0 ) .
(2.31)

C K

0 0

, , . 2.8 9.10 g = l/R b = 2fC,

"1 =
= -

(9.97)

J i i ^ f .


(9.95)

'

[1 + (

fCRYl

I df.

(9.98)

;
, (9.95)
{/), J
; (9.98)
/ ,
Ul

4*|

+ (1 + C4?f.)]

(9.99)

f,

(9.96) (9.99)

v .

7 7 ^

(9.100) ,

) f

10

( - >

(. . 2.1.3).
624

, . .
[12, 14, 17].

, . .
,
,

,
, 62, 65 .
.
. ,
,

R.
, 23 , 3/4n C r /^.
, = 20 ,
= 250 / = 4,8
R = 70 100 .

,
(9.95).
. 9.10,
,
2

2UO

= --

, (9.93),
U (p)=Z(p)I (p)=
1

^() =

( -2)

*. =CR

(9.103)

.
, ,

()

Q ()

( )

= const,
() = 0.

40-237

* t P - P i ) l P - p ^ _ -

. . .
2

(9.104)

Kip), . .
625

(9.102) (9.104)

U(p)=K{p)U (p)

(Pi)(P) ()^

(9.105)

+ ) Q ()

JT/>

, , ,
, ( ),
( Pi) + ,
(

-ir-bk>

Pi=

(9106)

pi
Ki(p)
. 9.11. ,
, R > R
c

^ . + p

Rl+Ra

Rl + Ra

,
(7.177),

CR
0

/ = S!/? .
10

. 9.11.

KvPoRak

(9.108)


,
(9.102). (9.105) (9.107)
,

, ,
), :
1

/,,

"oRk

(9.109)
,

') :
,
, (
) .
626


x = CR=C R k.
(9.110)
(9.109)

tJC

U(P) = -

"WIT

1-#i

+ /?

m r r C'lRi R k

CRRk

(?.1)

U 20 = KiaRI

(9.112)

, * + Ri

(9.113)

2C R R k
B

R, + Rg

(9.114)

ClRlR^


(5.46), ,
:
(9.115)
2 (0 = ^20 1 (- ' <V + COS o 4 *'
S

V 0

(9.116)

u>
, , , ' u (t)
, :
0

= *".

(9.117)

, - (9.115)
(9.117),
/, ct < = 1 - f ( )

.
0

9.4
/ /
. . 9.11
0

0
~ <Z /

40*

, %

2,11.

1,84

1,68

1,44

1,05

0,683

0,804

0,895

1,047

1,365

1,467

1,648

1,803

2,096

2,870

3,38

627



i CR . . 9.2
(9.110), (9.113), (9.114) (7.177)
:
ix

(9.118)
(9.119)

( , ) 2 + 1,

'

(9.120)

C k'
n

2ax

ev

(9.121)

1
2

L = kC R .
0

(9.122)

, t = 0,04 , = 3%, = 30 0,
47
= 20 = 1 , 6 8 , = (/ = 1,803, a = xjt =
= 42-10 1 /, v =
, = 59,2, / = 6200,'R =
= 11,4 , Ri = 600 , Z, = 1 6 , 1 - .
S = 9 /
0,1.
, -



[R ~
y

- 6

-6

x^/fy

(.
9.12).
,

,
. 9.12.

RiR .
2


\ .

\
,
/7 .
,

, RiR2, , ,

. ,
. . [55] . . [20], ,

= i i == 0,7,

(9.123) *. "

1.6

\
>

,1

\
/

jfj

}/

w."if. 9.13.
G
( . 9.12)

. 9.14. k

G (
. 9.12)


,
(9.123).

s . 9.13
G. , 9.14
k
,
i = CR :
0

ax

Ci 0 . 7 2 ,

(9.124)
(9.125)

/?,=

kiRz,

(9.126)
(9.127)
629

L = kC Rl.
0

, t = 0,04, s = 3 %, 13 , x =2,3, G =

1,0,

k =

1,3,

1,03,

9,1

155

"KOAI,

= 950 OAi, i? = 980 OAt L 33,7 A I K S H . "


,

CD

IS

^2

S = 9 / 0,066, . . 1,5 ,
. 9.11.


, . 9.3.2.
, ,
. ,
, . 3.13,
, . . .
L
, ,
.
: ,'
,

(7 < 1),
,

,
.
9.2.4.

R
(. 7.52) ,
,
(. .
) .

, . 7.53.

,
, R , R R .
R
10 R . l/Ri l/R no 1/(/? + / ?

:
t

U (p) = SU (p)Z (p),


a

630

cl

ab

(9.128)

Z {p) = R +
A

ab

(9.129)
14-

,
b . 7.53.
..

Ur ()

"pCRc
1 + pC Rc

U (P)

(9.130)

pi-c

Kip)

.*>(/>) _
V (P)

Vaip)
U (p)

cl

. .

_ SR

SZ (p)pC R

Kip)

nb

1+

pC R

el

)
U (p)

(1 + R<plR + pCfiRj,)
a

(1 + pC R ) (1 +
c

pC R
c

(9.131)

^R^p)


:
(9.132)
= SR ,
(9.133)
= CR,
(9.134)
a

6 =

Ra

(9.135)

R<fi

CifiRg

V_
T

CcRc

(9.136)


Kip)

(9.137)

N {)~ 0 />! =
= bja - , (5.46)

T

k(t)

+ 1)

(9.138)

= (9.138) ,
,
k(t)= / 1 +

(9.139)
631


. ,
, t = ,
\dk (0 "

!-0

1 *)


> 1,
= 1

< 1.
, &()
/
,
. '


0,5 =
= corst .
9.15.
_
~ ,
. 9.15.


(9.138) = ( =
= ) ,

( = 0), .
6(0,1 -- 2)
8.
,
, b = ,1 .
, b = 0,5 (. 9.15), = 2,5% t = ,- = 1,5

11

00

*0

klTj)

= 1 0,025 = 0,975.

. 9.15)

= = 0,025,
,
1.5-100,025

,
R.

0,06 .

1 , 0,06 .

') ,
(9.139).
632


, ( ) = 1,
x ,
L

x = -- = 0,35,
t

14 ,

, = = =
R
xR

1 , 5

1 0

~ = 0,0043 .
0,35 1

0,1,
,
8, 34.
-
Rjb

. ,

, ,
(
).
, ,
. , 6 = 0,5
=10% ( 2,5%,
) , 14 7,5 ,
6 = 0,1 34 19.
,
,
,
.
.
,
= 10%, 2,5'%.
Tj = 1,5 , b = 0,5, R = 1 , R = 1
= 1, , . 9.15, , = 0,35; =
= ,: x = 1,5-10~ : 0,35 = 0,0043 = 0,0043 .
(9.136)

(l

= =
R

1-0,0043
1000

/1 Q 1

A Q . .
.

= 4,3-10* = 4,3 .

,
, 17,2 .

,
= 1 0 % ,
N

= ^
(9.140)

/!

633

= -7^.
Ra

(9.141)

(9.142)
. 9.15, = 1 ()// = 1 = 1
0

0,1 = 0,9 x 0,75, ,


i

-3

1,5-10"

0,002 ,

0,75
6

,=-02_^2.1056

1000

- i l i i . J 4-1,5.10^ i ^
0,008 .
R
xR
0,75-1
,
')
17,2 2 , ,
( ) ,. 0,0043 0,008 , . .
(
2,5%, 10%,
, ,
, .

,
(), . .
CR,
CR

CR.
,
.
iV-
, , (9.67),
:

Nr _NTi

' i ^H3Ke
LW.

NT; (

+ ^

+ ^

).

,
( ) = ,
:

= (

, = RjR^

( ) s T (. 2.106),
cn

) ,
.
634


(9.144)

=\
x , . 9.15 ( =h 0,5
8)
t

(9.145)

(9.143)
= ! + ^ . - 4 - ^ =

,
S

= ^ ,

~ ^ ,

, = ^

(9.147)

.
(9.135)
(9.141).

(. 2.106)
k (,)

= 1+

. 9.15
8
( < I). x
, k(Ti)lK =
1-
,
.

, /V ,
, (9.143)
Nl.
, : = 5%, ,-=
= 1,5 , N = 4, R = 1 , R = 1 , S = 7,4 /, S =
= 0,07 / ( 61),

2 { = 0,5) = 1,
. 9.15, , k (,)// = 1 =
= 0,95 , 0,5.
- (9.142) (9.146) t

635

, :
1,5-

Tt

-3

= = = 0,003 ,

= J - + ^ + ^ 2 . = L _
C

U >

CR

Nt

83,3 .

4-0,003

H 3 K S

,
CR
C

4= 83,3
= L

= ^ - = ^ i =
S#
Sj

036

, 0,036 </0, = 278


= 2,52 .
300 3 /,

CR
C

- 6

-H -^iU 5,3
3-

,=

- 6

= 0,0284 ,

35,3

% 0 , 0 3 .
,
:

R. = *

= = 2
0,5

- (9.141)

^ _
.Ra

1-0,003

1 0

(.
. 9.1.4.) : 2000 , = 30
= 0,5 (, , 3000, 30
0,3 /< ).
, , ,
.

, , , 5%, k

^.// =

= 1,05, = 0,5 (.9.15)


= 0,76 Xj = 0,75. , C ,
, 1,5 ,
2,3 .
-
, 1/ (. 9.3)

636

, (9.138),
, (9.32) (9.44) (9.45):
- ,
(0

it)

(6-0+1) V 1 -

( )\1

(-

-LJL

(9.148)

(A-o)(l-

/ ;

(0 _

it)

( 6 - + 1)( V

' ) \ 1

^ +

"

,
1

..

(9.149)

(6 )\\
1

= b ) :
T

\e "1,' ~ \ e

W e

' +

\*
6 V "

f U -

U+

1 " - e \J

4*

- \ e " l / e '
yit)

L.
b Ve
T

(9.150)

\ e 1/

4,2

,
T

e " 1/Ve 1 / 6 +
.

(9.151)

(9.148) (9.151),
,
s = T/T
(9.152)
i

') (9.148) (9.151) , . .


t = .
637


- .
, (s>10),
, , . .
(9.133) (9.136), (9.140) (9.147)
. 9.15 8.
-
, 2,
( s<2 ,
s>.2).
s = 2
(. 2.11), (9.148) (9.150)
:
b_j_

y(t) =

()

(b

1)
-JLJJ
a) \ 1 + e

GW<7\-

1 +

(-

t
"2

y(f)

T,

(0

(9.154)

0sg<Ti,

(9.153)

1+

bz

-f e

b \ 1

. . [55]

- ,- = 0,5 .
, R R#

. 2. ,
{) = {%
(9.155)
a


,

s.
(9.153) t = 0 t=T
,
;
t

(b +

\)\ 1

1+

(9.156)

:
c

& = ^ <f> 2l\

Ra

k = &
~~

C Rc

Ra

638

C,R

(9.157)

(9.158)

, k ,
0

'1

= 1

(9.159)

thx

= k=\,
,

b=

(9.160)

- h J * L .

, ,
,
(. 2.11 ).
, ,
dy(f)

= 0,

dt

y(t) (9.153) (9.154).


, ,
,
t 0,5
(9.153) t = 0,5 7^,
)

(0,,) =

(b a+

1)

'

(* ) \ 1

2:

"

(b

a)\\+e

ba+ 1

(0) + *' =

{b a)\l

(b a)\ 1

(9.157), (9.158) (9.159),


:
sh sh

(9.161)
2sh

(() y{Tj) = y(0)


, y(Q) + y (,) 1 [
(9.153) (9.154)]
y(0) = y(Ti) = o,b,
,

1
2

sh sh

(9.162)

sh | - "

639

= b, . . k = 1, :
e

; = -i-(chxb-l).

(9.163)

(9.159) (9.162)
k .
.
- (9.159) / . 9.16

. 9.16.
/ '
I k\ II

ft

9.17, b
k. k b =-const
, //, - (9.162),
- k &'
k,
k \!b.

,- = 1/2/, /
) , R 0

') , , . . / .
640

, .
.

, R<p,
. . , 1,2 R .

i CR

R<p
, , ,

. 9.17.
R<plR : I
; II
A



.
/ / . 9.16 9.17
= T j2i ' l/b = R#- fR .
1/6 k = ,' R
=^^
, * , f = 20 = 0,05, R = 1 ,
= 3 , R = 1 , , = 0,025 .
0

41347

641

Mb = /
= 3, ,t =0,74 ( / / . 9.16) k = 2,76 (
/ . 9.16).

- =

= R=

2-0,74

= 0,017 ,

^ = = kx = 2,76-0,017 = 0,047 ,

=^-=

^ 1 = 0,017 ,

tf^

3000


,
, ,
, , N
, .

; ,

,
, (9.143).
, N = 3, f = 20 , ' = 0,05 ( ), R = 1 ,
= 3 , R = 1 , S = 7,4 /, S, =
= 0,07 /
, T =
= 0,025 , Mb = /?^//? = 3, = 0,76 k = 2,76, ,
\ ^
= 0,017 , ^ = 0,047
= 15,7 .
, (9.146)

V =
&

! +

CR
C

^ + =

'

!
3-0,017

= 19,6

,
Z =0,153 =1130 , =10,7 .
1 1000 10
0,192 .

( ) 50 (
), ) , , , ) ,
. : ()
: , .
, c

42


(, ,
),

15 625 ( 625 25 ).
, . . [55],
,
- (. 2.11),
10 ,
(T =300 ) ,
= 5%.
t

9.3.

9.3.1.

,
,
. ,

( R
), , ,
, ,
R
(. 7.1).
R R
, , ,

.
,
, , , ,

(. 3.27 3.28). ,
,
,
, , ,
(. 9.18).

,
,
. ,
,
.
,
, ,
75160 .
a

41*

643

(/<510 ),
,
27 /
( -50) 70 / ( -3, -4
. );
(
),
,
. R

, , .
7.58 ( ).
K

. 9.18.

, ,
,

; ,
. ,
,
.
,
.

, , ,
R ,
K

, ,
, , ,
,
:

4- 4- .

(9.164)
'

:
,
. 4.316 4.32, >44

, (4.109) (4.110) (. 9.18):


=
+ Y^l-K)

= =

= +

V,

S +

Y Y +Y
CK+

aK

y = A + iC,

"

Y = g + \C .
K

= iC ,

e e

Y = Y -\C

(9.165)

e f

aK

(9.166)

Y
:

ex

S + i

,
S + gi + gt +

(9.168)

iuC^+ivCx

= 1 , 4- )

S +

+ g +

(9.169)

i<C +i>C

CK

:
5

|i#

'
S+g

+ g
S
+ g
=
2( +
)
t

=
J a

=
+

R; + V + tiR
i
,)R
2n{C + C )R R

(9.170)

i +

ac

'

^ = -2^

172

<- >

(9.168) (9.169):

/ = / " | /

Y =g
ex

ex

'

(9.173)

+ iuC ,

(9.174)

ex

(9.175)
645

(-

.+ ^

(1

(1~ )

^^%liM_.

(9.176)

/ , g
f f . ,
f = f , :
0

er

=1^

= ^ ^

(9.177)

/ = _ ^ _ ,

(9.178)


:
= = const,
=
(1-),

(9.179)


.
, f < f , . .
6

>

= ^ ^

~ .

( 9 8 0 )

( 9 8 1 )

^>~7'

f,
=

=-^-.

(9.182)


f->co
:
5

^ _

, / - >

, f >f ,
a

"

.
^ -

(9.184)

. .

< *646

= +

R i +

R k

(9.185)

(9.186)

K<
0

,
,
(9.182),

(9.187)


,
(
f = )
(9.183)
S

X
' +

(9.188)


,


(9.184), . .

. 9.19.

RI +

1-

RK

P-RK

(9.189)

^ ~

lb,

>
2fa

V-RK
. 9.19.
'

>


g
RI + RK
fa > fb\

?-RK

<
,
~'




, .

, ,
.

- '

gx

647

, ,
, . g
,
- (9.175)
(9.176) .
,
/ , f f , ,
, .
(9.173)
.


,
,
.

ax

,
, , ,

.


(. 9.20),



:
^

JSJ___

__0

Si
. 9.20.
,

i<*Ci +
:
_J
1_
R,iac\

-ah]

ex

Ri

Ril

Ri

(9.190)
(9.191)

M1

S) ;
(9.169).
, ,
2 "
= -|-
(

-(- + ,

/ ]

(9. 92)

()

8i (S + gn+g )+P
2

[ ( S + g

i2

+ g ) 4K

+( 2+ )

C
648

igi + g J
t

+ C

K g l

] + p IC

(C

CK2

+ J

4-

. (9.193)
C

CK2

/Cj () ,
(9.168) i ,

' 2

*
*() =

t/f> ()

1+

( 2 + * ) +

8l (S + gi+g
3

(S^ + gti + g H C
K

(g + g

ck2

it

)+ C g

o ( C + C ) 4- C
K

c / c 2

P +

(9.194)
gi ( 5 + g< 4 - g )
2

Co ( + .) +

5j 5
K

to R

PI

(9.195)

gi (Si + ga + g ">
K

/ (p) p, ,
U (p).
(), N () = 0,
N () , / ()/-
:
Pi = 0
2

, = ~

* -? .

(S + g
0

i2

+ g )+

(9.196)

(g,- + g ) + C gt

(9.197)
2 [Co ( ^ + ) + C
gi(S +g; + g )
2

Co (

f x 2

+ )+

(9.198)

(9.194) (9.70)
,
, (.
9.5). .

(9.75)
2 3

IS

k(t) = K

sh Y - ch -j t

e"

9.199)

8= ^

(9.200)

So
7

(9.201)

= * - p.

i = 3 (7 = 0) ,
k(t) =

-*-

11 [1 4 (1 - K 6 W ]

(9.202)

,
,
k (0 = /

; 8

sin u> /
0

4-

cos

*'

(9.203)
649

> = i 7 = Vffa?.

(9 204)

, = 0 , 2 5 ,
.

arc tg

t=

(9.205)

= l^F + 2aS . ~

(9.206)

5 , 5 ,
,
0

'.

(9.207)

,
( / , , (9.204), | ^ / . (9.197) (9.198)
, / ):
2

J__

*gj ( + gfi + g ) [ (
K

"

[c (s +
0

g i 2

+g )
K

+ ) +

c (g

CK2

+g) +c f

i2

( 9 - 2 0 8 )

Kgl

/
, . . .

1
gi =
1
1
1
Ri\

Rl
0

Rcl

.
, , gi = 1 /, S = 9,8 /, g; = 1//?< = 0,26 /,
< = 10 ,
= 5 ), = 300 g = 5 / / = 1.2,
= 0,447,, /< = 7 - (9.207) 0,088%.
- (9.206) =0,0885%.
10 g 10 /
1,59, 1,7%.

<

,

.

g ,
, - (9.179),
, . . ,

.
ex

a2

0,bY$l

, .
) 5 , g j , ,
61 6 (
) .
2

50


(9.173)
fjf .
f > f .


(9.173)
9
2
0
9
b

' *---^

<>


() =

( 9

^ 7 ^ - 1 +/>

2 1 0 )

+ gi + g

(9.209) f ,
\
. ,
/
f
R = l/g .
, (9.170)
(9.171),
a

(9

*f.=-*isWr-

21|)

-4- ,
(9.211) (7.33),
.
, ,

, , . . ,
.
, ,
, .
., (9.2),

,
(7.31) (9.171), :

"

S+

(9.212)

+ g

'

(9.164) (9.167)
_

+ . +

4-

4-

(9.213)
651

(9.19)
= 2,2

, . 9.1.2,
,
, .
, 6,
S = 9,8 /, R ~
=3,8 , . = 37, = 5 , = 2,6 ,
: R = 200 = 300 , - (9.170),.
(9.171), (9.179), (9.213) (9.19),
: = 0,65, f = 7,95 , = 4,35 , = 0,02
t = 0,044 .

61 g = 1 / (R i =
1000 ), ( )
= 2,45 , =
{ ) =4,35 11,8 ,
0,026 .
,

t

iac

t = V , + t =V0,026
y

+0,044 = 0,051 ,

u2

,
, - (9.203).

()
- ^
, .
,
, . . .
-
, b,U
(. 9.21),

,
, (9.19) (9.213),
1

__

22

(Cc + C )R
K

'

(C+C )R

(1 + -)/?

'

i + s/?

1+

RT~

-
,

MJ

^
l + SR
d

>2

'


Ui,
,

</,+^

AU = U
1

- - ^ ~ ~ b U

,
()
4- R (. 9.18) )
f = 2,2 ( -4- )

'

R ^>R J(\ S R ),

t'



t (. 9.21).


/,
/
,

< + ,
,
9.21. -
U , .
^


( -\- )R ;
, . 9.21,
[83, 97).

,
= 0,
.

,
K

lQ

') \
, .
653


[23, 97],
, 100- ( =1)
.
9.3,2.

(. 7.5.1) ,


,
. , ,
.
t
, .

(. 7.57 7.58)
(7.273)
s

js

^ct

SZ

~ 0 ~

+ *

, (7.274) (7.275):

Rac

l - f i C R
0

l +

ac

icoCV?

(7.273) Z
i ,

SRac(l+pC R )
K

Kip)

(l+pC Rac)(l

S R +pC R )
K

SRac

() =

[ +

C Rac
D

1 \ (
+ ^ CoRac I V

+ 5

(9.214)

RK


\ = CR ,
A =l+S R ,

(9.216)
(9.217)

ac

) (7.273) (1//? < l/R


(

654

215

(- >

* =cR>

+ l/Rcl-

, (7.277),
SRac

SR

1~\-SK RK

{) ,

U () =

c2

*'

(9.218)

+ ^ -

(.5.1.4),

t_
A (ml)e
0

k(t) = K

, t

" (
0

1)

"

(9.219),

m
0

(9-220)

m =

,
< 1
, > 1
(. 9.22)
,
., =

(9.221)
. 9.22. -

? -
, ,
(9.221) (9.219), :

( 1)

(9.222)

( 1) U o - l

, - (9.222),
. 9.23, ,
= * fr , . . . .
[73, 81], , 1,25 2,5
K /t
m ;
. ,

K

655

,
(9.223)

k(t) = | 1 + ^ - 1
0

(9.224)

Ifi

1,1

22

is

2,6

23

in rr

. 9.23. .-

.
' -1

=( -1)
0

(9.225)

(9.223)
(9.225)
, = t /t .
. 9.5, : g,
Kalt
,
,
.
,
,
(7.277), (7.282) (9.216)
0

Sx,,

SR
'

, (9.21),
\

ty

656

2,2

(9.226)

9.5


~ 1
=

8 = (Kjty) o

'

PP

1,37

1,43

1,12

1,96

1,46

1,27

1,18

1,86

1,53

1.17

1,22

1,80

1,65

1,03

1,30

1,70

10

1,87

0,82

1,44

1,53

- ( f )
\

:(*)

' /

\
1

2,2

(9.227)


, , ,
, S
[ - (6.242)1
R , .

= 1 - f -

. 9.5
s.

[[(9.228)
*


(9.229)

, . 9.23,
.
, R (9.215), (9.216)
(7.277).
, t 0,04 , s = 1 % ,
5 = 9 /, S 10,8 /, R = 160 = 18,5 (
65), = 2,73, . - 1,1,
= 1,96, - = 0,0556 , = 0,0612 , 380 ,
, = 3 / = 9,9.

.
(9.214) , 0

ac

42237

657


SRac ( +

{)

1
\ /
,
+ -777\ +
CoRae

CR
a

ac

l+S,R
R

,

_ _
_ p
_ L _ .
(9.230)
p

(9.102),

(9.105) (9.106),

U (p), . .

()
=

= ,
x = C R =CR = ^ .
(9.231)
K

, (9.111),
, , (9.215), (9.216), (7.277), (7.282)
(9.231),
:
< () =

(9.232)

(9.232) ^ _|_ j
,
, (. 7.57),
R
,
, , . ,
,
,
(. 7.37 7.40),


.
(9.232) ,


x /A ,
, -
(9.231), x jA .
,

/IC

ax

^ = 2,2-^=2,2^
658

(9.234)


'" .
,
0,04 , = CR = 4

hllM

. 2^L

4
=

220,

0,04

S R = 1 = 2 1 9 .
65 (S = 10,8 / / = 12 ), R
(. 7.58 , ) 20 .
, - (9.231)
200 .

,
,
, R ,
240 .
,

, (, )
,

' ) .

.
, (7.273),

t

J
~

1
l+ SZ
K

'

N- (
)
1

()

1
[^+S Z (p)].[l
Kl

Kl

+ S Z (p)l..[l
K2

K2

S Z (pn
KN

KN

'

1+ C R
Ki

Ki

1 + - .
(

,
+ ~] ( + -)-(

+'

(9.236)

) 111717 3 1958 .
42*

659

= 1+ S R .
Ki

(9.237)

Ki

,
1/ , \ h ,
, (9.231)
1

ex

\i = C R
Kl

Kl

=CR = .

(9.238)

,
, (
) \/(),

, , ,

2 ~

~~~' ^KN

01

<?

(9.239)

0(/1)


'
-(
- , ,
*=2,2-^,
ON
(9.238) (9.239)
:
t

2,2
^

^ ^

(9.234), ,



.
, * = 4 , t = 0,04 ,
= 220, ,

4,1 = = = 2 2 0 = 6,04.
2

$ R
Kl

Kl

A ) i 1 =5,04 S =
Kl

10,8 '

/ . = 12 U = 470-12- " = 4,64 , 240


.
,
(9.238) (9.239), : C = 8500 , =
= 1400 , = 240 .
0(

KQ

Ki

-660


:
R = R^ = 1300
(U^ = 15,6 ), : - 3100
= 210 .
1

9.3.3.
( 7.6)

(. 3.10).

( 7.797.82)."


,
ty = 2,2

CR ,
9

lac

(7.348), (7.351)

Rice

Ra

Rc

Rl

Ra

Rc



,
,
, .
, , 25%,

aRa


(9.19)
t = 2,2
y

, (7.398),
1
2 t

hc

_L
R

J_
R

_L
R

(9.19) .
661

1 - f I ~ - ] ,

S = 0,5(S' + S").

. . (. 7.80).
\
_R' (l
a

+ 2R /R ) Tj
1

ILR

/?JC



, 1-3%.

10.1.

10.1.1.
, ,
,
. ,

,
K(f) ^ >0.

} .
/ ,

.


,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, .

:
1) ,
2) .

')
.
y

') ,
- ,
, , , ,
. .
663


( /--0) '
,
()
,
,
.

.


. ,

,
, , .
,

. ,
,

.

(,
)
(
) ,
, . .
.

,

.
, ,

; ,


.
10.1.2.


(, )
t , . 10.1.
, 1 ,
64

,
.
. 10.1, ,
R 1


0, ;
,
.
z

log

6)

. 10.1.

.
, (
)
,
,
. -
,
R% Ril u,
. .


.

, . 10.16,
,

, .
,

. 10.1s,
,
= U2/U\<1,
, ,
() .
,
, f
Ril
, ,

.
a

at

665


. 10.2.
, R
,
.
(^ = 0)

If

V//

(10.1)

R ,
U / ,
.

, u
,

a0

Rn


.

, ,

()
,

.
. 10.2.

,


"

,

.
,
, ,
~ UzlUi. ( )
, ,
R

IP

*
U,

R
=

'

R, +

(10.2)
R

, . = 70, R, = 200 R = 300


42.
, n

666

, . 10.3.
, 7, :^ =
R i 4- R i ( R i
),

=/?;+.

67,



R R ,


, . .

.




10.3.
7 (), .
,

-7
R ,
, R'
=U /I .
:
-+R H

R,

in

Rj_

in
^ + Rt

iv

1 +

R}II\

Riv

a0

a0

(10.3)

( R 4- R = )
R
(R
= 0) (10.3)
.
, . 10.3,
(0150 ).


5

I i r

^2

, R
,
R '
( f 0):
I

I i r

'2

(10.4)
1

+ -

Rt

R* + R.IV

4- R iv

+ Ris + R"i

41

R , a R ,
, R (1 + -).
2

667


i = f(u-\),
(S
, S). ,
, .
2

10.1.3.

,
.
,
R
(. 10.4), ii

,
, g = di \du , ,
.
,
.
,
(
), (
).

. 10.5. (
) , ,
, ,
.
, ,
()

eK

ai

, , i
( D . 10.5).

,
R .

i ~f(u )
= E R i , . 10.5
.
t'i ,
, RJi,
c

668

rt

c c

= i .
i = (( )
, . 10.4,

t ^ - f e - ^ .
+

(10.6)

r = du ldi -
, ,
.
CK

. 10.5.

. 10.4.


(R < R),
i = i
5 , . .
z

Sui = 5

R fcx
c

Rc +


RC?CK

(10.7)

(10.7) ,

Sr , R
.

, , ,

. R
10100 , \ \
.

1
. , CK

669

, ,
10%.
,
,
i = | i
\ (. 10.5.) 10~ --10~ ,
10 1 0 .
.

,
, , .
,

A A g ,
, 10 10
S=10-*-l !. R 10
, , (10.7),
10 .
i
g (A g )
( 510 ),

U^ ). i
g (^g )
,
,

.
U = 5 10 [10, 52]
,
.
.
,
, ,
, ,
(5 50 300 /).
, 11,
22, -2, -3, -1 .,
. ,
(. = 1-5),
.
i

10 ^-10
r {^i 1 / A g . , )
1 0 - 1 0 ' [10, 90|, R ,
1 0 - 2 .
, S = 50 /,
5- .
9

1 0

CK

rK

cK

Ch0M

CK

a0

c 0

15

13

CK

12

10

12

') 510
.
670

.
,

,
- .

.

, ,
, R
1 ,
.
, . .
,
, , .

(. . 2.1.9). ,
,

[52, 90]
,
,
() [3].

,
'),
,
. ,
,
.



,

,
. . '
||||||*
1
[40, 52).
, . 10.6.
. . (
), 1932 .
1932 . f42],
. .
. 10.6.
, (
) c

') ,
, ,
[50].
671

() M i ,
,
R ,
R ,
R
R,
R
= U //

R U II

k k.
. .
( , , . .
i = 0, i ).

( )
R . ,
,
U U', ,
'^
.
,
Re , ,
,
(/=0 i{=0),
- ()
,
i , . .
c

IV

clQ

[n

/v

nI

a0

a0

c l 0

a0

(10.8)

, [10],
. 10.7.

q.

R$ ,
Rs .
Rs.

i /? .
R ,

R . (t = 0)
t .
i /\E
,
R ?
,
(10.8). /\
( )
, ,
q R R , 0

672

(10.8). ,
,
, ()

,
. . i = 0
2

. 10.7.

(
), , i = 0
,
, ,

.
2

10.1.4.
. ,
()
, .

, .
() ,
.

, ,
. 2.1.9,
.


,
,
. 43-237

673


(
)
, .


,

(. 10.8).

. ,

U

\e

= \UjUM-

(.9)

, MlJU = 0,1 = 0 . .

[50]. ^.
, ,
, ,
, ,
(1 + 1/ + 1/[ + . . . ) ,
= / ,
= 1 . .
, - ...

, ,
.
,
, ,
. 10.8. , .
+ ,
,
i
..

,

,
+MJ
S = i lu / = "/"1
,
.
, , .
10.2,
U

(1$

= ^[].

(10.10)

(U lU \ = % / = 42 ( ) = 4,2 .
, -7 (. 10.3),
5 ^ : 0 , 5 /
2% ( = 0,02 ) H

lri

674


( i ) = S = 0,5 0,02 = 0,01 ,
2

tt

1/10000 *
. = 0 .
S ^ 50 ! ( r' )
1 ,
,
,

, ,

.
,
.

. -
.
, ,

,
^, ) 2040,
:
12%
23%, .
,
,

40 [31, 82].

- , K

10003000 [31] ). , ,

, -
( )
.

,
124 ( / = 0 , 1 5 ).

2

2 w

rm

')
(, )
() .
)
(,
), 0,02

2

43*

675

),
( ,
),
f
1
0,2 .

,
, , ,

-'( ).
,
^ .

,
,
,
0,1 10 .
, ,

,

(. ~)

.

.
,
, ,

,
. ,
, . 10.6 10.7,
, ,
Re,
,
(. . )
.
()

. 10.9, ,
,
.

. . 10.96,

(
U') i i .
R - f R

al

ai

') 20...
0,1 0,001%, . . 0,02 [90].
676

& , i , . .
.
,
, , ,
, . . , = = .
, , i = 0 = <1
}

al

al

= -(R.

+ R,)

= 0,

(10.11)

at

= 5 ( - * /?0 +
2

( - i tf - i R ),

fl2

02

(10.12)

S /?.
2

4
+
4

01
^

. 10.9. () ()
,

(10.11) \
(10.12), :

R = i-.

(.13)

, (10.13)
.
, R
,
10 50
U
(1020%). R\Rj
/?2
.

2

67?

- ,
U
(
)
R ( b
. 10.9).

/?2
,
, ,
,

1 10 .
1 ,
U
R R. , . 10.96,
,

i i

al

= S j [ e

- (tfj + R ) ( i

Ki

+ )] + ~

(R + tf ) ( i

f e

Kl

+ AW-e '],
i

at

= S

[ e

K2

R ( i

+ / ) ] + - ~ - [

al

as

t - (R, +
&

4-

R ) ( i
z

al

4- A

(10.15)

-S

( / ? + ,)

/2

L
1 +

1 4- S Ri

(.14)

Si, Rn S R; , .
- (10.14) (10.15), ,
2

(10.16)

Rn

/2

0 1

S j 4-

^02 ^ 2

(10.17)

, , 5
\(Ri ,
. ,
S, = S ( l + x ) , S = S ( l - x )
t

^, = ^(1+^

^2=

(10.18)

(1-)

(10.16) ,
= 0 (10.13) R^ = 1/S.,,
:
1,** + 2(1 + {*)(1 + S , / ? , ) ]
( A 'al) =

(Ril + Rn + Ra) (1 +

(10.19)

S R,)
t

5,

.
( 180 , )

178


( U ) =

( < )

al

T
,
(/1 +

n
Ri* +

n w. , "
Ra) (1 + S./?j)

'

<

1 0

2 0 )

=

, ( U ),

~z

^1)

(10.21)
(10.25).
( {) = , <?,
,
, , , 1
(J,
:
0

+ *
x + 2(l +

R i

(10.22)

S R )y
2

, 0,05 0,2, -= 0,05 0,5.



) .
, S R = 1, G = 0,94-0,8, . . ,
R R
.
, ,
S Ri,
1

=
= u jux
, ( ,
( - - .9). (6.208)
,
2

(10.23)


\J(Ri + Rz) 1/ , , . 10.10,

,
0 , . .
2

- .

Ri + Rt

sxi

Ri + Rn

*) . 10.9
/
> / /

(
. 10.20 10.23).

679

U.

= 5 (7' +
2

R1 + R2

Ri

S2R1

Ri + R*

Ri +

Ri

Ri:

R 1/S ,
(10.13),
2

= S

Rit

,
Riz

'.. =

(10.24)

(10.24) (10.23)
, Ti ,

(j-x % ^ .,
:
2

0 +
. 10.10.
,
' ,

(j.

(10.25)

Ri

Ra

, . 10.6,
10.7 10.9,
,
. 10.1.6.
10.1.5. ,



,

.
R .
R i
R , .
, . 10.2'
( )

; ;
:
t

80

>

Rt + Rjj

+ R

IV

'

( ) =
2

" '"- <

v R i

E .

(10.26)

aQ

(10.1).
:

(Rj

R,)

(Ri + R )(R,

ll

R)
1I

Rj - U ll

. , R = 300 , R = 200 R, = 1500

( ) ^0,43' ,
a0

a0

' / =0
' = 300 ( ) = 1 3 .
, , ,
() . (10.2) (10.27)
,

(,0 28)

^=^ '-

1500 200

( )

. 30 = 0,31 .

'

70(1500 +

300)

, 10%
(!)
(10.9) 0,10,2 , . .
.

(. 10.9), ,

Rn + (1 + N

(.29)

0,
. ( )

R (10.24)
2

( ) = R i

al

*1

Ail

(.)

"/ +

, (10.25)

( A ^ - ^ - i f k ,
Kg

(10.31)

f*

, ^ = 250 , ' 1
0,1, . = 40 (
124), ( Wj) = 0,3 .

, , 0

681

,
,
p., p- = dujdu . .

,
, .

.

,
.

-
(/( <10003000),

(),
10100.
,

.
,
,
-
.

.


( )
, ,
, , . 10.6 10.7.
,

() . ,


.

.


:
1.
.
2.
, <3.
, .
4. (
R ),
; s

682

U /I -f- R = R
R R + (1 - f p) R ,
R (10.27) (10.26).

.
a0

a0

ice

10.1.
U /U
E^ /E
'
, , . 10.9,
69 (ji = 70), , ( ^ ,
+ 1
. ,
= 250 , R = 150 ,
: = 0,1 = 0,05.
,
.
7+ U = 3,1 / = 230 , /
= 0,2 , # = 140 ,
Sr = 0,5 !.
:
1 , /
= 250 , /
= 4 ,
= 35 , S =
= 2 /.

aQ

cM

0 1

0 1

u 0 2

0 2 1

'^

R, =

/ 1+/

WM-Pcnl

0 2

= 0,24

0,2 + 4
3,1-1

/?, =
=
= 0,5 .
'
1+1
0,2+4
(10.13), , >
(.R = 1/S = 1/2 = 0,5 ), ,
- (10.25), 32,3.
. UJU
E /E

(
= 1
( A i ) (^- (10.9), (10.21) (10.31),
MJ jU

/ :
2

aQ

uQ

~ '
~ x + O + S^y
(1 + 2-0,24) (+ 0,0005)

(10.32)

0,003,

0,1 + 2 ( 1 + 2-0,24)0,05

ajCo _ \>JMi)a
F'

(l + S i K i H A M i b [el

F'

_ 70 (j- 0.0005) _
~

0,00014.

250


U/U = 10%,
, :

U
(KcmU -

^ -

+0,1

,1

___
3

- 33,

()

f l 0

0,00014

*
^0

683


( UJU k ' / )
, ,
(10.31) (10.32), /

0,00027, ' ~ 375.


H

10.1.6.


(),
, ,
, ( ) ,


.



, ,

,


.
,

,
. 10.11.
. 10.11.

,
-2

RT,
R
.

(. 7.79).

U
.

,
i
U .
(),
, ,
(). ,

() 3 10 .
.
2

684

;
, ,
, , di /dU = 0 . .
, ( i 0)
i U , . .
di /dU di /dE o.
R,

Rs Re,
,

,
.
#8Re , R
,
.

:
2

S=^-

,
Ri

= =

Ra)

Rt + 0 + t*)/?

(10.33)

Ri

,
2

(.34)

ft + ( l +

Ra

Ri

R = R, = R
a

[r

R = Rb = R .
K

(.35)

, R
(10.33) (10.34). ,
Rs Re, ,

,
. ,
R
- , . .
/
U
/ ,
, Rs R&.
,
.
,
,
, . 10.12. ,
/ ? 2
(
)
0

c0

685

+ AQ] +

= S'[Ae -R Ai -R(Ai

+ -~ l e*

t ( i + ia) Rj^ ia] ,

Ri

= 5" [ el - R -R{Ai'
6

~-[ eK

+ A Q] +

Re^C--R(^ia

^Q R

A <aj

, (10.18)
(10.35) ,
( ) = R A i' R
2

( R = ),

(10.36)

:
( )

2- Rg I [Ri + 2 (1 + ( ) / ? ] * + |/?, + (1 +

2/?) + R ] ]
a

+ ,) /? + (10.37)
/?]

W + (1 + () ( + 2/?) + R \ [Ri + (1

, (10.34),
(10:38)
R

U l

t +

(\ .)R
+P

, ,
Ri +

20+(i)Rx

Ri + Q + v) (R

+ 2/?) +

(10.39)

+
Ra

, "'
-

,
,
0

2{\ +

1+

K )x\E'
dV

a0

(1 + f-) (Rn .+ 2/?) -f- Ra


Ri

(10.40)

R*
. 10.12.
. 10.11,

( )
2

(10.41)

R + R
-

R /? .
(. 10.11).

(10.39) (10.40),
, R

- .
686

, ,
. 10.11 ([J. = 7, R ^z23 ) U
+ 10%, - (10.9), (10.39),
(10.40) (10.41), x = - A S / S = 0,2 = ( ./,) = 0,1,
: (A Ui) = 0,055
( Mi) = + 0,049 . R ,
. , R = 0,
( A i ) ( A i ) , =0.
(Ai) = + 0,024 (. . 2,3
, R=^0 ( A i ) = 0,165 (. . 3,4
, R^0).
,
R ,
<, (A Ui) ,
( , * ) .
( ^) ,
R, ,
- (10.40), ( A i )
. ,
R = R = R R = R , = R ,
, , , R
,
/ S .
i


(. 10.11) ,
RT,
, ,
, (,
Rs R ).
(
)
, ,

. ,
, ,
. .


(. 10.13), ,
Hi ,
(,
, . 10.9
' ) . ,
s

!) , , , /?
,
; R R .
9

687

,
.
,
R = R R = R :
rI

,
(l+n)ffe

1+-

(1 + ) (R

1+

Ri

Ri

S R ~
y

(10.42)

+Rb)

/?

[R + (1

+ n)

(1 + H)

(/

+ *e)l ^7
(10.43)

2(1+1*)

R/
2*

(.44)

(1 +

1+-

+RJ
Rt



(10.18).

. 10.13.

. 10.14.

,
,
(. 10.14).


,
, ,
7\ . 688
2

,
, ,
.
,
,

,
, . .

.
R5 R&, R
R
.
\ ,


() 0 ,
, (
, , . .
).
R = Rj
R6 = Rs = R
:

I r t

(10.45)

S =-^ =
v

(1 +P)R

2R

IS

+ Rf

C D

C> A2
"1

(10.46)

*0

1+
2 [R ,
iX

(10.47)

(I + )

RK

Ri
+ |i R x

j A

nQ

(10.48)

( i)

P [Ri

+ +

RA

(10.49)

1
Ri

,
62, U = 120 , U = 1 ,
/ ^ 0,8 , ( = 97,5, /? = 80 ,
R = , # = 1,2 , = , = =0,1, = 0,05, = 0,1
a0

c0

(/ /(; = 0,1) = 24 (AWlo = 0,1),


- (10.45) (10.49) : =
= /2 = 48,7, ( ) = 9 (
= 48 .

U l

44-237

689

10.1.7.
= " / 1 S =
= t /i ( Kt = ta/t'i)
.
- ,

.

: .
(
, )



]

(. 10.15)

0
.
. 10.15.

,

, , " ,


,
X,
U , .
:
. 10.15
y

bU, = b U - t f o i .
e

(.50)

. 10.156
tf*=^2-*!.

(.51)


)
6)
. 10.16.




,

, ,
.
,

690

(. 10.16),
, ,
, .

,
,
,
U
. 10.15.
, . 10.17,
R ,
(
) R ,
' < 0 .


U ,
, . 10.17 ,
don

ce

f 0

cQ2

a0

= E -R (/
a0

+ I),

a0

(.52)

U =U' -R I,
c0

a0

(10.53)

ct

U = + R l.
cQ

(10.54)

I (10.52) (10.54)

. , 250 , = 150 , =3
,
/ = 1 , R = 150 , R = 2 , U' ^90e, /=0,074
R ^ 1,2 .


.


R R,

1 -
_
Ren R >
. 10.17.
R
R ,
.

1,5 2 .

0

a0

ce

ce

cs

44*

691

v/R /(Ri +

Ra (Rce +
Ra +

Rc)

Rce +

Ra (Rce +

Rc

Rc

Rc)

c e

Ri
Ra +

Rce +

Rc

. e.
f-Ra

(10.55)

=
Ri
(Ri +

Ra)
Rc

RcQ

+RilRa)

, R = 50 , /? = 150 , R = 1,2 , R = 2
1,6 , .


,

(.
, 10.18). ~ w /
^*[ '
v'f'm R
_^_ UjI , , ,
. 10.18.

, (10.55)
R , 0 ,

,
t

ce

cs

(10.56)

=
1+

^ + ^
Ra

Rc

,

, R ,

, ,
-3 (U = 4865 / 1 ).


, R

,
l/R ^0,
. .
[52].
,

, a

ce

692

, ,
.

(. 10.19)
,

/ = ^ =
<^
,
(10.57)
"1

Ri + (l + y)R

+ 2(Ree + Re)

,
(/ i = I + 0>
. 10.19.


, / ,
U R .
fl0

A0

// I

.2

. 10.19.

. 10.20.

( 10.20)

,
(10.58)

= =
1

1 +

Rn+Ri:
Ra

Rn

1 + ^

Rc

4-

Rjj

Rc

R' R"
/ 2 / >
.

693



,.0 .
, ,
, :
. 10.17
Rt + Rce ( l

+ ^

(10.59)
(iR

. 10.18
(10.60)
SRc

' 10.19
[/?,-+(!

(A"i)

j.

2R ]bE

+ L)R

ce

(10.61)

, , . 10.20
Ril + Ri;

Rn

+ Ri, + Rce

1+

Ra

(10.62)

10.1.8.
.
. ,
, S . . .

, 2 3;
, 4 5 [52, 59, 77, 78].


, ,
.

()


.

, ,
/, 2 0 , . . KNO,.,

S =
Nd

694

(10.63)

,
:
(")

(A2i),-

(") ,

8 1

(10.64)

-( " )

( , , ) , , (

(4"2l) .-

(10.63) (10.64)
, 1
( ). S
:
y

=^

N0

(10.65)

S = - = ,- ->K _ S
u,
v

(N

Na

(.66)

(
) ,

. ,
,

,
.
.
- ,
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3. . . . . .
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4. . . .
. , 1, 1949.
5. . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. , 1955.
6. . . .
. . .
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7. . . . , . 1. . , , 1928.
8. . . . . , 1932.
9. . . .
, 1948.
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11. . . - . . , 1936.
12. . . . .
;, . 1, . 1, 1931.
13. . . . ! . , . IV, . 9,10, 1934.
14. . . . IX. , 11, 1935.
15. . . . , . V I , . 8, 1935.
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6, 1941.
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25. . . . , . 1 . 0 , 1937
26. (
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27. . . .
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28 . . .
. , 7, 1948.
29. . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . , . . .
. . . 1951.
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. , 10, 1637.
34. . . , . . , . . .

. , 3, 133.
35. . . . . .
. ,
, X I I I , 6,1952.
36. D u e r d o t h W . . Some consideration' in the Design of Negative-Feed
back Amplifiers*. Proc. I E E , vol. 97. 47, May 1950, p. 138158.
37. . M . .
. , 5, 1952.
38. . . .
- . , 4, 1953.
. . . .
. , 5, 1952.
40. . . . 2968 31.5. 1927, , 10,.
1929.
41. . . . .
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42. . . .
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43. . . . . , 1931.
44. . . . -
. , 11, 1936.
45. . . .
. . , 1947.
46. . . . . , 1952.
47. . . .
. , 3, 1941.
48. . . . . , 1952.
49. S c h a f f e r . R . , D. . Amplifier Using A i r Coupled Chopper, Electronics, vol, 23, 3, March 1950, p. 104105.
50. ( .). . II. , 1951.
51. L i s t o n M . D . , Q u i n n . , S a r g e a n t
W.E., S c o t t G. G.
A Contact Modulated Amplifier to Replace Sensi'ive Suspension Galvanometers, Rev.
Sc. lnstr, vol. 17, 5, May 1946, p. 194198.
52. . . . .
, 1952.
53. . . . .
, . V I , . 2, 1936.
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54. . ' . .
. , . X I X , . 8, 1949.
55. . . . (. , 1955.
56. M c i n t o s h F. ., G o w G . J . New 50-watt Amplifier Circuit, Audio
Engineerings, vol, 33, 12, Dec. 1949,p. 911.
57. . . M e . . .

. , . I l l , , 7, 1933.
58. . . . . .
. , . IV, . 1, 1934.
59. . . . , 1953.
60. . . ^. ^ .
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61. 3. . ' ' . .
. , 7, 1933.
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62. 3. . , . . , . . -
. . . , , 1 1 ,
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63. . . . , ' ,
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64. N y q u i s t . Regenerat ion Theory*. BSTJ, vol. X I , 1, 1932, p. 126147.
65. . . . . , 12, 1938.
66. - T u n g S a h . Quasi Transients in Class . Audio- Frequency PushPull Amplifiers*. P I R E , vol. 24, 11, Nov, 1933, p. 15221541.
67. . . , . . - A . M . '. , , 2, 1940.
68. . . .
. , 3, 1947.
69. ' t s o n A . , S i n c l a i r D . . Single-Ended Dush-Pull Audio-Ampli
fiers, P I R E vol. 40, 1, Jan, 1952. p. 711.
70. A . M . a p . ,
.
, 2, 1947.
71. .
, 7, 1950.
72. (). . , 1952.
73. . . . . ,
1954.
74. . . . . 1, 1941.
75. . . . . , 1956,
76. . . . . , 1954.
77. . , . 1, 1951.
78. . , . 111, 1954.
79. . . . .
, 10, 1949.
80. . . .
. . 1952.
81. . . . , 1954.
82. . . . . , 1948.
83. . . .
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84. . . . . , 1955
85. . . . . ,
1940.
86. . . .
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87. . . . .
, 1940.
88. . . . ' . , 1955.
89. . . . . , 1955.
90. . .
. , 1949.
91. . . .
. , 10, 1934.
92., . . .
. , 3, 1937.
93. . . . "'
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94. . . . . , 9,
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. , 1954.
96. . . , 1656.
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