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..

..

Cn

s(t)
T

0
2
2

sin x
x

f1

621.37(075)
841-0173
214
:

,
..

,
..

214

, ..
: /
.. . : - . . . -, 2009.
176 . 100 . ISBN 978-5-8265-0833-6.
,
, ,
, , .
, .
.

.

621.37(075)
841-0173

ISBN 978-5-8265-0833-6 "


" (), 2009

" "

..


-
, ,
,
210303 ""
210200 " "


2009

..
..
25.02.2009
60 84/16. 10,23 . . . 100 . 87
-
392000, , , 106, . 14

(.. , 1895) - ,
, , .
,
, , : , , , , , ,
, , . , , .

, ,
, , - . ,
.
, , . , ,
, , . , -
. ,
, , . . , , . , ..
. ,
, , ,
, .
,
. , , .
, , .
.
, ,
, ,
.
. . " "
, "
", " ", " " ..

1.

- , , .
: .
, .
#1. . .
,
:
) ;
) ;
) , .
#2. . .
. , , 1 . (
).
, , .
#3. . , .
, .
,
, ,
(). , , . , , , ,
, .
- ,
: , , ..
1.1.
. , , , ,
.
, . ,
u (t ) = U m sin (t + ) ,

U m ; = 2f ; .
, ,
, ,
.
, , .
, , , . .
. - . , u (t ) , .
. , :

r
u (t ) = { u1 (t ), u 2 (t ), ..., u N (t ) } ,
N .

.
, .
, , , . ,
, .
, , .
#4. . () , .
x(t ) , :
p(x ) =

1
2

x2
2 2

p(x ) ; ; 2 ,
.

:
s (t ) + n(t ) .
.
,
.
. ,

s (t ) = s (t + T ) .

. s(t),
.
,
. ,
.
(. 1.1, ) (. 1.1, ).
T

, . , , ,
, .
. s (t ) ,
t.
u (t )
ub (t )
U b (t )

U b (t )cos(0t + )

U b (t )
cos(0t + )

)
. 1.1

ti 1 ti ti +1

. 1.2
, s (ti ) (. 1.2).
, t = ti +1 ti .

. ( ).
t . t , ,
, t
.
( ),
(t )max , t (t )max .
,
s (ti ) . , , . , 8- (1- ) 128 ,
.
1.2. .



, .. ,
.
, , , .
, , " ".
T , s (t ) s (t ) :
s (t )

s (t )

s (t ) = Ts (t )
, T ,
.

1.2.1.
.
, ,
. , s (t ) = Ts (t ) ,
s (t t 0 ) = Ts (t t 0 )

t .
.
, ( ).
.
, T :
T (s1 (t ) + s2 (t )) = Ts1 (t ) + Ts2 (t ),

T (s (t )) = Ts (t ).

,
, , .. .
, .
#5. .
du (t )
d

T = + , .. u (t ) = + u (t ) .
dt
dt

, .
#6. .
du (t )
d

T = + t , .. u (t ) = + tu (t ) .
dt
dt

, .
#7. .
T =[

]2 ,

2
(t ) .
.. u (t ) = u

, .

.
.
, , .
, . 1.1.

1.1

1. ,

0, t <

(t ) = 1 , t =
2

1
,
t>

1
0

0, t <
t=
0, t >

(t ) = ,

2. -

(t ) dt = 1

3.

cos(t + )

T = 1/f

sin(t + )

1
0

= 2f
j

4. -

e jt

Im

Re

j
Im

e pt ,

5. -

p = + j

Re

Im

>0

<0

Re

s(t)
.

1.2.2.
(t )
(t )
. 1.3.

s(t)

s
s2

s3

s1
s0

2 3

. 1.3

s(t) :
s (t ) s0 (t ) + ( s1 s0 ) (t ) + ( s 2 s1 ) (t 2 ) + ... =
= s0 t (t ) +

(s K s K 1 ) (t k).
k =1

, k .
ds
(sk sk1) ds =
d ,
d
:

ds
(t ) d .
d
0

s (t ) = s(0) (t ) +

1.2.3.
- (t ).
- (t ) . 1.4.
s(t)
s
s4
s3
s2
s1
s0

1(t) 2(t) 3(t)


0(t)
0

. 1.4

(1.1)

k-
k (t ) = sk [(t tk ) (t tk )] .

s (t) :
s (t )

sk

k =

(t t k ) (t t k )
.

0, , -, , -, tk , -,

(t ) (t )
= (t ) .
0

lim

s (t ) =

s() (t ) d .

(1.2)

, - ,
, -. -. , :
d
= (t ) ,
dt

.. - .
1.2.4.
( )
1.2.4.1.
. s(t) .
[t1, t2] :
t2

E s (t1 , t 2 ) = s 2 (t ) dt .
t1

,
T /2

Es ,T =

(t ) dt .

T / 2

,
:
s (t ) =

a0
+ (an cos n1t + bn sin n1t )
2 n=1

(1.3)

T /2

2
an =
s (t ) cos(n1t ) dt ;
T T / 2

T 2
2

bn =
s (t ) sin(n1t ) dt ,
T T / 2

T /2

a0 =

2
s (t ) dt ;
T T / 2

(1.4)

1 =

2
.
T

n = 2, 3, ,

a0

2

.
, (1.3)
:
s (t ) =

a0
+
An cos (n1t + n ) ,
2 n=1

(1.5)

bn
n- .
an
(1.5) s, s(t),
( ) 1.5.

An = an2 + bn2 n- ; = arctg

1
1
2

a0
2

3
2

4
0

1 21 31 41

21 31 41

. 1.5

,
.
#8. . s(t)
.
s

/2

/2

/2

/2

a0 1
=
2 T
T
q = ;

T /2

Adt = A T = q ,

T 2


sin n
n
2
2A

T.
an =
A cos(n1t ) dt =
sin 1 = 2 A

T T / 2
n
2
T
n
T
T /2

bn = 0.


sin n

cos(n t ) .
s (t ) = A 1 + 2
1

n =1
n

(1.6)

sin x
(. 1.6).
x

2A
q
A
q

1 2 3 4 1

T T T T

. 1.6

, 90 % s(t) 0

1
(

1
2
sin x
).

( ),
x

95 % .
, / .
. /.
. ,
.
, . / , .
/ :

/ [] = 10 lg ( P / P ) .
, / = 20 , c / P = 100 . , /
"" . 20 .
/. , / = 10 , 10
.
/ ?
.

1
, 90 %

. 10 % .
:

#8.

.. "".
,

1
.

Pc
.
P
. 95 %
, ( ).
( " " ,
P
). , c 5 %, P
. , / , . 1
, .

.
sin(n1t ) cos(n1t )

/ =

e jn1t .
s (t ) =

Cn e jn t ,

(1.7)

n =

(1.8)

Cn =

1
T

T /2

S (t ) e

(1.7)

jn1t

dt .

(1.8)

T / 2

2
.
T
(1.7) . Cn .

, 1 =

: (1.7) , C n = C n* .
, . (1.7) :
C n e jn1t + C n e jn1t = C n e j (n1t + n ) + C n e j (n1t + n ) =
= 2 C n cos(n1t + n ),

, (1.5).
#8:

C0 =

1
T

Adt = A T ;

Cn =

1
T

Ae

jn1t

A e
n

dt =

jn1

e
2j

jn1


sin n

T
=A

T
n
T

s (t ) = A
T

n =


sin n
T e jn1t .

n
T

(1.9)

(. 1.7).
Cn

s(t)
T

0
2
2

sin x
x

f1

. 1.7

. 1.7 . 1.6, , ,
.
1.2.4.2.
. T .
(1.3) (1.7) , n1

. , , : , ..

2
s (t ) dt < + .

s (t ) =

1
S () e jt d ,
2

(1.10)

S () =

s(t )e

jt

dt ,

(1.11)

S () .
(1.10), (1.11) (1.7), (1.8) .

-, (1.7), (1.10).
-, Cn .
S () ;

: S () d , , -

(, + d) .

#9. . s (t ) A .

s
A

S () = A e

2 .
dt = A cos(t j sin t ) dt = 2 A cos t dt = A

0
2
2

jt

sin

. 1.8.
S(f)

s(t)

sin x
x

. 1.8

. 1.8 . 1.7, , C n ( ), S () .
1.7, 1.8 : sin x

, 1, x
0,21, +0,13, 0,09 ..
2

sin x

, , 90 % . x
1
1
, + .

, = 1 (1 , +1 ).
,
. ,
f 1 ,

f (!) , .

1. . s1 (t ) s 2 (t ) , s1 (t ) S1 () , s 2 (t ) S 2 () , :

as1 (t ) + bs 2 (t ) aS1 () + bS 2 () ,

a, b .
2. . s (t ) ,

s (t ) S () = A + jB , A , B .

3. , . s (t ) S () .

s (t t 0 ) :
s (t t 0 ) S ()e jt0 .

4. . s (t ) S () . , ..

ds
dt

:
ds
jS () .
dt

, j .
5. . s (t ) S () . , ..

s(t )dt

s(t )dt
..

1
S () ,
j

1
.
j

6. . s (t ) , s (t ) S () .
:

ES =

s 2 (t ) dt =

1
2
S () d ,
2

.. .
. s (t )
s (t ) = A0 +

An cos(n1t + n ) .
n =1

S (t )
T /2

ES =

An2
,
s 2 (t ) dt = T A02 +

n =1 2

T / 2

A0 ; An - .
1 , s (t ) .

() :

T /2

P =

An2
1
;
s 2 (t ) dt = A02 +
T T / 2
n =1 2

A02 +

U =

An2, ,
n =1

An2, =

An2

.
2
.
7. .
s (t ) = s (t ) cos( 0t + 0 ),

s (t ) , .
s (t ) S (). s (t ) :

s (t )

1 j 0
1
e S ( 0 ) + e j0 S ( + 0 ) .
2
2

sp (t ) s (t ) . 1.9.

, =0 = 0 , .

|S |

|0|

|S |

1
S
2

|0|

1
S
2

. 1.9

1.2.5.

. e jt

e pt , p = + j ,
, . ,
, (t ).
s(t), s(t) = 0 t < 0, t 0 , ..
s (t ) A exp(at ),

, .

S ( p ) = s (t ) e pt dt .
0

s(t) , S(p) .

(1.12)

, S(p) p, Re (p) > a.


.
p (1.12) p = + j.
, = 0, (1.12) . , . .
,
c + j

s (t ) =

1
S ( p) e pt dp,
2j c j

(1.13)

, (. 1.10).
Im(p)

S(jw)

S(p)

Re(p)

. 1.10

, . , a < 0.
, s(t) S(),
S(p). , .. S().

1. .
s1 (t ) S1 ( p) s 2 (t ) S 2 ( p ),

as1 (t ) + bs 2 (t ) aS1 ( p) + bS 2 ( p) .

2. , .
s (t ) S ( p),

s (t t 0 ) e pt0 S ( p) .

3. .
s (t ) S ( p),

ds
pS ( p) s (0) .
dt

4. n- .
s (t ) S ( p),

d ns
dt n

p n S ( p) p n 1s (0) p n 2 s (0) ... ps n 2 (0) s n 1 (0) .


#10. . .
s (t ) = exp ( p0t ) (t ),

p0 = 0 + j0 .
- s(t) = 0 t < 0.
(1.12),

S ( p) = e

( p p0 )t

e ( p p0 )t
dt =
p p0

t =

.
t =0

Re (p) > 0, .
e p0t (t )

1
.
p p0

.
)
e t (t )

1
.
p+

)
e j0t (t )

1
.
p j 0

)
(t )

1
.
p

#11. . -.
s (t ) = (t t 0 ).

S ( p ) = (t t 0 )e pt dt = e pt0 .
0

,
(t t 0 ) e pt0 .

, t0 = 0 (t ) 1 .

1.3.
#1.
u(t)

, .
#2.
u(t)
2U
U

#3. (1.1)
u (t ) = e t (t ) ,

= .
#4. , R = 1
u (t ) = 10e

t
1

(t ), .

#5. #1 : U = 100 , = 10 .
#6. ,
#5 20 .
#7. U m cos 1t ,
U0.
#8. #7 0, 1 , 21 .
#9. u (t ) = Ue t (t ) ,
.
#10. - u (t ) = U(t ) .
#11.

U
0

#12. - u(t) = t

#13.
u(t)
U
0

2.

, .. , , -, , -, .
2.1.

2.1.1. (t).

, , (t ) . ,
g (t ) , (t ) :
g (t ) = T(t ) .

, , ..
g (t t 0 ) = T(t t 0 ) .

: , :
g (t ) = 0 t < 0 ,

.
2.1.2. (t).

(t ) . ,
h(t ) , (t ) :
h(t ) = T(t ) .

,
h(t t 0 ) = T(t t 0 ) ,

.. .
, , :
h(t ) = 0 t < 0 .

2.1.3.
jt.
,
U& e jt U& e jt . U&

U& .
U&
K& = .
U&

.
K& () K& ( j) .
:
K& ( j) = K& ( j) e jk () .

K& ( j) - . k ()
- .

K& ( j) = K& * ( j) .

, , .
2.1.4.
t.

U ( p ) e pt -

U ( p ) e pt .

U ( p )
. K ( p ) ,
U ( p )
, .
,
.
:

K ( p ) =

h(t ) =

dg (t )
, g (t ) = h( ) d .
dt
0
t

(2.1)

:
K& ( j) =

jt
h(t )e dt , h(t ) =

1
K& ( j) e jt d .
2

(2.2)

, p = j ,
..

K& ( j) = K ( p )

p = j

(2.3)

(2.1). , h(t ) = T(t ) .

d(t )
d(t )
, h(t ) = T
.
dt
dt
,

(t ) =

h(t ) =

d
(T(t )) = d g (t ) ,
dt
dt

!
2.2. , ,

2.2.1.

, , , , , .
s (t ) = (t ) , , , g (t ) .
h(t ) .
, s (t ) = sin t ,

s (t ) = K () sin (t + ()) .

,
K& () . ,
K& ( j) . , , - .
2.2.2.
,
s(t) s(t)
s

,
s
an

d n s
dt

+ a n 1

d n 1s
dt

n 1

+ ... + a1

ds
+ a0 s =
dt
= bm

d ms
dt

+ ...b1

ds
+ b0 s ,
dt

(2.4)

ai , bi .
s , ,

f (t ) .

- :

an

d n s
dt

+ ... + a1

ds
+ a0 s = f (t ) .
dt

(2.5)

.
s (t ) = (t ) , (2.5) .
.
#1. . RC-
R
u

u = u iR , i = C

duC
du
= C , ,
dt
dt
u = u RC

du
.
dt

,
RC

du
+ u = u .
dt

u (t ) , g (t )
RC

dg
+ g = (t ) .
dt


g = g + g ,
g ; g .
g

RCk + 1 = 0 ,
k =
g = Ae

t
RC

1
.
RC

. g = Ae

t
RC

+ g .

, t . g = 1 , ,
,
g (t ) = Ae

t
RC

+1

A g (0 ) = 0 . A = 1 . ,

1 e RC t 0,
g (t ) =
0
t < 0

g (t ) = 1 e RC

(t ) .

g (t ) , .
dg (t )
1 RC
h(t ) =
=
e
(t ) .
dt
RC
t

(2.4) K& ( j) . (2.4) s (t ) = e jt , s (t ) = K& ( j) e jt .

j t

an ( j)n K& ( j) + ... + a1 ( j) K& ( j) + a0 K& ( j) = bm ( j)m + ... b1 ( j) + b0 ,

b ( j)m + ... b1 ( j) + b0
.
K& ( j) = m n
a n ( j) + ... + a1 ( j) + a0

(2.6)


K ( p) =

bm p m + ... b1 p + b0
an p n + ... + a1 p + a0

(2.7)

: (2.6) p = j .
, (2.4) K ( p )
.
p1... p n K ( p ) . z1...z m
.
K 0 , (2.7),
K ( p) = K0

( p z1 )( p z 2 )... ( p z m )
( p p1 )( p p2 )... ( p pn )

(2.8)

(2.4)
: , - .
: p1... p n
Ai e pi t s (t ) . , pi p .

#2. . #1.
RC

du
+ u = u .
dt


K ( p) =

1
.
RCp + 1

p1 =

1
, RC

.
#3. . RC-
C

u = Ri = RC

d (u u )
,
dt


RC

du
du
+ u = RC .
dt
dt


K ( p) =

RCp
.
RCp + 1

, ,
K& ( j) =

jRC
.
1 + jRC

2.2.3.

K& ( j) K ( p ) ,
. u , u U& , U& ,
R, L, C Z R = R , Z L = jL , Z C =

e jt , .
#4. . #3:

1
, jC

j
U
= U
= I R, I =
.
1
1 + jRC
R+
i

jRC
U
jRC
= U
, K ( j) =
.
=
1 + jRC
1 + jRC
U

.
U(p), I(p), R, L, C
1
.
Z R = R, Z L = pL, Z C =
pC
#5. . #3.
.
U ( p ) = I ( p ) R , I ( p ) =

U ( p ) = U ( p)

U ( p )
pC
= U ( p)
,
1
1 + pRC
R+
pC

U ( p)
pRC
pRC
, K ( p) =
.
=
1 + pRC
U ( p ) 1 + pRC

2.3.

2.3.1.
g(t)
s (t ) - - (1.1):

s (t ) = s (0)(t ) +
0

ds
(t ) d .
d

ds
s (t ) = Ts (t ) = T s (0) (t ) + (t ) d .
d

s (t ) = s (0)T(t ) +
0

ds
T(t ) d ,
d

s (t ) = s (0) g (t ) +
0

ds
g (t ) d .
d

g(t) = 0 t < 0,
t:

s (t ) = s (0) g (t ) +
0

ds
g (t ) d .
d

.
#6. . RC-
R

u(t)
U

u
0

.
1. -
u (t ) = U(t ) U(t ) .

2. u (t ) = Ug (t ) Ug (t ) = U [g (t ) g (t )] .
3.
, #1:

RC
g (t ) = 1 e

(t ) .

4. g(t) ,
t
t

RC

u (t ) = U 1 e
(t ) 1 e RC

(t ) =

U 1 e RC
0 t < ,

t


RC e
RC

U
1
e

t .

#7. . RC- .
u

U
0

.
1. -

u (t ) =
t

2. u (t ) =
0

du
(t ) d U(t ) .
d
0

du ()
g (t ) d Ug (t ) .
d

(2.9)

3.
t

g (t ) = 1 e RC (t ) .

t
t

du ()
1 e RC (t ) d U 1 e RC

d
0

u (t ) =

(t ) .

4. :
) 0 < t < . (t ) = 0 ,

U
u (t ) =
1 e RC

0

d = U RCe RC e RC

=
0

t RC 1 e RC .

du ()
= 0 (0, ), d
t .
) t .

u (t ) =

U
1 e RC

d U 1 e RC

U
RCe RC e RC
=


U
=
RCe RC 1 e RC


RC
= U 1
1 e RC

U 1 e RC

U 1 e RC

t
e RC .


u(t)
U

RC
u ( ) = U 1
1 e RC

2.3.2.
h(t)
s (t ) - (1.2)

s() (t ) d .

s (t ) =

s (t ) = Ts (t ) = T s () (t ) d =

s () T(t ) d = s () h(t ) d.

, h(t) = 0 t < 0,
t

s (t ) =

s () h(t ) d .

(2.10)

, (2.9), .
#8. . #6 .

.
1.

RC-, #1:
t

h(t ) =
t

2.

u (t ) =

3.

1 RC
e (t ) .
RC

u ()

1 RC
e
(t ) d .
RC

u () = 0 < 0 , 0:
t

u (t ) =

1
u () e RC d .

RC 0

:
)

0 t < .
t

1
u (t ) =
Ue RC d = Ue RC e RC

RC 0

= U 1 e RC

)
t . u () = 0 (0, ) ,
t .
1
u (t ) =
RC
= Ue

Ue

t
RC d

= Ue

t
RC e RC

t
RC

e RC 1 = U 1 e RC

t
e RC .

U 1 e RC
0 t < ,


u (t ) =

t .
U 1 e RC e RC

, , , #6, .

2.3.3. K ( j)
s (t ) :

s (t ) =

1
S ()e jt d ,
2

S () .

K ( j) .
,

s (t ) =

1
K ( j) S () e jt d .
2

(2.11)

, K ( j) S () .
,

S () = K ( j) S () .

(2.12)

(2.11), (2.12) .
, :

K ( j)
s (t )

S ()

S ()

s (t )

#9. . ()

F
u(t)

U
/2 0

/2

.
1.

K ( j) = 1
0

2.

< 2F ;
2F 2F ;
> 2F .

2 .
S () = U

2
sin

3.

4.

sin

2
S () = K ( j) S () = U

< 2F ;
2F 2F ;
> 2F .

2 F
sin
1
2 e jt d .
u (t ) =
U

2 2F

2.3.4.
K ()


.
, :

K ( p)

s (t )

S ( p)

S ( p )

u (t )

S ( p) = K ( p) S ( p),

pt
u (t ) =
S ( p) e dp.
2j c j

c + j

#10. . RC- #1.

(2.13)

. s (t ) = (t ) . .
1. - :

S ( p ) = 1 .

2.

#2:

K ( p) =

3.

S ( p) = K ( p) S ( p) =

4.

1
RCp + 1

1
1
1
=
.
RCp + 1 RC p + 1
RC

1
:
p p0

1
e p0t (t ) .
p p0

s (t ) = h(t ) =

1 RC
e
(t ) .
RC

2.1

()

(t )

h(t ) = T(t )

s (t ) =

s ()(t ) d

(t )

g (t ) = T(t )

s (t ) = s (0) g (t ) +

s (t ) = s (0) (t ) +

s () h(t ) d

s (t ) =

ds
+ (t ) d
d
0

+
0

ds
g (t ) d
d

. 2.1

()

K ( j) =
e jt

K ( j )

arg K ( j)

s (t ) =

1
S ()e jt d,
2

s (t ) =

1
K ( j)
2

S ()e jt d,

S () =

s (t ) e

j t

dt

S () = K ( j) S ()

e pt
p = + j
c + j

c + j

1
s (t ) =
S ( p)e pt dp
2j c j

S ( p ) = s (t )e
0

K ( p) =

U ( p)

U ( p)

s (t ) =

1
K ( p)
2j c j

S ( p )e pt dp ,

, pt

dt

S ( p ) = K ( p ) S ( p )

2.3.5.

s (t )

s (t ) = Ts (t )

h(t ) =

dg (t )
;
dt

g (t ) = h() d ;
0

K ( j) =

h(t )e

j t

dt ;

h(t ) =

1
K ( j) e jt d ;
2

K ( j) = K ( p)

p = j

2.4.

#1.

#2. #1.
#3. , u u ,

#4. K ( j) K(p) #3.


#5. #1

u(t
U
0

#6. #5, .
#7.

U
0

#8. K ( j)

R1

R2

#9. K ( j) #8 R1C1 = R2C2.


#10.

#11. #1 -


u (t ) = Ue t (t ) ,

.
#12. #11 s (t ) .

#13. K ( j)
+12

R
4,7
u

R
4,7
u

IK, Q = 1 A

100

3.

. , , , . ,
, .
.
,
, . , .
#1. . , .
u (t) ,
u (t ), .
. ,
, " " (
). ,
( )
.
, ""
. , , . .
3.1.

u(t) u (t ) () u (t):

Bu () =

u (t ) u (t ) dt .

(3.1)

: (3.1) , ,
, .
:
) = 0
Bu (0) = Eu ;
)
Bu () = Bu ();
)
Bu () Bu (0) = Eu ;

) ( 2

u(t) Wu () = U () ):

Bu () =

1
2
U () ei d .
2

(3.2)

Wu () = U ()

Bu ()e

d .

(3.3)

: (3.2) -

u (t ) =

1
U () ei d
2

, ,
. ,
, , -
. ,
,
.
#2. . U .
. u(t) :

u(t)
U

u(t

(3.1) .

2

,
U 1

Bu () =

> .
0

, :

Bu(
U 2 =

, . = .
3.2.

(3.1) .
:

Bu () =

1
T

u (t ) u(t ) dt ,

(3.3)

.
Bu(0) .
(3.3) .
3.3.

. , .
,
. .
: 0, +1 1.
( );
1 , 1; 1 ,
0.
:
, , 1 1 1, , , , 2
, ..
.
{1, 1,1}. 3.1.

U
)

=0

=0

t
)

. 3.1

) +1 U , 1
U . , ,
, .
) +1 , 1 . , , .
, , .
3.1, :
0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

n ,
Bu (n ) =

ui ui n .

(3.4)

i =

n .
, , :
Bu (n ) = Bu ( n ) .

Bu (0 ) =

U i2 = Eu .

i =

#3. . u = {1, 1,1} .


. , 1, 2 3 :

, n = 3 . (3.4),
Bu (0 ) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 ;
Bu (1) = 1 1 = 2 ;
Bu (2 ) = 1 ;
Bu (n n ) = 0 .

1
4

1
1

#4. . {1,1,1} .
, :
Bu (0 ) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 ;
Bu (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 ;
Bu (2 ) = 1 ;
Bu (n n ) = 0 .

3
2

2
1

1
4

#5. . {1,1, 1} .
:
Bu (0 ) = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 ;
Bu (1) = 0 ;
Bu (2 ) = 1 ;
Bu (n n ) = 0 .

2 1
1

2
1

, , {1,1, 1}
.
1950 1960- . () , : n 0 .
, .. Bu (0) , .
= 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 13.
, = 5 {1,1,1,1,1} , = 7 {1,1,1,1,1,1,1} .

3.4.

u (t ) v(t ) . ()
Buv () =

u(t )v(t ) dt .

(3.5)

= 0
Euv = Buv (0 ) =

u(t )v(t ) dt .

, , ..
Buv ( ) Buv ( ) .

, = 0 . .
, :
Buv ( ) =

1
U ()V * () e j d .
2

(3.6)

:
Buv (n ) =

u jv j n .

j =

#6. . u = {1,1,1} v = {1,1,1} .


. u v :

n=0

n =1

n=2

n = 1

n = 2

(3.7) , :
Buv (0) = 1 1 1 = 1 ;
Buv (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 ;
Buv (2) = 1 ;
Buv (n 3) = 0 ;
Buv ( 1) = 1 + 1 = 0 ;
Buv ( 2) = 1 ;
Buv (n 3) = 0 .

(3.7)

2
1
3 2 1

n
0 1
2 3
1
1 v .
,

3.5.
#1. ,

1
1
?
U .
,


#2. ,
u (t ) = Ue t (t ) .
#3.
W ()

W0

.
#4. u = {1,1,1,1,1} .
#5. u = {1,1,1,1,1} .
.
#6. #5 :
) ;
) .
#7. u = {1,1,1,1,1} v = {1,1,1,1,1} .

4.

, , , . , , . ,
, .
.
1. (), = 0
.
2. (),
.
3. () .
4. () (), , ,
.

.
, 3 , .. 2 ,
K0 . K0 :
K0, = 20 lg K 0 .
:
K0, ;
f , ;
, ( (2 )
(10 ) f );
K 0 , ;
, / /;
.
, . :
0 90 % , ;
, %;
, ( , 1 %);
4.1.

. 4.1.

. 4.1


K ( p) =

1
1
,
=
1 + pRC 1 + p

1
.
RC
:
p
.
P=

. 4.1
K ( P) =

1
.
1+ P

1
=
.
,
1 + j

. 4.2 ( ).
K ( j) =

K ( j ) ,
10
3
0


20 /

10
20
30
40

0,01

0,03

0,1

0,3

10

. 4.2
n .

K (P ) =

(1 + P )n

, ,

2 1 .

. 20n /.
( ), , .
, , , , .. , . . . ,
.

K ( P) =

c1 , ..., cn .

K0
1 + c1P + c2 P 2 + ... + cn P n

(4.1)

n 20n /.
c1 , ..., cn . , :
1. .
2. .
3. , , .
, . 4.3, .
. 4.3, .
c1 , c2 , c3 , c4 , n .
(4.1) :
K (P ) =

K0

(1 + a P + b P )(1 + a P + b P ) ...
1

(4.2)

ai , bi . b1
.
K ( j ) ,
10
0
10

20

n=4

30

2
3

40
4

50
60
0,01

0,1

0,03

0,3

10

30

)
g (t )
1,2
1,0
0,8

0,6

n=4

0,4
4
0,2
0

4 t

. 4.3:
1 ; 2 ;
3 ; 4 3 ;
= 2 /

, ai , bi 10 20- . K (P ) (4.2) 2 1- , ( ) .
, (
). 2- .
. , , . 4.4.

R1

. 4.4

:
K ( P) =

1 + RC (3 ) P + ( RC ) 2 P 2

(4.3)

, , ,
. . 4.1.
1
.
: = 3 f 0 =
2RC
:
1) ;
2) RC =

b
.
2 f

4.1

, f = 1

1,287

0,414

1,56

1,362

0,618

1,268

1,27

1,414

1,000

1,586

0,5

1,361

1,383

1,842

0,85

1,181

1,778

2,114

0,74

. 4.1. f =

. RC


RC =

1
.
2 f f

# . f = 1 .

.
1) . 4.1 1,268.
R1 = 10 , ( 1) R1 = 2,68 2,7 .
2) RC

RC =

1
1
=
= 0,125 103 c = 125 .
2 f f 2 1,27 1000

= 10 ,

R=

125 10 6 c
10 8

= 12,5 103 = 12,5 .

. 4.5.

C1

R2
R1

R3

C2

. 4.5


R2
R1
K ( P) =
.

R R
1 + C1 R2 + R3 + 2 3 P + 2C1C2 R2 R3 P 2
R1

(4.4)

(n 3) 1-
2- . , n ai , bi f i / f ( fi
i- ). 4- . 4.2.
4.2

ai

bi

fi / f

1-

0,870

0,189

1,48

2-

0,870

0,189

1,48

1-

1,340

0,489

0,978

2-

0,774

0,389

1,797

1-

1,848

1,000

0,719

2-

0,765

1,000

1,390

1-

2,628

3,434

0,538

0,5

2-

0,365

1,151

1,419

1-

2,403

4,986

0,550

2-

0,237

1,190

1,413

, .
# . 4- f = 1 .

. 1- 2- . 4.2:

1- a1 = 1,340 ; b1 = 0,489; f1 / f = 0,978 ;

2- a2 = 0,774; b2 = 0,389; f 2 / f = 1,797 .

. 4.4.
(4.3),

ai = c RC (3 ), bi = (c RC ) 2 .

bi

RC =

2f

, = 3

ai
bi

R1C1 =

b1

2 f

1 = 3

a1
b1

0,489
2 103

= 3

= 111 ,

1,340
0,489

= 1,09 .

R2C2 =

b2
2 f c

2 = 3

a2
b2

0,389
2 103

= 3

= 100 ,

0,774
0,389

= 1,73 .

C1 = C 2 = 10 ,
R1 =

111 10 6
10 8

= 11,1 11 , R2 =

100 10 6
10 8

= 10 .

. 4.6.
10
11

10

10
10

910

10

11
10

7,5

10

10

. 4.6

, ,
K 0 = 1,09 1,73 = 1,89 .

: . 4.6 , : 1- ( 1 = 1,09 ), 2- 0,5 ( 2 = 1,73 ) (. . 4.1).


4.2.

()
. K()
1/ . (, ..) .
, 2- ,
K ( P) =

2-
K ( P) =

K0
,
1 + 1,414 P + P 2

K0

1/,

K0P2

.
2
P 2 + 1,414 P + 1
1 1
1 + 1,414 +
P P
,

R , RC f 1 / f .
# . 2- fc = 1 .
. . 4.4.
R C . 4.7.
R

( 1)R1
R1

. 4.7

4.1 :
a = 1,362; b = 0,618; = 1,268; f = 1,27.

= 1,268 R1 = 10 ( 1) R1 2,7 .
RC
RC =

= 10 , R =

202 10 6 c
10 8

f
1,27
=
= 202 .
2f c 2 103

= 20,2 20 .

4.3.

, ()
K():
1
1
(4.5)
P + .

P
, .
n- 2n- () = 1 = max min .
P

20n / .
.
, , . 1- , , ,

K ( P) =

K0
,
1+ P

(4.5), 2-
K ( P) =

K 0 P
K0
.
=
1
1 1 + P + P 2
1+
P
+

(4.6)

K
Q=

, .

(4.6) = 1 . (4.6) P = j = j ,
K =

K 0 j
1 + j + j 2

= K0 .

(4.6)
Q=

1
.

2- .
. 4.8.

R
R

( 1)R1

2R

R1

. 4.8

,
1
;
2RC

K =
;
3
1
Q=
.
3
f =

= 3 f .
. 4.8 , K Q . , , . 4.9.

C
R1

R2

R3

. 4.9


f =

R1 + R3
;
R1R2 R3

1
2C

K =

R2
;
2 R1

Q = R2 Cf ;

f =

f
Q

1
.
R2C

, K , f R3 , f ,
R3 , K f . R3 , .. R3 = .

f =

1
2c R1R2

; K =

R2
; Q=
2 R1

:
1) , ;
2) ( << 1 ), 2- .
" ".
4.4.
#1. .
R2
R1

#2. 2- 2 100
.
C

( 1)R1
R1

#3. #2 , ( 2 , f c = 100 ).
#4. 4- < 2 f c = 100 .
#5. #4 1 .
#6. 4- < 2 f c = 100 . 4.7.
K ( P) =

3 1 1 1

1+
+
c RC P c RC P 2

#7. K() 4- ,

K ( P) =

1
1 + aP + bP 2

5.

,
. :
;
, , , ..;
, .
() . () ( ).
: (
), ( 1 ) ( 1 ).
( ), ( ) ( ).
( , , ) , (. 5.1).
U&1

U& 2
K&

&

. 5.1


U&1 = & U& 2 = & K& U&1 ,

& & =1.


K

(5.1)

& & = 1,
K

(5.2)

+ K = 2n .

(5.3)

. ,
. . , , ,
, .
(5.2) (5.3) 0 , .
, .
, , , , ,

& & >1.


K

(5.4)

. - K
( ) (5.2).
(),
, (5.2) .

5.1.

RC- .
, , 4, = 3
1
.
f0 =
2RC
(. 5.2):

2 R1

R1
. 5.2


1
f 0 , = , = 0 .
3
3, .
. R1 , , , . ,
.
LC, . (.
5.3), Z i , .. Z i = jxi .
=

Z3

Z1
x1
=
Z1 + Z 3 x1 + x3

K
Z2

Z1

. 5.3

5.1.1.
( K < 0 )
K < 0 , . , x1 x3 , x1 < x3 . x2 , x1 , , : x1 + x2 + x3 = 0 .
=

x1
x
= 1 .
x1 + x3
x2

, , ,

x
x1
K = 1, .. K = 2 .
x2
x1

K Z1 , Z 2 , Z 3 .

R = k 2 x3 Q ,
k =

x2
; Q , x1 + x2

100.
,
K , .
( )
. 5.4.
R1, R 2, RK , R ( RK -).
C .
+E

RK

R1

R2

C1
R

C 2 >> C1
)
+E
R1

RK

C
L1
R2

C
L 2 << L1

)
. 5.4

(. 5.4, ) .

1
;
0 =
C1C 2
L
C1 + C 2

C2
;
C1 + C 2
C1
;
=
C2

k=

K =

RK || R
,
r

R = k 2 0 LQ .
#1. . . 5.4, L = 15 , C1 = 1 , C 2 = 10 , RK = 10 , Q = 50 . -

f 0 , , K .
.
1

f0 =

2 15 10

110
10 9

1 + 10

= 1,36 ;

1
= 0,1 .
10

, K 10.
:
2

10
6
6
R = k 2 0 LQ =
2 1,36 10 15 10 50 = 5,32 .
+
1
10

R K || R =

10 5,32
= 3,47 .
10 + 5,32

K > 10 , r

3,47
=
10

= 0,347 . ,

I K , Q = 0,5 ,

r =

3,47
= 69,4 .
50
(. 5.4, ) .
1
;
0 =
(L1 + L2 )C

K =

k=

L1
;
L1 + L 2

K =

R =

k2
Q.
0 C

L2
;
L1

RK || R
,
r

0,025 B
= 50 ,
0,5

5.1.2.
( K > 0 )
K > 0 , . x1 x3 . x2 , :
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0 .

x1
>0.
x1 + x3

,
K=

1 x1 + x3
,
=
x1

K Z1Z 2Z 3 .
, , k 1.
R = x2 Q .
L

R1

C
R2

+E

C1
R

C 2 >> C1

R1

RK

C
R2

+E

C1

R
C 2 >> C1

)
. 5.5

( )
. 5.5.
C .
:
0 =

C1C 2
L
C1 + C 2

C1
;
C1 + C 2

K=

RK || R
,
r

R = 0 LQ .
#2. . . 5.5, L = 15 , R = 1 , C1 = 1 , C 2 = 10 , RK = 10 ,
Q = 50 . f 0 , , K .
.

f0 =
2 15 10

110
10 9

1 + 10

= 1,36 ,

1
= 0,091 .
1 + 10
, K 11.
:
=

R = 0 LQ = 2 1,36 10 6 15 10 6 50 = 6,43 ,

R K || R =

10 6,43
= 3,9 .
10 + 6,43

K > 11 , r

3,9
3,9
0,025 B
= 0,355 . , I K , Q = 0,5 r =
= 81 .
= 50 , K =
0,5
50
11

5.1.3.

LC- . (
f
LC- 10 4 ).
f0
, .
.
. 5.6.
C

C0

. 5.6
C0 , L, C , R .
L ( ), C (
), R . C0 . , 4 :
L = 0,1 ; C = 0,015 ; R = 100 ; C0 = 5 .
, . 5.6, :
1
;
1) f S =
2 LC

2) f P =

1
2 L

CC0
C + C0

f0 1 +

C
.
C0

f S f P 0,2 %. f S
, R .
f P (
R ).
Z 4 , , 4 . 5.7.

Z ,
600

10
7

10
6

10
5
10
4

10
3
10
2
10

100

fS

4,02

4,01

4 6

f ,

fP

. 5.7

Q , 3 .
~25 000.
( f S , f P ) ( x > 0 ),
( x < 0 ).
Q , f
106 1010).
(
f0
. 5.8.
+E

RK

R1

C1
R2

C 2 >> C1
. 5.8

RK -.
, 1 2.
f 0 f S f P . C1 , ( f S , f P ) .
5.2.

,
K . -
. , : -
( , ..
). ( ) , .
. 5.9.

U max
U

R2

T
R1

U max

. 5.9

R1R 2
U = U max

R1
;
R1 + R 2

R1
,
R1 + R 2

U = U max

U max ( , ).
+U max , R .
U C RC
U U max . .
U ..
,
R1

= 2 RC ln 1 + 2 .
R2

RA
RB

7
6
2

8
555

+E
3

U
E

2
E
3
1
E
3
0

t1

t2

. 5.10

, R1 = R 2 T 2,2 RC .
555 . 5.10.
1
2
555 E E .
3
3
U = E 7

R A RB (R A + RB ) C . U C 2
E , U = 0 , 7 3
. RB RB C .
1
U C E U = E
3
.. ,
t1 = (R A + RB ) C ln 2 0,7(R A + RB ) C ;

t2 = RBC ln 2 0,7 RBC ;


T = t1 + t 2 0,7(R A + 2 RB ) C .

. 5.11. 74LS14 0,8 1,8 .


R
1

. 5.11

: 0,1 10 . , ,
, R :
100 R 470 .

T 1,4 RC.
. 5.12 - .
T 2,2 RC .
100 , U 0 0,5E 1,5 E .
U

E
U

&

&

100

U0

0
3E 2
E
E 2
0
E/2

U0

. 5.12

1...10
100

20

20

. 5.13

, , 4093.
. 5.13.
20 .
, 110 .
. 5.14.

+E
T1

T2
R3

I0 R1

7
6
2

8
555

U
E
2
E
3
1
E
3

R2

. 5.14
I 0 , 1, 2. 2
E 7
3
1
E , 7 3
. I 0 , . R 2 , , ,
.
5.3.
#1. , f 0 1
, .
3
#2. #1 ,
I K , Q = 0,5 mA .

E 12 .
#3. #2 .
#4. , . 5.9,
12 B , 741 ( 0,5 B
).

c
#5. . 5.12, ?
) ;
) ;
) .
#6. "" . 5.12.

6.

, (, , , ..)
,
. , , , , - .
0 ,
s(t).
, .

u (t ) = U cos (0t + 0 ),

: U , 0 0 .
(), () ().
6.1.

s(t)
U (t ) = U + K s (t ) .

-
u AM (t ) = [U + K A s (t )] cos (0 t + 0 ) .

,
s (t ) = E0 cos (t + 0 ) .

E
uAM (t ) = U 1 + K 0 cos (t + 0 ) cos (0t + 0 ) =
U

= U [1 + m cos (t + 0 )] cos (0 t + 0 ) .
E0
.
U
- . 6.1.

m = K A

Umax
Umin
U
t
U
Umin
Umax

. 6.1

(6.1)

s(t). ,
U min
U
.
m = max
U max + U min
m 0 1. m > 1
.
, (6.1)
u (t ) = U cos (0t + 0 ) +

mU
cos [(0 + ) t + 0 + 0 ] +
2
mU
+
cos [(0 ) t + 0 0 ] .
2

(6.2)

, - : 0
; 0 + ; 0 .
U
mU
2

mU
2

0 +

. 6.2

. 6.2.
:
P =

U 2 (mU / 2) 2 (mU / 2) 2 U 2 (mU ) 2


.
+
+
=
+
2
2
2
2
4

, 100%- (m = 1) 50 % . s(t) , ,
.
-, ,
. , -
0 ,
(. 6.3).
: - .

min

max

0 max

0 min 0 0 + min 0 + max

. 6.3

6.2.

s(t):
(t ) = 0 + K s (t ) .


(t ) = 0 + K E0 cos (t + 0 ) = 0 + cos (t + 0 ) .

= K E0 . -
t

(t ) = (t ) dt +0 = 0t +
0

sin (t + 0 ) + 0 .

, . 0 = 0 = 0
-

m =

u (t ) = U cos (0t + m sin t ) .

(6.3)

:
(m << 1);
(m > 1).
(m << 1). , (6.3):
u (t ) = U cos (m sin t ) cos 0t U sin (m sin t ) sin 0 t .

m , , cos (m sin t ) 1 ; sin (m sin t ) m sin t .


u (t ) U cos 0t U m sin t sin 0t =
mU
mU
cos (0 + ) t
cos (0 ) t .
2
2
, - m << 1 0 = U cos 0t +

0 + 0 , -. , , 180.
, m << 1
.
. , - (6.3)
u (t ) = U

J (m) cos (0 + k) t ,

(6.4)

J (m) - m.
, , J (m) > m + 1
, . , -
(m + 1) 0 . - m = 5 . 6.4.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

. 6.4

m >> 1, -
= 2( m + 1) ~ 2m = 2 , .. .

, - , 2, .. m . - ,
, . -
-.
-, ,
. ,
,
- -,
.
-, -, , ,
.

6.3.
s(t):

(t ) = 0t + K s (t ) .

- , -.
- - .
0 s(t).
0 .
m =
0 .

0 . m =

0 .
- - " ".
6.4.

()
(- -).
:
- (), ;

- (),
;
- (),
;
- (),
, , , () (), 0 1.
, .
.
(). t = 0, :

(t ) = 0 + t .
0 ; .
0
0 +

, 2

. ,
2

= .

- , . ,
. ().
-, , ,
, , , , .
-

B = f ,

.
2
- , .. >> 1.

, 0
, 0 +

2
2

-. f =

. ,
2
, ()
f
0 2 .
, = 10
f 0 = 1 -, 0,99 1,01 . :
= 2 = 20 ;
- =

2
2
=
= 0,1 .
f 1,01 0,99

, - .

6.5.
#1. R = 50 -
i (t ) = 20 [1 + 0,8 cos (2 10 3 t )] cos (2 10 7 t ) , .

.
#2. #1 :
a) , ;
) ;
) , .
#3. F = = 10 . , -, 0 = 30 .
#4. -
(t ) = 108 (1 + 10 3 cos (2 10 4 t )) , 1.

, .
#5. -, F = 6 . f 0 = 100 , f max = 102 .
#6. -, f 0 = 50 , f = 0,5 , F = 4 .
#7. - = 15 f = 80 , f = 120 . . .

7.

. , . , , , ..
. 7.1.

. 7.1

, ()

s = f ( s ) ,

(7.1)

.
s , s
. (7.1)
i = f (u ) ,

(7.2)

() .

i (u ) = a0 + a1 (u U 0 ) + a2 (u U 0 ) 2 + ... + an (u U 0 ) n ,

(7.3)

a0 , a1 , a2 ... ; U 0 .
. ak
ak =

1 d ki
k! du k

.
u =U 0


i (u ) = a0 + a1 (u U 0 ) ,

a1 =

di
du

u =U 0

S .
i (u ) = I 0 + S (u U 0 ) ,

.. , . , S , .
- (. .
7.2).
i

U
0

u
. 7.2

u < U;
0,
i (u ) =
S (u U ), u U .

(7.4)

U ; S .
0,30,8 ; i ( U ) 10 /.
i (U ) . = 100300,
.
, -n ,
i (u ) = I 0 [exp (u / VT ) 1] .

(7.5)

I 0 p-n ; VT , 25 300 .
, , , ,
.

(7.5) -n :
S =

rD =

IQ
VT

VT
,
IQ

I Q .
7.1.

7.1.1.


u (t ) = U 0 + U m cos t ,

U 0 , .

U0
u

Um

. 7.3

. 7.3. , .
:

i(t ) = I 0 +

I n cos nt .
n =1


i (u ) = a0 + a1 (u U 0 ) + a2 (u U 0 ) 2 + ... = a0 + U m cos t + a2U m2 cos t + ... .

cos 2 x =

1
1
(1 + cos 2 x ); cos 3 x = (3 cos x + cos 3x);
2
4

1
cos 4 x = (3 + 4 cos 2 x + cos 4 x) ..,
8

1
3
3
5

i (t ) = a 0 + a2U m2 + a4U m4 + ... + a1U m + a3U m3 + a5U m5 + ... cos t +


2
8
4
8

1
5
1

+ a2U m2 + a 4U m4 + ... cos 2t + a3U m3 + U m5 + ... cos 3t + ... .


2
8
4
16

, I 0 I n
1
3
I 0 =a 0 + a 2U m2 + a 4U m4 + ...;
2
8
3
5
3
I1 = a1U m + a3U m + a5U m5 + ... ;
4
8
1
1
2
I 2 = + a 2U m + a4U m4 + ... ;
2
8
1
5
I 3 = a3U m3 + a5U m5 + ... .
4
16

(7.6)

, (7.3) , .. , , a3 , . (7.6) :
1
a2U m2 ;
2
I1 = a1U m ;
I 0 = a0 +

I2 =

(7.6)

1
a2U m2 ,
2

.
7.1.2.
-
(. 7.4).
, , . . 7.4 ,
cos = (U U 0 ) / U m .

0
u

U0

Um
t

. 7.4

, :

In =

I0 =

SU m
(sin cos ) = SU m 0 ;

I1 =

SU m
( sin cos ) = SU m 1 ;

2 SU m sin n cos n cos n sin


= SU m n , n = 2, 3. ... .

n(n 2 1)

0 , 1 , ..., n i () .
, . . 7.5.
1

0,75

0,5

0
0,25

2
0

45

90

135

180

, .

. 7.5

7.2.

(). , , (, )
.
LC- . 7.6.

+E

L
U

u
U

Um

U0

. 7.6
U 0 , -

. U , I 0 I1 , I 2 .. , 1- ,

U = I1R = SU R 1 () ,

(7.7)

R LC- .
- , LC- R Q (Q ). , ,
. , 2 , 3 .. i u .
7.6.
Um = = f (U ) , (. 7.7).
- , ,
U U .
Um

U m

Um
. 7.7

U > U , , .

-, U - -.
. 7.6 LC- n , .
, . .

U m = SRU m n () ,

(7.8)

R , n- .
n () . , 180o
. n ()
.
n
7.3.

. 7.6 . ,
U 0 . . 7.8.

, .
u = ku1u 2 ,

u1 , u 2 ; k .
i
i

U0
U

U 0 (1 + m cos t )

t
. 7.8

E0 cos t U cos 0t ,

u (t ) = kE0 cos tU cos 0 t =

kU E0
kU E0
cos (0 + ) t +
cos (0 ) t ,
2
2

-.
(). - .
-, 0 ,
, . 7.9.
, .
-
LC- . , LC-, ,
. 7.10.
E 0 cos t
U cos( 0 t )

. 7.9

, 1

, 2

E cos t

R
U0

. 7.10

C L , 0 . R , , 1 , 2 , U 0 LC-.
- "-". , , . -
Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) , ().
7.4.

7.4.1. -
. u (t ) = = U m (1 + m cos t ) cos 0 t , u (t ) = U m ost , .
-
U m
, K =
mU m
-.
- : ( -
) ( , 2- ).

7.4.1.1.

. 7.11.
-

. 7.11

,
0 u < 0;
i (u )
Su u 0,

, U . S 10 /.
, R ,
, .. SR >> 1 .
. 7.11, , . 1
0 ,
<< R .
( 0 )
"" , 1
. ,
>> R . ( )
R :
1
1
<< R <<
.
0

(7.9)

:
K = cos

3 /( SR ) .

R
. 2

.

R =

7.4.1.2.

(K < 1).

(. 7.12).
U ,
90.

u (t ) = U m (1 + m cos t ) cos 0t .
1442443
U (t )

+
R

u
R

u
E

U0

. 7.12


i (t ) =

(t ) n (90 0 ) cos n0 t .
4
SU
14
2443

n =0

In

, (7.9), R , I0 R .
,
u (t ) = E I 0 (t ) R = E SRU (t ) 0 (90 o ) =

= E 0,318SRU m (1 + m cos t ) =
= E 0,318SRU m 0,318SR mU m cos t.


K = 0,318SR .

, R
, K .
7.4.1.3.

, , :
2
i (t ) = a0 + a1u (t ) + a2 u
(t ) .

u (t ) = U m (1 + m cos t ) cos 0t = U (t ) cos 0 t ,

2
2
i (t ) = a0 + a1U (t ) cos 0 t + 0,5a 2U
(t ) + 0,5a 2U
(t ) cos 20 t .

- 0 20 RC. ,
i (t ) = a 2U m2 m cos t +

1
a2U m2 m 2 cos 2t.
4

R
1
a2 RU m2 m 2 cos 2t.
4
, U m2 , - .
, ,
U (t ) = a 2 RU m2 m cos t +

K = 2 RU m .

. K . , 2 ,
,
K . =

m
.
4

, . - , ,
.
7.4.1.4.

-. . 7.13.
R2

R1
u (t ) = U m

(t ) cos 0 t

D1

R
u

D2
R

. 7.13

R .

U . D1 , D2 . D1 , UA = 0. R2 R
, ( ) D2. ,
R2 R , , , U = 0.
U . D2 R2,
UA = 0. D1 , , U, R1 R2
. Ku = R2 / R1.
, R2 / R1 .
R u(t)
-
u (t ) =

R2
Um
R1

(t ) .

, ,
K =

R2
.
R1

:
R
f 0 1 f1 ,
R2

f1 , .
7.4.2. - -
- - -.
7.4.2.1. -

-, LC - 0 , 0
.
, (t ) 0
LC- (t ) . ,
- -,
-.
, - .

7.4.2.2.

-, -,
() . 7.14.
-

U1

U2
2

I1

U2
2

D1

0
R

D2

. 7.14

- , 0 . ,
0 , . L , ,
0 , .
-. ,
- 0 , , , U .
- D1 , D2 , U .
D1 , D2 , ,
U .
U = 0 -, . 7.15.

. 7.15

-
(). , -, .
7.4.2.3.

. , ,
-, u0 (t ) = U 0 sin 0t .
. 7.16.

-
u (t ) = U m cos (0 t + ) .

. 7.16


1
1
u1 (t ) = U mU 0 sin 0 t cos(0 t + ) = U mU 0 sin (20 t + ) U mU 0 sin .
2
2

20
1
U (t ) = U mU 0 sin .
2

. 7.17.

. 7.17

= / 4 .
,

.
- (
,
). .

( '' ''), . . , .

7.4.2.4.
( PhaseLockedLoop, PLL)

, (. 7.18).

(VCO)

. 7.18

, -. , . -
.
, , .
- . 7.19.
-

. 7.19

- , ..
-,
. U , ..

-.
7.5.

#1.
i (u ) = 10u 3 , .

U0 = 2 .
#2. , . 7.6. :
0,

i (U ) =
0,2 (U 0,5 ), A,

U < 0,5 ;
U 0,5 .

: L = 100 , = 10 , Q0 = 50.
k = 0,1.
= 12 .
U0 = 0,5 .
I0, I1, I2 , 2 .
#3. #2 .

#4. #2 , .
#5. S = 10 /, R = 10 .
U (t ) = 5(1 + 0,6 cos t ) cos 0t , .
.
#6. #5 , 500 ,
Fmax = 10 .
#7. u(t) .
+12
R
560

10

u (t ) = 0,3(1 + 0,5 cos t ) cos 0t ,

5,6
0,5

#2.
#8. #7 Fmax.
8.

, , . ,
s (t ) = T (t ) [s (t )] ,

(8.1)

, ..
T (t ) [ s1 + 2 s2 ] = 1T (t ) s1 + 2T (t ) s2 .

, (8.1), , , . . : R(t), (t) L(t).


,
. ,
.
8.1.

, K(t) :


s (t ) = K (t ) s (t ) .

(8.2)

R(t),
u (t ) = R (t ) i (t ) .

, .
, . G(t):
i(t ) = G (t ) u (t ) .


i = f (u ), : u y (t )
uc (t ) , u y (t ) uc (t ) . -

:
1
i = i (u y + uc ) = i (u y ) + i (u y ) uc + i (u y ) uc2 + ... .
2

, uc2 , uc3
..
ic (t ) , uc (t ) ,
ic (t ) = i i (u y ) i (u y ) uc = S [u y (t )] uc (t ) .

(8.3)

S .
p-n , , ..
8.1.1.

c , .
,
, S , , (. 8.1).

. 8.1

S :
S (t ) = S 0 + S1 cos t + S 2 cos 22t + ... .

(8.4)

uc (t ) = U c cos ct ,

(8.3) (8.4) :
ic (t ) = S0U c cos ct +
+

1
1
S1U c cos ( c ) t + S1U c cos ( + ) t +
2
2

1
1
S 2 cos (2 ) t + S 2 cos(2 + ) t + ... .
2
2

= [ ],
i (t ) =

1
S1U cos t .
2

(8.5)

(), ,
. ,
U (t ) =

1
S1U c R ( ) cos t .
2

S =

(8.6)

1
S1 , 2

0
c

. 8.2

(8.6) , , ,
(. 8.2).
.
. 8.3.
"" , .
, , .
(), = .
. ;

. 8.3

U
Uc

. 8.4


. ,
1 = 2 = + . 2 = + .
,
, .
. 8.4.
, , .
. uc (t ) = U c cos ct
u (t ) = U cos t , :
u (t ) = Ku (t )u (t ) =

1
1
KU cU os ( ) t + KU cU os ( + ) t .
2
2

= .
8.1.2.
, c = ; .
, c , S
S (t ) = S 0 + S1 cos ct + S 2 cos ct + ... .

-
uc (t ) = U mc (1 + m cos t ) cos(ct + ) .


i (t ) = S (t ) uc (t ) = U mc (1 + m cos t )
[ S 0 cos(c t + ) +

1
1
S1 cos(2c t + ) + S1 cos + ...] .
2
2

,
1
i (t ) = S 1U mc (1 + m cos t ) cos ,
2

-.
, . , = 90 .
.
.
, ,
. ,
.
#: f = 1 , F = 10 .
, , 999 990
1 000 010 ,
Q=

1 000 000
= 50 000 .
20

, , .
, , .
8.2. ,

, . , , () (, .)
, (t), L(t)
. (),
L(t) .
( , .) - .
.
,

C (t ) = C0 + C1 cos t .

u (t ) = U c cos ct ,

q(t ) = C (t ) uc (t ) = (C0 + C1 cos t ) U c cos ct =

= C0U c cos ct + 0,5 C1U c cos ( c ) t + 0,5 C1U c cos ( + ) t .


, ,

dq
= cC0U c sin ct 0,5 ( c ) C1U c sin( c ) t
dt
0,5 ( + c ) C1U c sin ( + c ) t .

i(t ) =

, = , .
, , . , (t)
, , , . , .
, :
;
;
= + . m, n .
. 8.5.
R, , .

. 8.5
. 8.5 , -:
Pc
mPk
+
=0,
c mc + n
nPk
P
+
=0.
mc + n

(8.7)

, Pc + P + Pk = 0 .
P , , , .
:
1. "".
m = n = 1,
Pc
Pk
+
= 0,
c c +
Pk
P
+
= 0.
c +

P < 0 ( ), ,
Pk > 0,

Pc < 0.

, (
). , , ,
+
Pk
.
= c

Pc

,
= + . , : .
, ,
, , .
2. .
m = 1, n = 1, .. = . ,
> c .
-
Pc
Pk

=0,
c
Pk
P
+
=0.

P < 0, Pk > 0, ,
Pc > 0.

, Pc Pk , ,
, , , ..
. ,
.
- , Pc , ,
, .
, . P ,
,
. , 20 , ,
.

. , ,
, .
8.3.

#1.
G (t ) = 10 3 + 5 10 4 cos (2 106 t ) + 3 10 4 cos (4 10 6 t ) , .


u (t ) = 0,5 cos (2 105 t ) , .

. .
#2.
i (u ) = 5 + 2,5u + 1,5u 2 , .


u (t ) = 3 + 0,5 cos t , .

.
.
#3.
0,

ik =
20 (u 0,5), ,

u < 0,5 ;
u 0,5 .


u (t ) = 0,5 + 0,7 cos t , .

.
#4.

uc (t ) = 10 cos 2 106 t + ,
4


u (t ) = 2 cos (2 10 6 t ) , .

uc(t
u(t)

K = 102, 1

9.

. , , () . , .. ,
. ,
. .
9.1.
X (t ) , , t .
, . {x1 (t ), x2 (t ), ...} . .
t1 .
{x1 (t1 ), x2 (t1 ), ...} X (t1 ) ,
. p ( x, t1 ) X (t ) t1 . , = p( x, t1 ) dx
, t1 ,
( x, x + dx) .
. t1 t2 , { X (t1 ), X (t2 )} ,
p( x1 , x2 , t1 , t 2 ) .
, , t = t1 x1 , t = t 2 x2 .
n- , n p( x1 , ..., xn , t1 , ..., t n ). . ,
p( x1 x2 t1t 2 ) , , : ( 1- ) ( 2- ) ( ).

m(t ) = x (t ) =

xp( x, t ) dx

(9.1)

t,
.

2 (t ) = [x(t ) m(t )] =
2

[ x(t ) m(t )]

p( x, t ) dx

(9.2)

.
(t ) .

R (t1 , t 2 ) = [ x(t1 ) m(t1 )][ x(t 2 ) m(t 2 )] =

[ x(t1 ) m(t1 )][ x(t 2 ) m(t 2 )] p( x1 , x2 , t1t 2 ) dx1dx2 .

(9.3)

t1 t2 . t1 t2
R (t , t ) = 2 (t ) .
, .
,
. , m 2 ,
= | t 2 t1 |, .. R (t1 , t 2 ) = R () .

:
R ( ) = R ( ) ,
| R () | R (0) = 2 .

# 1. U(t) u (t ) = U m cos (0t + ) ,


U m 0 , ,
.
, ?
1
. , p() =
.
2
u = U m cos(0t + ) =

Um
2

cos(0t + ) d = 0 .

2 = [u u ]2 = U m2 cos 2 (0t + ) =

U m2
2

cos 2 (0t + ) d =

U m2
.
2


R (t1 , t2 ) = U m2 cos(0t1 + ) cos(0t 2 + ) =

U m2
U2
cos[0 (t1 + t 2 ) + 2] + cos 0 (t 2 t1 ) = m cos 0 (t 2 t1 ) .
2
2
, ,
.
=

,
x(t)
.

1
x(t ) dt ,
T T
0

m =< x(t ) >= lim

(9.4)

1
[ x(t ) m]2 dt =< x 2 (t ) > m 2 ,
T T
0

2 =< [ x(t ) m]2 >= lim

(9.5)

R () =< [ x(t ) m][ x(t + ) m] >=< x(t ) x (t + ) > m 2 =

1
x (t ) x (t + ) dt m 2 .
T T

= lim

(9.6)

.
:

p ( x, t ) =

1
2

( x m) 2
2 2

m = 0,
.
9.2.

X(t) m = 0.
,
.

x (t ) =

1
S x ( ) e j t d ,
2

S x () x(t).
, X(t), ,
S x () .
. x(t)
:
x (t ) =

1
2

S x () e

j t

dt .

(9.7)

, x(t ) = m = 0 . t, S x () = 0.
,
S x () = 0 .

(9.8)


Rx () = x(t ) x(t + ) =

1
(2) 2

S x ()S x () e

j ( )t j

dd =

1
(2) 2

d e j S x () S x () e j ( )t d .

(9.9)

R () t. ,
, S x () S x () = A ( ) .
A = 2W x () .
W x () X(t) , , X(t). ,
S x () S x () = 2Wx () ( ) .

(9.10)

, S x () : , , . .
(9.10) (9.9),
R x ( ) =

1
2

W x () e

d .

(9.11)

R x () e

W x () =

d .

(9.12)

(9.11) (9.12) -,
:
. Wx () , = 0 :
Rx (0) =

2x

1
=
Wx () d .
2

(9.13)

, 2x , , Wx () . R x () , - (9.11) (9.12) ,
:

R x ( ) =

1
Wx () cos d ;
0

(9.14)

Wx () = 2 R ( ) cos d .

(9.15)

, :
< 0;
0,

F () = W ()
0.
,

F () () :

2 = R (0) = F () d .
0

(9.16)

f:

W (2f )
2df = 2W (2f ) df .

0
0

2 = F (2f ) d (2f ) =
0

N ( f ) = 2W (2f ) . N ( f )
, 1 .

2 = N ( f ) df .

(9.17)

X(t) , N ( f )
2/.
# 2. X(t) Rx () = 2 exp ( | |) , , > 0 .

W x () .
.

Wx () = 2 Rx () cos d = 2 2 e cos d =

2 2
2 + 2


Fx () =

Wx () 2 2
.
=

2 + 2

Fx

. 9.1

Fx () . 9.1.
,
.
# 3. X(t)
Wx () = W0 exp ( 2 ) .

.
.

R x ( ) =

2
1
W
W0
W () cos d = 0 e os d =
exp [ 2 /( 4)].

0
0
2

2x = R x (0) =

W0
2

# 4. X(t)
( , ), ..

W ;
Wx () = 0
.
0

R x () .
.

R x ( ) =

1
W
W x () cos d = 0
0

cos d =
0

W0 sin
.

R ()

. 9.2
. 9.2.

: ,
R x () ,
.
,

1
| Rx () | d .
R (0) 0

(9.18)

. 9.3.
.

. 9.3
.

F () , Fmax
.
=

1
Fmax

F () d .
0

(9.19)

:
2 = Fmax .

: .
.
,
.
1
n(0) =
2 x

Fx () d
0

(9.20)

# 5.
4.
.

Fx () d = F0

F0 =

2 d =

F03
,
3

x =

Fx ()d =

F0 .

W0
.

n(0) =

2 3

f
3

9.3.

,
0 (. 9.4).

. 9.4

R () = F () cos d .
0

. 9.4
R() = a () cos 0 ,

(9.21)

a() (. 9.5).
,
x(t ) = U (t ) cos[0t + (t )] ,

(9.22)

U(t) (t ) ,
0 t (. 9.6).

R
a()

. 9.5

t
. 9.6

. , (9.22) (t)
[0, 2]
p() =

1
,
2

U(t) :

p
p(U ) =
0,6

0,4

0,2

U/

. 9.7

U2
exp
2 .
2x
2 x
U

(9.23)

. 9.7.
(9.23), (9.22)
mu = U =

2
x = 1,253 x
2

u2 = U 2 (U ) 2 = 2 2x = 0,429 2x .
2


U m cos 0t () 2x .
- , ,
.
(9.22) U(t) (t), :
p(U ) =

2x

exp (U 2 + U m2 ) /(2 2x ) I 0 (UU m / 2x ) ,

(9.24)

I 0 ( z ) =

1
e z cos d .
2 0

(9.24) , . , Um = 0, .. , .
9.8 , = Um / x.

=0

0,6
0,5

=1
=2

0,4

=5

=3

0,3
0,2
0,1
0

U/

. 9.8

Um
x , (9.24)
p(U )

(U U m ) 2
exp
,
2 2x
2 x

.. mu = Um
u2 = 2x .
U m / x = 3 .

9.4.

(t) c
, .. x(t ) = 0 .
x(t)

x(t ) =

1
S x () e jt d .

, ,

y (t ) =

1
S x () K ( j) e jt d ,
2

K(j) .
,

y (t ) =

S x () K ( j) e

jt

d ;

S x () = 0 , ,
y (t ) = 0 .

(9.25)

W y () = Wx () K ( j) ,

(9.26)

W () .

R y () =

1
2
Wx () K ( j) e j d .
2

(9.27)

N( f ).
(9.26) :
2

N y ( f ) = N x ( f ) K ( j 2f ) ,

(9.28)

2y = R y (0) = N x ( f ) K ( j 2f ) df .

(9.29)

# 6. W0 (B) RC-.
U(t).
. :
K ( j) =

1
,
1 + jRC

K ( j) =

1 + ( RC ) 2


u2 =

W
W0
d
W
= 0 arctg (RC ) = 0 .
2
2
2 RC
0 1 + ( RC )
RC
0

cos d
W
e j d
W
W
Ru () = 0
= 0
= 0 e RC .
2
2
2
2
2 1 + ( RC )
2 RC
0 1 + ( RC )

, , RC-, .
:
Wu () =

W0
1 + 2 ( RC ) 2

1
Fmax

F () d .
0

1
W0
1
1

F () = Wk () =
, Fmax = W0 .
2
2

1 + ( RC )

1 + 2 ( RC )2

1
.
arctg(RC ) =
RC
2
RC
0

= 1,57 RC- 3 ,
2

RC- 1 / RC .
:
=

1
R (0)

Ru () d = e

RC d

= RC .

,
=

RC = .
2 R
2

# 7. .
N0 (B2/)

K
K
,
K ( j 2f ) =
=
f f
f f
1 + j 2Q
1 + j2
f
f

Q ; f ; f 3.
2
R () .

.
2
K

K ( j 2f ) =

f f

1 + 4
f

2

= N 0 K ( j 2f ) df =
0

2
= N 0 K

df
2
1 +
f

f f

2
= N 0 K

2
1 +
f

= f f .
,
,
.
2
2

= N 0 K

2
1 +
f

2
f

2
= N 0 f K
arctg
.

2
f
2

2
= N 0 K

,
f . =

f .
2

R () =

1
2
W () K ( j) e j d ,
2
W () =

N0
,
2

R () =

= N0

N0
2

K ( j) e j d =

2
N 0 K

cos d
1
1 +
f

( ) 2

2
fK
exp( f ) cos(t ) .
2

, , f .
: N0 = 1016 2/; K = 33; f = 10 ; Q = 100.
.
.
2

= N0

f 2
2
K =
f K
= N0
2
2 Q
= 10 16 2 / 1,57 10 5 332 = 1,57 10 8 2 .


= 1,57 10 8 = 1,3 10 4 = 0,13 .

9.5.

9.5.1.
() - . ,
.
,
W0 = 2kTR ,

k ; T ; R .

N 0 = 2W0 = 4kTR , 2/.

(9.30)

. N0 :
, 1 .

R
=
1

T
=
300

N0
1,661017 2/, 4,1109 / .
9.5.2.
, .
2
U
= N 0 = 4kT R ,

(9.31)

R ; ,
.
, ""
. 104 .
9.5.3.
(,
..), I0.
, I0 , , .
(2/), 1 :
N 0 = 2qI 0 , 2/ ,
(9.32)
q .
# 8. , .

+
,
30

R
4,7
I0 = 1

.
N 0 = 2qI 0 = 2 1,6 10 19 10 3 = 3,2 10 22 , 2/.

(9.29)
u2

= N 0 Z df =
0

N 0 R2

df

1 + 42 f 2 R2 =
0

N 0 R 3,2 10 22 4,7 10 3
=
= 1,25 10 8 , 2.
2
4 30 10 12


u = u2 = 1,12 10 4 = 112 .

# 9. #8 , R.
.

N0 = 4kTR, 2/.
#6,
U2 , R =

W0
N0
4kTR kT 1,38 10 23 300
=
=
=
=
= 1,38 10 10 , 2,
2 R 4 R 4 R C
30 10 12

U , R = U2 , R = 1.18 10 5 = 11,8 .

, .

9.6.

#1. ,
2 (1 / t0 ) t0 ;
R () =

0
> t0 .

#2. N(f) #1.


#3.

N ( f ) = N 0 e f ( > 0) .
.
#4. , 20 . Nmax 5 10 13 2/.
.
#5.
N f f 0 ,
N( f ) = 0
0 f > f 0
RC- f > f 0 .
.
#6. #5 , f = 0,5 f 0 .
#7.
R () = 2x e


K 0 f < f ;
K ( j 2f ) =
0 f > f .
, .
#8. N 0 = 10 15 2/.
: K = 50; Q = 50; f = 20 .
.
#9. 10 , T = 300 K,
f = 12 K0 = 104.
, .

10.

. , . -, , , . ,
(, , - ..).
, .. , .
10.1.

,
K ( j) , K ( j) ,
, , .
.

s (t ) + n (t ) ,

s ; n .
/
2
2
>
< s
> < s
/ =
.
=
2
2

< n >

(10.1)

2
< s
> ; 2 .

/ :
2
< s
>

.
2

,
/, = 10 lg

s (t ) + n (t ),

/.
(/ ) =

2
< s
>

, (/) , , , :
M =

( / )
( / )

K ( j) .
, :

s (t ) = Ak cos(k t + k ) .
k =0

Fn () .

Ak2
( ),
k =0 2

2
< s
>=

= Fn () d .
0


2
< s
>=

1 2
Ak | K ( j) |2 ,
2 k =0

= Fn () | K ( j) |2 d .
0

( / ) =

1 2
Ak | K ( j) |2
2 k =0

Fn () | K ( j) |

(10.2)

(10.2) , , , ,
(/).
: (10.2) , . , (/),
.
10.2. .

s (t ) h(t ) .

s (t ) =

s () h(t ) d .

h(t ) , t 0 | s (t0 ) | .
. , , t 0 :
h (t ) = ks (t0 t ) ,

(10.3)

k .
h (t ) . 10.1,
s (t ) .

S (t )

S (t )

h (t )

t0

. 10.1

. 10.1, : t 0 .
t < 0, .
: .
, , . , ,
t 0 :
s (t ) = kBs (t t0 ) .

(10.4)

t 0 s (t0 ) = kBs (0) .


, Bs () = 0 E s ( ).

s (t0 ) = kEs ,

..
.
, . , . ,

K ( j) = k s (t0 t ) e jt dt .

:
*
K ( j) = kS
() e jt 0 ,

*
S
- .

(10.5)

,
, . t 0 . e jt0 t 0 .
, s (t ) , , W0.

2n

W
2
= 0 K ( j) d .
2

K ( j) (10.5),

2n =

k 2W0

S () S
() d = k 2W0 Es .
2

s t 0
s (t0 ) = kBs (0) = kEs ,


2
s
(t0 ) = k 2 Es2 .
/

( / ) =

2
s
(t0 )

n2

Es
.
W0

(10.6)

, , /.
,
- /.
10.3.

(10.3) (10.5) ,
.
, , .

s (t ) = U
0

t < 0;

0 t ;

t > .

, , .

S () =

s (t ) e jt dt = U e jt dt =
0

U0
(1 e j ) .
j

(10.5) , t 0 = , :

K ( j) = k

k
1 e j j
e
=
(1 e j ) .
j
j

. ,
:
) k;
) ;
) 1 j .
. 10.2.

. 10.2

10.3
t < 0;
0

s (t ) = U sin 0t 0 < t ;

t > .

1
. 10.3

, -
.
10.4.

/, .
/ . .
, . 10.2 RC-, RC.
RC-,
W0 U .


s.max = U 1 e RC .

RC- (. 9)
2

W0
.
2 RC

(/) :
( / ). max =

U 2 1 e / RC
W0 / 2 RC

Es = U 2 ,

( / ). max =

Es 1 e / RC
W0 / 2 RC

(/),
(. 10.2). RC- (/) . ,

= 1,25 . 0,814.
RC
, RC-

,
1,25
, 20 % /.
0 , , ,
0
RC =

f 3 =

0,72
.

10.5.

#1. ,

#2.
N 0 = 4 106 2/. , / 3 . " " .
#3.
10 .
#4. LC-,
10 10 .
#5. , , ,
.

" "
.

, .
, Micro-Cap, MultiSim, Microwave Office . .
, . ,
-, ,
. , , ,
, .

1. , .. : / .. . . :
, 2003.
2. , .. : / .. . .
: , 1987.
3. , .. : / .. , .. ,
.. ; . .. . . : , 2002.
4. , .. : / .. . 2- . . :
, 2006.
5. , .. / .. . . : , 1982.
6. , .. : / .. . : - . . . -, 2007.
7. , .. :
/ .. , .. . . : -, 2007.
8. , .. MATLAB 6 : / .. . . : , 2002.
9. , .. MATLAB : / .. . . :
, 2004.
10. , . / . , . ; .
. ; . .. . . : , 1970 . .

1.

1.1. .

1.2. .

...

1.2.1.
............................

10

1.2.2.
(t ) . 13
1.2.3.
- (t )
..

13

1.2.4.
(
)

15

1.2.5.
26
1.3. 29
2.
. 31

2.1.
.

31

2.1.1. (t).
.. 31
2.1.2. (t).

31

2.1.3.
e jt. . 32
2.1.4.
e pt.

2.2. , ,

..
2.2.1.
.
2.2.2.
,
s(t) s(t)
2.2.3.

2.3.


2.3.1.
g(t) ...
2.3.2.
h(t) ..

33
34
34

34
39

40
40
43

2.3.3.
K& ( j) 45
2.3.4.
K(p) .. 46
2.3.5.
... 47
2.4. 50
3. .. 53
3.1. ... 53
3.2.
.. 56
3.3. . 56
3.4. 60
3.5. 62
4. . 63
4.1. ... 64
4.2. .. 72
4.3. .. 73
4.4. 76
5. . 78

5.1. .. 79
5.1.1.
(K < 0) . 81
5.1.2.
(K > 0) . 84
5.1.3.
86
5.2. 88
5.3. 93
6.

94

6.1. .. 94
6.2. ...

97

6.3. ..

99

6.4. 100
6.5. 102
7. 103

7.1. . 105
7.1.1.

.................. 105
7.1.2.
- ... 107
7.2.
... 109
7.3. . 111
7.4. ... 113
7.4.1. - .. 113

7.4.2. - - .. 119
7.5. 224
8.
... 126

8.1.
126
8.1.1. ... 127
8.1.2. . 131
8.2. ,
. 132
8.3. 136
9.
. 138

9.1. ... 138


9.2.
... 141
9.3. 148
9.4.
... 152
9.5. 156
9.5.1. ... 156
9.5.2. 157
9.5.3. . 157
9.6. 159
10. .. 161

10.1.
.. 161
10.2.
. ... 163
10.3. . 166
10.4. ... 167
10.5. ... 169
. 170
... 171

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