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COURSE JJ618 ENGINEERING PLANT TECHNOLOGY

STEAM POWER PLANT 1) Describes the steam power plant application Mechanical power is produced by a heat engine that transforms thermal energy (from combustion of a fuel) into rotational energy. Heat (generated in the furnace) is transmitted to the boiler where water forced into the boiler by the feed pump is converted into steam.

2) State main components of a steam power plant

Main components I. Fuel Handling Unit II. Ash Handling Unit III. Boiler Unit IV. Feed Water Unit V. Cooling Water Unit VI. Generator Unit VII. Turbine Unit

3) What are boilers

A boiler is defined as "a closed vessel in which water or other liquid is heated, steam or vapor is generated, steam is superheated, or any combination thereof, under pressure or vacuum, for use external to itself, by the direct application of energy from the combustion of fuels, from electricity or nuclear energy." A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Although the definitions are somewhat flexible, it can be said that older steam generators were commonly termed boilers and worked at low to medium pressure (1300 psi or 6.8952,068.427 kPa) but, at pressures above this, it is more usual to speak of a steam generator.

4) State the types of boiler and the various connections to boiler construction I. Multi-tube boilers

A significant step forward came in France in 1828 when Marc Seguin devised a twopass boiler of which the second pass was formed by a bundle of multiple tubes. A similar design with natural induction used for marine purposes was the popular Scotch marine boiler. Prior to the Rainhill trials of 1829 Henry Booth, treasurer of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway suggested to George Stephenson, a scheme for a multi-tube onepass horizontal boiler made up of two units: a firebox surrounded by water spaces and a boiler barrel consisting of two telescopic rings inside which were mounted 25

copper tubes; the tube bundle occupied much of the water space in the barrel and vastly improved heat transfer. Old George immediately communicated the scheme to his son Robert and this was the boiler used on Stephenson's Rocket, outright winner of the trial. The design formed the basis for all subsequent Stephensonian-built locomotives, being immediately taken up by other constructors; this pattern of firetube boiler has been built ever since. II. Solid fuel firing

In order to create optimum burning characteristics of the fire, air needs to be supplied both through the grate, and above the fire. Most boilers now depend on mechanical draft equipment rather than natural draught. This is because natural draught is subject to outside air conditions and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace, as well as chimney height. All these factors make effective draught hard to attain and therefore make mechanical draught equipment much more economical. III. Firetube boiler

The next stage in the process is to boil water and make steam. The goal is to make the heat flow as completely as possible from the heat source to the water. The water is confined in a restricted space heated by the fire. The steam produced has lower density than the water and therefore will accumulate at the highest level in the vessel; its temperature will remain at boiling point and will only increase as pressure increases. Steam in this state (in equilibrium with the liquid water which is being evaporated within the boiler) is named "saturated steam". For example, saturated steam at atmospheric pressure boils at 100 C (212 F). Saturated steam taken from the boiler may contain entrained water droplets, however a well designed boiler will supply virtually "dry" saturated steam, with very little entrained water. Continued heating of the saturated steam will bring the steam to a "superheated" state, where the steam is heated to a temperature above the saturation temperature, and no liquid water can exist under this condition. Most reciprocating steam engines of the 19th century used saturated steam, however modern steam power plants universally use superheated steam which allows higher steam cycle efficiency.

IV.

Superheater

L.D. Porta gives the following equation determining the efficiency of a steam locomotive, applicable to steam engines of all kinds: power (kW) = steam Production (kg h1)/Specific steam consumption (kg/kW h). A greater quantity of steam can be generated from a given quantity of water by superheating it. As the fire is burning at a much higher temperature than the saturated steam it produces, far more heat can be transferred to the once-formed steam by superheating it and turning the water droplets suspended therein into more steam and greatly reducing water consumption.

V.

Water tube boiler

Another way to rapidly produce steam is to feed the water under pressure into a tube or tubes surrounded by the combustion gases. The earliest example of this was developed by Goldsworthy Gurney in the late 1820s for use in steam road carriages. This boiler was ultra-compact and light in weight and this arrangement has since become the norm for marine and stationary applications. The tubes frequently have a large number of bends and sometimes fins to maximize the surface area. This type of boiler is generally preferred in high pressure applications since the high pressure water/steam is contained within narrow pipes which can contain the pressure with a thinner wall. It can however be susceptible to damage by vibration in surface transport appliances. In a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside cast iron sections. These sections are mechanically assembled on site to create the finished boiler.

5) List function of 13 essentials boiler fittings and support it with diagrams I. Safety valve A safety valve is a valve mechanism which automatically releases a substance from a boiler, pressure vessel, or other system, when the pressure or temperature exceeds preset limits.

II.

Pressure measurement A manometer could also refer to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments.

III.

Blowdown Valves Boiler blowdown is water intentionally wasted from a boiler to avoid concentration of impurities during continuing evaporation of steam. The water is blown out of the boiler with some force by steam pressure within the boiler. Bottom blowdown used with early boilers causes abrupt downward adjustment of boiler water level and was customarily expelled downward to avoid the safety hazard of showering hot water on nearby individuals.

IV. V. VI. VII.

Main steam Stop Valve Feed check valves Fusible Plug Water gauge

VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII.

Low-Water Alarm Low Water Fuel Cut-out Inspector's Test Pressure Gauge Attachment Name Plate Registration Plate Feedwater pump