About a hudred years ago David Hildert, a German mathematician presented twenty-three math puzzles to the International Congress of Mathematicians. Today, only three remain unsolved. Added to those were four more unsolved problems. The seven famous unsolved math puzzles that have resisted all attempts to solve are listed here.....

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About a hudred years ago David Hildert, a German mathematician presented twenty-three math puzzles to the International Congress of Mathematicians. Today, only three remain unsolved. Added to those were four more unsolved problems. The seven famous unsolved math puzzles that have resisted all attempts to solve are listed here.....

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four more unsolvable problems. The seven famous unsolved math puzzles

that have resisted all attempts to solve are listed here: The Birch and

Conjecture, The Riemann Hypothesis (the oldest and most famous), The P

Gap. Many experts believe that solving these problems would lead to

If you stretch a rubber band around the surface of an apple, then we can

allowing it to leave the surface. But if you were to stretch a rubber band

point without breaking either the rubber band or the doughnut. Therefore

the surface of an apple is “simply connected,” and the one of the doughnut is

not. About a hundred years ago, Poincare knew that a two dimensional

sphere is essentially characterized by this property of simple connectivity.

He asked the corresponding question for the three dimensional sphere- the

where x,y,z are complex numbers. After trying the analytic approach, he

has been known as the Poincare conjecture. Four years earlier he had stated

where I is the group of rotations which carry a regular icosahedron onto

Whitehead counterexample.

remove a point, to get a non-compact manifold X. If you did this to what you

think M is, namely the 3-sphere, you would get R^3. In general, the only

with than 3-dimensional manifolds, in the 1950’s and 1960’s, was major

promptly followed. Soon Andrew Wallace followed, using similar

easier proof therefore having a weaker conclusion as well, assuming that the

of proof consists of pushing all of the difficulties off towards a single point,

complex of dimension n>5 which has the homotopy type of the sphere S

However, the Smale proof and Wallace proof, closely related and

proved this for n>6. Michael Freedman did the much more difficult work,

the 4-dimensional case. He used wildly non-differentiable methods to prove

connected 4-manifolds are homeomorphic if and only if they have the same

Bottom line: the differentiable methods used by Smale and Wallace and the

thought there has been great advances in the field of geometry of constant

constant positive curvature, and hence is homeomorphic to a quotient S / ,

homology groups then actually come for free) and then try to show that you

were lucky enough to build something that isn’t a 3-sphere. The last part is

the part that nobody could ever figure out so their time was mostly spent

sphere from the 3-sphere. It’s obvious why these puzzles are worth a

million dollars. It’s amazing that so many people have done this problem

wrong after trying for so many years. It really puts our limited studies of

mathematics in perspective.

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