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PSC 1351 Review Chapter 5 (6" Edition) 1, Simple Harmonic Motion - Hooke's Law Ifa mass m is attached to a spring of constant, k, and pulled so that the spring stretches a distance x , then the force due to the spring, Fis given by Hooke's Law: ‘ x) [ese 7 FF If the system is released and allowed to oscillate, the resulting motion is called Simple Harmonic Motion. Since F = m a by Newton's 2™ Law: a=-(k/m) x which says that the acceleration is directly proportional to the displacement from equilibrium, x, but opposite in direction to it (negative sign) The period of the resulting oscillation is T= (2x) Vik) The frequency of the oscillation is the reciprocal of the period: f=(1/T) 2. Wave: A periodic vibration that travels through a medium and transports energy. 3. Wave Types: a) Transverse: In these waves, the vibration direction is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. Example: waves on a string b) Longitudinal: In these waves, the vibration direction is parallel to the direction of motion of the wave. Example: sound waves. c) Complex: These are a combination of transverse and longitudinal. Example: water waves. 4, Transverse Waves on a String a) Wavelength: This is the distance between two nearest points of equal phase in a wave (for example, the distance between two adjacent crests). Conventional symbol: 4 b-A— b) Velocity: If string has a mass per unit length, 4, and is under a tension F_ , then its velocity of propagation will be v= VEN) It is also true for all waves, that if the wavelenth is 1 and the frequency is f, then: vane c) Standing Waves on a String: ‘fa string is tied at one end to an oscillator and at the other end to a weight pan that passes over a pulley, as shown below, and the distance between the oscillator and the pulley is L , then a standing wave will be set up provided ‘that either: f=nviQL) or %=(Lyn where nis an integer of value 1, 2, 3, 4, .... ‘These are the resonance conditions in frequency or wavelength, respectively. Points of zero displacement are called nodes. Maximum displacement points are called antinodes. The distance between adjacent nodes = 1/2. ——— ea V7 mes Resowance Oscillator shown 7 Kade Aitiracle 5) Sound Waves: a) Velocity: Sound waves are longitudinal waves that travel at the same speed through air, regardless of frequency. Their speed varies with ‘temperature according to’ v=331.6+(0.6)(T) m/sec, where T is the temperature in °C and 331.6 m/sec is the velocity of sound at 0°C. b) Standing Waves ina Gas: i) Tube closed at one end: If the air column has length L , then the “resonance conditions in frequency and wavelength, respectively, are: f=nvi(4L) and = 4L/(a), where nis an odd integer: 1,3,5,.. Im LzE7 ol + ii) | Tube open at both ends: If the air column has length L, then the resonance conditions in frequency and wavelength, respectively, are: 3,4,5, f=nviQL) and 4=2L/n_ where nis an integer: Lea 6) Intensity: Power transported per unit area in a wave. Symbol: L. Units: W/m? ‘A point source of sound that emits sound equally in all directions produces spherical wavefronts. For a point source of constant power, P, if'an observer is located R meters away from the source, then the observed intensity will be: T=P/(4xR4) in Wm? The intensity level in decibels (dB) may be found from the table on Page 133